Bio

Publications


2014

Kimani, S, Moterroso V, Morales P, Wagner J, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, Tshala-Katumbay D.  2014.  Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet. Food Chem Toxicol.. 66:203-209.
Kimani, S, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Tshala-Katumbay D, Maitai CK.  2014.  Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents. Metabolic Brain Disease. 29:105-112.

2013

Kimani, S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D.  2013.  Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity. SpringerPlus. 2:647.

2012

Maitai, CK.  2012.  Propolis a natural cure. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 15(3):55-56.
C.K., M.  2012.  Poisoning Pattern. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 15(2):27-28.
D.G., N, C.K. M, L.W. M, E.M. M.  2012.  Trends of Acute Poisoning cases occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.Sci.. 15(2):29-34.

2011

Kibwage, IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK.  2011.  Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).
C.K., M.  2011.  Management of infectious diseases in closed and semi closed communities. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 14(1):1-2.
Maitai, CK.  2011.  Aetiology of cancer, 2011. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 14(2):32-33.
C.K., M, R.W M.  2011.  New use of Indomethacin. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 14(1):13-15.

2008

C.K, 59. M, D.M K.  2008.  A brief Review of probiotic use. East and Cent. Afr J. Pharm. Sci. . 11:82-84.

2005

Maitai, CK, Mungai NN.  2005.  Human poisoning with plants in Kenya. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 8(1):10-13.

2003

C.K., M.  2003.  New antimalarial Drugs – current Status and Future challenges from a Regulatory perspective. (World Health Organization Document (Restricted) WHO, Ed.)., Geneva.

2002

Maitai, CK, Njoroge DK, Abuga KO, Mwaura AM, Munenge RW.  2002.  Investigation of Possible Antidotal Effects of Activated Charcoal, Sodium Bicarbonate,Hydrogen peroxide and Potassium Permanganate in Zinc Phosphide Poisoning. East and Cent. Afr J. Pharm. Sci.. 5(2):38-41.
Okalebo, FA, Rabah HA, A.N.Guantai, Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Masengo W.  2002.  The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 5(1):18.

1998

Maitai, CK, Kibwage IO, Guantai AN, Ombega JN, Ndemo FA.  1998.  C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage, A. N. Guantai, J. N. Ombega and F.A. Ndemo (1998). A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya in 1991- 93.. East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 1(1):7-10.: African Crop Science Society AbstractWebsite

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

1996

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1996.  Maitai C.K., Nyangeri J.B. Catha edulis - A detailed Review Focusing on Chemistry, Health Implications, Economic, Legal, Social, Cultural, Religions and Moral aspects (58 pages). National Council for Science and Technology DOC. NCST. No 40. June 1996.. National Council for Science and Technology DOC. NCST. No 40. June 1996.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1996.  Maitai, C.K. The dynamic interplay between Man, Health and Medicine . Inaugural lecture July 18, 1996, University of Nairobi, Kenya.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

1995

Maitai, CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW.  1995.  Interaction between nifedipine and digoxin in rats., 1995 Jan. East African medical journal. 72(1):75-6. Abstract

Possible nifedipine-digoxin interaction was investigated in rats by comparing lethal doses of intravenously infused digoxin in control and experimental rats. In the experimental rats, nifedipine was administered intraperitoneally, 30 minutes prior to infusing digoxin at a constant rate of 40mcg per minute. Results indicate that nifedipine administered within the dosage range 0.5-2.0mg per kg rat body weight, lowered the lethal dose of intravenously infused digoxin by 26-38% compared with control rats, thus indicating a synergistic effect between the two drugs. There was very little dose dependence of this effect. It is concluded that concomitant administration of nifedipine and digoxin in humans may lead to drug interactions.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1995.  Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW.Interaction between nifedipine and digoxin in rats. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6.. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract
Possible nifedipine-digoxin interaction was investigated in rats by comparing lethal doses of intravenously infused digoxin in control and experimental rats. In the experimental rats, nifedipine was administered intraperitoneally, 30 minutes prior to infusing digoxin at a constant rate of 40mcg per minute. Results indicate that nifedipine administered within the dosage range 0.5-2.0mg per kg rat body weight, lowered the lethal dose of intravenously infused digoxin by 26-38% compared with control rats, thus indicating a synergistic effect between the two drugs. There was very little dose dependence of this effect. It is concluded that concomitant administration of nifedipine and digoxin in humans may lead to drug interactions.

1994

Muritu, JW, Kibwage IO, Maitai CK, Hoogmartens J.  1994.  Evaluation of tetracycline raw materials and finished products found on the Kenyan market., 1994 Dec. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 12(12):1483-8. Abstract

Contents of tetracycline, its degradation products (epitetracycline, epianhydrotetracycline, anhydrotetracycline) and a fermentation impurity (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidotetracycline) were determined in four raw materials, 12 batches of six ointment products, four eye ointment products and nine batches of five capsule products, all sampled from the Kenyan market. The analytical method was liquid chromatography on a column packed with a poly(styrenedivinyl-benzene) material (8-microns PLRP-S 100 A). All raw materials and finished products had tetracycline contents and impurity levels within the prescribed compendial limits.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1994.  Muritu JW, Kibwage IO, Maitai CK, Hoogmartens J.Evaluation of tetracycline raw materials and finished products found on the Kenyan market. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994. : African Crop Science Society Abstract
Contents of tetracycline, its degradation products (epitetracycline, epianhydrotetracycline, anhydrotetracycline) and a fermentation impurity (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidotetracycline) were determined in four raw materials, 12 batches of six ointment products, four eye ointment products and nine batches of five capsule products, all sampled from the Kenyan market. The analytical method was liquid chromatography on a column packed with a poly(styrenedivinyl-benzene) material (8-microns PLRP-S 100 A). All raw materials and finished products had tetracycline contents and impurity levels within the prescribed compendial limits.

1992

Kanja, LW, Skaare JU, Ojwang SB, Maitai CK.  1992.  A comparison of organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood, cord blood, and human milk from mother/infant pairs., 1992 Jan. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 22(1):21-4. Abstract

A total of 41 samples of maternal blood, milk, subcutaneous fat and umbilical cord blood were collected from mothers giving birth by Caesarean operation at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi in 1986. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The main contaminants found in all the samples were p,p'-DDT (100%), p,p'-DDE (100%), o,p'-DDT (59%), dieldrin (27%), transnonachlor (15%), beta-HCH (12%) and lindane (2%) of all the samples analyzed. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues were not detected in any of the samples. The mean levels (mg/kg fat) of sum of DDT were 5.9 in subcutaneous fat, 4.8 in mothers milk, 2.7 in maternal serum and 1.9 in umbilical cord serum. There was a significant correlation between the levels of sum DDT in subcutaneous fat and milk fat (r = 0.963), subcutaneous fat and maternal serum fat (r = 0.843), and maternal serum fat and maternal milk fat (r = 0.868), indicating the coherence of DDT in the body. Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was found in subcutaneous fat and milk fat with the mean levels of 0.03 and 0.26 mg/kg fat, respectively. Dieldrin detected in mothers milk and subcutaneous fat could not be quantified.

Kibwage, IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A.  1992.  Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986., 1992 Oct. East African medical journal. 69(10):577-80. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1992.  Kanja L.W., Skaare J.U., Ojwang S.B., Maitai C.K. A comparison of organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood, cord blood, and human milk from mother/infant pairs. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992 Jan;22(1):21-4.. East Afr Med J. 1992. : African Crop Science Society Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1992.  Kibwage IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A. Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986.. East Afr Med J. 1992. : African Crop Science Society Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

1988

Maitai, CK.  1988.  The Health and socioeconomic aspects of khat use. Symposium on Catha edulis. :87-90.: International Council of Alcohol and Addiction
Maitai, CK.  1988.  A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals., 1988 Jan. East African medical journal. 65(1):48-50.
Maitai, CK, Dhadphale M.  1988.  Khat-induced paranoid psychosis., 1988 Feb. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. 152:294.
K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1988.  Kahunyo JM, Froslie A, Maitai CK. Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken eggs: a survey. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;24(4):543-50.. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;24(4):543-50.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract

One hundred and five chicken egg samples were taken from seven geographical locations in Kenya and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues using gas-liquid chromatography. Nine organochlorine compounds were detected: alpha- and gamma-HCH/BHC (hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride), aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], p,p'-DDD (TDE) [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] (tetrachlorodiphenylethane), o,p'-DDD [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane], o,p'-DDT [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and p,p'-DDT. Eighteen of the samples contained DDT levels exceeding the practical residue limit (0.5 ppm). The mean DDT residue content was 0.68 ppm, a result influenced greatly by the high contamination in the 18 samples. Both individual and mean residue levels for other organochlorine pesticides detected were well within the respective practical residue limits.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1988.  Maitai CK, Dhadphale M. Khat-induced paranoid psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294.. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1988.  Maitai CK. A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50.. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

1986

Kanja, L, Skåre JU, Nafstad I, Maitai CK, Løkken P.  1986.  Organochlorine pesticides in human milk from different areas of Kenya 1983-1985., 1986. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 19(4):449-64. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

Kahunyo, JM, Maitai CK, Frøslie A.  1986.  Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey., 1986 Jun. Poultry science. 65(6):1084-9. Abstract

One hundred and five chicken fat samples were collected between April, 1980 and February, 1982 from seven geographical locations in Kenya (15 samples/area). The samples were subjected to standard extraction and clean up procedures to recover organochlorine pesticides and were subsequently analysed using gas-liquid-chromatography. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride (HCH/BHC; Lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] (p,p'-DDE), [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dichloroethane] (o,p'-DDD/TDE), p,p'-DDD, [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane] (o,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDT were detected in the samples in varying concentrations. A few samples had lindane, dieldrin, and total DDT residue levels above the respective practical residue limit (PRL) values, but for all pesticides, the mean residue values were below the PRL.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1986.  Kanja L, Skare JU, Nafstad I, Maitai CK, Lokken P. Organochlorine pesticides in human milk from different areas of Kenya 1983-1985. J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64.. J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1986.  Kahunyo J.M., Maitai C.K., Froslie A. Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey. Poult Sci. 1986 Jun;65(6):1084-9.. J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64.. : African Crop Science Society Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

1985

Maitai, CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW.  1985.  A comparative study of two antispasmodic products: Buscopan and NO-Spa., 1985 Jul. East African medical journal. 62(7):480-5.
K, PROFMAITAICHARLES.  1985.  Maitai C.K. Tropical Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Kenya P. 63 . Proc. symposium commonwealth science council, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 3 . : African Crop Science Society Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

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