Prof. Lilly Bebora Biography

Lilly Caroline Levi Bebora is a University of Nairobi professor, a veterinarian with two specialities:-Veterinary microbiology and Poultry disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention. She has lectured on the respective disciplines to students taking Bachelor of veterinary medicine, BSc in Biomedical technology, BSc in Wildlife diseases, BSc in Fisheries, and BSc in Leather science, including their respective Postgraduate levels, for 42 years (1976-2018). She has researched extensively and has published 73 papers in peer-reviewed journals and presented 60 papers in conferences and seminars.



William, O, Portas O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A.  2013.  Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Bebora, LC, Odongo M, Mbuthia PG, Kagunya D;, Karaba W.  2013.  Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students.
Olwande P.O, W.O O, L.C. B, S.O. O.  2013.  Comparison of economic impact of alternative constraint control measures in indigenous chicken production in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development (LLRD) . 25(2)


Kemboi, DC;, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM.  2012.  Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.
Chege, HW;, Kemboi DC;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Githinji J.  2012.  Prevalence of ecto and endo parasites in free-range chickens in Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.
Bebora, LC;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji J;, Kemboi DC;, Chege HW.  2012.  Intensive And Multi-type Parasite Infection–a Hindrance To Effective Newcastle Disease Control In Village Chickens?
Chege, WH;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG.  2012.  Determination of seasonal parasite carriage of village chicken in Mbeere, antiparasitic treatments used and effectiveness of selected anthelmintics. Abstract

The overall objective of the study is to determine parasite carriage of village chicken of Mbeere district, Eastern province of Kenya. The study was conducted for over two seasons, the dry (January to March) and wet (October to December) season. Subsequently efficacy testing of selected antiparasitic drugs will be conducted. Twenty four birds of three age groups (chicks, growers and adults) were randomly selected from homesteads. The study showed that all chicken (100%) harboured ecto and endoparasites and 79.1% were infected with haemoparasites. With respect to ectoparasites, all the birds (100%) were infested, with lice, while 75% were infected with mites, 66.7% with ticks and 54.1% with fleas. The most prevalent nematodes were the caecal worms (91.7%), Tetramere species (54.1%), Gonglylonema (29.1%) and Coccidial oocyst (20.8%). Cestodes were also present in 91.7% of the samples. Haemoparasites had a prevalence of 83.3%. This study has shown that endo and ectoparasites are a common health problem in the village chicken in Mbeere District, Kenya. The studies for wet season and for drug sensitivity testing are still on-going.

Bebora L.C, H.W C, D.C K, Maingi N, P.G M, P.N N, L.W N, J G.  2012.  Ecto and Endo parasites in free range chickens in rainy season in Mbeere District in Kenya, September. 3rd RUFORUM biennial conference. , Entebbe, Uganda2012_-_ecto_and_endo_parasites_in_free_range_chickens_in_rainy_season_in_mbeere_district_in_kenya.pdf
L.C., B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G.  2012.  Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya, 25-27 April. Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
Bebora L.C, Maingi N, P.N N, P.G M, L.W N, J G, D.C K, H.W. C.  2012.  Severe parasitism – a hindrance to effective Newcastle disease control in village chickens., September . 3rd RUFORUM biennial conference. , Entebbe, Uganda2012_-_severe_parasitism_-_a_hindrance_to_effective_newcastle_disease_control_in_village_chickens.pdf
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, and Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G MWNRG, Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G, Maingi N., R.G W.  2012.  Participatory risk assessment of Peste des petit ruminants; Factor analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices in Turkana District, Kenya. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences . 2(9):503-510.2012._participatory_risk_assessment_for_peste_des_petit_ruminants...pdf


Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O.  2011.  Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs., 10-13th October . 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. , Maputo, Mozambique2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf


Bebora L.C, Maingi N, P.N N, P.G M, C.O G, L.W N, J.M G.  2010.  Enhancing village chicken productivity through parasite management for effective Newcastle disease vaccination in Kenya, 20-24th Septemb. 2nd RUFORUM Biennial Capacity Building Conference. , Entebbe, Uganda2010_-_effect_of_worm_burden_on_nd_vaccination_response.pdf


Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN.  2008.  Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.
Sabuni, AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga, P. N., L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka. JN.  2008.  Prevalence of ectoparasites infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.
Sabuni, AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W N;, L.C B;, J. N. M;, R.O O.  2008.  Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya.
Mbuthia, PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M.  2008.  Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks.
Bebora L.C, P. M, G. GM, L.W N.  2008.  Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (hardware disease) in peacocks, 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference , . , Nairobi2008_-_hostomoniasis_and_traumatic_gastritis_in_peacocks.pdf
L.C., B, L.W. N, Mbuthia P.G., P.N N.  2008.  Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night-housed indigenous chickens, 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . , Nairobi,
L.C., B, Nyaga P.N., Mbuthia P.G..  2008.  Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks., 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . , Nairobi 2008_-_localisation_of_nd_nucleoprotein_in_tissues_of_carrier_ducks.pdf
Mbuthia P.G., L.C. B, Mwaniki G., Sourou S.Y., L.W. N, M M.  2008.  Myopathy and parasitism in a guinea fowl, 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . , Nairobi2008_-_myopathy_and_parasitism_in_a_guinea_fowl.pdf
Bebora L.C, D.N K, C.J N’ang’a, T.A N, J.K W.  2008.  The pathogenic effects of gastrointestinal helminthes in Kenyan pigs, 2008. Scientific Conference . , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 2008_-_pathogenic_effect_of_gatro-intestinal_helminths_in_kenyan_pigs.pdf


Bebora, LC;, Mbuthia PG.  2006.  Three Rare Cases Handled At The Poultry Clinic, Kabete..
D.N., K, Bebora L.C, Ngatia T.A..  2006.  Postweaning diarrhea, meningitis and infertility are emerging threats to pig industry in Kenya, 2006. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . , Nairobi2006_-_post-weaning_diarrhoea_meningitis_and_infertility_in_pigs.pdf
Mbuthia P.G., Bebora L.C, L.W. N.  2006.  Tetrameres species infestations in different age groups of village free-range chickens in Embu and Mbeere districts, 2006. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . , Nairobi2006_-_tetrameres_in_indigenous_chickens.pdf


Njagi, LW, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE.  2005.  A Study on Effectiveness of Seven Disinfectants Against Possible Bacteria Contaminants of Coops and Premises Inhabited by Indigenous Chickens and Ducks. Abstractabstract3.pdfWebsite

Seven commonly used disinfectants abbreviated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G (A is, Glutaraldehyde and Coco – benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; B is, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 50% w\\v; C is, Sodium hypochlorite; D is, pine disinfectant and antiseptic; E is, chloroxylenol; F is, phenol and that for disinfectant G is, cresol and soap solution) were evaluated for their effectiveness in disinfecting coops and premises of indigenous chickens and ducks. Bacterial isolates from 14 samples (each sample comprising of a pharyngeal and a cloacal swab from one bird pooled together) from village chickens and ducks were used in this study. The isolates were taken to represent microorganisms in the birds\' environment. Results showed that effectiveness amongst the disinfectants varied markedly. Two disinfectants were very effective (sensitivity of 80% and 60% respectively), three were moderate (30% sensitivity, each) and two were ineffective. Some of them were effective only at a concentration higher than that recommended by the manufacturer. For effective disinfection occasional sensitivity testing is therefore recommended.

Bebora, LC, Bii CC, Waitindi HK.  2005.  Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as Possible Sources of Candida and Cryptococcus Infections for Humans and Animals. Abstract

A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose agar, CHROMagar and urea media were used for isolation and characterization of these yeasts. Various species of Candidaand Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated in numbers ranging from 104 to 105 colony forming units per gramme or per 2-minute exposure to air; from both pigeon-frequented areas and garbage sites. Cryptococcus was isolated more than Candida species in pigeon-frequented areas, while the reverse was the case for garbage sites, both for solid and aerial samples. The dog faeces yielded Candida organisms mainly. The presence of these yeasts in both solid samples and air highlights the possibility of these areas, which are frequently traversed by humans and animals (including chickens and other birds), as being possible sources of infection for humans and animals. Aerial contamination means the organisms can be disseminated far and wide easily.


Maina, AN;, Mbuthia PG, Ngatia TA;, Waruiru R;, Bebora LC.  2004.   Maina, A.N; Mbuthia, PG; Ngatia, TA; Waruiru, R; Bebora, L.C .
Njagi, LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera GM;, Minga, U; Olsen. JE.  2004.  Ease of transmitting P.multocida between indigenous chickens and ducks through contact transmission.

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