Prof. Lilly Bebora Biography

Lilly Caroline Levi Bebora is a University of Nairobi Professor Emeritus in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology (VPMP), a veterinarian with two specialities:-Veterinary microbiology (including zoonotic and food microbiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing) and Poultry disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.



Kosgei, PK, Bebora LC, Waiboci LW, Waringa N, Kiambi SG, Kitala PN.  2021.  Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in Baringo County, Kenya.. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. abstract3.pdf
Igizeneza, A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW.  2021.  Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya. Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2021(Article ID 8877675):7.abstract2.pdf


Wamboi, P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu JM, Bebora LC.  2020.  Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 8(1):18-25.abstract1.pdf
Bebora, LC, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Waruiru RM, Wanja DW, H.A N.  2020.  Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases.. Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020abstract.pdf


Bebora L.C, Gitao CG, P.M M, Mobegi VA, Shumbusho B, Iraguha B.  2019.  Assessment of bacterial contamination and milk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in the North-Western region of Rwanda.. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 13(29):640-648.abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Mbuthia PG, P.N N, Mutinda WU, Njagi LW.  2019.  Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science. 18(11):523-529.abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Gathumbi PK, Muchemi GM, Gakuya FM, Manyibe TN, Kariuki EK, Ngatia TA, Maina EW.  2019.  Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 55(1):123-128.abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga P, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA.  2019.  Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 7(2):295-301.abstract.pdf


L.C., B, Karanja DN, Njagi LW, Karoki WH.  2018.  Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya.. Hindawi International Journal of Food Science. 2018abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Gitao CG, Bwihangane AB, Tarekegu MG, Nicholas S, Bacigale S, Suitek N.  2018.  Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goat populations from Peste-des-petits-ruminants outbreak in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Livestock Research for Rural Development (LRRD) . 30(1)abstract.pdf


Bebora, LC, Gitao CG, Bwihangane AB, Christopher O, Ntagereka BP.  2017.  Mixed infection of Peste-des-petits ruminants and Capripox in goats in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 4(4):348-355.abstract.pdf
Bebora, L.C., Gitao CG, Bwihangane AB, Nicholas S.  2017.  A comprehensive review on clinical signs, diagnostic test and vaccination.. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences . 7(3):58-66.abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Gitao CG, Wanjohi GM, Muchemi GM.  2017.  Camel milk quality and bacterial contamination along market chain in Wajir and Garissa counties of Kenya. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 4(10)abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Mbuthia P, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Bwana M, Wahome RG, Margaret M, Wanzila K.  2017.  Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya.. Poultry Science journal. 97:447-454.abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Wahome MW, Bwana MO.  2017.  Occurrence of antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus in non-vaccinated indigenous chicken, ducks and turkeys in Kenya. International journal of veterinary science. 6(3):159-162.abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Mpatswenumugabo JP, Gitao GC, Olivier KO, Mobegi VA, Iraguha B, Shumbusho B.  2017.  Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and distribution of pathogens in dairy farms of Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Rwanda.. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. abstract.pdf
Bebora, LC, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Maingi N, Njagi L W, HW C, DC K.  2017.  Efficacy of Piperazine citrate, Levamisole hydrochloride and Albendazole in the treatment of chicken naturally infected with gastrointestinal helminths.. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 29(5)


Bebora L.C, Olwande P.O, S.O O, W.O O.  2016.  Participatory epidemiological assessment of factors that limit indigenous chicken productivity under free-range system in South Western Kenya.. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 28(10)


W.U, M, L.W N, P.N N, Bebora L.C, P.G M, J.W G, A M, D K.  2015.  Isolation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Indigenous Chicken Embryos in Kenya.. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2015abstract.pdf


Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, J NM, Wairire G.G, Maingi N, R.G W.  2014.  Appraisal of Peste des petits ruminants disease by Turkana pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. . American Journal of Research Communication . 2(10):186.abstract.pdf
M, KS, Bebora LC NMJ, Wairire GG MN, RG, Karanja D.N OJO, Lut W.  2014.  Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya. British Journal of Virology – Open access. 1(3):98-102..


and Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN, MPGBLCMG.  2013.  Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health Production. DOI 10.1007abstract_1.pdf
William, O, Portas O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A.  2013.  Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Bebora, LC, Odongo M, Mbuthia PG, Kagunya D;, Karaba W.  2013.  Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students.
Olwande P.O, W.O O, L.C. B, S.O. O.  2013.  Comparison of economic impact of alternative constraint control measures in indigenous chicken production in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development (LLRD) . 25(2)


Kemboi, DC;, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM.  2012.  Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.
Chege, HW;, Kemboi DC;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Githinji J.  2012.  Prevalence of ecto and endo parasites in free-range chickens in Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.
Bebora, LC;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji J;, Kemboi DC;, Chege HW.  2012.  Intensive And Multi-type Parasite Infection–a Hindrance To Effective Newcastle Disease Control In Village Chickens?
Chege, WH;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG.  2012.  Determination of seasonal parasite carriage of village chicken in Mbeere, antiparasitic treatments used and effectiveness of selected anthelmintics. Abstract

The overall objective of the study is to determine parasite carriage of village chicken of Mbeere district, Eastern province of Kenya. The study was conducted for over two seasons, the dry (January to March) and wet (October to December) season. Subsequently efficacy testing of selected antiparasitic drugs will be conducted. Twenty four birds of three age groups (chicks, growers and adults) were randomly selected from homesteads. The study showed that all chicken (100%) harboured ecto and endoparasites and 79.1% were infected with haemoparasites. With respect to ectoparasites, all the birds (100%) were infested, with lice, while 75% were infected with mites, 66.7% with ticks and 54.1% with fleas. The most prevalent nematodes were the caecal worms (91.7%), Tetramere species (54.1%), Gonglylonema (29.1%) and Coccidial oocyst (20.8%). Cestodes were also present in 91.7% of the samples. Haemoparasites had a prevalence of 83.3%. This study has shown that endo and ectoparasites are a common health problem in the village chicken in Mbeere District, Kenya. The studies for wet season and for drug sensitivity testing are still on-going.

Bebora L.C, H.W C, D.C K, Maingi N, P.G M, P.N N, L.W N, J G.  2012.  Ecto and Endo parasites in free range chickens in rainy season in Mbeere District in Kenya, September. 3rd RUFORUM biennial conference. , Entebbe, Uganda2012_-_ecto_and_endo_parasites_in_free_range_chickens_in_rainy_season_in_mbeere_district_in_kenya.pdf
L.C., B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G.  2012.  Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya, 25-27 April. Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
Bebora L.C, Maingi N, P.N N, P.G M, L.W N, J G, D.C K, H.W. C.  2012.  Severe parasitism – a hindrance to effective Newcastle disease control in village chickens., September . 3rd RUFORUM biennial conference. , Entebbe, Uganda2012_-_severe_parasitism_-_a_hindrance_to_effective_newcastle_disease_control_in_village_chickens.pdf
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, and Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G MWNRG, Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G, Maingi N., R.G W.  2012.  Participatory risk assessment of Peste des petit ruminants; Factor analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices in Turkana District, Kenya. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences . 2(9):503-510.2012._participatory_risk_assessment_for_peste_des_petit_ruminants...pdf


Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O.  2011.  Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs., 10-13th October . 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. , Maputo, Mozambique2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf


Bebora L.C, Maingi N, P.N N, P.G M, C.O G, L.W N, J.M G.  2010.  Enhancing village chicken productivity through parasite management for effective Newcastle disease vaccination in Kenya, 20-24th Septemb. 2nd RUFORUM Biennial Capacity Building Conference. , Entebbe, Uganda2010_-_effect_of_worm_burden_on_nd_vaccination_response.pdf

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