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2020
Focus Grade 5 Kiswahili. . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2020.
Focus Grade 5 T/G.. Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2020.
Okaru AO, Lachenmeier DW. "The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens.". In: Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food. Basel: mdpi; 2020.
"Formal Features in Alex la Guma’s “Come Back to Tashkent." Asian Journal of African Studies,. 2020;47(1):99-119.
Mwangi M, Tirop L, Njogu P, Bururia J, Mwaura N, Mbae E. "Formulation of dispersible isoniazid/pyridoxine fixed-dose combination tablets for isoniazid-preventive therapy in paediatrics." Cogent Med. 2020;7(1):1787684.
Bonet M, Brizuela V, Abalos E, Cuesta C, Baguiya A, Group TWHOGMSS(GLOSS) R. "Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries: Results of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS), a one-week inception cohort." Lancet Global Health. . 2020;8(5):661-671. AbstractWebsite

Background
Maternal infections are an important cause of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We report the main findings of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study, which aimed to assess the frequency of maternal infections in health facilities, according to maternal characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of core practices for early identification and management.
Methods
We did a facility-based, prospective, 1-week inception cohort study in 713 health facilities providing obstetric, midwifery, or abortion care, or where women could be admitted because of complications of pregnancy, childbirth, post-partum, or post-abortion, in 52 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs). We obtained data from hospital records for all pregnant or recently pregnant women hospitalised with suspected or confirmed infection. We calculated ratios of infection and infection-related severe maternal outcomes (ie, death or near-miss) per 1000 livebirths and the proportion of intrahospital fatalities across country income groups, as well as the distribution of demographic, obstetric, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of a set of core practices for identification and management across infection severity groups.
Findings
Between Nov 28, 2017, and Dec 4, 2017, of 2965 women assessed for eligibility, 2850 pregnant or recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed infection were included. 70·4 (95% CI 67·7–73·1) hospitalised women per 1000 livebirths had a maternal infection, and 10·9 (9·8–12·0) women per 1000 livebirths presented with infection-related (underlying or contributing cause) severe maternal outcomes. Highest ratios were observed in LMICs and the lowest in HICs. The proportion of intrahospital fatalities was 6·8% among women with severe maternal outcomes, with the highest proportion in low-income countries. Infection-related maternal deaths represented more than half of the intrahospital deaths. Around two-thirds (63·9%, n=1821) of the women had a complete set of vital signs recorded, or received antimicrobials the day of suspicion or diagnosis of the infection (70·2%, n=1875), without marked differences across severity groups.
Interpretation
The frequency of maternal infections requiring management in health facilities is high. Our results suggest that contribution of direct (obstetric) and indirect (non-obstetric) infections to overall maternal deaths is greater than previously thought. Improvement of early identification is urgently needed, as well as prompt management of women with infections in health facilities by implementing effective evidence-based practices.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Full View Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities.

Graphical abstract
Keywords: MonoterpenesCarvacrolCis-3-hydroxypiperitoneAnti-MRSAAnti-cryptococcal

Lachenmeier DW, Teipel J, Scharinger A, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Grosch F, Bunzel M, Okaru AO, Schwarz S. "Fully automated identification of coffee species and simultaneous quantification of furfuryl alcohol using NMR spectroscopy." J AOAC Int .. 2020;103(2):306-314.
Orata D. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry. Germany: Lambert Academic Publisher; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry is a text which discusses all aspects of the electrochemical processes. This includes, discussions ranging from primary definition of terms in electrochemistry to solution of advanced electrochemical equations which is key in explaining the various electrode processes. The textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Universities.

A M. "Fungal Biomass Load and Aspergillus flavus in a Controlled Environment.". In: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass. intechopen.com; 2020.
Wanyonyi LS. "Further remarks on unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):06-10. Abstractfull text

In this paper we investigate results on unitary equivalence of operators that include n-binormal, skew
binormal and n-power-hyponormal operators acting on complex Hilbert space H.
AMS subject classification 47B47, 47A30, 47B20.

Kamunyu R, Ndungo C. "Gender Preference of Counsellors among University Students Seeking Counselling Services." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2020;25(2):20-28.
"Gendered Analysis of the Demand for Poultry Feed in Kenya. ." Agricultural Economics Research, Policy and Practice in Southern Africa – Agrekon. 2020;(ISSN: 0303-1853 ).
Nyang'au EM, Bulimo WD, Mobegi V, Opanda S, Magiri E. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." Int J Infect Dis. 2020. Abstractnyagau_et_al_2020.pdf

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and fifteen HA sequences of Kenyan virus viruses were analyzed relative to the corresponding WHO vaccine reference strains using bioinformatics approaches. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed varied amino acid substitutions at all the five antigenic sites (A-E) of the HA1 domain, with a majority the changes occurring at sites A and B. The Kenyan A/H3N2 viruses isolated during 2007/2008 seasons belonged to A/Brisbane/10/2007- like viruses lineage, while those circulating in 2009 to 2012 belonged to the lineage of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses. The 2013 viruses clustered in clade 3C.3 of the A/Samara/73/2013-like viruses. The mean evolutionary rate of the A/H3N2 viruses analyzed in the study was at 4.17×10(-3) (95% HPD=3.09×10(-3) to 5.31×10(-3)) nucleotide substitutions per site per year, whereas the TMRCA was estimated at 11.18 (95% HPD=9.00-14.12) years ago from 2013. The Prediction of vaccine efficacy revealed modest vaccine efficaciousness during 2008, and 2010 influenza seasons, whilst sub-optimal effectiveness was registered in 2007,2009, 2012 and 2013. Further, the overall selective pressure acting on the HA1 domain was estimated at 0.56 (ω<1), suggesting that a majority of codon sites in the HA1 epitopes were evolving under purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, our results highlight the genetic plasticity of A/H3N2 viruses and reveal considerable disparity in vaccine efficaciousness against the A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenya, specifically during 2007,2009, 2012, and 2013 influenza seasons. Our findings underscore the importance and need for consistent surveillance and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, to inform decision making and enhance early of detection of strains with epidemic/pandemic potential as well as benefit in guiding decisions regarding the appropriate annual influenza vaccine formulations.

Elusah J, Bulimo WD, Opanda SM, Symekher SL, Wamunyokoli F. "Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis of human respirovirus type 3 strains isolated in Kenya using complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(3):e0229355. Abstractelusa_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

Human respirovirus type 3 (HRV3) is a leading etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and ranks only second to the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Despite the public health importance of HRV3, there is limited information about the genetic characteristics and diversity of these viruses in Kenya. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 35 complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) sequences of HRV3 strains isolated in Kenya between 2010 and 2013. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates, and the entire HN gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences revealed that all the Kenyan isolates grouped into genetic Cluster C; sub-clusters C1a, C2, and C3a. The majority (54%) of isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3a, followed by C2 (43%) and C1a (2.9%). Sequence analysis revealed high identities between the Kenyan isolates and the HRV3 prototype strain both at the amino acid (96.5–97.9%) and nucleotide (94.3–95.6%) levels. No amino acid variations affecting the catalytic/active sites of the HN glycoprotein were observed among the Kenyan isolates. Selection pressure analyses showed that the HN glycoprotein was evolving under positive selection. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the mean TMRCA for the HN sequence dataset was 1942 (95% HPD: 1928–1957), while the mean evolutionary rate was 4.65x10-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year (95% HPD: 2.99x10-4 to 6.35x10-4). Overall, our results demonstrate the co-circulation of strains of cluster C HRV3 variants in Kenya during the study period. This is the first study to describe the genetic and molecular evolutionary aspects of HRV3 in Kenya using the complete HN gene.

Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO. "Genetic variability, heritability and correlation of quantitative traits for Arabusta coffee (C. arabica L. X Tetraploid C. canephora Pierre)." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2020;12(1):50-57.
Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
SM Mwendwa, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gachene CKK. "A geopedological approach to soil classification to characterize soils of Upper Kabete Campus Field, University of Nairobi, Kenya ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
SM Mwendwa, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gachene CKK. "A geopedological approach to soil classification to characterize soils of Upper Kabete Campus Field, University of Nairobi, Kenya ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Chebii WK, John M, Karatu K. "The governance of traditional medicine and herbal remedies in the selected local markets of Western Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine . 2020;39(16).
Kamau HN, Koech OK, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Gachene CKK. "Grass species for range rehabilitation: Perceptions of a pastoral community in Narok North sub-county, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(8):1204-1212.grass_species_for_range_rehabilitation-_perceptions_of_a_2020.pdf
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nguhiu JM, Wamboi P. "Haemato- biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya, ." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Susan Gachau, Matteo Quartagno, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, Nelson Owuor, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in modelling quality of clinician-prescribed routine care: sensitivity analysis of departure from missing at random assumption." Statistical methods in medical research. 2020;29(10):3076-3092. AbstractWebsite

Missing information is a major drawback in analyzing data collected in many routine health care settings. Multiple imputation assuming a missing at random mechanism is a popular method to handle missing data. The missing at random assumption cannot be confirmed from the observed data alone, hence the need for sensitivity analysis to assess robustness of inference. However, sensitivity analysis is rarely conducted and reported in practice. We analyzed routine paediatric data collected during a cluster randomized trial conducted in Kenyan hospitals. We imputed missing patient and clinician-level variables assuming the missing at random mechanism. We also imputed missing clinician-level variables assuming a missing not at random mechanism. We incorporated opinions from 15 clinical experts in the form of prior distributions and shift parameters in the delta adjustment method. An interaction between trial intervention arm and follow-up time, hospital, clinician and patient-level factors were included in a proportional odds random-effects analysis model. We performed these analyses using R functions derived from the jomo package. Parameter estimates from multiple imputation under the missing at random mechanism were similar to multiple imputation estimates assuming the missing not at random mechanism. Our inferences were insensitive to departures from the missing at random assumption using either the prior distributions or shift parameters sensitivity analysis approach

Mwangi S, Abuga K, Mungai N, Mwangi J. "A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. Leaf Extracts." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2020;23(2):48-53. Abstract

A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of artemisinin in crude plant material was developed and validated. Optimal separation of artemisinin from matrix components in the plant extracts was achieved using a Waters XTerra® RP18 , 5 m, 250 × 4.6 mm column, maintained at 40 °C, a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0 - acetonitrile (60:40) containing 5 mM hexane sulfonate in isocratic flow. The mobile phase flow rate was 1.0 ml/min while elution was monitored at 216 nm. The method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) validation criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is applicable in routine quality control of Artemisia annua crude extracts.

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Two Species Periodic Chemostat Model with Discrete Delays." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(3):93-105. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model of two species competing for a single limiting nutrient input varied periodically using a Fourier series with discrete delays. To understand global aspects of the dynamics we use an extension of the Hopf bifurcation theorem, a method that rigorously establishes existence of a periodic solution. We show that the interior equilibrium point changes its stability and due to the delay parameter it undergoes a Hopf bifurcation.
Numerical results shows that coexistence is possible when delays are introduced and Fourier series produces the required seasonal variations. We also show that for small delays periodic variations of nutrients has more influence on species density variations than the delay.

"How Are Husbands to Know about the Health of Their Menopausal Wives? Kisima." An Ecumenical Magazine for Christian Mothers. 2020;1(1): 20-22.
Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Mitchell EJ, Benjamin S, Ononge S, Ditai J, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Masood SN, Whitham D, Godolphin PJ, Duley L. "Identifying women giving birth preterm and care at the time of birth: a prospective audit of births at six hospitals in India, Kenya, Pakistan and Uganda." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth . 2020;20(439). AbstractWebsite

Background
Globally, 15 million infants are born preterm each year, and 1 million die due to complications of prematurity. Over 60% of preterm births occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Care at birth for premature infants may be critical for survival and long term outcome. We conducted a prospective audit to assess whether women giving birth preterm could be identified, and to describe cord clamping and neonatal care at hospitals in Africa and south Asia.

Methods
This prospective audit of livebirths was conducted at six hospitals in Uganda, Kenya, India and Pakistan. Births were considered preterm if between 28+ 0 and 33+ 6 weeks gestation and/or the birthweight was 1.00 to 1.99 kg. A pre-specified audit plan was agreed with each hospital. Livebirths before 28 weeks gestation with birthweight less than 1.0 kg were excluded. Data were collected on estimated and actual gestation and birthweight, cord clamping, and neonatal care.

Results
Of 4149 women who gave birth during the audit, data were available for 3687 (90%). As 107 were multiple births, 3781 livebirths were included, of which 257 (7%) were preterm. Antenatal assessment correctly identified 148 infants as ‘preterm’ and 3429 as ‘term’, giving a positive predictive value of 72% and negative predictive value of 97%. For term births, cord clamping was usually later at the two Ugandan hospitals, median time to clamping 50 and 76 s, compared with 23 at Kenyatta (Kenya), 7 at CMC (India) and 12 at FBH/LNH (Pakistan). At the latter two, timing was similar between term and preterm births, and between vaginal and Caesarean births. For all the hospitals, the cord was clamped quickly at Caesarean births, with Mbale (Uganda) having the highest median time to clamping (15 s ‘term’, 19 ‘preterm’). For preterm infants temperature on admission to the neonatal unit was below 35.5 °C for 50%, and 59 (23%) died before hospital discharge.

Conclusions
Antenatal identification of preterm birth was good. Timing of cord clamping varied between hospitals, although at each there was no difference between ‘term’ and ‘preterm’ births. For premature infants hypothermia was common, and mortality before hospital discharge was high.

Calistus N Ngonghala, Wairimu J, Jesse Adamski, Desai H. "IMPACT OF ADAPTIVE MOSQUITO BEHAVIOR AND INSECTICIDE-TREATED NETS ON MALARIA PREVALENCE." Journal of Biological Systems. 2020;28(2):515-542. AbstractWebsite

Malaria prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Kenya for example, records about 3.5 million new cases and 11 thousand deaths each year.1 Most of these cases and deaths are among children under five. The main control method in malaria endemic regions has been through the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Although this approach has been fairly successful, the gains are threatened by mosquito-resistance to pyrethroids (insecticides on nets), physical and chemical degradation of ITNs that reduce their efficacy, inconsistent and improper use by humans, etc. We present a model to investigate the effects of ITN use and mosquito-resistance and adaptation to pyrethroids used to treat bed nets on malaria prevalence and control in malaria endemic regions. The model captures the development and loss of resistance to insecticides, the effects of ITN use on malaria control in a setting where proper and consistent use is not …

S. S, Gitau G.K., J. VL, C. M, P. K. "Impact of calf feeding practices on calf growth and health in smallholder dairy farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology, and Innovation. 2020;1(3):2707-0425.
Wanjala, G., Obutu OB. "Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Teacher Co-Efficient Determinant of Quality Education at the University of Nairobi,Kenya." International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning. 2020;8(1):16-24.abstract.pdf
MuswiiW. "The impact of ICT on society." TechNews. 2020;012(0012):3-5.
Nyang'au P, Muriithi B, Nzuma J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Diiro G. "Impact of Integrated Fruit Fly Management Strategy on Food Security among Smallholder Mango Farmers in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2020;20(2):15431-15454.
Njeru N, Charles Midega, Muthomi J, Wagacha J, Zeyaur Khan. "Impact of push–pull cropping system on pest management and occurrence of ear rots and mycotoxin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Plant Pathology . 2020;69(9):1644-1654.
Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Implications of the Minamata Convention on Mercury on Oral Health in Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):17-18.
Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR. "In vitro antifungal activity of Desmodium intortum and D. uncinatum root extracts against growth of toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus." Australian Journal of Crop Science . 2020;14(12):1942-1948.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Yaouba S, Makunga NP, Githiomi J, Yenesew A. "In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of the Root Bark Extract and Isolated Chemical Constituents of Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Plants. 2020;9(7):920. AbstractPlants

Description
Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae) is an endemic Kenyan and Tanzanian plant used in folk medicine by local populations. Although other Zanthoxylum species have been studied, only Z. paracantum stem extracts have been profiled, even though the roots are also used as herbal remedies. As root extracts may be another source of pharmaceutical compounds, the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) root bark extract was studied in this report. Eight root bark compounds were isolated and their structural identities were confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)(using COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC) analyses. The structural identities were determined as follows: the fatty acid—myristic acid (1); the sterol—stigmasterol (2); the lignan—sesamin (3); two β-carboline alkaloids—10-methoxycanthin-6-one (6) and canthin-6-one (7); and three phenanthridine alkaloids—8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4), arnottianamide (5) and 8-oxochelerythrine (8). Some of these compounds were identified in the species for the first time. These compounds and the extract were then tested in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) before tests for antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer (HCC 1395), human prostate cancer (DU 145) and normal (Vero E6) cell lines were conducted. Minimum inhibition concentration values of 3.91, 1.95, 0.98 and 7.81 µg/mL against MRSA, S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, respectively, were recorded. Among the isolates, canthin-6-one was the …

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Ilias M, Larry W, Malebo HM, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "In vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic activity of Three Medicinal Plants used Traditionally for Treatment of Malaria." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology. 2020;10(1):2-6.omole_et_al_2020.pdf
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Ilias M, Larry W, Malebo HM, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "In vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic activity of Three Medicinal Plants used Traditionally for Treatment of Malaria." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1):2-6. AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Introduction:
Reports of emergence of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) resistant malaria parasites in Greater Mekong region and Equatorial Guinea, is a strong reason necessitating increased efforts to discover new antimalarial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Plants have potential to yield new antiplasmodial compounds. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of three plants; Bersama abyssinica Fresen, Rubus keniensis Standl and Hypoestes verticillaris (Lf) Sol. ex Roem. and Schult that are used by the Ogiek community of Kenya for treatment of malaria.
Methodology:
The crude extracts were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity using Plasmodium falciparum strains W2 (chloroquine resistant) and D6 (chloroquine sensitive). Safety evaluation was done using monkey kidney Vero cells and the brine shrimp lethality test.
Results:
Dichloromethane: methanol (1: 1) and 5% aqueous methanol extracts of the three plants exhibited in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the W2 and D6 Plasmodium falciparum strains with IC50= 12.11–19.18 µg/mL, 5.46-7.04 µg/mL and 9.82–34.52 µg/mL, respectively. H. verticillaris extracts were the most active against the two Plasmodium falciparum strains. The dichloromethane: methanol extracts of the three plants exhibited lower toxicity on monkey kidney Vero cells relative to antiplasmodial activity as compared to the 5% aqueous methanol extracts. The mean Vero cells: parasite selectivity index of the dichloromethane: methanol extracts was (4.8), B. abyssinica (3.75) and R. keniensis (1.9), while for the 5% aqueous methanol extracts they were H. verticillaris (1.0), B. abyssinica (1.95 …

Alkizim FO, Kimani JM, Otieno ES, Thairu K. "In vivo study on the effect of African black tea extract on wound healing." International journal of Medical and Health Research. 2020;6(6):67-74.
Mwangi M, Kituyi E, Ouma G, Macharia D. "Indicator approach to assessing climate change vulnerability of communities in Kenya: a case study of Kitui county." Scientific Research. 2020. Abstractscirp.org

Community vulnerability to climate change can be conceptualized as an aggregate of three vulnerability components: exposure to climatic stress, sensitivity to climate stress and adaptive capacity. However, even within similar regions these vulnerability components are spatially differentiated necessitating the understanding of a regions vulnerability pattern before targeting adaptation assistance. This research sought to understand the differentiated vulnerability patterns of communities in Kitui County as well as the existing coping strategies to guide implementation of adaptation assistance. Indicator approach to vulnerability assessment and focus group discussions were used to understand the vulnerability pattern and coping strategies respectively. Results showed a differentiated vulnerability pattern with a west to east gradient across Kitui County. The pattern exhibited less vulnerability scores on the western and central parts and more vulnerability scores on the eastern and northern parts of the County. Existing coping strategies have become inadequate with increasing climate variability, severity and frequency of extreme climate events, which render the communities even more vulnerable. The patterns of vulnerability can guide appropriate targeting of adaptation assistance and in turn lead to improved climate change resilience and community livelihoods.

Nyakundi, Kalai, J.M., Nyagah, G., Munayi SP. "Influence of Head Teachers’ Support Strategies for Slow Learners on Children’s learning Outcomes at the Early Childhood Centres in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). 2020;4(6):697-703.
O PA, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Completion of PPP Projects: A Case of Sondu-Miriu Power Project in Kenya.)." International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics. 2020;7(11):648-659.
Mwaita SSK, Rambo CM. "Influence of Off-Plan Purchases and Sales on Performance of Real Estate Development Projects in Kilimani, Westlands Sub County, Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research. 2020;4(10):18-27.
Toroitch W, Migosi J, Sakaja Y. "Influence of Resource Controls on the Performance of Infrastructural Projects in ECDE County Projects in Soy Sub-County." International Journals of Academics & Research. 2020;7(8):38-44.
Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki J, mwaura F, Sheriff S. "Influence of Substrate Proximate Properties on Voltage Production in Microbial Fuel Cells." Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. 2020;10(02):43. AbstractJournal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems

Description
In the current study, we investigate the influence of proximate properties of five different fruits on voltage and current generated from a double chamber microbial fuel cell. Fruits comprising of avocado, tomato, banana, watermelon and mango were analyzed for proximate properties using standard methods. Rumen fluid was used as the inoculum in fabricated H-shaped double chamber fuel cells with graphite rods electrodes at room temperature. The voltage and current generated were monitored daily for 30 days using a DT9205A digital multi-meter. The average moisture content for the fruits samples ranged from 82.86% - 95.16% while the crude fat was in the range of 0.12% - 0.33% with avocado having fat levels at 9.03%. Carbohydrates level was the highest in banana at 19.24% and the lowest in tomato waste at 2.93%. Tomato waste produced the highest voltage of 0.702 V on day 20 while lower voltage was noted in watermelon fruit wastes at 0.019 V. The voltage and current increased linearly with time for all the fruit wastes. These results indicate that substrate proximate properties influence the voltage and current generated in microbial fuel cell. In addition, moisture content and carbohydrates level were the major factors that influence microbial fuel cells performance.

Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki J, mwaura F. "Influence of Substrate Proximate Properties on Voltage Production in Microbial Fuel Cells." Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. 2020;10:43-51. Abstract

In the current study, we investigate the influence of proximate properties of five different fruits on voltage and current generated from a double chamber microbial fuel cell. Fruits comprising of avocado, tomato, banana, watermelon and mango were analyzed for proximate properties using standard methods. Rumen fluid was used as the inoculum in fabricated H-shaped double chamber fuel cells with graphite rods electrodes at room temperature. The voltage and current generated were monitored daily for 30 days using a DT9205A digital multi-meter. The average moisture content for the fruits samples ranged from 82.86% - 95.16% while the crude fat was in the range of 0.12% -0.33% with avocado having fat levels at 9.03%. Carbohydrates level was the highest in banana at 19.24% and the lowest in tomato waste at 2.93%. Tomato waste produced the highest voltage of 0.702 V on day 20 while lower voltage was noted in watermelon fruit wastes at 0.019 V. The voltage and current increased linearly with time for all the fruit wastes. These results indicate that substrate proximate properties influence the voltage and current generated in microbial fuel cell. In addition, moisture content and carbohydrates level were the major factors that influence microbial fuel cells performance.

Akuku B, Oboko R, Waema TM. "Institutionalization of knowledge management strategies in agricultural research organizations: a systematic literature review." Knowledge Management for Development Journal. 2020; Vol. 15 No. 1 (2020):. Abstract

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Strategy, Institutionalization, Adoption, Implementation, Entrenchment, process, practice, influencing factors
Abstract
In recent years Knowledge Management (KM) has emerged as a significant field for research and practitioners in Information Systems (IS) domain. Despite the rapid growth in literature, the concept of institutionalization of KM strategies in organizations is understudied. Consistent with a “practice turn” emphasis in recent literature in IS strategy-related studies, this study examines the body of knowledge on institutionalization of KM strategies in Agricultural Research organizations (AROs). A complimentary approach combining systematic and hermeneutics literature review methods is used to search, select, analyze extant literature and presentation of study results. While studies have expanded neo-institutional theory and recommends linking process analysis to context with a specific focus on organizational level analysis, the concepts are not used in extant literature. Similarly, a comparative analysis studies or a framework to compare similar or different contexts with regard to institutionalization processes or practices of KM strategies is not found in extant literature. A conclusion is drawn that micro-processes analysis of institutionalization of KM strategies at organizational level in practice are not adequately explored. To date it is not known how KM strategies are adopted, implemented and entrenched in organizations including what processes takes place in day-to-day activities, yet literature continues to report that AROs are facing difficulties this area.

Bulinda BM, Inyega HN, Inyega JO. Instructional supervision and inspection practice, 2nd Ed. . LAP LAMBART Academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-620-0-65126-6; 2020.
Muyonga M, Odipo G, Agwanda ALO, A K. "Interlinkages between Migration and Inequality in Africa: Review of Contemporary Studies." African Human Mobility Review . 2020;6(1):6-26.
Vachharajani TJ, Kim Y-S, Riella M, Harris D, Jha V, collaboration with members of the of Group IISNINW. "International Society of Nephrology’s initiative on interventional nephrology minimum training and program-building standards in resource-limited countries." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Owor RO, Derese S, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Isoflavones from the seedpods of Tephrosia vogelii and pyrazoisopongaflavone with anti-inflammatory effects." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104695. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Phytochemical investigation of Tephrosia vogelii seedpods led to the isolation of twelve compounds: vogelisoflavone A (1), vogelisoflavone B (2), isopongaflavone (3), onogenin, luteolin, 4′,7-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone, trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, tephrosin, 2-methoxygliricidol, dehydrorotenone, 6a,12a-dehydro-α-toxicarol and pinoresinol. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported as new natural products. Isopongaflavone (3) was structurally modified using hydrazine to pyrazoisopongaflavone (4). These compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRESIMS data. Further, four compounds (1–4) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the compounds at a concentration of 100 μM suppressed the secretion of interleukin IL-1β interferon-gamma (IFN-γ …

Okeyo MP, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Judicial Evaluation Model and Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Construction Projects: the Case of Road Construction Projects in Kenya." Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management. 2020:527-540.
Emma Anyika Shileche, Weke P, Achia T. "Kernel density estimation of white noise for non-diversifiable risk in decision making." Journal of Risk Analysis and Crisis Response. 2020;10(1):6-11. AbstractWebsite

Many businesses make profit yearly and tend to invest some of the profit so that they can cushion their organizations against any future unknown events that can affect their current profit making. Since future happenings in businesses cannot be predicted accurately, estimates are made using experience or past data which are not exact. The probability element (which is normally determined by experience or past data) is important in investment decision making process since it helps address the problem of uncertainty. Many of the investment decision making methods have incorporated the expectation and risk of an event in making investment decisions. Most of those that use risk account for diversifiable risk (non-systematic risk) only thus limiting the predictability element of these investment methods since total risk are not properly accounted for. A few of these methods include the certainty (probability) element. These include value at risk method which uses covariance matrices as total risk and the binning system which always assumes normal distribution and thus does not take care of discrete cases. Moreover comparison among various entities lacks since the probabilities derived are for individual entities and are just quantile values. Finite investment decision making using real market risk (non-diversifiable risk) was undertaken in this study. Non-diversifiable risk (systematic risk) estimates of a portfolio of stocks determined by a real risk weighted pricing model are used as initial data. The variance of non-diversifiable risk is estimated as a random variable referred to as random error (white noise). The estimator is used to calculate estimates of …

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili as a Privileged Mother Tongue in Kenya: the Pros and Cons - Expected." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. . 2020.
Akuku B, Oboko R, Waema TM, Brown I. "Knowledge management strategies adopted in agricultural research organizations in East Africa." journals.sagepub.com. 2020. AbstractWebsite

In previous studies, Knowledge Management (KM) strategies have been examined as objects of organizations, instead of scrutinizing their characteristics or relative quality and content. This study aims to examine the key characteristics of KM strategies in Agricultural Research Organizations (AROs) in East Africa in terms of what exists, what does not exist and why. To comprehensively answer the research questions and understand the phenomena under investigation the study adopted a pragmatism paradigm to allow facts and concerns to arise from the context. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed using semi-structured Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and a questionnaire respectively. A novel empirical description and explanation of the key characteristics of KM strategies in AROs in East Africa is presented. The study identifies the key concepts and gaps in the characteristics of KM strategies and elucidates what AROs in East Africa should do differently to coherently formulate and execute KM strategies in practice. The main characteristics of KM strategies in AROs in East Africa are practicability, technology-focus, alignment, implementation processes and relevance. Through abstraction and theorization of the key concepts, a detailed description and explanation as a reference for scholars and practitioners in the KM field is provided. Further, the study highlights context as an important and relevant perspective in particularizing the characteristics of a KM strategy and interpretation of related empirical findings. Future studies can use the concepts presented in this study to develop a theoretical framework for analyzing the characteristics of KM strategies in organizations. The idea of linking the study outcome to an empirical situation is a novel contribution. The findings of this study shed new insights that confirm that understanding characteristics of KM strategies is beneficial to practitioners and scholars.

Keywords agricultural research organizations, characteristics, East Africa, knowledge management, KM strategies

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "LAB SCALE BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MARKET WASTES AND DAGORETTI SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE IN KENYA." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research. 2020;8(1):12-21. Abstract

In this study, fruits and vegetable market wastes were used as substrates in biogas
production under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Slaughterhouse waste
consisting of blood and diluted rumen fluid mixture was used as inoculum with seven days retention
time. Influence of C: N ratios of the unique mixtures of vegetables found in the market were
investigated. On average, the vegetable wastes found at the market contained >86% moisture, 5 -
12% volatile solid and 0.46 – 2.06% ash matter on a wet basis. The protein range was between
0.57 – 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado (Persea americana) wastes at
9.03%. The highest cumulative biogas was recorded in wastes mixture at 3500ml on seventh day
while low biogas yield was registered for wastes with C: N ratios greater than 35:1 like avocado
and lower than 10 like coriander and courgette wastes. The optimum operation pH was in the
range of 6.80 – 7.2.It can be concluded that the highest cumulative biogas was generated from
fruits/vegetable mixture at 3500ml in mesophillic conditions. This study recommends pH
adjustment to 6.8 – 7.2 in market wastes and C: N ratios of 20 – 25 for large scale biogas
production of wastes found in the Dagoretti Market.

"Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1):1-23.
Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Description
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Muthoni KC. "Learners Mental health in a Changing World." Journal Of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2020;25(2).
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Lecturer Quality in Public Universities in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2020;7(10).
Jedidah Nankaya, Nathan Gichuki, Lukhoba C, Balslev H. "Maasai of Kenya: A Review.". 2020.
Guthua SW, Kamau M, ABINYA N. "Management of Maxillofacial of Osteosarcomas in Kenya: A case Series." The Annals of African Surgery. 2020;17 (1).
Owen, Dulo, Thine. "Mapping of Feasible Artificial Groundwater Recharge Areas: Case of Nairobi City County,." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2)::9-16.
Otieno SP, S. W. Masks. (Mrs) ANM, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
Morris Ogero, Rachel Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, Akech S. "Methodological rigor of prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol." Wellcome Open Research. 2020;5:106. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) where healthcare resources are often limited, making decisions on appropriate treatment choices is critical in ensuring reduction of paediatric deaths as well as instilling proper utilisation of the already constrained healthcare resources. Well-developed and validated prognostic models can aid in early recognition of potential risks thus contributing to the reduction of mortality rates. The aim of the planned systematic review is to identify and appraise the methodological rigor of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC in order to identify statistical and methodological shortcomings deserving special attention and to identify models for external validation.
Methods and analysis: This protocol has followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols. A search of …

Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AWN, Onyari JM, Kimani EN, Robertson-Andersson D. "Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of creeks along the Kenyan coast, Western Indian Ocean (WIO)." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2020;19(2):75-88.
Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "MODELING DISPROPORTIONAL EFFECTS OF EDUCATING INFECTED KENYAN YOUTH ON HIV/AIDS." Journal of Biological Systems. 2020;28(2):311-349. AbstractWebsite

We formulate an age and sex-structured deterministic model to assess the effect of increasing comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS disease in the infected Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Mathematical analysis of infection through sub-network analysis was carried out to trace various infection routes and the veracity of various transmission routes as well as the associated probabilities. Using HIV data in Kenya on our model, disproportional effects were observed when dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS was preferred in one population over the other. Effective dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS in both the infected AGYW and ABYM populations significantly slows down the infection spread but may not eradicate it.

Pokhariyal GP. "Modeling influence of business excellence parameters on sustainable high performance of organizations." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):134-139. AbstractWebsite

Organizations aspire to have sustainable high performance in order to have competitive advantage in the
market. Business excellence models provide frameworks to be applied by organizations in order to
develop thoughts, so that adequate actions be taken in a systematic and structured way to accomplish
sustainable high financial as well as non-financial performance. Various business excellence models
proposed by organizations as well as researchers are discussed. In this paper a mathematical model is
proposed in which independent variables are: top management team characteristic, mission vision and
core values, technology and innovation, and customer focus. Motivation and culture are moderating
variables. Government policies and global economy are intervening variables. The financial and nonfinancial performance, are dependent variables. The proposed model would yield corresponding
regression equations, representing stated hypotheses to be tested for the collected data from the field for
the chosen business organization. Further correlation coefficient can also be computed to check the
relationship between variables. From the estimated regression equations, through various tests, the
elasticity of the coefficients of model parameters and their statistical significance can be investigated.
Adequate recommendations can then be made to achieve the sustainable high performance for the
selected organization.

Joab Odhiambo, Weke P, Ngare P. "Modeling Kenyan economic impact of corona virus in Kenya using discrete-time Markov chains." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(2):, 80-85. AbstractWebsite

Since the outbreak of pandemic COVID-19 (Corona virus), many countries have continued to suffer
economically leading to massive losses in terms of trillions of dollars globally in terms of trade loses. In reaction to
this effect, many countries in the world have taken emergency measures to ensure that the impact does not lead to
huge economic and financial implications in terms of rapid recession. In Africa, where many countries have taken
measures to deal with global recession to the citizens especially through fiscal and monetary policies, which includes
Kenya. In addition, the social economic statues have continued to change instantaneously and stochastically
more so after huge number of populations losing their daily informal jobs with new measures to stop the spread of
COVID-19 virus. This paper seeks to model the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on Kenyan Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) contributors using a Discrete-time Markov Chain Analysis. In addition, the paper seeks to find the ultimate
effect of the Covid-19 to the top five key sectors of the Kenyan economy that contributes massively to GDP growth
by looking at the proportion of the contributors at steady state. Moreover, the results from this paper should help the
government of Kenya as well as global investors to understand different economic stimulus planning packages to
launch in the “hard-hit” sectors of the economy to reduce the impact of the potential economic recession. Ultimately,
the information should be help in formulating a post COVID-19 economic recovery plan for the Kenyan economy
but also act as a benchmark strategy for many other countries in Africa that has economic and financial dynamics
similar to that of Kenya

Joab Odhiambo, Weke P, Wendo J. "Modeling of Returns of Nairobi Securities Exchange 20 Share Index Using Log-Normal Distribution ." Research Journal of Finance and Accounting. 2020;11(8). AbstractWebsite

Nairobi Securities Exchange 20 Index Share (NSE-20 Share Index/ An Exchange Traded Fund) has been one of
the investment avenues for both Kenyans and foreign investors look whenever they want to make sound
investments decisions in the market. However, the assumption that the daily securities index prices follows a
normal distribution has been disputed by data in several cases. This means new statistical distributions must be
used to discern the distribution of NSE-20 Share Index thus enabling investors make prudent financial decisions
to avoid financial loses. In this research paper, we will model the prices of daily securities index using a log-normal
distribution. This is because the distribution follows a positive trend before we can ascertain on how well it fits
the already available data at the NSE market. This research paper recommends that a log-normal distribution best
fits data of the daily prices of NSE-20 Share Index for those investors who would like to model the future of the
market before making financial decisions.

Joab O Odhiambo, Ngare P, Weke P, Otieno RO. "Modelling of covid-19 transmission in kenya using compound poisson regression model." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020; 35(2):101-111. AbstractWebsite

Since the inception of the novel Corona Virus Disease-19 in December in China, the spread has been massive leading World Health Organization to declare it a world pandemic. While epicenter of COVID-19 was Wuhan city in China mainland, Italy has been affected most due to the high number of recorded deaths as at 21st April, 2020 at the same time USA recording the highest number of virus reported cases. In addition, the spread has been experienced in many developing African countries including Kenya. The Kenyan government need to make necessary plans for those who have tested positive through self-quarantine beds at Mbagathi Hospital as a way of containing the spread of the virus. In addition, lack of a proper mathematical model that can be used to model and predict the spread of COVID-19 for adequate response security has been one of the main concerns for the government. Many mathematical models have been proposed for proper modeling and forecasting, but this paper will focus on using a generalized linear regression that can detect linear relationship between the risk factors. The paper intents to model and forecast the confirmed COVID-19 cases in Kenya as a Compound Poisson regression process where the parameter follows a generalized linear regression that is influenced by the number of daily contact persons and daily flights with the already confirmed cases of the virus. Ultimately, this paper would assist the government in proper resource allocation to deal with pandemic in terms of available of bed capacities, public awareness campaigns and virus testing kits not only in the virus hotbed within Nairobi capital city but also in the other 47 Kenyan counties.

"Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus Infecting African Nightshades (Solanum scabrum Miller)." International Journal of Agronomy Volume . 2020;Article ID 8864499:7 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8864499.
Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Ganesh P. "Monitoring and Evaluation Work Plan on Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Healthcare Services in Institutions of Public Health in Kisumu County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5(1). AbstractWebsite

This research was focused on assessing how monitoring and evaluation work plan influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare practices in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study unit of analysis was public health institutions that practice M&E system on provision of health care services. The target population consisting of doctors, M&E officers, clinical officers, nurses and patients in four public health institutions in Kisumu county, Kenya. The study was guided by pragmatism paradigm. A descriptive survey research design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data and correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. A structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule was used to collect data. A descriptive survey research design was employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data and correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among variables. The study attained reliability of instruments using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items implying that the instrument was reliable. The results indicated that showed that M&E work plan regression was (r2=0.028, p<0.05). The study results indicated that present results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.90 and 0.447 standard deviation for this variable. M&E system therefore, contributes significantly to the effective provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions

Makunda CS, Anyamba TJC. "Morphological Transformation of Kileleshwa, Nairobi." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(3):1975-1998.
Makanya A, Mills-Thompson AN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Oduma J, Ojoo R. "Morphometric and stereological methods for quantifying the coarse structural parameters of the ruminal tissues in sheep." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):59-70.
"Motivations for a career in dentistry among dental students and dental interns in Kenya." International Journal of Dentistry. 2020;Jul 29(1017979).
Cynthia Ikamari, Ngare P, Weke P. "Multi-asset option pricing using an information-based model." Scientific African. 2020;10:00564. AbstractWebsite

Diversification of assets by an investor offers reduced exposure to risk compared to investing in a single asset. A multi-asset option gives an investor this advantage as its payout depends on the overall performance of several underlying assets. This study uses an information-based model to derive an approximate price for European call multi-asset options. The single asset price is derived using the risk-neutral pricing approach, and the multi-asset case uses the notion of comonotonicity. A numerical illustration is looked at to validate the theoretical results and to show the accuracy of the information-based model. The results show that prices from the information-based model provide a close fit to the empirical prices using a suitable information flow rate parameter. Hence, by making use of the information available in the market, an investor can price multi-asset European call options.

Mwazighe FM. "Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Detection of Anthracene." Int. J. of Electrochem.Sci. . 2020;15(11):11058-11069. Abstract

The electrochemical oxidation of anthracene on a bare glassy carbon electrode results in electrode fouling and reduced sensitivity in its detection. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of anthracene because of their antifouling and peak enhancement properties. The peak current for anthracene oxidation was enhanced by 73.64%, and the peak potential shifted by 53 mV to a slightly less positive value. The electrochemical process was determined to be mixed diffusion- and adsorption-controlled, and a preconcentration or accumulation time was necessary in the analysis of anthracene. Square wave voltammetry was used to analyze increasing concentrations of anthracene; a dynamic linear range of 50–146 μM (R2 = 0.98452) and a limit of detection of 42 μM were established. The sensor platform was used to detect anthracene in a spiked sample of tap water, albeit at lower than expected concentrations because of its low solubility in water.

Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589871x20300267-main.pdfWebsite

The uptake of forensic DNA testing technologies in Africa has been slow despite the revolutionary technology being discovered and adopted 3 decades ago. African governments and partners have invested in construction and equipping of forensic laboratories in Africa but the benefits are yet to be realised as the laboratories are still faced with the challenge of shortage of adequately trained personnel. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary training approach that was developed and used to train officers from the Directorate of Criminal Investigations Kenya. We report on the structure, implementation and effectiveness of the training. It is expected that with the increased number of trained forensic DNA analysts, there will be an improvement in quality of forensic DNA evidence presented in courts and a reduction in backlog in the forensic biology laboratories in Kenya.

Nanji, "Gichuhi", Nyenze, Kherani, damji, Kiage. "The muranga teleophthalmology study: A comparison of virtual (teleretina) assessment with in-person clinical examination to diagnose diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in kenya." MEAJO. 2020;27(2):91-99. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: This study compares a web-based teleophthalmology assessment with a clinical slit lamp examination to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among diabetic patients in a rural East African district.
METHODS: Six hundred and twelve eyes from 306 diabetic patients underwent both a clinical slit lamp examination and a teleretina (TR) assessment by an experienced ophthalmologist. Both assessments were compared for any DR and AMD using the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study and age-related eye disease study grading scales, respectively.
RESULTS: Of the 612 TR assessment photos, 74 (12%) were deemed ungradable due to media opacities, poor patient cooperation, or unsatisfactory photographs. The ability to detect DR and AMD showed a fair agreement (kappa statistic 0.27 and 0.23, respectively) between the TR and clinical slit lamp examination. Relative to a clinical slit lamp evaluation, a positive TR diagnosis carried a 75.0% positive predictive value when diagnosing DR and a 27.3% positive predictive value when diagnosing AMD. A negative TR diagnosis carried a 97.2% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of DR and a 98.1% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of AMD.
CONCLUSION: When comparing TR assessments to clinical slit lamp examinations to diagnose DR and AMD, there was a fair agreement. Although further validation is needed, the TR approach provides a promising method to diagnose DR and AMD, two major causes of ocular impairment worldwide.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, slit lamp examination, teleretina, teleophthalmology

omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
W M, M A, W V, K C, O J. "Nematodes as Bio-Indicators of Physical Disturbance of Marine Sediments Following Polychaete Bait Harvesting." Western Indian Ocean Journal of marine science. 2020;19(2):117-130.
Wafula M, Muthumbi AW, Wangondu V, Kihia C, Okondo J. "Nematodes as bio-indicators of physical disturbance of marine sediments following polychaete bait harvesting." WIO Journal of Marine Science . 2020;19(2):117-130.
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega. 2020. Abstractdx.doi.org

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1–C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan-2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1–C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV–vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1–L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0–8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2 …

R.M. Kweyu, T. Thenya KEKJ. "The nexus between land cover changes, politics and conflict in Eastern Mau forest complex, Kenya." Applied Geography. 2020;114(102115).
JI Sagala, Gachuiri CK, Kuria SG, Wanyoike MM. "Nutritive value of selected preferred forage species by lactating camels in the peri-urban area of Marsabit town, Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):218-226.
Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2).
and Nicholas M. Jacob, Shem O.Wandiga DKKVOM. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2):7-22.
Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbertspaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. Abstractfull text link

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of op erators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modelling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. AbstractWebsite

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of operators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Muhati LN, Khalagai JM. "On Unitary Invariance of Some Classes of Operators in Hilbert Spaces." Pure Mathematical Sciences. 2020;9(1):45-52. AbstractWebsite

Itis a known fact in operator theory that two similar operators have equal spectra but they do not necessarily have to belong to the same class of operators. However,under the stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of operators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit some results on some pairs of operators which may belong to the same class under not only unitary equivalence but also isometric and co-isometric equivalence

Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW. "On Unitary Quasi-Equivalence of Operators." International Journal of Mathematics And its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. Abstractfull text link

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations.

Bernard M. Nzimbi, Luketero SW. "On unitary quasi-equivalence of operators." International Journal of Mathematics and Its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are
unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give
and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations

Langat SK, Eyase FL, Berry IM, Nyunja A, Bulimo W, Owaka S, Ofula V, Limbaso S, Lutomiah J, Jarman R, Distelhorst J, Sang RC. "Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 2 causing outbreaks in Kenya: Evidence of circulation of two cosmopolitan genotype ." Virus Evol. 2020;6(1):veaa026. Abstractveaa026.pdfWebsite

Dengue fever (DF) is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4). Globally, DF incidence and disease burden have increased in the recent past. Initially implicated in a 1982 outbreak, DENV-2 recently reemerged in Kenya causing outbreaks between 2011 and 2014 and more recently 2017-8. The origin and the evolutionary patterns that may explain the epidemiological expansion and increasing impact of DENV-2 in Kenya remain poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing, samples collected during the 2011-4 and 2017-8 dengue outbreaks were analyzed. Additional DENV-2 genomes were downloaded and pooled together with the fourteen genomes generated in this study. Bioinformatic methods were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns of DENV-2 causing outbreaks in Kenya. The findings from this study have shown the first evidence of circulation of two different Cosmopolitan genotype lineages of DENV-2; Cosmopolitan-I (C-I) and Cosmopolitan-II (C-II), in Kenya. Our results put the origin location of C-I lineage in India in 2011, and C-II lineage in Burkina Faso between 1979 and 2013. C-I lineage was the most isolated during recent outbreaks, thus showing the contribution of this newly emerged strain to the increased DENV epidemics in the region. Our findings, backed by evidence of recent local epidemics that have been associated with C-I in Kenya and C-II in Burkina Faso, add to the growing evidence of expanding circulation and the impact of multiple strains of DENV in the region as well as globally. Thus, continued surveillance efforts on DENV activity and its evolutionary trends in the region, would contribute toward effective control and the current vaccine development efforts.

Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Origin of Carbon dioxide in Selected Mofette Springs in the Eastern Mt. Kenya Region and Associated Characteristics." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;5:48-62.
Opondo EM, Oleche OM. "Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure among the Elderly in Kenya ." Global Journal of Health Science. 2020;10(11).
Buyana K, Lwasa S, Tugume D, Mukwaya P, Walubwa J, Owuor S, Kasaija P, Sseviiri H, Nsangi G, Byarugaba D. "Pathways for resilience to climate change in African cities. Environ. Res. Lett. 15 (2020) 073002.". 2020.2020_environmental_research_letters_journal.pdf
Opiyo R, Were A, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Olenja J, Bukania Z. "Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: How Can They Make Informed Nutritional Decisions?" Office of DVC Research, Innovation and Enterprise, University of Nairobi. 2020:39-40. AbstractWebsite

The Ministry of Health and partners should develop national standard operating procedures and IEC materials in renal nutrition counsellingfor harmonized messages. All patients with chronic kidney disease should get takeaway information leaflets with patient-specific simple nutrition messages to ensure the accuracy of nutrition information; All nutritionists and healthcare workers in renal units should participate in regular continuing nutrition education on most recent evidence-based nutrition information.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Gaithuma VW. "Phonological Influence of Kiamu dialect to Amu Learners of Standard Kiswahili - Expected." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). 2020.
Charles AO, Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Jain P. "Photo-thermal Conversion Efficiency of Textured and Untextured Aluminum Substrate Coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 Absorber." American Journal of Modern Energy. 2020;6(1):9-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

The possibility of obtaining thermal energy from the sun for household bathing and washing has resulted to growth in market for solar thermal applications with new types of solar absorbers currently being investigated either to compliment or to replace existing ones. This study focuses on CuFeMnO4 absorber paint by addressing aspects which have little attention regarding improvement of optical absorption for higher efficiency such as texturing the metal substrates on which to coat CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. In this study, texturing was done controllably in order to match the incoming solar radiation wavelength and the surface topography and morphology. Textured and untextured aluminum sheets coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint were used to fabricate prototype flat plate solar thermal collectors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chosen here as binder to a spectrally selective CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. The TiO2-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint was applied by a simple, cheap and up-scalable dip coating method over the aluminum sheets. The aluminum sheets were electro-chemically textured to enhance optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency for both the textured and untextured prototypes were compared. The efficiency characterization of the prototype collectors was done by measuring the global solar irradiance, fluid inlet, fluid outlet and ambient temperature. Both instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies were determined mathematically, and it was found that the prototype collector whose absorber plates were textured recorded higher instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies compared to the collector fabricated from untextured aluminum plates.
Keywords: Aluminum, Texturing, Conversion Efficiency, Solar Energy, (TiO2)-bound, CuFeMnO4

and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.
DK Inoti, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Maina JG. "Physical and chemical characteristics of limestone for use in layer feeds in Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):242-246.
Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40(2020):148-155.chemistry_of_five_croton_species_phytolletters_2020.pdf
O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Kebba N, Mutie JM. "Possible impairment of surgical decision making and confounded outcome in Fontan surgery by Nakata Index." African Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Since cardiac structuring dimensions inform surgical decisions making, Z-score systematic error impairs surgical decision making and confounds outcome measurement, hence a similar error may affect the Nakata index. In this study, PubMed was searched using the terms: “pulmonary,” “artery,” “size,” “Nakata,” “Fontan,” and “outcome”. Studies that did not describe the outcome of the Fontan procedure and the size of the branch pulmonary arteries were excluded. Outcome measures of interest, in relation to BPA size, included: Operative mortality, Fontan “take-down”, length of ICU stay, pleural effusions and functional capacity. The results revealed that of 116 papers retrieved, 9 were included representing 1,042 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Six out of 9 papers representing 645 (61.9%) patients reported that BPA size had no relationship with the outcome of the Fontan procedure; while 2 out of 9 papers representing 366 (35.1%) patients found that BPA size did affect the outcome. One paper representing 31 (3%) patients was unable to find any relationship. All the papers that concluded that there was no relationship labelled normal sized BPAs as small because of a systematic error introduced by the Nakata index. Papers that found a relationship did not use the Nakata index. Thus, Nakata index systematic error may impair surgical decision making and confound outcome measurement in Fontan surgery. In addition, continued use of the Fontan index may have similar implications for other congenital heart lesions.

BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Mauritius: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

W Awuor, Muthumbi AWN, Robertson-Andersson DV. "Presence of microplastics in benthic macroinvertebrates along the Kenyan coast." African Journal of Marine Science. 2020;42(4):405-411.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Oyugi J, Schnabel D, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence and factors influencing the distribution of influenza viruses in Kenya: Seven-year hospital-based surveillance of influenza-like illness (2007-2013)." PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237857. Abstractumuhoza_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were

Muyodi MM, Bhatt KM, KAYIMA JK. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstractprevalence_of_and_factors_associated_with_ckd_in_osteoarthritis.pdf

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.

Gachuiri TT, Mwango GN, Muriithi IM, Mulama BM. "Prevalence Of Chest Radiograph Findings In Neonates With Respiratory Distress At Kenyatta National Hospital." EAMJ. 2020;97(11):3245-3251.Abstract
Mbindyo C, Gitao C, Mulei C. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Embu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 |Article ID 8831172 | 12 pages (https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8831172):12 pages.
Kitata M. "The Problematics of Naming in Kenyan Creative Narratives." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020;6(1):1-15. Abstract

There is a tendency in Kenyan literature, which can be defined as ahistorical ethnopolitanism. In this approach the writer chooses to use names of characters and places that indicate an attempt to see the Kenyan community from a distance. The result is that, in the push for inclusivity in works of literature, the very idea an authentic record of history and self-knowledge is lost: Real actors are alienated from the story of the history of the country; the background loses its referential significance; fantasy contexts are created to overlay and erase the real; and an atmosphere of namelessness is prioritised. This paper is a preliminary critique of these traits in contemporary Kenyan creative narrative. It seeks to highlight how such an approach – whose aim is to create a text that sidesteps ethnic politics – paradoxically undermines the writers’ efforts.

Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Scientific Research Publishing. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Mwangi IK(2020). "Proposing a Conceptual Model of Planning Methodology in Public Domain." Africa Habitat Review . 2020;Vol. 14, No.3,(ISSB 2519-7851).
"Proverbs and Enculturation: The Gender Convergence of Kiswahili and Ekegusii Proverbs ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5, (Na.1, April 2020, ):19-36.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Othoo CO, Dulo SO, Olago DO, Ayah R. "Proximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planning." Journal of UOEH. 2020;42(3):237-249. AbstractProximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planningjstage.jst.go

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor
urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on
community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda
B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and
Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within
0-15m and 15-30m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit
latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7%
(100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow
wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and
even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities
near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of
the recommended safe distance of 30m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other
sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.

Keywords : density, health, informal settlements, water-source, Sanitation technology.

S W, A K, S K, I M. "A Qualitative Analysis on the Clinical Experiences of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care. 2020:293-238.
Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Report of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the Period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2020;23(3):79-86. Abstract

During the period 2011-2015, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) analyzed 1972 drug samples. The samples consisted of 21.5% locally manufactured and 78.2% imported products while the origin of 0.3% of products was indeterminate. Samples were subjected to compendial and/or in-house analytical specifications. The overall non-compliance rate was 4.5% comprising 2.5% local products and 2.0% imports. High failure rates were recorded for uterotonics (37.5%), hemostatics (33%), anthelmintics (17%) and anticancers (10.5%) while ophthalmic, immunomodulatory, musculoskeletal and endocrine drugs all complied with the quality acceptance criteria. Erectile dysfunction drugs, received by the laboratory for the first time, all complied with specifications. The results obtained demonstrate an improvement in the quality of samples submitted to DARU when compared to previous performance.

Abraham Kipchumba Cherwon, Margaret Mwihaki Wanyoike, Gachuiri CK. "Rabbit production practices in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2020;11(4):114-121.
Mutala TM, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "Radiology practice in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 outbreak: points to consider." Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37(28):doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.37.28.23081.
Mugo JW, Opijah F, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Rainfall variability under present and future climate scenarios using the Rossby Center Bias-corrected Regional Climate Model." American Journal of Climate Change. 2020;9(1):243-265.
Walter Onchere, Richard Tinega, Weke P, Otieno JAM. "The Reciprocal Generalized Inverse Gaussian Frailty with Application in Life Annuity Business." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(6):112-131. AbstractWebsite

Aims: As shown in literature, several authors have adopted various individual frailty mixing distributions as a way of dealing with possible heterogeneity due to unobserved covariates in a group of insurers. This research contribution is to generalize the frailty mixing distribution to nest other classes of frailty distributions not in literature and apply the proposed distributions in valuation of life annuity business.

Methodology: A simulation study is done to assess the performance of the aforementioned models. The baseline parameters is estimated using Bayesian Inference and a better model is suggested for valuation of life annuity business.

Results: As a result of generalizing the frailty some new classes of frailty distributions are constructed such as; the Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian Frailty, the Inverse Gamma Frailty, the Harmonic Frailty and the Positive Hyperbolic Frailty.

From the simulation study, the proposed new frailty models shows that ignoring frailty leads to an underestimation of future residual lifetime since the survival curve shifts to the right when heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature.

The Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian model closely represents the Association of Kenya Insurers graduated rates with a slight increase in survival due to longevity risk.

Conclusion: The proposed new frailty models show an increase in the insurers expected liability when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature and thus can be applied to avoid underestimating the insurer’s liability in the context of life annuity business.

The RIG model as proposed in estimating future liability by directly adjusting the AKI mortality rates shows an increase in longevity risk. The extent of heterogeneity of the insured group determines the level of risk. The RIG frailties should be considered for multivariate cases where the insureds are clustered in groups.

Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. "Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore; 2020.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A River from Rivulets? A Study of Sheng vis-à-vis Indigenous Kenyan Languages and Modern Technology - Expected." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS), Hankuk University. 2020.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

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