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2019
Ouma S, Hughes A, Murphy JT, Opondo M. "Envisioning African futures: Perspectives from economic geography." Geoforum. 2019. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
The commentaries and reviews in the section that follow take up the recently popularized notion of 'African futures' in order to explore the geographies, modes, potentialities, politics, and practices of epistemic, socio-economic, political and socio-ecological transformations that may be complementary or antagonistic to the global capitalist project.

Keywords
FuturesDevelopmentEconomic geographyAfricaDecolonialitySouthern theory

Wainaina Samuel Murigi, Mbaria James Mucunu, Wakonyu KL, Misonge OJ. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya." The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. 2019;130(2019)(ISJN):1510-1531.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control …

Wamaitha MN, Mogoa EM, Mande JD. "Evaluation of anesthesia produced by ketofol in acepromazine-or medetomidine-sedated dogs." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research . 2019;6 (2):215-221.
M.Adwet W, J.Pant H, J.Mangala M, A.Masinza S. "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019;145:101-105.
Mundia J, Makunda C, Maina SM, Gachie SN. "An Evaluation of Interior Styles in the Serviced Apartment Sector in Nairobi." Africa Design Review Journal. 2019;1(1):54-73.
Mewa, E. A. OKRMWCN. "Experimental evaluation of beef drying kinetics in a solar tunnel dryer." Renewable Energy. 2019;139:235-241.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Karani R, Wamitila KW. "Exploring Equivalence as Measure of Skopos in Translation of Software Products: The Case of English to Kiswahili." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):1-16.
Henry M, Victor T, David K. "Factors Affecting Adoption Of Embryo Transfer Technology In Dairy Cattle In Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2019;5(8):456-463.mutembei-kios_2018.pdf
Onyango OS, Mukoya-Wangia SM, Kinama JM, Olet PA. "Factors affecting farmers’ Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis control methods in Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 2019;4(2)(ISSN):21-29.
Opiyo RO, Nyasulu PS, Olenja J, Zunza M, Nguyen KA, Bukania Z, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Were AO. "Factors associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis in national referral hospitals in Kenya: a mixed-methods survey." Renal Replacement Therapy Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adherence to dietary prescriptions among patients with chronic kidney disease is known to prevent
deterioration of kidney functions and slow down the risk for morbidity and mortality. This study determined factors
associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
Methods: A mixed-methods study, using parallel mixed design, was conducted at the renal clinics and dialysis units at
the national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya from September 2018 to January 2019. The study followed a
QUAN + qual paradigm, with quantitative survey as the primary method. Adult patients with chronic kidney disease on
hemodialysis without kidney transplant were purposively sampled for the quantitative survey. A sub-sample of
adult patients and their caregivers were purposively sampled for the qualitative survey. Numeric data were collected
using a structured, self-reported questionnaire using Open Data Kit “Collect software” while qualitative data were
collected using in-depth interview guides and voice recording. Analysis on STATA software for quantitative and
NVIV0 12 for qualitative data was conducted. The dependent variable, “adherence to diet prescription” was analyzed as a
binary variable. P values < 0.1 and < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant in univariate and multivariate logistic
regression models respectively. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed.
Results: Only 36.3% of the study population adhered to their dietary prescriptions. Factors that were independently
associated with adherence to diet prescriptions were “flexibility in the diets” (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11–6.30, P
0.028), “difficulties in following diet recommendations” (AOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13–0.46, P < 001), and “adherence
to limiting fluid intake” (AOR 9.74, 95% CI 4.90–19.38, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: For patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis, diet prescriptions with less restrictions
and requiring minimal extra efforts and resources are more likely to be adhered to than the restrictive ones.
Patients who adhere to their fluid intake restrictions easily follow their diet prescriptions. Prescribed diets should be based
on the individual patient’s usual dietary habits and assessed levels of challenges in using such diets. Additionally, diet
adherence messages should be integrated with fluid limitation messages. Further research on understanding patients’
adherence to fluid restriction is also suggested.

P. K, D. M, J. VL, G. G, J. M, S. M, L. H. "Factors associated with leg cleanliness of smallholder dairy herds in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2019;1(1):11-26.
Aciita PM, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya: A case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):82-103. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Provision of water services is squarely a devolved function and counties have the bigger role of ensuring their residents have access to clean and safe water. In this regard many strategies have been put in place to ensure water available is adequate. These efforts have faced a myriad of challenges which has greatly affected service delivery. Water is one of the most important natural resource and the availability of safe water is critical not just for health reasons, but also for social and economic development. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors influencing implementation of augmentation of water treatment projects by county government in Kenya; a case of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The specific objectives of this research project were to determine the influence of financial resources, leadership, staff competency and political factors on the augmentation of water treatment projects by county governments in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population was 135 management and heads of sections which included county executive committee members (CECM), Chief officers, county directors, MEWASS management/technical staff and Members of County Assemblies (MCA’s). The study adopted a census which allowed all the 135 respondents to participate in the study, however only 109 respondents returned their questionnaires representing an approximate response rate 81%. Data was collected using a questionnaire. To test reliability of this questionnaire Split half method was applied in Isiolo water and Sewerage Company.
Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and …

Majau DK, Wanjohi J. FACTORS INFLUENCING EMPLOYEE JOB PERFORMANCE IN COUNTY GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTAL PROJECTS: A CASE OF MERU COUNTY GOVERNMENT, KENYA.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

Description
This chapter presents summary of findings, discussion of the key findings, conclusions drawn from the findings, and recommendations.

Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Kirimi H, Wanjohi J. "Factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects: Case of Imenti North Sub County, Meru County." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):572-602. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Regarded as a frequent occurrence, disputes in construction projects occasioned by substandard communication of impractical clients’ expectations, defective works and delays in architectural designs significantly contribute to adverse effects on project results. Despite these and the numerous demerits linked to litigation majority of clients, contractors and construction consultants in Kenya still opt for it as opposed to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) approaches to resolve disputes in construction projects. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing use of alternative dispute resolution in construction projects in Imenti North Sub-County, Meru County, Kenya. In particular it examined the influence of: lack of awareness, preservation of business relationships, cost minimization and communication and documentation issues on the use of ADR in construction projects disputes. The research was guided by two theories; Theory of Planned Behavior and Transaction Cost Economics Theory and will be support by the Stair-Step Model of Dispute Resolution. The research embraced use of descriptive survey research design. Target population is of 255 respondents. The sample size was of 45 (n= 45), Contractors, 12 (n= 12) Consultants (Architectures, Quantity Surveyors and Structural Engineers) and Construction Projects Clients 75 (n= 75) that was singled out to take part in the investigation. Stratified sampling and Simple random sampling were made use of to pick the sampled subjects. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data in the study locale. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by employing SPSS …

Miriam, W, Musonye. "The Fanon Factor in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Children’s Fiction." Research in African Literatures. 2019;50(3):51-69.
Orono S, Gitao C, Mpatswenumugambo J, Chepkwony M, Mutisya C, Okoth E, Bronsvoort M, Russell C, Nene V, Cook A. "Field validation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis of wildebeest associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle." BMC Veterinary research . 2019;(doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1818-8).orono_et_al-2019-bmc_veterinary_research.pdf
Waris A. Financing Africa. Bamenda: Langaa; 2019. Abstract

Financing Africa's development requires ingenuity, discipline, and an understanding of fiscal
systems–the entirety of government revenues and expenditures, including taxation and debt.
This book makes fascinating what might seem at first glance complex. It describes diverse …

Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Cheng, Xu Ø, Evensen, Mutoloki. "First detection and isolation of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya." Journal of Fish Diseases . 2019;DOI 10.1111.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Xu C, Mulei IR, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "First detection and isolation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya. ." Journal of Fish Diseases. 2019;2019:1-8.
Gari la Maria. . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2019.
IJMwaniki. "Geometric Brownian Motion assumption and the generalized hyperbolic distribution on modeling returns." Journal of advances in applied mathematics. 2019;4 (3):103-111. AbstractWebsite

Generalized hyperbolic distribution and some of its subclasses like normal, hyperbolic and variance gamma distributions are used to fit daily log returns of eight listed companies in Nairobi Securities Exchange and Montréal Exchange. EM-based maximum likelihood estimation procedure is used to estimate parameters of the model. Kernel densities and empirical distribution of data are compared. The goodness of fit statistics of proposed distributions are used to measure how well model fits the data. Empirical results show that Generalized hyperbolic Distribution seems to improve partially, the geometric Brownian assumption on modeling returns of the underlying process, both in a developed and emerging market. Both markets seem to have different stochastic time

Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Odida J, Custodio E. "Groundwater hydrodynamics of an Eastern Africa coastal aquifer during the recent La Niña 2016-17 drought." Science of The Total Environment. 2019;661:575-597. AbstractWebsite

In 2016–17 much of East Africa was affected by a severe drought which has been attributed to Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions. Extreme events such as this have immediate and knock-on effects on water availability for household, agricultural and industrial use. Groundwater resources can provide a buffer in times of drought, but may themselves be stressed by reduced recharge and increased usage, posing significant challenges to groundwater resource management. In the context of East Africa, groundwater management is also hampered by a lack of information on aquifer characteristics. With the aim of addressing this knowledge gap, this study shows the hydrogeological behaviour before and during La Niña 2016/17 drought in southern coastal Kenya on a groundwater system which sits within a geological structure which is representative of an important portion of the East African coast. Diverse hydrochemical and isotopic campaigns, as well as groundwater head variation measurements, were carried out to study the groundwater hydrodynamics and thus characterize the aquifer system under climatic conditions before and during the La Niña event. This information is complemented with an estimation of changes in local recharge since 2012 using local data sets. The main consequence of the drought was a 69% reduction of recharge compared to an average climatic year. There was reduced recharge during the first rainy season (April–June) and no recharge during the second wet season (October–December). There was a concurrent increase in seawater intrusion even during the wet season.

Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

HM M, OL O, LC A. Guide to Clinical and Practical Laboratory Procedures in Theriogenology. Ibadan: Scholarship Books; 2019.
Ndinya FO, Kayima JK, Magabe PC, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Odinya GO. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Nephrology. 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise.
Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related
morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal
management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention
must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients
undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates,
urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.
Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48%
achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88%
and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow
rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5%
and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not
haemodynamically significant.
Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered
dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis
dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine
surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Health Research Ethics Training Manual. Springer Publishers; 2019.
Bebora LC, Gathumbi PK, Muchemi GM, Gakuya FM, Manyibe TN, Kariuki EK, Ngatia TA, Maina EW. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2019;55(1):123-128.abstract.pdf
Nyariki TM, Gathumbi PK, Bebora LC, Muchemi GM, Ngatia TA. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-Ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases.. 2019;55(1):123-128.
Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK. "Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Sprague Dawley Rats." BioRxiv. 2019:577-607. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome recognized as the most prevalent chronic liver disease across all age groups. NFLD is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Extensive research efforts are geared, through pharmacological approach, towards preventing or reversing this. Erythrina abyssinica Lam ex DC is an indigenous tree used widely used in traditional medicine, including for the treatment of liver related diseases, and has been shown to possess hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-plasmodia effects. The present study is aimed at establishing the effects of E. abyssinica on the development of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet in rats, in-vivo model. Methods: Forty rats (40) were randomly divided into five groups: positive control (pioglitazone), Negative control (high fat/high sugar diet), low test dose (200 mg/kg), high test dose (400 mg/kg) and normal group (standard chow pellets and fresh water). The inhibitory effect of the stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on the development of NAFLD was evaluated by chronic administration the herb extracts to rats on a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Biochemical indices of hepatic function including serum lipid profile, serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were then determined. Histological analysis of liver samples was carried out to quantify the degree of steato-hepatitis. Liver weights were taken and used to determine the hepatic index. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey9s post-hoc tests

Ndwigah SN. "Herbal medicines require regulation like conventional medicines." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya. 2019;24:20.
"Historically Grounded Symbolism and the Thematic Lacuna in Translation: The Translation of Treasure Island into Kiswahili as Kisiwa Chenye Hazina, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 3, (Na.1, April 2019, ):Pages 163-194, .
R. TRBO &. "Housing clusters and typologies in the slums: a case of Korogocho slum Nairobi, Kenya. ." (http://ijcrs.org/issue-details/171. 2019;Vol. 3(No. 2):171.
Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Katuva J, et al. "How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya?" Science of the Total Environment. 2019;694:133634. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

The industrialization process taking place in Africa has led to an overall increase in groundwater abstraction in most countries in the continent. However, the lack of hydrogeological data, as in many developing countries, makes it difficult to properly manage groundwater systems. This study presents a real case study in which a combination of different hydrogeological tools together with different sources of information allow the assessment of how increased competition for water may be affecting groundwater systems by analysing the sustainability of new abstraction regimes under different real climatic condition (before, during and after La Niña 2016). The area where this approach has been applied is Kwale County (in Coastal Kenya) in a hydrogeological context representative of an important part of the east coast of the continent, where new mining and agriculture activities co-exist with tourism and local communities. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information. Most of the time, water-reliant users collect specific hydrogeological information that can contribute to defining the overall hydrogeological system, since their own main purpose is to exploit the aquifer with the maximum productivity. Therefore, local community water usage, together with different stakeholder's knowledge and good corporate water management act as a catalyst for providing critical data, and allows the generation of credible models for future groundwater management and resource allocation. Furthermore, complementary but simple information sources such as in situ interviews, Google Earth, Trip Advisor and easy-to use analytical methods that can be applied in the African context as in many developing countries, and enables groundwater abstraction to be estimated and the sustainability of the aquifer system to be defined, allowing potential future risks to be assessed.

Gitao, C.G., Orono, S, Cook, A. How to Diagnose Malignant Catarrhal fever and views from Pastoralists. Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2019.978-620-0-10122-8_coverpreview_2.pdf
Dr. Kamenju J. https://mukuyu.wordpress.com.; 2019.
Obiero JPO, Marenya MO, Nkuna TR. "Hydrologic response modelling in Lutanandwa river catchment, Limpopo, South Africa, using Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment (JEAE). 2019;Volume 5.(No1. 2019):1-13.
Yohannis MA. ICTS As A Bridge Between Climate Information And Livelihood Strategies Among Rural Women In Kitui County, Kenya.; 2019. Abstract

The study was motivated by the increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change, which create problems, such as food insecurity in Kitui County in Kenya. In the current digital age, ICTs are core to all sectors to facilitate access to and enhance efficiency across various services. Although the role of ICTs in improving life in Kenya is widely acknowledged, the focus of most ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human life. This study, therefore, investigated the various scenarios where ICTs were deployed in relaying relevant localized climate information to help rural women farmers in Kitui County to make relevant decisions to improve their farm productivity and their livelihoods by extension. The study incorporated an ICT system to the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) that consisted of Digital Capital and ICT Tools, thereby improving on the SLF. This modified SLF, mainstreamed ICT-driven climate information and provided the ideal means by which such information was leveraged to ensure enhanced sustainable livelihoods. Gender and Development (GAD) theory, Bourdieu’s ideas of social capital theory, and the Information Needs Assessment Model (INAM) further strengthened the SLF by addressing household power dynamics and climate information relevance in the rural communities. The research drew from emerging variables to demonstrate that regardless of the context in which the SLF was formulated, its versatility makes it the most appropriate tool for such studies in rural Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to assess the extent to which rural women access and use ICT tools in the utilization of climate information including weather, seasonal forecasts and agro-advisories; (2) to analyze the extent to which the use of ICT-based climate information by rural women influence maximize access and utilization of livelihood assets; and (3) to examine the livelihood strategies employed with the increasing availability and use of ICT-based climate information. The author adopted a mixed-methods approach for data collection and analysis that was guided by the SLF. Specific methods used, apart from on-desk review, were a household survey of 419 respondents, 14 key informant interviews, and two focus group discussions. The study merged theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory and practice of ICTs use while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The outcome from the research findings highlighted the need for interventions to empower rural women in the use of ICT tools in exploiting the full potential of climate information, the need for tailoring modern scientific climate information to local needs, translated into simple formats and the local Kikamba language, the need for complementary services such as affordable credit, insurance, livelihood diversification opportunities and access to livelihood assets that can further strengthen their household resilience to climate variability. The results show that community radios combined with mobile phones are the most accessible and cost-effective ICT tools for rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information. There is evidence that the women’s livelihood strategies have been enhanced which strengthened their livelihood assets, thereby improving their livelihoods under the wider rubric of the sustainable livelihood framework. The contribution to knowledge for this research was an enhanced SLF where the various responses and systematic analysis made the framework relevant in gaining insights into the link between climate information and livelihood strategies through ICTs among women in ii rural communities in Kitui. The modified framework and the research findings are also timely in light of the increasing realization of ICTs potential in contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Also, the thesis builds on the growing body of literature that generated a rich repository that other researchers can use to advance knowledge, and the outcomes are eight peer-reviewed articles. The output of this study is replicable to other counties in Kenya because rural households depend on agriculture for their livelihood and this economic sector is not exempt to climate change and variability necessitating the need for local specific climate information. The recommendations to the research are that it can be extended to examine outcomes that will look at improved income, sustainable resource utilization, and food security, physical and emotional wellbeing. Further we provide policy recommendations and made suggestions to shape future climate change adaptation policies, plans, and strategies in Kenya that integrates gender equality into ICT and climate change to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability for sustainable development. Keywords: ICT Tools; Digital Capital; Climate Information; Enhanced Sustainable livelihood Framework; Livelihood Strategies

Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Impact of Climate Change and Hydropower Development on the Community Livelihoods in the Sondu Miriu River Basin." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation . 2019;VI(III):13-20.
JM.Kivai, Kayima JK, Were AO, Q.Zahida. "Impact of Pregnancy Related Acute Kidney Injury on foetalsurvival: a single Centre Experience in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2019;18(7):13-17. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) is a heterogenous obstetric
complication, which can occur at any stage during pregnancy and in postpartumperiod. It often impacts
negatively on foetaloutcomes.
Objective: To determine impact of PRAKI on foetal outcomes at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi.
Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with viable pregnancies, gestation age equal to, or
above 28 weeks and postpartum women within six weeks after delivery admitted in labour ward or the postnatal
wards at KNH. The study started afterit was approved by the KNH- University of Nairobi Ethics and
Research Committee.Patient management was at the discretion of attending clinician.Data was obtained
fromthe participants and their medical records. Followupwas until dischargeor for a maximum of two weeksfor
those who remained in the wards.
Results: Total participantswere 66 out of2068 admissions. Their mean age was 28years with peak age between
26-30 years.The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. Sixty (91%) participants weredelivered andsix pregnancies
were ongoing past the follow-up period.The average gestation age at birth was 35 weeks. Forty-three (71.7%)
were life infants while 17(28.3%) were fresh still births. Comparing between participant women with PRAKI
and women without PRAKI, the ratio of fresh still births among participants was 1:4 and the ratio of fresh still
births among women without PRAKI was 1 in 23deliveries.
Conclusion: Wetherefore demonstrate that pregnancy related acute kidney injury was associated with a six (6)
fold increase in fresh still births at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya.
Key Words: PRAKI, KNH, Preterm births,Fresh still births,Nairobi, Kenya

Okech C, Ndolo J, Nyandega I, Ang'u C. "Impact of rainfall variability on surface water resources in Homa Bay county, Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(3):84-90.
Ali FA, Ongeri BO. "Impact of refugee influx in east African Community-An exploratory analysis." Global Journal of Contemporary Research in Accounting, Auditing and Business Ethics. 2019;GJCRA .
Wandiga SO, Bola OT. "Impact of Renewable Technology on Lignocellulosic Material of Palm Fruit Fibre: Strategy for Climate Change and Adaptation.". 2019:175-201. AbstractWebsite

This study aims to explore low temperature and pressure to extract the lignocellulosic content of palm fruit fibre and pyrolyse it for energy (bio-oil) and chemical feedstock productions as alternative technology to improper disposal causing environmental pollution as strategies for climate change and adaptation. Design/Methodology/Approach: Burning of refuse and agricultural residue releases harmful gases or carbon emission to the climate which causes global warming. Renewable technology can therefore be introduced to utilize agricultural residues to produce energy and chemical feedstock. Vacuum pyrolysis of the lignocellulosic material prepared from palm fruit fibre was performed by considering pyrolysis temperature of 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 °C and biomass particle size of 0.25, 0.30, 0.42 and 0.55 mm. The bio-oil produced at different process parameters was then characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultimate analysis. The response was efficiently used for modelling and optimization of the process parameters. The results showed that experimented and predicted data are in reasonable agreement with the values of coefficient of determination, R2 (0.8098) and Adj. R2 (0.700). Findings: It was found that the optimal conditions for pyrolytic product were temperature 300 °C, biomass particle size 0.55 mm and retention time between 14 and 18 min. Temperature and particle size had effect on the yielded gaseous products, liquid and char materials. And various chemical compounds were produced at different process parameters. Research Limitation/Implications: The contribution of renewable technology framework is a process of educating for climate stewardship, at this stage of practical and theoretical. It is good approach of converting residues to useful products as one of the ways of solving climate change problem with the relevant stakeholders that its true potential can be assessed. Social Implications: Educating the public for climate stewardship will be more effective if it adopts an approach which seeks a co-production of knowledge. Clean environment with less global warming will be attained. Originality/Value: This agricultural residue can be recommended for biofuel, biogas and used as chemical feedstock for industrial purpose. The char can also be used to increase soil organic components. These benefits can therefore be used for policy making on residue disposal and as strategy for climate change and adaptation or mitigation in Nigeria and other African countries.

Mutuku, J., Nzuma, M.J., Irungu P. "Impact of World Food Programmer’s (WFP) Purchase for Progress (P4P) Pilot Project on Farm Incomes in Kenya. Case of Uasin Gishu and Narok Counties." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2019;7(1):797-808.
Ojwang BO, Musau PM, Omondi HA. "Implementation of HVDC Technology with Technical Challenges for Economic Dispatch.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.implementation_of_hvdc_technology_with_technical_challenges_for_economic_dispatch.pdf
Chimoita EL. Improved Sorghum Variety: A Forgotten Gold in the Kenyan Drylands. CAVS University of Nairobi Kenya: ILRIAgricFose2030; 2019.
Musau PM, Ojwang BO, Kiprotich M. "Improving Frequency Stability for Renewable Energy Power Plants with Disturbances.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.improving_frequency_stability_for_renewable_energy_power_plants_with_disturbances.pdf
Onyango DW, Midiwo JO. "In vivo Evaluation of Anti-malarial Activity of Stem and Root Extracts of Erythrina abyssinica." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2019;27(4): Page: 1-5. Abstract

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-malarial activity of stem and root extracts of E. abyssinica using the 4-day suppressive in vivo anti-malarial test.
Methodology: Female mice weighing approximately 20±2 g were intra-peritoneally injected with mice passaged Plasmodium berghei parasites. The extracts were then administered orally 2 h post-infection and, subsequently, daily for 4 days. On the 4 th day, blood smears were prepared from all the mice, stained with giemsa and parasitaemia as well as chemosuppression determined.
Results: Comparatively, the root extracts exhibited higher chemosuppression than stem extracts and the level of chemosuppression was dose dependent being the highest at 50 mg/kg and lowest at 12.5 mg/kg. Survival time in extract treated and chloroquine treated groups was 2 to 3 fold higher than the–ve control.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the root extracts are more efficacious in suppressing the development of full blown malaria compared to stem extracts and may be a useful candidate in managing malaria in future.

Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

Mang’eni, B. K., Migosi J. "Influence of Communication Systems on Performance of Contractors in Building Public Projects in Pokot Central Sub County, West Pokot County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2019;7(8):50-53.
Chepkonga DS, Kinanu T. "Influence of Financial Corporate Governance Practices on School Development in Primary Schools in Igembe South Sub County." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):16.
Kipyesang E, Migosi J. "Influence of Human Resources on Hotel Performance in Kitale Municipality Trans Nzoia County." International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research. 2019;3(12):81-87.
OKOTH A A, OLUOCH M F. "Influence of Performance Appraisal on Motivation of Public Secondary School Teachers in Gem-Sub County, Kenya." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2019;9(4):doi:10.30845/aijcr.v9n4p5.
Mutende RA;, Akala WJ, Imonje RK. "Influence of Preservice Teacher Learning on the Application of Laboratory Experiment Teaching Method ." Journal of Education and Practice . 2019;10(18).
Mulwa, J.K. AKWJ & JM. "Influence of Principals’ use of Collaborative Decision Making on Students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2019;7(1):220-240.
m O. "Influence of Secondary School Rugby Playing Experience on Talent Identification for Players in Rugby Clubs in Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) . 2019.
Tallam D, Migosi J. "Influence of Seismic Survey Activities on the Environment in Soy North Ward, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2019;7(8):70-74.
Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR, Khan ZR. "Influence of socio‐economic and agronomic factors on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;00:1-11.
Lolly Patrick Osendo, Wanjala UAOG &. "Influence of teacher performance appraisal on job performance in public primary schools in Mumias East sub county, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2019;6(5).
Osendo, L.P., Wanjala, G., Okoth UA. "Influence of Teacher Performance Appraisal on Job Performance in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2019;6(5):29-43.abstract1.pdf
Omare, E., Nyagah G, Imonje RK. "Influence of Teacher Self-Efficacy on Transfer of Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) Pedagogical Skills in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (IJHSS); . 2019;8(4).
S.; WN, Imonje RK, Akala WJ. "Influence of teaching experience on pupils’ performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Examination in English subject in Kenya." Journal of Research & Method in Education. 2019;9(3):24-30.
Waweru JN, Odenyo F. "Innovative content Delivery for library patron 2.0.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Mary Mwangi, Nathan Gichuki RCPN. "Insights into the diet and feeding behaviour of Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea (Aves: Passeriformes: Alaudidae)." Journal of Threatened Taxa. 2019;11(6):13727-13733.
Kovacic Z, Musango JK, Ambole LA, Buyana K, Smit S, Anditi C, Mwau B, Ogot M, Lwasa S, Brent AC, others. "Interrogating differences: A comparative analysis of Africa’s informal settlements." World Development. 2019;122:614-627. Abstract

Urban development in Africa is a very diverse and ambivalent phenomenon with aspects that do not fall neatly into global standards. Informal settlements therefore challenge governance by standards. We argue that quantifying and interrogating differences offers a better basis for governance. By drawing on a comparative analysis of three different informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa, this paper explores what differences reveal about the governance of informal settlements. The paper uses an urban societal metabolism approach, focussed on gender, energy and health, based on questionnaires and focus group discussions in Enkanini (Stellenbosch, South Africa), Mathare (Nairobi, Kenya), and Kasubi-Kawaala (Kampala, Uganda). The contribution of the paper is both empirical and theoretical. Empirically, we provide new evidence about the metabolism of urban informality at multiple levels of analysis: the individual, the household and the settlement. Findings show the gender asymmetries in urban poverty and the intricate links between energy choices, health and economic status. Theoretically, we argue that different levels of analysis produce different understandings of urban informality, and that analyzing informal settlements only by population aggregates means missing information. We conclude by arguing that understanding differences leads to the formulation of modest and localised goals, which are better able to take into account the complexity of urban informality.

LUMUMBA W, OLUOCH M F. "Intrinsic Reward and Organization Performance at Vihiga County Government, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). 2019;3(11):ISSN 2454-6186.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Aseta, A. "Is the type of agricultural extension services a determinant of farm diversity? Evidence from Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):40-46.
Umar M, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Kamau Mũtitũ-inĩ . London: Salaam Publishing; 2019.
Umar M, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Kamau Werũ-inĩ wa Mũthanga . London: Salaam Publishing; 2019.
John Habwe & J. Omboga Zaja. Kamusi ya Isimu na Fasihi. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2019.
M M, LZ M, J F, GM E, E R, R N, J T, DH M, Nyagol J, F W, AK B, M B, JG O. "Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable for Infection of Epithelial, Endothelial, and Fibroblast Cell Types." J Virol.. 2019;93(16).
Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Nic Cheeseman, Karuti Kanyinga GLMRJW&. "Kenya’s 2017 elections: winner-takes-all politics as usual.". 2019.
A.W N, J.A O, D.O O, S C. "Khat (Catha edulis) Addiction, effects on general body health and interventional remedial measures.". In: Drug Abuse: Addiction and Recovery Volume 1 Chapter 4. Open access e-books; 2019.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili kama Lugha Changizi: Uchambuzi wa kifonolojia wa Maneno Yaliyokopeshwa Lugha ya Kikikuyu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Kiswahili Journal of Moi University. . 2019;4( 1):45-59.
Kiti Mikaye. . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 2019.
Lockwood NM, Lypen K, Shalabi F, Kumar M, Ngugi E, Diener L, GW. H. "'Know that You are not Alone.' Influences of Social Support on Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Kibera, Kenya: A Qualitative Study Informing Intervention Development." Int J Environ Res Public Health.. 2019; 4;(16(5):. pii: E775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050775.
“Bahemuka MJ”, “Kivuva J”, “Michuki G”. Knowledge for Wealth Creation: A Kenyan Perspective. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2019.
Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
and Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga GGLMOJMJGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
JM Schoorl, A Veldkamp, L Claessens, JR Wijbrans, Olago DO, Lievens C. "Late Quaternary lahars and lava dams: Fluvial responses of the Upper Tana River (Kenya)." Geomorphology. 2019;341:28-45. Abstractlate_quaternery.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Geomorphological and sedimentary records near the confluences of the Tana River and major tributaries draining the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya and the Nyambeni Range, indicate impacts of Late Quaternary volcanic activity in their fluvial records. The main reconstructed event was triggered by a 366.9 ka basalt flow (40Ar/39Ar dated) which flowed along Kazita River from the Nyambeni Range blocking both Kazita River and Tana River near Kibuka Grand Falls, causing a temporary lake. Consequently, Tana River and Kazita River started to build volcanoclastic Gilbert type deltas. The preserved pro-delta sediments rich in trachytic pumice fragments display a mineralogical and age match with known Ithanguni trachytic tuffs, indicating delta build up right after a contemporary Ithanguni eruption. This trachytic eruption caused the deposition of lahars and fluvial volcaniclastic sediments in all river records draining the Eastern side of Mt. Kenya. The multiple lahars seem to be triggered by eruptions under glacial conditions (basalt age indicates MIS 10). The lava dammed lake was only short lived (estimated to have lasted only a few years to decades) and breached before a complete lake infill could occur. The current Kibuka Grand Falls can be viewed as the delayed incisional response of this lava dam breach, indicating that after >366.9 ka, Tana River is still responding and adjusting to this short-lived disruptive phase. The current Kazita River has re-incised adjacent to a MIS 4 basalt flow down into the crystalline Basement System rocks. The MIS 10 pre-volcanic sedimentary record indicates that more sediments were in the fluvial system during glacial conditions than during the interglacial conditions. An implication of our reconstruction is that the Late Quaternary fluvial record of Tana River is of only limited use to reconstruct uplift rates because reconstructed Quaternary incision rates are reflecting both volcanic disruptions as climate change trends of aridification and decreasing glaciation extents.

SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Literature as Medium for Moral Instruction: A Swahili/ Islamic Analysis of Ahmad Nassir's Utenzi wa Mtu ni Utu." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2019;Volume 4(1):17-30.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Makanji N. "Lugha-Kati kama Mchakato wenye Manufaa: Kifani cha Matumizi ya Kiswahili na Wazungumzaji wa Kikisa kama Lugha ya Kwanza." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):114-128.
Njeru GW, Maina SM, Munene M. "Mainstreaming “Adaptive Standards for Multi-Purpose Interior Design In Low-Cost Housing Projects: A Case Study of the Kibera Soweto East Housing Project in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development . 2019;8(DOI No.: 10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i10/OCT19076).
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, ABINYA N, Khainga S. "Management of Maxillofacial Osteosarcomas: A Kenyan experience (case series)." Annuals of African Surgery Journal. 2019.
"Masculine and Feminine Constructions of Migration in Swahili Literature: Mbali na Nyumbani and Mhanga Nafsi Yangu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 4, (Na.1, September 2019, ):Pages 235-258, .
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, NGANGA P. "Maxillary Alveolar cleft grafting in cleft lip and palate: Options of bone graft and soft tissue coverage." Kenya Dental Association Journal. 2019.
wa Mutiso K. "Mchango wa Wanawake wa Kiswahili katika Uongozi, Dini na Ushairi ." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2019;3(1):1-26.
Ambole A, Musango JK, Buyana K, Ogot M, Anditi C, Mwau B, Kovacic Z, Smit S, Lwasa S, Nsangi G, others. "Mediating household energy transitions through co-design in urban Kenya, Uganda and South Africa." Energy Research & Social Science. 2019;55:208-217. Abstract

Approaches to providing sustainable energy in cities have generated considerable interest in academic and policy circles. The development of this body of work, however, has not shed much light on the modes of intermediation that are needed to reconfigure urban energy systems towards sustainability in energy-poor countries. This paper focuses on the role of academics as knowledge intermediaries who can trigger cross-sector collaborations around innovations for a sustainable energy transition in African cities. The research presented here was generated by an interdisciplinary research team made up of partners in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The research partners set out to better understand how sustainable energy transitions can be achieved through collaborative efforts between community members, experts and policy actors in the three countries. This paper provides evidence-based reflections on how the research partners used participatory methods to facilitate solution co-design and knowledge co-production over a period of two years under the Leading Integrated Research for Agenda 2030 in Africa (LIRA 2030) program. A key knowledge outcome of the research partnership is an improved understanding of how transdisciplinary research across the sub-region can be used to unearth the socio-spatial, cultural and political dimensions of energy in relation to other urban services such as health and housing. Based on this understanding, the paper proposes transdisciplinary co-design as a promising approach to providing sustainable energy in urban informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Minnaard W, Abuga K, Okungu V, Kibwage I. "Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in private health facilities in low-income settlements in Nairobi county, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(2):40. Abstract

Medicine prices are a major determinant of access to healthcare. Owing to low availability of medicines in the public health facilities and poor accessibility to these facilities, most low-income residents pay out-of-pocket for health services and transport to the private health facilities. In low-income settlements, high retail prices are likely to push the population further into poverty and ill health. This study assessed the retail pricing, availability, and affordability of medicines in private health facilities in low-income settlements within Nairobi County. Medicine prices and availability data were collected between September and December 2016 at 45 private healthcare facilities in 14 of Nairobi’s low-income settlements using electronic questionnaires. The International Medical Products Price Guide provided international medicine reference prices for comparison. Affordability and availability proxies were calculated according to existing methods. Innovator brands were 13.8 times more expensive than generic brands. The lowest priced generics and innovator brands were, on average, sold at 2.9 and 32.6 times the median international reference prices of corresponding medicines. Assuming a 100% disposable income, it would take 0.03 to 1.33 days’ wages for the lowest paid government employee to pay for treatment courses of selected single generic medicines. Medicine availability in the facilities ranged between 2% and 76% (mean 43%) for indicator medicines. Prices of selected medicines varied within the 14 study regions. Retail medicine prices in the low-income settlements studied were generally higher than corresponding international reference prices. Price variations were observed across different regions although the regions comprise similar socioeconomic populations. These factors are likely to impact negatively on healthcare access.

Muthoni KC. "Mental Health and Education in Kenya.Addressing Mental Health Problems through Schools." Journal in Humanities and Social Science. 2019;24(3).
Ndungu MN, Marete GR. "Metaphorical Construction and Mappings at the Kiswahili Word Level." Jakiiki (Jarida La Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu. 2019;Toleo Maalum (1):18-36 .
Ndungu MN, Habwe JH. "Metaphorical Construction of Kiswahili Compound and Complex Clauses." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;4(1):105-128.
Ndungu MN, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Metonymical Interpretation of Conceptual Mappings in Kiswahili Metonymy." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;Special Edition(1):25-38.
KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. Abstractjwarp_2019042514420797.pdfWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Opiyo, P., Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya. ." Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2019;11:404-418.
I.M M, D.M K, J. W, S. M. "Microbial Quality and Safety of Traditional Fermented Camel Milk Product Suusac Sampled from Different Regions in North Eastern, Kenya." Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;v8i229986(DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v8i229986).
Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo RM, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Microbial source tracking using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing identifies evidence of widespread contamination from young children’s feces in an urban slum of Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental science & technology. 2019;53(14):8271-8281. AbstractEnvironmental science &amp; technology

Description
Child exposure to fecal contamination remains common in low- and middle-income countries after sanitation interventions. Unsafe disposal of children’s feces may contribute to this continued exposure, but its relative importance to domestic fecal contamination is not well understood. To address this gap, we interviewed and collected environmental samples (drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, surfaces, soil, open drainage ditches, standing water, streams) from 40 households in Kibera, an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. To track young children’s feces (<3 years old) separately from other human-associated fecal sources, we validated distance-based and Bayesian (SourceTracker) microbial source tracking methods using amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Contamination by young children’s feces could be identified and distinguished separately from older child/adult feces with high …

Serem EK, Abuom TO, Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Kirui GK, Mbuthia PG. "Microcardia Associated with Traumatic Reticulo Pericarditis (TRP) In an Adult Female Ayrshire Cow A Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(2):73-78.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019:doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.
IJMwaniki. "Modeling heteroscedastic, skewed and leptokurtic returns in discrete time." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2019;9(5):1-14. AbstractWebsite

Popular models of finance, fall short of accounting for most empirically found stylized features of financial time series data, such as volatility clustering, skewness and leptokurtic nature of log returns. In this study, we propose a general framework for modeling asset returns which account for serial dependencies in higher moments and leptokurtic nature of scaled GARCH filtered residuals. Such residuals are calibrated to normal inverse Gaussian and hyperbolic distribution. Dynamics of risky assets assumed in Black Scholes model, Duans GARCH model and other benchmark models for contract valuation, are shown to be nested in the the proposed framework

Isinta, H, Aduda J, Magutu P. "The Moderating Effect of Sales Channels on the Relationship between Bancassurance and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2019;8(2):41-54 .
E Mulinge, SM Njenga OD, Magambo J. "Molecular identification of zoonotic hookworms in dogs from four counties of Kenya." Journal of helminthology. 2019:1-8.
L M, MR A, F R, L DP, R G, V M, M G, B JR, C L, S B, Onyango N, Nyagol J, N A, M N, I N, K P, P PP, R B, de MM S, RB R, S L, R S, H S, Leoncini L. "Molecular switch from MYC to MYCN expression in MYC protein negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Blood Cancer J.. 2019;9(12).
Adeka R, Lukhoba C, Odhiambo J, Maundu P. "Morphological Traits as Indicators of Bitterness in Traditional Vegetables: The Case of Spider Plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) in Kenya." Asian Journal of Research in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-15.
"Motifu ya safari katika kazi za M.S. Mohammed.". In: Mwanga wa Lugha. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
OKOTH V A, OLUOCH M F. "Motivation and Employee Performance at Avenue Hospital Kisumu County- Kenya." Business Management Dynamics. 2019;9(5):20-36.
Gichuyia LN. "NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE.". In: NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press ; 2019.
Jerono P. "Names and Naming System of Tugen ." International Journal of Linguistics & Communication . 2019;7(1):10-16.
Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "A note on isomorphy and unitary isomorphy of Hilbert space frames." International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology(IJMTT). 2019;65(1):15-30.
Gichuyia LN, Madette E. "OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS.". In: OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS. Rotterdam, Netherlands: OMA/AMO Press; 2019.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Frank T. Wiggers IM. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia Africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):91-95.rahab_et_al_2019_pharmacognosy.pdf
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Wiggers FT, Muhammad I. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(6):91-95. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Treatment of microbial infections has become complicated
due to increased resistance of microbes to the current drugs. The current
study investigates crude extracts and seven compounds from root and
stem bark of Cordia africana Lam. for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.
Methods: Extraction was done using 50% methanol in dichloromethane,
followed by chromatographic separation of compounds, whose structures
were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The in vitro
susceptibility of selected microbes to the crude extracts and pure compounds was determined. Cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 was determined against
the drug sensitive, CCRF-CEM and resistant CEM/ADR-5000 cells, with
doxorubicin used as the standard. Results: The root bark extract of
C. africana yielded six known compounds: oleanolic acid (1), 3-β-lup-20(29)-
en-3-ol (2) stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol (3), 2-(2Z) -(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta2,6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- benzaldehyde (5)
and 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone (6). The stem bark extract resulted to
1 and 2 alongside, ubiquinone-8 (7) and 1-octacosanol (8). Compound 1
showed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecium (IC50 of 14.44 µg/
mL), with vancomycin being inactive. Compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cell
viability >50% against CEM/ADR5000 and CCRF-CEM cells at 10 µM and
therefore were considered inactive. Surprisingly, 1 was relatively more active compared to the standard, with cell viability of 57.93% against CEM/
ADR5000, versus 78.97% for doxorubicin. Conclusion: To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first report of the eight compounds from C. africana.
The cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 are reported here for the first time. Traditional
use of the plant extract in management of various infections may be attributed to presence of 1, which displayed moderate antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Cordia africana, Ubiquinone-8, Oleanolic acid acid, 7-hydroxy4′-methoxyisoflavone, VRE.
Correspondence:
Rahab W. Kamau
Department of Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100-Kakamega, KENYA.

Ongaro J. "On a Zeuthen-type problem." arXiv preprint arXiv. 2019. Abstract1903.11135.pdfWebsite

We show that every degree d meromorphic function on a smooth connected projective curve C⊂P2 of degree d>4 is isomorphic to a linear projection from a point p∈P2∖C to P1. We then pose a Zeuthen-type problem for calculating the plane Hurwitz numbers.

IJMwaniki. "On Heteroscedastic, Skewed and Leptokurtic Log Returns and Spectral Density of Standardized Residuals." Journal of Advances in Economics and Finance. 2019;4 (May 2019):79-90. AbstractWebsite

A search for a distribution which adequately describes the dynamics of log returns has been a subject of study for many years. Empirical evidence has resulted in stylized facts of returns. Arguably, in this study, the three components of returns, mean equation part, the changing variance. part and the resulting residuals are determined and their corresponding parameters estimated within the proposed framework. Spectral density analysis is used to trace the seasonality component.
inherent in the standardized residuals. Empirical data sets from eight different indexes and common
stock are applied to the model, and results tabulated in support of the resulting framework.

IJMwaniki. "On long-term-memory volatility and asymmetry in TOP40 and NSE20 index log returns." ECONOMICS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCE. 2019. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates the presence of long term memory of returns in south African and Kenyan financial markets over a period 1995-2010. Empirical results indicate significant presence of linear autocorrelation of order three for NSE20 index and autocorrelation of order one for TOP40 index. There is strong evidence of changing variance for both indices in addition to more autocorrelation between absolute returns for both markets. Theoretical autocorrelation function is fitted and parameters estimated. Different ARCH type models are conditioned on normal distribution and A-PGARCH model based on absolute daily returns seems to significantly outperform four other models (TGARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M and GJR-GARCH) in modeling the changing variance and volatility asymmetry in the two emerging markets.

Omondi F, Mostarda L, Shah P, Ever E, Gemikonakli O. "On the performance, availability and energy consumption modelling of clustered IoT systems." Springer Link Computing. 2019;101(12):1935-1970. Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form a large part of the ecosystem of the Internet of Things (IoT), hence they have numerous application domains with varying performance and availability requirements. Limited resources that include processing capability, queue capacity, and available energy in addition to frequent node and link failures degrade the performance and availability of these networks. In an attempt to efficiently utilise the limited resources and to maintain the reliable network with efficient data transmission; it is common to select a clustering approach, where a cluster head is selected among the diverse IoT devices. This study presents the stochastic performance as well as the energy evaluation model for WSNs that have both node and link failures. The model developed considers an integrated performance and availability approach. Various duty cycling schemes within the medium-access control of the WSNs are also considered to incorporate the impact of sleeping/idle states that are presented using analytical modeling. The results presented using the proposed analytical models show the effects of factors such as failures, various queue capacities and system scalability. The analytical results presented are in very good agreement with simulation results and also present an important fact that the proposed models are very useful for identification of thresholds between WSN system characteristics.

Mutembei. "One-health concerns over Antimicrobial Resistance." One-health Conference, Kampala, Uganda; 2019.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract144205-350530-1-sm.pdfWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

NDUNG’U GM, Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Onyango JF. "Paediatric Craniomaxillofacial Trauma at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A 6-months study of Occurrence Pattern." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2019;2 (6):14-20.
and Kyule LNM. "Parenting dilemma: Kenyan experience." Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2019;6(6):59-61.
Daniel Nthiwa, Silvia Alonso DO, Eucharia Kenya BB. "A participatory epidemiological study of major cattle diseases amongst Maasai pastoralists living in wildlife-livestock interfaces in Maasai Mara, Kenya." Tropical animal health and production. 2019:1-7.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, P.N N, Mutinda WU, Njagi LW. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;18(11):523-529.abstract.pdf
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious bursal disease virus isolates in indigenous chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;2019.
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;18(11):523-529.
Alexander O’o J, Shitandi OB, Kerubuo MM, Ngure KB. "Pattern of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital." Malawi Medical Journal . 2019;31(1):50-55. Abstractpattern_of_stroke_in_a_rural_kenyan_hospital.pdfCC BY-NC-ND

Background
The pattern of stroke in rural population differs from that in urban ones. Although there are many studies on this condition in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies about stroke pattern in a Kenyan rural area exist.. This study therefore aims at describing the characteristics of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital.
Patients and Methods
The study was conducted on 227 consecutive patients admitted with a World Health Organization (WHO) diagnosis of stroke in Kangundo Hospital, a level IV facility in Machakos, Eastern Kenya, between April 2015 and September 2016. The sub-type and anatomical distribution of stroke as well as the age, gender of the patients were recorded prospectively. Diagnosis was made through physical neurological examination and confirmed by Computerized Tomography (CT) scan imaging. Only those with complete bio-data, past medical and social history, clinical and physical findings of the patients and imaging results were included. The data were entered into a pre-formatted questionnaire, analysed for means, standard deviations and frequencies, and are presented in tables and bar charts.
Results
Out of 3200 medical admissions, 227 (7.09%) had a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. Ischaemic stroke was more common (67.4%) than haemorrhagic stroke (32.6%). It affected mainly the anterior circulation, especially the middle cerebral artery (39%). The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, (Range 32 – 96). It was more common in females (62%) than in males (38%). Hypertension was the most common (74%) risk factor followed by alcohol abuse (63%), tobacco smoking (48%) and diabetes mellitus (42%).
Conclusion
Ischaemic stroke was the more common major cause of morbidity in the rural hospital studied in Kenya. It occurred most commonly among elderly females, with the most frequent comorbidities being hypertension. In addition, modifiable lifestyle factors like alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking contributed to the prevalence; hence we recommend the control of blood pressure and glucose as well as lifestyle modification to reduce the scourge in our studied population.

Karanja DN, Wahome RG, Kunyanga CN, Onyango CM. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Kenyan Universities ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2019;7(4):375-386.
1. Davis NK. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Universities." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2019;7(4):375-386.
Ngotho-Esilaba, Onono J.O, Ombui J.N., J.F L, H.O W. "Perceptions of Challenges Facing Pastoral Small Ruminant Production in a Changing Climate in Kenya.". In: Springer, Cham.; 2019.
OGOLLA CAROL, OLUOCH M F. "Performance Management Practices and Employee Productivity at State Department of Labour, Kenya." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2019;9(4):doi:10.30845/ijbht.v9n4p3.
Omani R, Gitao C, Gachohi J, Gathumbi P, Bwihangane A, Khalif A, Chemweno V. "Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Dromedary Camels and Small Ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya." Advances in Virology . 2019;(doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720).
Omani RN, Gitao CG, Gachohi J, Gathumbi PK, Bwihane BA, Abbey K, Chemwono VJ. "Peste des petits ruminants in dromedary camels and small ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya." Advances Virology. 2019;Volume 2019 Article ID 4028720 6 pages(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720).
Mbindyo SN. "Pet ownership as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis- a review." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2019;34(1):18-23.
Tum PK, Kariuki DK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2019;8(11):235-244. AbstractInternational Journal of Innovative Research and Development

Description
This work investigates the degradation rate of 4-cholorophenol using Titanium dioxide photocatalysts. Chlorophenols and their compounds are a nuisance as they are recalcitrant to degradation in the environment. Three morphologically different Titanium dioxide catalysts, A, B and C, were immobilized on microscopic glass at a layer of 0.5 mg/cm 2 and annealed between 500-700 C. The three different TiO 2 powders were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Brunauer Emmett Teller to determine their specific surface area, crystalline and particle sizes. A four–position photocatalytic reactor illuminated by two Ultra violet lamps of wavelength range 320-400 nm and intensity I= 27.87 mW/m 2 was used to degrade the 4-Chlorophenol in 2 hrs. Aliquots of the degraded 4-chlorophenol were drawn every 30 minutes and analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy at λ= 226 nm. The optimum annealing temperature of all TiO 2 was found to be 650 C, with type B of hexagonal morphological structure and particle size of 28±2nm having the highest 4-chlorophenol degradation rate, of 71.21%.

Oredo J. "The Pivotal Role of ICT in Green Buildings." MANAGEMENT July (2019).
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Policy Options for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Hydropower Development in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development-. 2019;2(1):127-140.
M.W. G, Mwaura F, Wamalwa J. "Pollution along the Altitudinal Gradient of the Likii River, Laikipia County, ." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, . 2019;7(1) :39-52.
Kairu-Wanyoike S, Nyamwaya D, Wainaina M, Johanna Lindahl, Ontiri E, Bukachi S, Njeru I, Johanna Lindahl, Bett B. "Positive association between Brucella spp seroprevalences in livestock and humans from a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya. cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis . 2019;13(10):e0007506.

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