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2020
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
Otieno SP, Cooke P, Plastow J. "Challenging the Message of the Medium: Scaling Participatory Arts Projects and the Creative Agenda in Kenya.". In: Participatory Arts in International Development . London: Routledge; 2020.
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Channel and Power Allocation for mm-wave Device-to-Device Enabled Vehicular Network." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(9):294-300.
Mwenda JN, Mulaku GC, Chika BA. "Chapter 5: Access to Land for Women in Kenya.". In: A Comparative Study on Access to Land for Women in Eastern Africa . Musanze, Rwanda: EALAN; 2020.
Mwangi, M.W. MKWM & JW. "Characterisation of Fusarium species infecting tomato in Mwea West Sub-county, Kirinyaga County, Kenya." Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2020;. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2020.1788645.
Muriithi1 DI, Wambua2 BN, Omoke2 KJ. "Characterization of Small Scale Farmers’ Low Levels of Adoption to Crop Insurance as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Variability in Nyandarua County of Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2020;Volume 8(Issue 4, August 2020).
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Munene JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Characterization of Water Hyacinth Powder Using FTIR Spectroscopy and the Adsorption Behaviour of Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cr2+ in Aqueous Solution ." Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2020;6(1):47-55. AbstractAsian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research

Description
The adsorption behavior of selected metal ions on water hyacinth powder was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water hyacinth powder was used as an adsorbent due to its popularity, low cost and ease of availability. Water hyacinth stems were dried and ground to a powder. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature by adding known concentrations of Pb 2+, Cd 2+, Cr 3+, Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ to 5 g of water hyacinth powder in different test tubes and allowed to stand for the same time respectively. Adsorption is one of the methods used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the functional groups in the water hyacinth powder using the KBr disc method. The study showed a strong broad absorption band in the region of 3300-3200cm-1 which is characteristic of OH stretching vibrations of the adsorbed water molecules at the surface of raw water hyacinth powder particles. Other peaks appeared at 1732cm-1 which corresponded to C= O stretching vibrations while the band at 1396cm-1 could be attributed to CH bonds. The functional groups identified were: CH; OH; C= O or CO. After adsorption there was a disappearance, reduction or a shift in the adsorption bands depending on the type of metal ion. Lead for example showed a strong absorption band in the region of 1732cm-1 which is characteristic of C= O stretching bond structure which is found in esters and carboxylic acids. The disappearance of the peaks indicated that the H atom present in the functional groups of the raw water hyacinth powder could have been substituted …

Chalo DM, Kakudidi E, Origa-Oryem H, Namukobe J, Franke K, Yenesew A, Wessjohann LA. "Chemical constituents of the roots of Ormocarpum sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;93:104142. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of O. sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B. Gillett resulted in the isolation of three biflavonoids (trime-chamaejasmin, (+)- chamaejasmin, (+)-liquiritigeninyl-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin), one bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarin (diphysin), one isoflavan (glabridin), one triterpenoid (3-O-acetyloleanoic acid) and a phytosterol (β-sitosterol). Compounds were identified by detailed MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were elucidated based on ECD spectra. The previously undescribed trime-chamaejasmin represents a bis-epi-chamaejasmenin C diastereomer. The chemophenetic significance is discussed in detail. The results contribute to the phytochemical characterization of the genus Ormocarpum and suggest a close chemophenetic relationship with other genera within the subfamily Papilionoideae. Furthermore, this report provides baseline …

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Chemostat Model with Periodic Nutrient Input Described by Fourier Series." Asian Research Journal of Mathematics. 2020;16(8):16-27. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we present a periodic Chemostat model of two species competing for a single nutrient available in limiting supply. The nutrient input is varied periodically using a Fourier series function to take into account the changing patterns as seasons vary. We show both analytically and numerically that varying the nutrient input using a Fourier Series function results in a better model to describe coexistence of species in natural environments.

Nyamweya NN, Kimani SN, Abuga KO. "Chewable Antacid Tablets: Are Disintegration Tests Relevant?" AAPS PharmSciTech . 2020;21:139. Abstract

A recently published FDA guidance on chewable tablets has addressed the quality attributes of this class of dosage forms. This study evaluated disintegration as a quality attribute for a number of commercially available chewable antacid tablets. Additionally, acid-neutralizing-capacity values were evaluated. A number of the products exhibited prolonged disintegration times—which were far longer than those of conventional immediate-release tablets. The mean disintegration times ranged from 6 to more than 60 min in distilled water and from 9 to over 60 min in 0.1 N HCl. The products with longer disintegration times had higher breaking force and tensile strength values. Despite the range in disintegration times, all products met the criteria for acid-neutralizing capacity. These results indicate a need for patients to be aware of the need to thoroughly chew antacid tablets upon administration. Given these considerations, disintegration testing would be a useful quality control test in evaluating these dosage forms as the implicit assumption by the manufacturer that patients will chew the product sufficiently may not be met in every case.

Bundi LB, Mwango GN, Otieno VO, Mulama BM. "Clinical neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury: Cranial ultrasound spectrum of findings in neonates admitted to a Newborn Unit in Nairobi, Kenya." West African Journal of Radiology. 2020;27(2):108-113.
Owino JO, Olago D, Wandiga SO, Ndambi A. "A cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(7):1007-1014. AbstractA cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenyadoi.org

Smallholder dairy farmers occupy high potential areas of Kenya and are a source of manure, crops and milk. There is need to use other means of characterising smallholder dairy farmers as they mostly practice mixed farming. The objective of this paper is to use cluster analysis method to characterize the smallholder dairy farmers with added farmer and activity data variables. Clusters of 336 farmers in this study were derived using 28 key variables. This paper demonstrates how to conduct farmer assessments for climate change adaptation activities, climate smart technologies implementation using knowledge of key farmer variables and their distribution in the smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya. This paper demonstrates the importance of integrating agricultural information for smallholder dairy farmers to machine models to characterize the groups and observe the natural groupings. This allows for policy managers to know the key characteristics and how to use them in policy implementation especially in designing climate change adaptation programs factoring education and training of farmers as demonstrated in this paper that they are practicing many activities on their farms.

Key words: Cluster analysis, smallholder dairy farmers, farm utilisation, climate change adaptation.

KURIA JOSEPHNGEIK, MOGOI DONALD, GACHUHI SAMUELGUCHU. "Co-infection by dimorphic fungi in tuberculosis patients in Kenya." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2020;9:116-120.
Shem Otoi Sam, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir, Pokhariyal GP. "Cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):129-133. AbstractWebsite

In this paper analysis of contribution of macroeconomic variables gross domestic product (GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth population (POP), and youth literacy rate (LR) to youth unemployment(YUN) in Kenya over time is done. The analysis is done under framework of cointegration of time series data. First, logarithmic transformation of the series is carried out followed by stationarity test to determine the order of stationarity. The Philip-Ouliaris cointegration test is carried out to determine whether the series are individually cointegrated in a pair-wise manner. Then the Johansen cointegration test is conducted to determine the rank of cointegration. The paper does not proceed to identify cointegration relations as that is superfluous as far as estimation of linear cointegration model is concerned. Finally the linear cointegration equation of the macroeconomic variables is estimated and interpreted. Philip-Ouliaris test reveals that six pairs are I(0) while 15 pairs are I(1). The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test finds that GDP, FDI, and ED are stationary at level, i.e. without differencing whereas PI, LR, YUN, and POP are stationary of first difference. According to Johansen cointegration test, the rank of cointegration is 3, revealing three cointegration relations among the variables used. The results indicate that 1% increase in GDP, ED, FDI, and LR increases YUN by 0.356204%, 0.269%, 0.002441%, and 0.154216 respectively. Contrarily, 1% increasein population reduces youth unemployment by 0.350833%.The model is subjected to F-test and p-value test and found to be statistically significant

Shem Otoi Sam, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir, Pokhariyal GP. "Cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3): 129-133. AbstractWebsite

In this paper analysis of contribution of macroeconomic variables gross domestic product
(GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth
population (POP), and youth literacy rate (LR) to youth unemployment (YUN) in Kenya over
time is done. The analysis is done under framework of cointegration of time series data. First,
logarithmic transformation of the series is carried out followed by stationarity test to determine
the order of stationarity. The Philip-Ouliaris cointegration test is carried out to determine
whether the series are individually cointegrated in a pair-wise manner. Then the Johansen
cointegration test is conducted to determine the rank of cointegration. The paper does not
proceed to identify cointegration relations as that is superfluous as far as estimation of linear
cointegration model is concerned. Finally the linear cointegration equation of the
macroeconomic variables is estimated and interpreted. Philip-Ouliaris test reveals that six pairs
are I(0) while 15 pairs are I(1). The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test finds that GDP, FDI, and
ED are stationary at level, i.e. without differencing whereas PI, LR, YUN, and POP are
stationary of first difference. According to Johansen cointegration test, the rank of
cointegration is 3, revealing three cointegration relations among the variables used. The results
indicate that 1% increase in GDP, ED, FDI, and LR increases YUN by 0.356204%, 0.269%,
0.002441%, and 0.154216 respectively. Contrarily, 1% increase in population reduces youth
unemployment by 0.350833%.The model is subjected to F-test and p-value test and found to
be statistically significant.

Ongeri BO, Mutasa F. "Commercial banks’ performance and economic growth nexus: -An Empirical Analysis of Kenya’s Commercial Banks." International journal of scientific research and innovative technology . 2020;7(3):2313-3759.
Hassanali J., Pokhariyal G, P. M. "Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains." European Journal of anatomy. 2020;11 ((1)):9-16 . AbstractWebsite

The morphometric parameters of the brains of several mammals and primates show differences that are likely to be associated with cognitive and other functions necessary for survival as well as evolution. Seven human and eight baboon formalin-fixed brains were used to show comparative aspects. The whole brains were weighed, 3 from humans and 3 from baboons were separated into components -cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem- and their weights were recorded. The linear measurements of the cerebrum were occipito-frontal (O-F), fronto-temporal (F-T) temporo-occipital (T-O), height of temporal lobe (HTL), inter: frontal pole (F-F), occipital pole (O-O), parietal (P-P), temporal pole (T-T), and occipital lobe (OL-OL) from superior, lateral and inferior aspects. The proportions of brain weight relative to body weight and those of the brain components were mostly higher in the humans. The length, height and width of the human brains were higher than in the baboons. F-F was six times O-O in humans while other parameters were nearly double in humans as compared to baboons. The ratio of P-P to F-F was nearly 20 times in baboons as compared to 6 times in humans. The overall increase in human brain length, width and size of lobes could be related to increased body size, functional complexity, upright posture, and evolution. The lateral expansion in the size of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes may be due to the complex circuitry associated with cognitive functions and life style. Several approaches have been proposed to determine factors related to increases in brain size, function and intelligence. Morphometry could be one tool to "explain" specific increases in brain areas.

Manoa DO, Mwaura, F., Thenya, Mukhovi S. "Comparative analysis of the typology, seasonality and economic cost of human wildlife conflict in Kajiado and Laikipia Counties, Kenya. ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1 (4):2707-0425.
Adu-Gyamfi R, Asongu S, Mmusi TS, Wamalwa H, Mangori M. A comparative study of export processing zones in the wake of the Sustainable Development Goals. WIDER Working Paper 2020/64. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Richard N. Onwonga, Ruth C. Sitienei, Joyce J. Lelei, Kamoni P. "Complementary Effects of Legume Integration and Fertilizer application on Soil Moisture and Long-Term Carbon Stocks in Maize Systems of Kabete Sub-County, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Gawriluk TR, Simkin J, Hacker CK, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Ezenwa VO, Seifert AW. "Complex Tissue Regeneration in Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines and an Influx of T Cells." Front. Immunol.. 2020;11(1695):1-19.
Akinyemi R, Sarfo F, Abd-Allah F, Ogun Y, Ogeng'o J. "Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization .". 2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Africa is the world's most genetically diverse, second largest, and second most populous continent, with over one billion people distributed across 54 countries. With a 23% lifetime risk of stroke, Africa has some of the highest rates of stroke worldwide and many occur in the prime of life with huge economic losses and grave implications for the individual, family, and the society in terms of mental capital, productivity, and socioeconomic progress. Tackling the escalating burden of stroke in Africa requires prioritized, multipronged, and inter-sectoral strategies tailored to the unique African epidemiological, cultural, socioeconomic, and lifestyle landscape. The African Stroke Organization (ASO) is a new pan-African coalition that brings together stroke researchers, clinicians, and other health-care professionals with participation of national and regional stroke societies and stroke support organizations. With a vision to reduce the rapidly increasing burden of stroke in Africa, the ASO has a four-pronged focus on (1) research, (2) capacity building, (3) development of stroke services, and (4) collaboration with all stakeholders. This will be delivered through advocacy, awareness, and empowerment initiatives to bring about people-focused changes in policy, clinical practice, and public education. In the spirit of the African philosophy of Ubuntu "I am because we are," the ASO will harness the power of diversity, inclusiveness, togetherness, and team work to build a strong, enduring, and impactful platform for tackling stroke in Africa.

Owino JO, Olago D, Wandiga SO, Ndambi A. "Constraints limiting the improvement of manure management as climate smart technology for smallholder dairy farmers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(8):1155-1168. Abstractacademicjournals.org

The global quest for a sustainable bio-economy has brought to the fore importance of engaging agricultural systems in the production and in practice change. There have been issues limiting farmers from improving the practice of manure management as smart climate technology. The objective of this paper was to highlight the constraints, type, and valuation of manure types and information sources that smallholder dairy farmers find it useful to change Practices regarding manure management. In this present study, 336 smallholder dairy farmers were surveyed on various constraints the farmers faced and, on the type, and value of different manure types and information on manure management received by the farmers. The study used descriptive statistics for the variables and compared them using frequency tables. The key findings from this study would support information to stakeholders in inducing climate-smart manure management practices as a climate adaptation practice. The study highlights the type of information systems that determine areas for further investigation as drivers of practice change for smallholder dairy farmers. The paper focuses on these constraints and synthesizes them into factors that determine practice change on manure management by smallholder dairy farmers in order to improve manure management.

Key words: Manure management, agricultural information, smallholder dairy farmers, practice change,
information value.

Ntwiga DB, Wanyonyi AW. "Consumer Perceptions and Behaviour toward Credit Usage in Kenya." Open Access Library Journal. 2020;7(6):1-16. AbstractWebsite

Consumer behaviour and perceptions evolve over time and affect credit usage from the financial service providers. We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households to examine how perceptions and behaviour of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. The perceptions and behaviour are based on source of financial advice, trust of the institutions, characteristics of the financial instrument and cost of credit. The multinomial logistic regression model predicts the odds of credit usage based on perceptions and behaviour of the consumers. The categories for the credit usage are: have credit, used to have credit and never had credit. Consumer perceptions and behaviour based on cost of credit and trust increase credit usage, while source of financial advice had minimal influence on credit usage. The characteristics of the financial instrument are catering to emergencies and being safe to use increased credit usage. The Savings and Credit Cooperative Organizations and microfinance are the most trusted financial institutions by the consumers, while shylock has the highest cost of credit. Radio as a source of financial advice reduced credit usage. The dynamics of credit usage are shaped by the perceptions and behaviour of the consumers.

Amolo EJA;, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Contingent capital and performance of hydroelectric energy projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science . 2020;9(4):134-142.
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO, Gitau AN. "Convective drying modelling approaches: A review for herbs, vegetables and fruits." Journal of Biosystems Engineering. 2020;Volume 45:197-212 .
Gitau AN, Mbuge DO, Mutuli GP. "Convective Drying Modelling Approaches: A Review for Herbs, Vegetables, and Fruits. Journal of Biosystems Engineering. South Korea;." Journal of Biosystems Engineering. South Korea;. 2020;Vol. 45(ISSN 2234-1862):197-212.
P M, N MJ, O AS, Mang'uriu GN. "A Corrosion Model for Prediction of Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Water Structures." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(2).
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "A Corrosion Model for Prediction of the Service Life of Reinforced Concrete Water Conveyancing Structures." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(6):153-181.
Muriithi MK, Mutegi RG, Mwabu G. "Counting unpaid work in Kenya: Gender and age profiles of hours worked and imputed wage incomes." The Journal of the Economics of Ageing . 2020;17.
A K, Folayan MO, Sabbah W, El Tantawi M, Ramos-Gomez F. "Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries.". In: Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA.; 2020.
Amolo EJA, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Credit Enhancement and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." Journal of Finance & Banking Studies. 2020;9(4):47-57.
Ntwiga DB. "Credit usage among the un (der) banked: consumer socio-economic characteristics and influence of financial technology." International Journal of Financial Services Management. 2020;10(1):38-54. AbstractWebsite

We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households to analyse how the socio-economic characteristics and financial literacy of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. A qualitative analysis is presented on the influence of financial technology on consumer credit usage. The access to financial services is influenced by the socio-economic characteristics and financial literacy of the consumers. Gender, financial literacy, age, income, marital status, education level and geographical cluster are statistically significant in influencing credit usage, both current and past usage relative to never had credit. As financial technology continues to expand and offer credit, there is need to understand the user experience to match their social and economic status as a means to increase credit usage in Kenya.

Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Pokhariyal GP. "Data Dissemination and Use and Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Health Care Services in Public Health Institutions in Kisumu County, Kenya ." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5((1)). Abstractview

The study sought to determine how data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study focused on public health institutions that practices M&E system on provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services. The study employed the use of pragmatism paradigm and a descriptive research design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule. Correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among the thematic area of the study. The reliability of the instruments was obtained using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items meaning that the instruments were reliable. The results showed that data dissemination and use and provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions had [r2=0.186, p<0.05]. The results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.91 and 0.466 standard deviation for this variable respectively. Therefore, data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services in public health institutions.

Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Pokhariyal GP. "Data Dissemination and Use and Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Health Care Services in Public Health Institutions in Kisumu County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5(1). AbstractWebsite

The study sought to determine how data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study focused on public health institutions that practices M&E system on provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services. The study employed the use of pragmatism paradigm and a descriptive research design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule. Correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among the thematic area of the study. The reliability of the instruments was obtained using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items meaning that the instruments were reliable. The results showed that data dissemination and use and provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions had [r2=0.186, p<0.05]. The results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.91 and 0.466 standard deviation for this variable respectively. Therefore, data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services in public health institutions.

Osano SN, Amolo KO, R.O.Ouko. "Data-Driven High Collision Location Identification and Corrective Countermeasures on Roads in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2020;Volume 10(Issue 10):37-41.
Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO, Adediran A. "Dataset on impact strength, flammability test and water absorption test for innovative polymer-quarry dust composite." Data in Brief. 2020;29( April):105384. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105384

In this article data on impact strength, flammability and water absorption tests for innovative plastic-quarry dust composite is presented. The composites were prepared through moulding with virgin HDPE and PP plastics and quarry dust. The quarry dust was used at 0%, 5%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% weight percentages. The prepared samples were characterised for strength, fire resistance and hydrophobic properties using Charpy impact, flammability and water absorption tests respectively. For impact strength test was conducted according to ISO 179–1:2010 (E). The flammability test was conducted according to ASTMD 2863 while the water absorption test was carried out in accordance to ASTM D 570–98. These data illustrate the potential of the plastic quarry dust composite application in construction industry and model for regeneration of waste plastics for green building technologies.

Howell KL, Hilário A, Allcock LA, et al. "A decade to study deep-sea life." Nature Ecology & Evolution . 2020;5:265-267.
Nicholas M. Jacob, Shem O. Wandiga DKVMKO. "Degradation of Aflatoxin in Maize using Ferulic Acid (Phydroxy-3-Methyl Cinnamic Acid) Catalyzed by Hydrogen Peroxide." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;3(1):1-17.
Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Degradation of aflatoxin in maize using Ferulic acid (phydroxy-3-methyl cinnamic acid) catalyzed by Hydrogen peroxide." Journal of Food Sciences. 2020;1(1):1-17.
Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Delayed Nutrient Conversion for a Single Species Periodic Chemostat." Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2020;26(5):1-9. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model with periodic nutrient input modelled using Fourier series and incorporate delays in nutrient conversion. We show that both periodicity and delays have complementing influence in the long term behaviour of the species. Numerical results show that periodicity has bigger influence on species density variations for delays below the Hopf Bifurcation point, while for delays above the Bifurcation point,the delay effect is more influential.

S D, GO O, V O-H. "Depression and its association with disease activity and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Ho." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):15-21. Abstractdepression_and_its_association_with_disease_activity.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis
is a systemic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane,
resulting in the structural damage of cartilage, bone and ligaments. The
course of RA differs between patients, and its severity can range from selflimiting
disease to severe destruction and systemic complications. RA affects
patients physically, psychologically and socially. Patients experience pain,
joint swelling, stiffness, functional limitations and fatigue and overall poor
quality of life. In addition, they report anxiety and depressive symptoms
and concerns about increased physical limitations. Experiencing
psychological distress may inflate the subjective severity of patient-reported
symptoms such as pain and tenderness. Furthermore, patients experience a
loss of independence and restrictions in participation, i.e. a decrease in
socializing which may in turn propagate symptoms of depression. An accurate
description of the relationship between depression, disease severity and quality
of life is necessary for our setting. If an interaction exists, then there is a
group of vulnerable patients who could benefit from earlier identification
of depression and the impact their disease has on HRQoL and appropriate
management provided. Objective: To determine the prevalence
of depression and the relationship between depression, disease activity
and quality of life in ambulatory patients with rheumatoid arthritis at
the Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: A descriptive-cross sectional

Maina. Design Materials and Processes Vol 6. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2020.
Lutta AI, Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Jason Sircely. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020.
Ndungu JM, Moturi CA. "Determinants of Mobile Fintech Uptake in Kenyan Microfinance Sector." Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2020;39(28):102-114. AbstractWebsite

The Kenyan microfinance sector faces many challenges such as high operation costs, increased credit risk, low visibility and poor understanding of emerging technology opportunities and risks among others. These problems are persistent due to low levels of innovation and limited uptake of digital financial technologies. This research aimed to identify the determinants that influence uptake of mobile fintech and propose an appropriate model for uptake of mobile fintech within the sector. A descriptive survey of all 30 Microfinance institutions registered with Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) 2018 in Kenya was carried out. Data was collected using questionnaires from 120 respondents. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on correlation model, this study established that technology factors (r=0.862, P<.05), environmental characteristics (r=0.387, P<.05) and organizational factors (r=0.256, P<.05) have a strong influence on the uptake of mobile fintech. Using regression model, technology factors (β=.563, P<.05), organizational factors (β=.281, P<.05) and environmental characteristics (β=.562, P<.05) all have positive and significant influence on uptake of mobile fintech. These factors include technology availability, perceived technology benefits, organization size, resources availability, and competition, regulatory and legal environment among others. Uptake of mobile fintech was found to reduce operation costs and improve business operations efficiency. Understanding of the factors derived in this study will help microfinance institutions, software developers and policy makers as they develop strategies directed at promoting successful implementation of mobile fintech.

Sala, M.S., Otieno JD, Nzuma, M.J., Mureithi, S.M. "Determinants of Pastoralists’ Participation in Commercial Fodder Markets for Livelihood Resilience in Drylands of Northern Kenya: Case of Isiolo." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2020;10(1):DOI: 10.1186/s13570-020-00166-1.
Chirwa TF, Zingoni ZM, Munyewende P, Manda SO, Mwambi H, Kandala N-B, Kinyanjui S, Young T, Musenge E, Simbeye J, Musonda P, Mahande MJ, Weke P, Onyango NO, Kazembe L. "Developing excellence in biostatistics leadership, training and science in Africa: How the Sub-Saharan Africa Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) training unites …." AAS Open Research. 2020;3(51). AbstractWebsite

The increase in health research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has led to a high demand for biostatisticians to develop study designs, contribute and apply statistical methods in data analyses. Initiatives exist to address the dearth in statistical capacity and lack of local biostatisticians in SSA health projects. The Sub-Saharan African Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) led by African institutions was initiated to improve biostatistical capacity according to the needs identified by African institutions, through collaborative masters and doctoral training in biostatistics. SACCAB has created a critical mass of biostatisticians and a network of institutions over the last five years and has strengthened biostatistics resources and capacity for health research studies in SSA. SSACAB comprises 11 universities and four research institutions which are supported by four European universities. In 2015, only four universities …

Murage JK, Amugune BK, Njogu P, Ndwigah SN. "Development and application of a spectrophotometric method in quality evaluation of benzimidazole anthelminthics in Nairobi City County." Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2020;6:74.
Murage JK, Amugune BK, Njogu PM, S.N.Ndwigah. "Development and application of aspectrophotometric method in qualityevaluation of benzimidazole anthelminthicsin Nairobi city county." Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2020;6:74.
Mitema A, Feto NA, Rafudeen MS. "Development and Validation of TOF/Q-TOF MS/MS, HPLC Method and in-vitro Bio-Strategy for Aflatoxin Mitigation." Food Additives & Contaminants. 2020.
Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
OLALE P, Ngau P. "Dialogues on Informality: Land Sharing as a Sustainable approach to Tenure Security in Kiandutu Informal Settlement Thika, Kenya.". In: Reframing the Urban Challenge in Africa. New York: Routledge; 2020.
U B, M M, J M, Mwang’ombe, S G. "Disease surveillance and farmers’ knowledge of Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa) grass diseases in Rwanda." African Journal of Range & Forage Science. 2020;. https://doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2020.1810774.
Uzayisenga B, Mutimura M, Muthom JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Ghimire SR. "Disease surveillance and farmers’ knowledge of Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa) grass diseases in Rwanda." AFRICAN JOURNAL OF RANGE & FORAGE SCIENCE. 2020;tarf20:1-13.
Langat MK, Ndunda B, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7.
Langat MK, Ndunda BM, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
Five previously undescribed compounds, megalocarpoidolide I (1), megalocarpoidolide J (3), 12-epi-crotonzambefuran A (4), megalocarpoidolide K (5), 1-trans-p-hydroxycoumaroyl–geranylgerani-1-ol (6) were isolated from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert. The known ent-trachyloban-18-ol, megalocarpoidolide B, megalocarpoidolide C (2), megalocarpoidolide H, crotocorylifuran, 7,8-dehydrocrotocorylifuran, 1,2-dehydrocrotocorylifuran-2-one, acetyl aleuritolic acid, lupeol, N-trans-p-coumaroyl-3′,4′-dihydroxyphenylethylamine, dodecyl trans-ferulate and lignoceryl trans-ferulate were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, IR spectroscopy and HRMS. The structure of compound 1 was determined using Logic for Structural Determination (LSD). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 that were selected for screening based on their ability to add diversity to the …

Mbithi ML. "Does COMESA Have Export Potential to Emerging Economies?" Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2020;11(10):58-65.
Shah P. "Domestication of the Ramsar Convention in Kenya." Towards realizing of Vision 2030: Kenya Policy Briefs. Office of the DVC Research, Innovation and Extension. University of Nairobi. . 2020;1(1):13-14.
Alulu J, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Ochieng J. "Drivers of transformations in smallholder indigenous vegetable value chains in western Kenya: Evolution of contract farming." Journal of Business and Economics. 2020;22(6):151-165.
M. KA, W KI, Riechi AR. "eacher Competency on Learner Promotion in Embu County Integrated Public Primary Schools, Kenya." World Journal of Education . 2020;10(3).
Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

MO F, ME T, B G, RJ S, J C, OB A-B, A K, AC MD, V P, M R. "An Ecological Study of the Association Between Environmental indicators and early childhood caries." BMC Res Notes. 2020;2020, 13:474.(2020, 13:474.):2020, 13:474.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Ondicho TG. "Editorial Note." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2020;9(3):7-9.
Ondicho TG. "Editorial-Year End Note." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2020;9(4):7-12.
and Caroline K. Kariuki EMWMWM. "Effect of Bacillus and Trichoderma species in the management of the bacterial wilt of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in the field." Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 2020;30(109):doi.org/10.1186/s41938-020-00310-4 .
O OD, N MJ, K KC. "The Effect of Cassava Starch on the Durability Characteristic of Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2020;Vol 14:289-301.
S W, A K, S K, I M. "Effect of Combining Clinical Teaching Tools on Clinical Judgment Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." South Asian Research Journal of Nursing and Healthcare . 2020;2(1):117-123.
Mutuma Kiambi, B, Onono, P, Maingi, N. "Effect of Crude Oil Prices on Economic Growth in Kenya in the Period 1981 To 2018." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):340-349.
A.M H, Ongeri BO. "Effect of Islamic banking development on economic growth –A case of the Kenyan Economy." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2020;7(2).
Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "Effect of Selected Commercially Available Corrosion Inhibitors in Kenya on Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(1):133-152.
Mukui G, Onjala J, Awiti J. "Effect of Tax and Debt Financed Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics, Management and Trade. 2020;26(1):1-13.
Busienei J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Muriithi B, Diiro G. "Effect of Technological Innovation on Gender Roles: The Case of Fruit Fly IPM Adoption on Women’s Decision‑Making in Mango Production and Marketing in Kenya." The European Journal of Development Research. 2020;10.1057(s41287-020-00282-z).
Urinayo, V., D. K. Kariuki, Opere A. "Effects of Erratic Rainfall on Water quality of Yanze River in Kigali, Rwanda." J. sustain. environ. peace . 2020;3 (2) :49-57.
Mudavadi Patrick Ongadi, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Charles Gachuiri, Francis Namasake Muyekho, Lukuyu AB. "Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2020.
OTHOO, Dulo, Olago, D. O., Ayah. "Effects of Shallow Water Table on the Construction of Pit Latrines and Shallow Wells in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City." Sanitation Value Chain, J-STAGE an electronic journal platform for science and technology. 2020;5(1).
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, Gachene C. "Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Crop Yields: Case Study Kales (Brassica Oleracea) Crop." Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2020;(21):209-213. AbstractEcological Engineering

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects that supplemental irrigation (SI) has on Kale (Brassica Oleracea) crop yields as compared to wholly rain-fed crop. The experiments were conducted in Kieni, Central Kenya where the rainfall pattern was bimodal. The planting for rain-fed crops was done in three blocks each measuring 10m x1m with a spacing of 30cm between plants and 45cm between rows of plants and the procedure repeated for the crops receiving SI. The average weekly yields were computed for both crops for each season comprised of 14 weeks. The average weekly yields were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether the average yields from rain-fed and supplemental irrigated crops were statistically different. This was done by MS Excel 2016 spread sheets by setting a statistical level of significance of 5%. F value was 17.94 higher than the critical value of 4.01 while the P-value of 9x10-5 was lower than the 5% level of confidence meaning that there was a significant difference in the yield means of rain-fed and SI crops. The total rain-fed crop yields for the period was 147.0 Kgs and that of the one under SI was 238Kgs, an increase of about 62%. Therefore, supplemental irrigation can be adopted in areas where rainfall trends are declining to increase crop yields when all other factors remain constant for farmers to increase resilience.

Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." Sci. 2020;2, 26.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." Sci. 2020;2, 85.
Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Nkunu Z, M GP, J.G. K. "Electrocatalytic reduction and characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in acetonitrile-water (1:1) media in presence of cyanocobalamin." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;4:xxxx. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Abstract

This work investigates a possible electrocatalytic degradation of tetrachlorvinphos pesticide in acetonitrile-water media using cyanocobalamin as the catalyst. The catalyst and its derivatives are employed in some organic synthesis due to their ability to form and selectively cleave Co-C bonds. There is inadequate data from previous related works. This study explores possible electrocatalytic route for degradation of tetrachlorvinphos using the catalyst at temperature of 24 ± 1° by cyclic voltammetry method. Tetrachlorvinphos exhibited two consecutive reduction peaks at ~-0.710 ± 0.004 V and ~ -1.096 ± 0.029 V Versus Ag/AgCl. The second reduction peak registered a diffusion coefficient value of 3.68 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and current density of be 5.83 x 10-5 A/cm2. The reduction potential for tetrachlorvinphos in presence of cyanocobalamin was observed to be -0.923 ± 0.03 V versus Ag/AgCl. The diffusion coefficient and current density value was reported at 3.37 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and 2.56 X 10-5 A/cm2 respectively for an electro-reduction process. This implies that, catalytic reduction of the pesticide occurred at a significantly lower potential compared to direct reduction. The over potential saving of about 0.168 V is an indication of the catalyst efficiency on the pesticide degradation.

Nkunu ZN, Guto PM, Kithure JG. "Electrocatalytic Reduction and Characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in Acetonitrile-Water (1:1) Media in Presence of Cyanocobalamin." African Journal of Physical Sciences (AJPS). 2020;4:60-67.
O PA, Rambo CM. "Emerging Challenges in the Completion of Construction Projects through Public Private Partnerships: Empirical Literature Review." Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research. 2020:263-272.
Kaunda, Mwea, Dulo. "Emissions of Vehicular Traffic along Uhuru Highway Corridor in Nairobi." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2):22-27.
Gathiaka JK, Muriithi MK. "Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya." Tanzanian Economic Review. 2020;10(1):139-162.
G M, G MI, J M. "End-of-Life Care Education Needs OF Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study." Annals of Nursing and Practice. 2020;7(1).
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in Millimeter-Wave D2D Enabled 5G Cellular Networks." Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research (ETASR). 2020;10(4):6152-6160.
Mwangi P, Muvengei O, MBUYA TO, Ndeto M. "Energy Optimisation of a Single Toggle Jaw Crusher using Discrete Element Method." Journal of Sustainable Research in Engineering. 2020;5(4):180-193. Abstracthttps://jsre.jkuat.ac.ke/index.php/jsre/article/view/98

Comminution process has always been associated with very low energy efficiencies. Most of the energy during
comminution is lost through noise, heat and vibrations. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the optimal operating parameters of a comminution machine. In this research, the efficiency of a jaw crusher has been optimised using Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) techniques. DEM, even though a powerful tool, demands high computational capabilities hence a scaled down jaw crusher was used for simulation purposes. The GA codes were used in determining the critical velocity and also in developing the equation for up-scaling the jaw crusher. Critical parameters which affect the power consumption of a jaw crusher are toggle speed, throw and reduction ratio. These parameters were varied during the simulation as guided by the design of experiment technique. In addition, a Bonded Particle Model (BPM), was used in modelling the rock used in the simulation. A BPM model gives more realistic results than Particle Replacement Model (PRM) and Fast Breakage Model (FBM). To create the BPM of an irregularly shaped rock, custom API factory was coded in C++ and loaded to EDEM software. At the end of this research, the optimal energy efficiency was obtained as 59.7758% at a toggle speed of 157.7965 rpm, a throw of 33.445 mm and a reduction ratio of 4. A mathematical model showing the relationship between energy efficiency and process parameters was also developed.

Mwangi M, Kituyi E, Ouma G. "Enhancing adoption of climate services through an innovation systems approach." Scientific African. 2020:e00445. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
Recent years have marked the emergence of the innovation systems approach as a shift from the conventional linear models of technology transfer. Linear technology diffusion models hinder participatory approaches of local actors such as smallholder farmers and regards them as spectators in the development process, which impedes wide adoption of technology by the intended beneficiary. This article sought to understand the potential of the innovations systems approach as an incentive to enhance the adoption of climate services by smallholder farmers through regarding them and other relevant stakeholders as part of the process, fostering knowledge sharing and interactive learning. The methodology included stakeholder/actor identification, mapping of stakeholder linkages, capacity building and active involvement of stakeholders through the climate services process. The results showed that unlike the conventional linear knowledge delivery process, the innovation systems approach takes into consideration the complex processes that are highlighted by non-linear processes, feedback loops, and other complex interactions that occur among heterogeneous actors. As such in place of the linear knowledge delivery approach, a more systems approach is necessary to help mobilize science and technology such as climate services to deliver benefits, which has the potential to enhance access, salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the scientific information.

Keywords
Innovation systems approach; Climate services; Stakeholder linkages; Adoption

Nyawade S, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Sharma K, Parker ML. "Enhancing Climate Resilience of Rain-Fed Potato Through Legume Intercropping and Silicon Application.". 2020.
Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709:135344. AbstractScience of The Total Environment

Description
Child exposure to fecal-oral pathogens occurs through several transmission pathways. However, the relative importance of different exposure points for pathogen transmission both inside and outside households is not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the urban slum of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya, collecting 237 environmental samples from 40 households from source water, stored drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, household surfaces, soil, standing water, open drainage ditches, and streams. We quantified the fecal indicator Escherichia coli and the enteric pathogens of adenovirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Vibrio cholerae. At least one enteric pathogens was detected in 13% of household stored water, 47% of hand, 46% of table surface, 26% of plate surface, 75% of floor surface, 96% of soil, 56% of standing water, 77% of drainage ditch …

Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709(March 2020):135344.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO. "Enzymatic activity and brine shrimp lethality of venom from the large brown spitting cobra (Naja ashei) and its neutralization by antivenom." BCM Research Notes. 2020;13(25):1-7.
Urinayo V. KODKA. "Erratic Rainfall Patterns Impact on Water Quality of Yanze River, Kigali Rwanda." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2020;3(2):49-57.
Wanjala G, Ongosi BO. "Establishing the Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Physical Infrastructural Learning Environment at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2020;5(2):17-29 .abstract.pdf
Kipchirchir IC. "ESTIMATINGAN EXPONENTIALLY DECAYINGFUNCTION OF RATE PARAMETER OF APOISSON PROCESS." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2020;6(1):1-17. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we consider point estimation of an exponentiallydecaying function of rate parameter of Poisson process usingdiscrete (increments) and continuous (interarrival times) variablesundermaximum likelihood and minimum variance paradigms. It isfound that for increments, momentsof estimators are in terms ofelementary function-the exponential function whereas for interarrivaltimes, moments of estimators are in terms of special functions-modified Bessel function ofthethirdkind for maximum likelihoodestimators and confluent hypergeometric function for the uniformlyminimum variance unbiased estimators. Behaviourally, the momentsmirror the exponentially decaying function of. The maximumlikelihood estimators are biased, however, it is found thatasymptoticunbiasedness forfixedn wheren is the sample size corresponds to a

O OT, O. KD, N. MJ. "Evaluating Superplasticizer Compatibility in the Production of High Performance Concrete using Portland Pozzolana Cement CEM II/B-P." SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2020;Vol. 7(6):92-100.
Peter Aweer Duot Ajak, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Wanyoike MMM. "Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Productivity in Smallholder Farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1).
"Evaluation of Stakeholders Preparedness And Secondary Education in Nakuru County-Kenya Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP)ISSN: 2708-261X. 2020;Vol.1(Issue 2):PP.95-114.
N. MJ. "Evaluation of Stiffnesss of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Dry and Green Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):676-687.
Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "Evidence-based modeling of combination control on Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS dynamics." PloS one. 2020;15(11):0242491. AbstractWebsite

We formulate a sex-structured deterministic model to study the effects of varying HIV testing rates, condom use rates and ART adherence rates among Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Attitudes influencing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS control measures both positively and negatively were considered. Using the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) microdata we constructed our model, which we fitted to the UNAIDS-Kenya youth prevalence estimates to understand factors influencing Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. While highly efficacious combination control approach significantly reduces HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among the youth, the disease remains endemic provided infected unaware sexual interactions persist. Disproportional gender-wise attitudes towards HIV/AIDS control measures play a key role in reducing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. The female youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trend seems to be directly linked to increased male infectivity with decreased female infectivity while the male youth prevalence trend seems to be directly associated with increased female infectivity and reduced male infectivity.

Magutu PO, Inyega JO, Nyaanga RO. Evidence-based training assessment approaches and methodologies in procurement planning and supply chain managemen. Knowledge Empowerment Foundation. ISBN: 978-81-942015-4-0; 2020.
N MJ, N OV. "Experimental Study on Behavoir of Lightweight Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates with Expanded Polystyrene." The Open Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 2020;Vol 10(2):351-362.
Kabue KG, Njogu PM, Mwangi AN. "Exploring different approaches to improve the success of drug discovery and development projects." Futur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;6:27.
Muasya, Juliet N, Kahiga, Ruth W. "Exploring Men and Women Students Experiences of Sexual Harassment: A Case Study of one Public University in Kenya." International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies . 2020;8 (2):122-130.
Musa AM, Wasonga OV, Mtimet N. "Factors influencing livestock export in Somaliland’s terminal markets." Pastoralism Research, Policy and Practice . 2020;10(2020 10:1 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13570-019-0155-7).factors_influencing_livestock_export_in_somaliland._musa_et_al._2020.pdf
Mburu J, Mbogoh SG, Bundi A, Ambuko JL. "Factors influencing the adoption of pre-harvest practices among mango farmers in Embu and Machakos counties, Kenya." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2020;Vol. 7(1):pp.56-72.
Mbogoh SG, Ambuko JL, Mburu J, Bundi A. "Factors influencing the adoption of pre-harvest practices among mango farmers in Embu and Machakos counties, Kenya." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2020;Vol. 7(1):pp.56-72.
Wamitila KW. "Factual and Fictional Narratives in East African Literatures.". In: NARRATIVE FACTUALITY: A HANDBOOK EDITED BY: MONIKA FLUDERNIK & MARIE-LAURE RYAN . Berlin/ Boston: De Gruyter; 2020.
Muthini D, Nzuma J, Nyikal R. "Farm production diversity and its association with dietary diversity in Kenya." Food Security. 2020;https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-020-01030-1.
Muthini D, Nzuma J, Nyikal R. "Farm production diversity and its association with dietary diversity in Kenya." Food Security volume . 2020;12:1107-1120 . AbstractWebsite

Agriculture has the potential to improve dietary diversity through farm production diversity if farming households consume what they produce. However, the linkages between a household’s own agricultural production and dietary diversity are not well understood. This study uses a count of crop species, animal species, production diversity score, and the Simpson’s index as measures of farm production diversity to assess the effect of production diversity on the dietary diversity of households, women and children. A Poison model was employed on a sample of 779 farming households selected using a multistage sampling technique in a household survey representative at the County level in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, Kenya. The findings of the study indicate that farm production diversity is significantly associated with the dietary diversity of women and that of the entire household, but is not associated with the dietary diversity of children. The count of the animal species has the highest magnitude of association with dietery diversity in this study. Every additional animal species kept leads to a 0.33 and 0.13 increase in household dietery diversity and the dietery diversity of women respectively. Children’s dietary diversity is significantly associated with the education of the mother, household size and age of the child. The study highlights the need to consider individual dietary requirements when developing nutrition interventions and policy, as opposed to general dietary interventions targeting the entire household.

Kasule F, Wasswa P, Mukasa SB, Okiror A, Nghituwamhata SN, Rono EC, Mukuze C, Mwang’ombe AW. "Farmer Preference of Cassava Cultivars in Eastern Uganda: A Choice Beyond Disease Resistance." Agricultural Science. 2020;2(2):169-177.
Ndegwa R, Simiyu J, E Ayieta, Odero N. "A Fast and Accurate Analytical Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic System Based on Manufacturer’s Data." Journal of Renewable Energy. 2020;(2020):1-18.
Mitchell EJ, Qureshi ZP, Were F, Daniels J, Gwako G, Osoti A, Opira J, Bradshaw L, Oliver M, Pallotti P, Ojha S. "Feasibility of using an Early Warning Score for preterm or low birthweight infants in a low-resource setting: results of a mixed-methods study at a national referral hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open. 2020;10(10). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Introduction: Fifteen million babies are born prematurely, before 37 weeks gestational age, globally. More than 80% of these are in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. 35% of all deaths in the first month of life are due to prematurity and the neonatal mortality rate is eight times higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) than in Europe. Early Warning Scores (EWS) are a way of recording vital signs using standardised charts to easily identify adverse clinical signs and escalate care appropriately. A range of EWS have been developed for neonates, though none in LMICs. This paper reports the findings of early work to examine if the use of EWS is feasible in LMICs.

Methods: We conducted an observational study to understand current practices for monitoring of preterm infants at a large national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Using hospital records, data were collected over an 8-week period in 2019 on all live born infants born at <37 weeks and/or <2500 g (n=294, 255 mothers) in the first week of life. Using a chart adopted from the EWS developed by the British Association of Perinatal Medicine, we plotted infants' vital signs. In addition, we held group discussions with stakeholders in Kenya to examine opinions on use of EWS.

Results: Recording of vital signs was variable; only 63% of infants had at least one temperature recorded and 53% had at least one heart rate and respiratory rate recorded. Stakeholders liked the traffic-light system and simplicity of the chart, though recognised challenges, such as staffing levels and ability to print in colour, to its adoption.

Conclusion: EWS may standardise documentation and identify infants who are at higher risk of an adverse outcome. However, human and non-human resource issues would need to be explored further before development of an EWS for LMICs.

V O, A A, A K. "Fertility transition in selected sub-Saharan African countries: the role of family planning programs ." F1000Research. 2020;8(1748). AbstractWebsite

Change in fertility rate across societies is a complex process that involves changes in the demand for children, the diffusion of new attitudes about family planning and greater accessibility to contraception. Scholars have concentrated on a range of factors associated with fertility majorly at the national scale. However, considerably less attention has been paid to fertility preference - a pathway through which various variables act on fertility. It is understood that women have inherent fertility preferences which each they seek to achieve over her reproductive cycle. However, the service delivery enhancement levels and capacity across countries as integral pathways to this goal accomplishment stand on their way towards eventual outcomes. Precisely, the Sub-Saharan African countries’ disparities amid similarities in their population policies is a cause of concern.

Bohlin-Nizzetto P, Melymuk L, B.White K, Kalina J, Madadi VO, SamAdu-Kumi, Prokeš R, Přibylová P, Klánová J. "Field- and model-based calibration of polyurethane foam passive air samplers in different climate regions highlights differences in sampler uptake performance." Atmospheric Environment. 2020;238(117742).
Otieno SP. File A222. Kimondo W, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
Chitedze I, Nwedeh CC, Ang’u C. "Financial Modelling of Feed-In Tariff for Increasing Solar Photovoltaic Energy Portfolio in Malawi." Journal of Energy and Natural Resources. 2020;9(1):14-27.
Karuma AN, PT G, CKK G. "Financial returns of maize and bean production under selected tillage practices in semi-arid area of Mwala Sub County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology. 2020;38(10):11-23.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious Diseases." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020;2020.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: Potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious diseases." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Waruiru RM, Wanja DW, H.A N. "Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020;2020.abstract.pdf
Derese S. "Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids of Millettia dura and Millettia ferruginea: Phytochemical review and chemotaxonomic values." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;91. Abstract

The phytochemical information on Millettia dura Dunn, M. ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and M. ferruginea subsp. darassana (Cufod.) J.B. Gillett was reviewed. All the three taxa elaborate mainly isoflavones (33 reported), occurring in the flowers, seeds/seed pods, stem bark and root bark. Out of the 33 isoflavones reported, some 19 (ca. 58%) contain prenyl at C-8 or its modification as 2,2-dimethylchromene ring at C-7/C-8, occurring in all the three taxa. Except for three isoflavones isolated from M. ferruginea subsp. darassana, all the isoflavones of these taxa are 5-deoxygenated. In these taxa, oxygenation at C-6 is a common feature, while isoflavones with C-8 oxygenation are rare, only three reported, and all of these from M. dura. There are 7 rotenoids reported from these taxa, and occur almost entirely in the seeds/seedpods of these plants. The major rotenoid with methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3, millettone and its 12a-hydroxy derivative, millettosine, occur only in M. dura, this appears to distinguish M. dura from M. ferruginea.

Buyinza D, Chalo DM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Yenesew A. "Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids of Millettia dura and Millettia ferruginea: Phytochemical review and chemotaxonomic values." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;91:104053. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
The phytochemical information on Millettia dura Dunn, M. ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and M. ferruginea subsp. darassana (Cufod.) J.B. Gillett was reviewed. All the three taxa elaborate mainly isoflavones (33 reported), occurring in the flowers, seeds/seed pods, stem bark and root bark. Out of the 33 isoflavones reported, some 19 (ca. 58%) contain prenyl at C-8 or its modification as 2,2-dimethylchromene ring at C-7/C-8, occurring in all the three taxa. Except for three isoflavones isolated from M. ferruginea subsp. darassana, all the isoflavones of these taxa are 5-deoxygenated. In these taxa, oxygenation at C-6 is a common feature, while isoflavones with C-8 oxygenation are rare, only three reported, and all of these from M. dura. There are 7 rotenoids reported from these taxa, and occur almost entirely in the seeds/seedpods of these plants. The major rotenoid with methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3, millettone and its …

Buyinza D, Chalo DM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Yenesew A. "Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids of Millettia dura and Millettia ferruginea: Phytochemical review and chemotaxonomic values." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;91:104053. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
The phytochemical information on Millettia dura Dunn, M. ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and M. ferruginea subsp. darassana (Cufod.) J.B. Gillett was reviewed. All the three taxa elaborate mainly isoflavones (33 reported), occurring in the flowers, seeds/seed pods, stem bark and root bark. Out of the 33 isoflavones reported, some 19 (ca. 58%) contain prenyl at C-8 or its modification as 2,2-dimethylchromene ring at C-7/C-8, occurring in all the three taxa. Except for three isoflavones isolated from M. ferruginea subsp. darassana, all the isoflavones of these taxa are 5-deoxygenated. In these taxa, oxygenation at C-6 is a common feature, while isoflavones with C-8 oxygenation are rare, only three reported, and all of these from M. dura. There are 7 rotenoids reported from these taxa, and occur almost entirely in the seeds/seedpods of these plants. The major rotenoid with methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3, millettone and its …

Focus Grade 5 Kiswahili. . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2020.
Focus Grade 5 T/G.. Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2020.
"Formal Features in Alex la Guma’s “Come Back to Tashkent." Asian Journal of African Studies,. 2020;47(1):99-119.
Mwangi M, Tirop L, Njogu P, Bururia J, Mwaura N, Mbae E. "Formulation of dispersible isoniazid/pyridoxine fixed-dose combination tablets for isoniazid-preventive therapy in paediatrics." Cogent Med. 2020;7(1):1787684.
Bonet M, Brizuela V, Abalos E, Cuesta C, Baguiya A, Group TWHOGMSS(GLOSS) R. "Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries: Results of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS), a one-week inception cohort." Lancet Global Health. . 2020;8(5):661-671. AbstractWebsite

Background
Maternal infections are an important cause of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We report the main findings of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study, which aimed to assess the frequency of maternal infections in health facilities, according to maternal characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of core practices for early identification and management.
Methods
We did a facility-based, prospective, 1-week inception cohort study in 713 health facilities providing obstetric, midwifery, or abortion care, or where women could be admitted because of complications of pregnancy, childbirth, post-partum, or post-abortion, in 52 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs). We obtained data from hospital records for all pregnant or recently pregnant women hospitalised with suspected or confirmed infection. We calculated ratios of infection and infection-related severe maternal outcomes (ie, death or near-miss) per 1000 livebirths and the proportion of intrahospital fatalities across country income groups, as well as the distribution of demographic, obstetric, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of a set of core practices for identification and management across infection severity groups.
Findings
Between Nov 28, 2017, and Dec 4, 2017, of 2965 women assessed for eligibility, 2850 pregnant or recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed infection were included. 70·4 (95% CI 67·7–73·1) hospitalised women per 1000 livebirths had a maternal infection, and 10·9 (9·8–12·0) women per 1000 livebirths presented with infection-related (underlying or contributing cause) severe maternal outcomes. Highest ratios were observed in LMICs and the lowest in HICs. The proportion of intrahospital fatalities was 6·8% among women with severe maternal outcomes, with the highest proportion in low-income countries. Infection-related maternal deaths represented more than half of the intrahospital deaths. Around two-thirds (63·9%, n=1821) of the women had a complete set of vital signs recorded, or received antimicrobials the day of suspicion or diagnosis of the infection (70·2%, n=1875), without marked differences across severity groups.
Interpretation
The frequency of maternal infections requiring management in health facilities is high. Our results suggest that contribution of direct (obstetric) and indirect (non-obstetric) infections to overall maternal deaths is greater than previously thought. Improvement of early identification is urgently needed, as well as prompt management of women with infections in health facilities by implementing effective evidence-based practices.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Full View Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities.

Graphical abstract
Keywords: MonoterpenesCarvacrolCis-3-hydroxypiperitoneAnti-MRSAAnti-cryptococcal

Orata D. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry. Germany: Lambert Academic Publisher; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry is a text which discusses all aspects of the electrochemical processes. This includes, discussions ranging from primary definition of terms in electrochemistry to solution of advanced electrochemical equations which is key in explaining the various electrode processes. The textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Universities.

A M. "Fungal Biomass Load and Aspergillus flavus in a Controlled Environment.". In: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass. intechopen.com; 2020.
Wanyonyi LS. "Further remarks on unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):06-10. Abstractfull text

In this paper we investigate results on unitary equivalence of operators that include n-binormal, skew
binormal and n-power-hyponormal operators acting on complex Hilbert space H.
AMS subject classification 47B47, 47A30, 47B20.

Kamunyu R, Ndungo C. "Gender Preference of Counsellors among University Students Seeking Counselling Services." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2020;25(2):20-28.
"Gendered Analysis of the Demand for Poultry Feed in Kenya. ." Agricultural Economics Research, Policy and Practice in Southern Africa – Agrekon. 2020;(ISSN: 0303-1853 ).
Nyang'au EM, Bulimo WD, Mobegi V, Opanda S, Magiri E. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." Int J Infect Dis. 2020. Abstractnyagau_et_al_2020.pdf

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and fifteen HA sequences of Kenyan virus viruses were analyzed relative to the corresponding WHO vaccine reference strains using bioinformatics approaches. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed varied amino acid substitutions at all the five antigenic sites (A-E) of the HA1 domain, with a majority the changes occurring at sites A and B. The Kenyan A/H3N2 viruses isolated during 2007/2008 seasons belonged to A/Brisbane/10/2007- like viruses lineage, while those circulating in 2009 to 2012 belonged to the lineage of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses. The 2013 viruses clustered in clade 3C.3 of the A/Samara/73/2013-like viruses. The mean evolutionary rate of the A/H3N2 viruses analyzed in the study was at 4.17×10(-3) (95% HPD=3.09×10(-3) to 5.31×10(-3)) nucleotide substitutions per site per year, whereas the TMRCA was estimated at 11.18 (95% HPD=9.00-14.12) years ago from 2013. The Prediction of vaccine efficacy revealed modest vaccine efficaciousness during 2008, and 2010 influenza seasons, whilst sub-optimal effectiveness was registered in 2007,2009, 2012 and 2013. Further, the overall selective pressure acting on the HA1 domain was estimated at 0.56 (ω<1), suggesting that a majority of codon sites in the HA1 epitopes were evolving under purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, our results highlight the genetic plasticity of A/H3N2 viruses and reveal considerable disparity in vaccine efficaciousness against the A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenya, specifically during 2007,2009, 2012, and 2013 influenza seasons. Our findings underscore the importance and need for consistent surveillance and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, to inform decision making and enhance early of detection of strains with epidemic/pandemic potential as well as benefit in guiding decisions regarding the appropriate annual influenza vaccine formulations.

Elusah J, Bulimo WD, Opanda SM, Symekher SL, Wamunyokoli F. "Genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis of human respirovirus type 3 strains isolated in Kenya using complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(3):e0229355. Abstractelusa_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

Human respirovirus type 3 (HRV3) is a leading etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and ranks only second to the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Despite the public health importance of HRV3, there is limited information about the genetic characteristics and diversity of these viruses in Kenya. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 35 complete hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) sequences of HRV3 strains isolated in Kenya between 2010 and 2013. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates, and the entire HN gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences revealed that all the Kenyan isolates grouped into genetic Cluster C; sub-clusters C1a, C2, and C3a. The majority (54%) of isolates belonged to sub-cluster C3a, followed by C2 (43%) and C1a (2.9%). Sequence analysis revealed high identities between the Kenyan isolates and the HRV3 prototype strain both at the amino acid (96.5–97.9%) and nucleotide (94.3–95.6%) levels. No amino acid variations affecting the catalytic/active sites of the HN glycoprotein were observed among the Kenyan isolates. Selection pressure analyses showed that the HN glycoprotein was evolving under positive selection. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the mean TMRCA for the HN sequence dataset was 1942 (95% HPD: 1928–1957), while the mean evolutionary rate was 4.65x10-4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year (95% HPD: 2.99x10-4 to 6.35x10-4). Overall, our results demonstrate the co-circulation of strains of cluster C HRV3 variants in Kenya during the study period. This is the first study to describe the genetic and molecular evolutionary aspects of HRV3 in Kenya using the complete HN gene.

Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO. "Genetic variability, heritability and correlation of quantitative traits for Arabusta coffee (C. arabica L. X Tetraploid C. canephora Pierre)." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2020;12(1):50-57.
Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
SM Mwendwa, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gachene CKK. "A geopedological approach to soil classification to characterize soils of Upper Kabete Campus Field, University of Nairobi, Kenya ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
SM Mwendwa, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gachene CKK. "A geopedological approach to soil classification to characterize soils of Upper Kabete Campus Field, University of Nairobi, Kenya ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Chebii WK, John M, Karatu K. "The governance of traditional medicine and herbal remedies in the selected local markets of Western Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine . 2020;39(16).
Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Vukovic A, Schroth R, Alade M, Mehebbi S, Al-Batayneh OB, Arheiam A, Amalia R, Gaffar B, Onyejaka NK, Daryanavard H, Kemoli A, Diaz ACM, grewal N. "Governance, maternal well-being and early childhood caries in 3-5 year olds." BMC Oral Health. 2020;2020; 20:166(2020; 20:166):2020; 20:166.
Kamau HN, Koech OK, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Gachene CKK. "Grass species for range rehabilitation: Perceptions of a pastoral community in Narok North sub-county, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(8):1204-1212.grass_species_for_range_rehabilitation-_perceptions_of_a_2020.pdf
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nguhiu JM, Wamboi P. "Haemato- biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya, ." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu JM, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.abstract1.pdf
Susan Gachau, Matteo Quartagno, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, Nelson Owuor, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in modelling quality of clinician-prescribed routine care: sensitivity analysis of departure from missing at random assumption." Statistical methods in medical research. 2020;29(10):3076-3092. AbstractWebsite

Missing information is a major drawback in analyzing data collected in many routine health care settings. Multiple imputation assuming a missing at random mechanism is a popular method to handle missing data. The missing at random assumption cannot be confirmed from the observed data alone, hence the need for sensitivity analysis to assess robustness of inference. However, sensitivity analysis is rarely conducted and reported in practice. We analyzed routine paediatric data collected during a cluster randomized trial conducted in Kenyan hospitals. We imputed missing patient and clinician-level variables assuming the missing at random mechanism. We also imputed missing clinician-level variables assuming a missing not at random mechanism. We incorporated opinions from 15 clinical experts in the form of prior distributions and shift parameters in the delta adjustment method. An interaction between trial intervention arm and follow-up time, hospital, clinician and patient-level factors were included in a proportional odds random-effects analysis model. We performed these analyses using R functions derived from the jomo package. Parameter estimates from multiple imputation under the missing at random mechanism were similar to multiple imputation estimates assuming the missing not at random mechanism. Our inferences were insensitive to departures from the missing at random assumption using either the prior distributions or shift parameters sensitivity analysis approach

Mwangi S, Abuga K, Mungai N, Mwangi J. "A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. Leaf Extracts." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2020;23(2):48-53. Abstract

A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of artemisinin in crude plant material was developed and validated. Optimal separation of artemisinin from matrix components in the plant extracts was achieved using a Waters XTerra® RP18 , 5 m, 250 × 4.6 mm column, maintained at 40 °C, a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0 - acetonitrile (60:40) containing 5 mM hexane sulfonate in isocratic flow. The mobile phase flow rate was 1.0 ml/min while elution was monitored at 216 nm. The method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) validation criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is applicable in routine quality control of Artemisia annua crude extracts.

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for a Two Species Periodic Chemostat Model with Discrete Delays." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(3):93-105. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model of two species competing for a single limiting nutrient input varied periodically using a Fourier series with discrete delays. To understand global aspects of the dynamics we use an extension of the Hopf bifurcation theorem, a method that rigorously establishes existence of a periodic solution. We show that the interior equilibrium point changes its stability and due to the delay parameter it undergoes a Hopf bifurcation.
Numerical results shows that coexistence is possible when delays are introduced and Fourier series produces the required seasonal variations. We also show that for small delays periodic variations of nutrients has more influence on species density variations than the delay.

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