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2019
Dimova I, Karthik S, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Semela D, Volarevic V, Djonov V. "SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling is involved in blood vessel growth and remodelling by intussusception." J. Cell. Mol. Med.. 2019;23(6):3916-3926. Abstract

The precise mechanisms of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in angiogenesis are not fully elucidated. Recently, we showed that Notch inhibition induces extensive intussusceptive angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells and it was associated with increased levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the current study, we demonstrated SDF-1 expression in liver sinusoidal vessels of Notch1 knockout mice with regenerative hyperplasia by means of intussusception, but we did not detect any SDF-1 expression in wild-type mice with normal liver vessel structure. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling by AMD3100 perturbs intussusceptive vascular growth and abolishes mononuclear cell recruitment in the chicken area vasculosa. In contrast, treatment with recombinant SDF-1 protein increased microvascular density by 34% through augmentation of pillar number compared to controls. The number of extravasating mononuclear cells was four times higher after SDF-1 application and two times less after blocking this pathway. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDC) were recruited to vessels in response to elevated expression of SDF-1 in endothelial cells. They participated in formation and stabilization of pillars. The current study is the first report to implicate SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in intussusceptive angiogenesis and further highlights the stabilizing role of BMDC in the formation of pillars during vascular remodelling.

Sabo MC, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Does bacterial vaginosis modify the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV seroconversion." AIDS. 2019;33(7):1225-1230. Abstract

A recent study of HIV serodiscordant couples found that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) were associated with increased HIV risk in the presence, but not in the absence, of bacterial vaginosis. We assessed whether bacterial vaginosis is an effect modifier of the association between hormonal contraception and HIV seroconversion in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Bore M, Choudhari N, Chaurasia S. "Management of complications of cosmetic iris implants in a phakic eye: a case report and literature review." Int Ophthalmol. 2019;39(5):1141-1146. Abstract

To report the intricacies of managing complications that arose out of cosmetic iris implants (BrightOcular) placement.

Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with infections in smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Vet World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607. Abstract

Ehrlichiosis caused by is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in cattle production worldwide. Despite its economic impact, limited knowledge is available on its epidemiology in Africa, including Kenya. Suspected cases of infections have been reported in the recent past to the University of Nairobi's Veterinary Hospital, prompting the need to investigate their possible re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of among smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County and to assess potential risk factors. This knowledge may guide the development of appropriate control strategies of ehrlichiosis, subsequently reducing associated losses.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Cosmas K, Kenich A. "Implementation of Machine Learning Methods on FPGA for Onboard Satellite Operation.". In: 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Wasamba P. "Will public service commission Succeed in appointing VCs competatively." The Standard, February 22, 2019:14.
Wachira K. "A Quasi-Flipped Learning Model For Teaching the Raspberry Pi.". In: AEC 2019. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
Kimani MD, G.N K, R.N O, Muhammenda. "Simulating Maize (Zea Mays L.) performance using Aquacrop Model under Varying Irrigation Schedules and Water Depletion Levels in Bura Irrigation Scheme, Kenya.". In: AGRO 2019 Conference & Exhibition. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science.; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK LANDSCAPE OF NAIROB.". In: In Proceedings of the Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference - Business opportunities in Energy, Manufacturing, Infrastructural and Environmental Research. School of Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
Akach JA. "Unearth tourism assets through co-design: Creative methods to engage the youth .". In: 2nd Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gitao C. "Role of Academia and Researchers in the Agricultural sector in Kenya’.". In: Kenya Private Sector Agricultural sector. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2019.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: The Effect of Individual IT Mindfulness.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2019.
omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
Onikeku O, Shitote SM, Mwero JN, Adedeji AA. "Comparative Analysis of Compressive Strength of Bamboo Leaf Ash and Bagasse Ash Concretes.". In: Machakos University 2nd Annual International Conference. Machakos, Kenya; 2019.
Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura, Jistrom M. "Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi-arid areas.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
MWANGI IK. "Making Devolution and Decentralization Work n Kiambu through Institutional Framework of Boards of Municipalities.". In: Training Workshop for Capacity Building for Boards of Municipalities. Organized by Kiambu County Government and Kenya Urban Support Programme (KUSP). Lake Naivasha Resort, Naivasha; 2019.
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Mbuge DO. "How can we generate money from lost and wasted food? .". In: Frontiers of Engineering for Development symposium: From Feeding People to Nourishing People. Antananarivo, Madagascar; 2019.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Dulo. "Onset and Cessation of Rainfall in East Africa.". In: NBCBN training Workshop. Dar es Salaam University; 2019.
N NB, O OT, O KD, N MJ. "Exploring the Possible Use of EN 197 CEM II/B-P and CEM IV/B-P in the Production of High-Performance Concrete.". In: IEK-EBK Conference. Diani, Kenya; 2019.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural metabletica : Luo existence in informal settlements.". In: Tropical Architecture and the Urban Challenges facing the Global South. Sub-theme: Socio-cultural issues. 9TH Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop, University of Nairobi’s Department of Architecture 4th-5th September 2019.; 2019.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural metabletica : Transformation of the Kenyan Luo dwelling unit.". In: Tropical Architecture and the Urban Challenges facing the Global South. Sub-theme: Socio-cultural issues. 9TH Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop, University of Nairobi’s Department of Architecture 4th-5th September 2019.; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK ANALYSIS OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN NAI- ROBI IN A CHANGING CLIMATE.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
MWANGI IK, Muketha SM. "Deriving Value Chain Model Applications in Planning From Skills Audit In Rwandan Urbanization Sector. Presented at 2019 Annual National Planners Convention.". In: Annual National Planners Convention. Organized by the Kenya Institute of Planners (KIP). Diana Reef Beach Resort and Spa, Kwale, Kenya; 2019.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Elimu na Maendeleo.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2019.
‘Writing and Publishing: My Personal Experience’. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
Wasamba P. "Hasty varsity mergers could mess up things." The Standard, July 9, 2019:15.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Kiriinya LK, GATARI MJ. "Isotope Tracing Application in Source Identification of Tropospheric Black Carbon in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: International Conference on Tracers and Tracing Methods. VIETNAM; 2019.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Institutional Pressures and Cloud Computing Adoption.". In: IST-Africa 2019 . Nairobi; 2019.
Ogutu K. "High Court chose safe route in gay sex case." The Standard, May 28, 2019.
M. KD, M. MI. "Strain level metagenomic analysis of Nairobi Market fermented camel milk.". In: University of Nairobi, AGRO2019 conference and Exhibition. FOA,CAVS-University of Nairobi; 2019.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Athinya DK, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Larval species diversity, seasonal occurrence and larval habitat preference of mosquitoestransmitting Rift Valley fever and malariain Baringo County, Kenya.". In: C.B.P.S. Annual conference.; 2019.
Ntwiga DB. "Fintech and Banks Collaboration: Does it Influence Efficiency inthe Banking Sector?". In: Kenya Bankers Association 8th Banking Research Conference. Radisson Blu Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The efficiency of the banking sector in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to rest of the world and Fintech is taunted to alter this scenario. Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the landscape in the banking sector, banks in Kenya are forming collaborations that are envisioned to shape the evolution of credit allocation and delivery of services. The study investigates the influence of Fintech on a bank’s efficiency in credit allocation using thedata envelopment model with input-orientation based on the intermediationdimension. Efficiency scores are decomposed as technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency.Secondary data for the period 2009-2018 is extracted from thirteen banks sampled from the top fifteen banks in Kenya based on their market share. The banks are either locally owned or listed in Nairobi Securities Exchange, of which five have Fintech collaborationswith a Pre-Fintech and Post Fintechperiod. Panel regression model tested the effect of financial ratios on technical efficiency of the banks. Fintech collaborating banks are more technically efficient based on models M1, M2 and M3 in Pre-Fintech. In Post Fintech, the Fintech banks are more efficient based on models M2, M3 and M4 but with decreasing returns to scale which is due to the banks being overly large, thus non-optimal in their operations. The positive effect on technical efficiency is observed from the ratios, liquidity, loan intensity, return on assets and cost of income. Cost of intermediation and credit risk had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Therefore, Fintech and banks collaborations did not significantly influence efficiency in the banking sector.

F.M M, D.O M, Gitau. A.N. "Modelling and Prediction of Drying Kinetics in a Hybrid Solar Desiccant Drier.". In: Kenya Society of Environmental, Biological and Agricultural Engineers Annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
2020
Mosenda E, Chemining’wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Assessment of Agronomic Traits of Selected Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2020;9:222-241. Abstract
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Bitange NM, Chemining'wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino WO. "Can calcium sprays alleviate jelly seed in mango fruits?" Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2020;121:35-42. Abstract
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Korir BK, Wanyoike MMM, KURIA JOSEPHKN, Mwangi DM, Muge EE. "Cassava leaves and azolla as crude protein supplement feed to east african short horned Zebu Heifers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16:1457-1462. Abstract
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Ogonda LA, Muge EK, Wamalwa BM, Mulaa FJ, Tellier C. "Characterization of Crude Cellulases From a Bacillus Sp. Isolated From Lake Bogoria, Kenya.". 2020. Abstract
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Dlamini CP, Khumalo T, Nkwanyana N, Mathunjwa-Dlamini TR, Macera L, Nsibandze BS, Kaplan L, Stuart-Shor EM. "Developing and implementing the family nurse practitioner role in Eswatini: implications for education, practice, and policy." Annals of Global Health. 2020;86. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Developing Plantain for Resistance to Banana Aphids by RNA Interference." Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings. 2020;36:54. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Mosenda E, Chemining'wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Water Stress on Growth and Yield Components of Selected Spider Plant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2020;9:81-97. Abstract
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Mwangi WE. "Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Feline Orthopaedic Surgery." International journal of veterinary sciences. 2020;9:164-167. Abstract
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Bundi A, Mburu J, Mbogoh SG, Ambuko JL. "Factors influencing the adoption of pre-harvest practices among mango farmers in Embu and Machakos counties, Kenya." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2020;7:56-72. Abstract
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Lachenmeier DW, Teipel J, Scharinger A, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Grosch F, Bunzel M, Okaru AO, Schwarz S. "Fully automated identification of coffee species and simultaneous quantification of furfuryl alcohol using NMR spectroscopy." Journal of AOAC International. 2020;103:306-314. Abstract
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Gyang PJ, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Kenyan Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm Using Peroxidase Gene Markers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2020;90:293-301. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Munywoki P, Achia T, Akolo M, Muriuki F, Muthui M, Kimani J. "High prevalence of non-communicable diseases among key populations enrolled at a large HIV prevention & treatment program in Kenya." Plos one. 2020;15:e0235606. Abstract
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Wambugu JW, Kyalo D, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Access to Quality Services on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5. Abstract
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Wambugu JW, KYALO DOROTHYNDUNGE, Mbugua J, Mutave R. "Influence of Quality Counseling on Performance of Family Planning Programs in Kuresoi North Sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya." American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2020;9:88-98. Abstract
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Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "International Journal of Veterinary Science.". 2020. Abstract
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Odera S, Mureithi M, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, Anzala O, Julius Oyugi. "Latent tuberculosis among household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Nairobi, Kenya." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37. Abstract
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Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract
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Muchira JM, Gona PN, Mogos MF, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille SG, Piano MR, Hayman LL. "Parental cardiovascular health predicts time to onset of cardiovascular disease in offspring." European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2020. Abstract
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Kerry VB, Ahaisibwe B, Malewezi B, Ngoma D, Daoust P, Stuart-Shor E, Mannino CA, Day D, Foradori L, Sayeed SA. "Partnering to build human resources for health capacity in Africa: a descriptive review of the global health service partnership’s innovative model for health professional education and training from 2013-2018." International Journal of Health Policy and Management. 2020. Abstract
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Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20. Abstract
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Kosgei DC, Mageto IG, Wagoro MC. "PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AMONG SURVIVORS SEEKING CARE AT GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CLINIC OF KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Medical and Clinical Practice. 2020;5:19-34. Abstract
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Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality control report of drugs analyzed in the drug analysis and research unit during the period 2011-2015." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23:79-86. Abstract
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Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J. "Returns to investment in postharvest loss reduction technologies among mango farmers in Embu County, Kenya." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e195. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi L, Tripathi JN, Ntui VO, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J. "RNAi technology for management of banana bunchy top disease." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e247. Abstract
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Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:125-131. Abstract
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Muchira JM, Gona PN, Mogos MF, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille SG, Piano MR, Hayman LL. "Temporal trends and familial clustering of ideal cardiovascular health in parents and offspring over the life course: an investigation using the Framingham Heart Study." Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020;9:e016292. Abstract
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Yebouet M-FA, Diby AK, Kaduki KA, Zoueu JT. "Unstained blood smear contrast enhancement using spectral time multiplexing super resolution." Journal of Spectral Imaging. 2020;9. Abstract
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Cosmas K, Kenichi A. "Utilization of FPGA for Onboard Inference of Landmark Localization in CNN-Based Spacecraft Pose Estimation." Aerospace. 2020;7. AbstractWebsite

In the recent past, research on the utilization of deep learning algorithms for space applications has been widespread. One of the areas where such algorithms are gaining attention is in spacecraft pose estimation, which is a fundamental requirement in many spacecraft rendezvous and navigation operations. Nevertheless, the application of such algorithms in space operations faces unique challenges compared to application in terrestrial operations. In the latter, they are facilitated by powerful computers, servers, and shared resources, such as cloud services. However, these resources are limited in space environment and spacecrafts. Hence, to take advantage of these algorithms, an on-board inferencing that is power- and cost-effective is required. This paper investigates the use of a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Systems-on-Chip (SoC) device for efficient onboard inferencing of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) part of such pose estimation methods. In this study, Xilinx’s Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC device is used and proposed as an effective onboard-inferencing solution. The performance of the onboard and computer inferencing is compared, and the effectiveness of the hybrid FPGA-CPU architecture is verified. The FPGA-based inference has comparable accuracy to the PC-based inference with an average RMS error difference of less than 0.55. Two CNN models that are based on encoder-decoder architecture have been investigated in this study and three approaches demonstrated for landmarks localization.

Okaru AO, Scharinger A, de Rezende TR, Teipel J, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Validation of a quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic screening method for coffee quality and authenticity (NMR Coffee Screener)." Foods. 2020;9:47. Abstract
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Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions.". 2020. Abstract
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McGuire E, Ambuko J, Jarman A, Mitcham E. "Who Is Fortunate Enough to Eat All Their Fruits and Veggies?". In: 2020 ASHS Annual Conference. ASHS; 2020. Abstract
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Joselyne NM, Waweru M, Gitau AN, Alphonse U, Patrick M. " Evaluating Anaerobic Digestion Technology in Reducing the Quantity of Solid Waste: Case of Kigali Dumpsite. ." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2020;8(ISSN: 2327-4344):204-220.
DK M, Mutegi R, Kipruto S, Muriithi M, Oleche OM, Mwabu G, YOUNGER SD. " Inequality trends and diagnostics in Kenya," Working Paper, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics."; 2020.
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. ") New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activit." ACS Omega . 2020;XXXX(XXXX):XXXX. Abstract

: New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1−C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1−C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and13C NMR, UV−vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1−L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0−8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and PC-3) and noncancerous (MCF-12A) cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Apopercentage assays, respectively. C5 demonstrated strong DNA-binding affinity for calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with a binding constant of 8.049 × 104 M−1. C3 reduced cell viability of all the six cell lines, which included five cancerous cell lines, by more than 80%. The C5 complex also demonstrated remarkably high selectivity with no cytotoxic activity toward the noncancerous breast cell line but reduced the viability of the five cancerous cell lines, which included one breast cancer cell line, by more than 60%. Further studies are required to evaluate the selective toxicity of these two complexes and to fully understand their mechanism of action.

W K, A A, A K. ". Trends and factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception in Kenya." F1000Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: Kenya has 12 million female adolescents and youths aged 10-34 years whose reproductive behavior will determine the growth and size of its population for the next decade. The anticipated momentum of births can be slowed by the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods as they are more effective, need no user adherence, and hence have no risk of incorrect or inconsistent use. However, in spite of the many health and social benefits, LARC is underutilized because of myths and misconceptions. Kenya is in the ultimate decade towards Vision 2030 and investing in LARC can save costs of health care and accelerate the achievement of the development goal. The objective of this study was to establish factors associated with LARC use, with a view of establishing the potential for increasing demand.

Rege JEO, Ochieng J, Hanotte O. "1 Livestock Genetics and Breeding." The Impact of the International Livestock Research Institute. 2020:59.
O AI, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM. "3. Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach. ." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research . 2020;8:1444 .
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba JN. "Adsorption of malachite green dye from aqueous solutions using mesoporous chitosan–zinc oxide composite material." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2020;2:115-125. AbstractAbstract

Description
Chitosan–zinc oxide composite with an average size of 33 nm was synthesized by facile chemical precipitation technique for application in the removal of water contaminants such as dyes. Malachite green (MG) was the model colorant for the sorption process. Material characterization was achieved using selected spectroscopic techniques. Elemental analysis results revealed that the material had high concentration levels of Zn (965,000 ± 53.2 mg/kg) compared to Fe (756.5 ± 45.3 mg/kg) and P (166 ± 26.6 mg/kg). Batch adsorption experiments of the dye onto chitosan–ZnO (CS–ZnO) composite was investigated with a UV–Visible photometer. The rate of dye removal was greatly influenced by pH, dye strength, amount of adsorbent and contact time. High removal capacity of 98.5% was achieved with reducing dye strength of 2.3 mg/L, dosage of 0.6 g and pH 8 within 180 min equilibration time. Langmuir model …

Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2020. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

Kieti RM, Rukwaro RW, Olima WA. "Affordable Housing in Kenya: Status, Opportunities and Challenges." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(1).
S.O O, J.N M, R. T, M K. "African Images in Kithaka wa Mberia's Poetry." Asian Journal of African Studies, Institute of African Studies,Hankuk University of Foreign Studies. 2020;49(August 2020):3-28.
Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
Kaua, CG., Thenya, Mutune JM. "Analysis of Informal Microfinance Institutions Structures in Relation to Performance in Tharaka South Subcounty, Kenya. ." European Journal of Sustainable Development . 2020;9(3):457-475.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2020;13(11).
JessicaOsanya, I.Adam R, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Jaleta M. "An analysis of the respective contributions of husband and wife in farming households in Kenya to decisions regarding the use of income: A multinomial logit approach." Women's Studies International Forum. 2020;83. AbstractWebsite

This paper analyzes the socio-economic characteristics of households that affect husbands and wives' contributions to decisions regarding the use of income from crop and livestock sales in Kenya. Using a sample of 276 households, we apply a multinomial logit model to assess factors affecting decision-making. Results show that husbands make most decisions concerning agriculture, while wives mainly decide on daily household expenditure. Higher education levels were found to increase women's involvement in decision-making on income use. Group membership had a positive effect on joint decision-making on income use. The study recommends improving women's access to education, which will improve their access to productive resources, hence their decision-making power. Providing incentives for members of agricultural groups can provide avenues for learning. Gender-transformative approaches that empower women and sensitize men to allow space for women to engage in decision-making, can have an impact in improving the decision-making capacity of women in households.

Onyambu DCK, Aywak DAA, Osiemo DS, Mutala DTM. "Anaphylactic reactions in radiology procedures.". In: Asthma. Intechopen; 2020.
Collaborators TWHOACTIONT. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." New England Medical Journal. 2020;382(17). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a multicountry, randomized trial involving pregnant women between 26 weeks 0 days and 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who were at risk for preterm birth. The participants were assigned to intramuscular dexamethasone or identical placebo. The primary outcomes were neonatal death alone, stillbirth or neonatal death, and possible maternal bacterial infection; neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death were evaluated with superiority analyses, and possible maternal bacterial infection was evaluated with a noninferiority analysis with the use of a prespecified margin of 1.25 on the relative scale.

Results: A total of 2852 women (and their 3070 fetuses) from 29 secondary- and tertiary-level hospitals across Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for benefit at the second interim analysis. Neonatal death occurred in 278 of 1417 infants (19.6%) in the dexamethasone group and in 331 of 1406 infants (23.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.97; P=0.03). Stillbirth or neonatal death occurred in 393 of 1532 fetuses and infants (25.7%) and in 444 of 1519 fetuses and infants (29.2%), respectively (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.04); the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection was 4.8% and 6.3%, respectively (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.03). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of adverse events.

Conclusions: Among women in low-resource countries who were at risk for early preterm birth, the use of dexamethasone resulted in significantly lower risks of neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death than the use of placebo, without an increase in the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection.

Kimondo J, Mutai P, Njogu P, Kimwele C. "Anti-inflammatory activity of selected plants used by the Ilkisonko Maasai, Kenya." Afr. J. Therapeut. Pharmacol. 2020;9(2):39-43.
Derese S. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of natural products. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis
Richard Oriko Owor, Kibrom Gebreheiwot Bedane, Sebastian Zühlke, Solomon Derese, George Otieno Ong’amo, Albert Ndakala, Michael Spiteller
Abstract
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. Whereas compounds 1, 2, 4–8, 10–15, 17, and 18 decreased production of IL-6, compounds 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 13–15, and 17 inhibited the release of IL-1β. It is worth noting that most of the compounds tested showed a superior reduction in cytokines release compared to the reference drug ibuprofen.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo GO, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of Natural Products. 2020;83(4):996-1004. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and …

Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Antibiotic and disinfectants susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens recovered from farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2020;2020(Article ID 8897338. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897338).
Babiaka SB, Nia R, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Nziko VN, Paper DH, Ntie-Kang F. "Antioxidant potential of flavonoid glycosides from Manniophyton fulvum Müll. (Euphorbiaceae): Identification and molecular modeling." Scientic African. 2020;8(e00423):1-7. Abstract

Chemical investigation of the leaves of Manniophyton fulvum led to the isolation of seven flavonoid glycosides: myricetin-3-O-β-Dd-rhamnoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (5), rutin (6) and quercetin (7). The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as well as by comparison with published data. Some of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity which validates the traditional use of the plant. An attempted correlation between the computed HOMO-LUMO energies and the measured antioxidant activities was established. We have also estimated the cardiotoxicity of the compounds by calculating the predicted logarithm of the human Ether-`a-go-go Related Gene (loghERG) using the QikProp program. These purified flavonoids are new potential lead compounds for the development of antioxidant drugs.

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Abstract
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM) human cell lines. All the other compounds showed low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 30 μM) against human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), lung/bronchus cells (epithelial virus transformed) (BEAS-2B) and immortal human hepatocytes (LO2)

Graphical abstract
Unlabelled Image

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
A new flavanonol, 3-hydroxyerythrisenegalone (1), and four known compounds (2–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, erythrisenegalone (3) showed significant …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Mureithi PM, B.M. K, Onyango CM, Mathiu MP. "Antiulcerogenic Effects of Selected African Nightshades (Solanum nigrum Linn.) Genotypes on the Rat Stomach: A Morphologic and Morphometric Study." International Journal of Morphology. 2020;38(4):940-946.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems." MRS Advances. 2020;5(26):1339-1348.
Ng’ang’a JW, Odero D, Buigutt KSA. "Application of Library Service Charter in Quality Service Delivery in University Libraries." Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). . 2020;4007(4007).Website
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractenieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractnieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

omari HK, Makokha, Abdalla S. Arabic for all. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
Opanda S, Bulimo W, Gachara G, Ekuttan C, Amukoye E. "Assessing antigenic drift and phylogeny of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in Kenya using HA1 sub-unit of the hemagglutinin gene." PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228029. Abstractpone.0228029.pdf

Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus emerged in North America in 2009 and has been established as a seasonal strain in humans. After an antigenic stasis of about six years, new antigenically distinct variants of the virus emerged globally in 2016 necessitating a change in the vaccine formulation for the first time in 2017. Herein, we analyzed thirty-eight HA sequences of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 strains isolated in Kenya during 2015-2018 seasons, to evaluate their antigenic and molecular properties based on the HA1 sub-unit. Our analyses revealed that the A (H1N1) pdm09 strains that circulated in Kenya during this period belonged to genetic clade 6B, subclade 6B.1 and 6B.2. The Kenyan 2015 and 2016 isolates differed from the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 at nine and fourteen antigenic sites in the HA1 respectively. Further, those isolated in 2017 and 2018 correspondingly varied from A/Michigan/45/2015 vaccine strain at three and fifteen antigenic sites. The predicted vaccine efficacy of A/California/07/2009 against Kenyan 2015/2016 was estimated to be 32.4% while A/Michigan/45/2015 showed estimated vaccine efficacies of 39.6% - 41.8% and 32.4% - 42.1% against Kenyan 2017 and 2018 strains, respectively. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay using ferret post-infection reference antiserum showed that the titers for the Kenyan 2015/2016 isolates were 2-8-fold lower compared to the vaccine strain. Overall, our results suggest the A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses that circulated in Kenya during 2015/2016 influenza seasons were antigenic variants of the recommended vaccine strains, denoting sub-optimal vaccine efficacy. Additionally, data generated point to a swiftly evolving influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in recent post pandemic era, underscoring the need for sustained surveillance coupled with molecular and antigenic analyses, to inform appropriate and timely influenza vaccine update.

Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO. "Assessment of Arabusta coffee hybrids [Coffea arabica L. X Tetraploid Robusta (Coffea canephora )] for green bean physical properties and cup quality." African Journal of Food Science. 2020;14(5):119-127.
Joseph Muiruri, Wahome R, Karatu K. "Assessment of methods practiced in the disposal of solid waste in Eastleigh Nairobi County, Kenya [J]." AIMS Environmental Science. 2020;7(5):434-448.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Ochiba N.K,.A. A’oD, J.O. O. "Assessment of selected heavy metals levels in borehole water in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." Journal of Science and Technology. 2020;6:9-17.
Mugo JN, Karanja NN, Gachene CK, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in central and eastern highlands of Kenya.". 2020.
James. N. Mugo, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Nyawade SO, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Assessment of soil fertility and potato crop nutrient status in Central and Eastern Highlands of Kenya." Nature research. 2020.
Makori AO, Nyongesa AW, Odongo HO, Masai RJ. "Assessment of stress on serum estradiol and cortisol levels in female subordinate naked mole rats following isolation from natal colony." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:9-17.
S.Senda T, Lance W. Robinson, K.K.Gachene C, Kironchi G, Doyo J. "An assessment of the implications of alternative scales of communal land tenure formalization in pastoral systems." Land use Policy. 2020;94.
Chebet EB, Kibet JK, Mbui D. "The assessment of water quality in river Molo water basin, Kenya." Applied Water Science. 2020;10(4):1-10. AbstractApplied Water Science

Description
The monitoring of water quality for both domestic and commercial use is absolutely essential for policy formulation that affects both public and environmental health. This study investigates the quality of water of river Molo system which lies in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The river is considered a vital source of water for the residents and industrial activities in Nakuru and Baringo Counties. Six water samples were collected during the dry season of December 2017. Various physicochemical parameters were determined in situ by use of a portable pH meter. These parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS). Anions such as fluorides, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, carbonates and bicarbonates were determined using conventional methods such as titrimetry and (ultra-violet visible) UV–Vis techniques. The cations including sodium, potassium, calcium and …
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MO F, M O, ME T, A K, OB A-B, B G. "Association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low-and middle-income countries: 2007-2017." Head and neck Surgery Dentistry Journal. 2020.
MO F, M ET, NM A, OB A-B, RJ S, JL C, JI V, BO G, R A, A K, A V, CA F. "Association between early childhood caries and poverty in low and middle-income countries." BMC Oral health. 2020;2020; 20:8(2020; 20:8):2020; 20:8.
Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Schroth R, Kemoli AM, Gaffar B, Amalia R, Feldens CA. "Association between environmental health, ecosystem vitality and early childhood caries." Front Pediatr. 2020;2020; 8:196.(2020; 8:196.):2020; 8:196.
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Inyega J, Muchemi G. "Attitude towards undergraduate training in agriculture and veterinary sciences by secondary school students, teachers and parents in Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heautagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):8-18.
GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

M.M M, P. K. "Authentic instruction strategy in making learners assets to sustainable development in kenya: strategies and approaches.". In: Politics and Sustainable Development in Africa. Nairobi: : Centre for Democracy, Research and Development (CEDRED); 2020.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
Jeneby F, Badrus A, Taib H, Alluso A, Odiemo L, Otanga H. "Best practices in reaching ‘hidden’ populations and harm reduction service provision.". In: The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle. New York: Emerald Publishing Company; 2020.
Marab PM, Musyoki S, Amayo A. "Biochemical changes in whole blood stored for transfusion at Bungoma County Referral Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2020;9(1):a1182.
Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of Market Wastes from Nairobi Inoculated With Dagoretti Slaughterhouse Waste." Int J Sci Res Sci Eng & Technol.. 2020;7(4):81-90. Abstract

Background: Anaerobic degradation entails the conversion of substrate organic matter to biogas. A wide variety of substrate has been employed. The biochemical methane potential of twenty market wastes was investigated using rumen fluid inoculum.
Experimental: The proximate properties like carbohydrates, crude proteins, crude lipids, fibre, and moisture levels were determined using standard procedures. The physio-chemical analysis was done to investigate the ash, total solids and volatile matter content. The substrates biogas production capacity
based on elemental composition, COD, organic fraction composition was investigated. However, the BMP experiments were carried out at mesophillic conditions.
Results: The total biogas production was in the range of 1000 to 3500ml, with a methane composition of 56 – 60%. The biodegradability of the substrates ranges from 71 to 94%, subject to the lignin levels.
Conclusion: The BMP studies are vital in assessing the methane potential of the substrate without carrying out the experiments.
Keywords : Biogas, Methane, rumen fluid, market wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM. Biogas Digester Automation.; 2020.
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Ndung’u CW, Ogutu M, Yabs J, Muranga NJ, Kinoti M. "Business Environment, Corporate Image, Competitive Strategies And Performance Of Large Manufacturing Firms In Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2020;6(1):215-233. Abstractbusiness_environment_corporate_image_competitive_strategies_and_performance_of_large_manufacturing_firms_in_kenya.pdf

Firms’ performance differs from firm to firm in the same industry with some firms achieving higher
levels of performance than others which can be connected to the type of competitive strategies a
firm adopts. The never-ending changes today calls for firms to continuously monitor their business
environment with a view to creating strategies that will make them different from their competitors
and improve their corporate image in the eyes of their customers. The study sought to determine
how business environment and corporate image affect the relationship between competitive
strategies and the performance of large manufacturing firms in Kenya. It was guided by positivist
philosophy and a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The target population was large
manufacturing firms in Kenya where a structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data.
Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The study found that the joint influence of
competitive strategies, business environment and corporate image on performance of large
manufacturing firms in Kenya was statistically significant. Manufacturing firms should adopt
competitive strategies in response to business environment and craft strategies to enable them
position themselves better than competitor. The firms can indirectly improve performance by
maintaining a good corporate image also.

Ebrahim YH. Cambiamento di microtemperatura e forma urbana costruita (Italian) Micro-temperature change and urban built form. Chisinau, Moldova: Edizioni Accademische Italiane, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Can calcium sprays alleviate jelly seed in mango fruits?" Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2020;Vol. 121 (1):35-42.abstract
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Capacity Building in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102.". 2020. Abstract

Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102
Abstract: health-related problems and even death among animals and human beings. Agriculture is the main food source; thus, many interventions are made such as that of irrigation by the local county and national government initiated through the National Irrigation Board (NIB). Despite the irrigation projects food insufficiency still persists, therefore their sustainability is questionable. One such approach to improving the sustainability of irrigation projects is participatory monitoring and evaluation which leads to ownership and then higher sustainability. In the study, the objective was to asses if taking corrective action after participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) influence project sustainability. The study used a descriptive survey and correlation designs to collect data from 316 respondents selected using stratification sand purposeful with strict randomization. Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected sample respondents on appointed dates. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 to get descriptive statistics, correlations coefficients were obtained to test association and degree of strength. Testing of the hypothesis was done using linear regression. The study findings were that a large number of respondents were between ages 31 to 40 years and most were female with their highest level of education being primary school. The influence of PME capacity building on the dependent variable and irrigation projects sustainability found that the farmers were not taken for exposure visits and project officers were not accountable for money use. Age, gender, and education level have very minimal influence on PME capacity building. PME capacity building had a weak positive influence of r = 0.290 and it explained only 8.4% of irrigation projects sustainability in Kitui County. The study recommends that to improve project capacity building: project revenue must be controlled on use, farmers must be taken for exposure visits to learn from successors, project officers should be accountable for funds use, and project guidelines should be improved to increase sustainability. Implementation of these recommendations will reduce the loss of Arid and Semi-Srid Lands (ASALs) and attain higher and longer sustainability in food projects, thus, reducing the recurrence rate of food shortage, improve and hasten the implementation of irrigation projects, show the need to involve primary stakeholders in project monitoring and appraisal for sustainability, better and efficient decisions by policymakers to increase chances of project's success. Keywords: Food security, Participatory monitoring and evaluation, irrigation, taking corrective action, capacity building, sustainability, funds management, projects

AN S, A K, Benki-Nugent S, Chebet D GL, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC. "Caregivers’ report of HIV-associated oral manifestations among HIV-unexposed, exposed, and infected Kenyan children." Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;2021;00:1-8.(2021;00:1-8.):2021;00:1-8.
Ogeng’o J, Ouko I, Wambui A, Amuti T. "A case Report on unusual elongation of the Sustentaculum tali." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2020;9(1):1678-1680.

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