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2018
Djurfeldt AA, Dzanku FM, Isinika AC. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya.". In: Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2018.
Wambugu SK, Karugia JT, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. 2018;978-0-19-879928-3(ISBN):978-0-19-879928-3.
Maranga MM, Barasa VN, Muchiri J. "Television Theatre as an Alternative Peace and Conflict Intervention Tool in Contemporary Kenya: An analysis of Vioja Mahakamani." International Journal of Research and Scholarly Communication. 2018;1(3).
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Saini P, E NYENZE, M J, A G, Kaguri S.K. "Terson’s Syndrome: Intraocular Hemorrhage in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage." The Kenya Journal of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Critical . 2018;04(1):15-16.
Bulinda DM. The theoretical narrative in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Nzogong RT, Nganou BK, Tedonkeu AT, Awouafack MD, Tene M, Ito T, Tane P, Morita H. "Three New Abietane-Type Diterpenoids from Plectranthus africanus and Their Antibacterial Activities." Planta medica. 2018;84(01):59-64.
S. Awino, Modisa M. ATJOAP. "Time SeriesAnalysis Of Impulsive Noise In Power Line Communication (PLC) Networks." Trans. SAIEE. 2018;Vol.107 (4) (4):237-243.
Mungania BG, Schroeder H. "Topic, focus, and word order in the Kiswahili clause." The University of Nairobi Journal of language and linguistics. 2018;Vol. 7 (2018):114-138.
Ngaina JN, Muthama NJ, Mwalichi IJ, Owuor OA. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting. 2018;6(1). AbstractOMICS International

In order to map suitable areas for weather modification in East Africa Community (EAC), investigations were performed to determine spatio-temporal variability and relationship of aerosol, clouds and precipitation during March- April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) were used. Identification of near homogeneous zones of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), Cloud Top and 3B42 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) yielded 13 (14), 20 (18), 11 (10) and 16 (17) significant Principal Components (PCs) for MAM (OND) with explained variance greater than 57%. Aerosols and clouds had positive relationship with precipitation in areas with strong factor loadings. MRA indicated independence of variables used and normality in the model residuals. Backward trajectory analysis indicated differences in origins of transported particles in the atmosphere with strong vertical mixing inlands with mixed aerosols resulting due to mountain blocking systems accounted for enhanced rainfall. Enhanced rainfall was attributed to highly varied AOD and unaffected FMF in the atmosphere. Locations east and west EAC with mean temperatures greater than -10°C were unsuitable for cloud seeding while central EAC region along the great rift-valley and coastal Tanzania exhibited optimal temperatures suitable for cloud seeding. Successful precipitation enhancement will increase available fresh water sources and thus alleviate existing and projected water stress.

Ondieki EO. "Tracing Vulnerability: An Assessment of the Impact of Interventions in Housing and Road Infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2018;Vol:12 - 2018(Issue 2, 2018):SBE Publication- UoN. (Page 1401-1420).
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Traditional Birth Attendants and Childbirth in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub County." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6(5):1-18.
Onyango LSMOU. "Transformation of Formal Urban Housing in Kenya: Rationale and Process." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2018;Volume-3(August-2018 (8-19). ISSN:2213-135).
Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Bosire E. "Trends of Intraseasonal Descriptors of Wet and Dry Spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2018;38(3):1189-1200. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Many African countries whose economies are largely based on weather/climate sensitive sectors are vulnerable to long‐term changes in weather and climate. This study is aimed at assessing whether the recent decades have observed any significant trend in the intraseasonal descriptors (ISDs) of wet and dry spells at local and sub‐regional levels at seasonal and monthly timescales over equatorial eastern Africa (EEA). Daily rainfall observations over 36 stations and spanning a period of 51 years (1962–2012) were used.

The study has expanded on previous results that showed contrasting trends on seasonal totals between the two rainfall seasons by demonstrating that this also affects the ISDs. At the local level, it was observed that during the long rainfall season, a given ISD would have a significant trend over several neighbouring locations, which was not the case during the short rainfall season. Secondly, for the short rainfall season, a given location would have significant trend in several ISDs. Finally, when a given ISD had a significant trend at seasonal timescale during the long rainfall season, the same ISD would have significant trends in the second and third months of the season and rarely in the first month. Such a feature was not observed for the short rainfall season. Binomial probability distribution assessment confirmed that the significant trends in the various ISDs during the long rainfall season did not occur by mere chance.

Jerono P. "Tugen Noun Classification .". In: Nilo Saharan Issues and Perspectives . Cologne: Rudiger Kopper Verlag; 2018.
Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Arasio RL, Kaufmann B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
Muthuwatta L, Sood A, McCartney M, Silva NS, Opere A. "Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya." Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 2018;379:37-42. Abstractunderstanding_the_impacts_of_climate_change_in_the_tana_river_basin_kenya.pdfProceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

In the Tana River Basin in Kenya, six Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) simulating two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (i.e., 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to determine the possible implications for the hydrology and water resources of the basin. Four hydrological characteristics – water yield, groundwater recharge, base flow and flow regulation – were determined and mapped throughout the basin for three 30-year time periods: 2020–2049, 2040–2069 and 2070–2099. Results were compared with a baseline period, 1983–2011. All four hydrological characteristics show steady increases under both RCPs for the entire basin but with considerable spatial heterogeneity and greater increases under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. The results have important implications for the way water resources in the basin are managed. It is imperative that water managers and policy makers take into account the additional challenges imposed by climate change in operating built infrastructure.

R. TRBO &. "UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SLUM DWELLER: A case of Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya." http://ijirk.com/issue-details/365. 2018;Vol. 3, (12).
PUlei AN, Shatry NA, Sura MK, Njoroge MW, Kibii DK, Mwaniki DK, Teko HP, Maranga O, Ogutu O, Vogel JP, Qureshi Z. "Updating of a clinical protocol for the prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2). AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) affects 6% of births and accounts for almost 30% of maternal deaths. The use of clinical protocols for preventing and treating PPH is recommended by WHO. Protocols should be evidence-based, regularly updated, widely available and routinely adhered to.
Broad Objective: To update the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) PPH prevention and management protocol based on latest recommendations, and ensure its dissemination and use by providers.
Materials and Methods: A literature search identified selected PPH-related guidelines which were assessed using the AGREE-II tool for guideline quality. A matrix was created to compare recommendations across guidelines. Recommendations included in the KNH protocol were based on agreement across guidelines, guideline quality, publication year, and contextual factors in our setting. To aid implementation, an updated KNH protocol document, a clinical algorithm and a PPH management checklist were developed. These were reviewed and accepted as best practice by KNH and University of Nairobi.
Results: Six PPH-related guidelines were used (WHO, FIGO, RCOG, ACOG, FOGSI, and the Kenya National Guidelines for Quality Obstetrics and Perinatal care). The KNH protocol covers PPH prevention, including: active management of third stage, oxytocin after vaginal or caesarean delivery, other drugs for prevention (when oxytocin is not available), controlled cord traction and delayed cord clamping. It also covers PPH management (supportive and definitive measures).
Conclusion: An updated PPH prevention and management protocol for KNH was developed. Implementation and adherence will help standardize PPH-related care and improve health outcomes for women.

Shah P. "The urban future of food and nutrition security.". In: Food security, renewable energy and water: Insights on sustainability. Nairobi: University of Nairobi ; 2018.
Ooko JO, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM. "Use of Accelerated Tests to Estimate Rate of Corrosion of Roofing Sheets." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2018;37(3):1-8.
Ooko JO, J.O. O, A.O. Y, P.M. G. "Use of accelerated tests to estimate corrosion rates of roofing sheets." International Journal of Sciences. 2018;37(3):1-8.publication_juspher_onyatta_yusuf_guto.pdf
Mary Taabu, F Nyongesa, Birech Z, Aduda B. Use of Diatomaceous Earth Wastes and Plant derived Binders in Water Purification Systems. NAIROBI, KENYA: MSSEESA; 2018.
O.Nyumba T, Wilson2  K, Derrick CJ, Mukherjee  N. "The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation." Methods in Ecology and evolution. 2018;9(1):20-32. Abstractdio.org

Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an in‐depth understanding of social issues. The method aims to obtain data from a purposely selected group of individuals rather than from a statistically representative sample of a broader population. Even though the application of this method in conservation research has been extensive, there are no critical assessment of the application of the technique. In addition, there are no readily available guidelines for conservation researchers.
Here, we reviewed the applications of focus group discussion within biodiversity and conservation research between 1996 and April 2017. We begin with a brief explanation of the technique for first‐time users. We then discuss in detail the empirical applications of this technique in conservation based on a structured literature review (using Scopus).
The screening process resulted in 170 articles, the majority of which (67%, n = 114,) were published between 2011 and 2017. Rarely was the method used as a stand‐alone technique. The number of participants per focus group (where reported) ranged from 3 to 21 participants with a median of 10 participants. There were seven (median) focus group meetings per study. Focus group discussion sessions lasted for 90 (median) minutes. Four main themes emerged from the review: understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%). Most of the studies were in Africa (n = 76), followed by Asia (n = 44), and Europe (n = 30).
We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. More than half of the studies (n = 101) did not report the sample size and group size (n = 93), whereas 54 studies did not mention the number of focus group discussion sessions while reporting results. Rarely have the studies provided any information on the rationale for choosing the technique. We have provided guidelines to improve the standard of reporting and future application of the technique for conservation.
1 INTRODUCTION
Conservation social science has come of age (Bennett et al., 2017). From being an outlier and on the sidelines of the discourse on conservation, the importance of understanding human perspectives is now centre stage in conservation decision making (Bennett et al., 2017; Khadka, Hujala, Wolfslehner, & Vacik, 2013; Paloniemi et al., 2012). Within the repertoire of tools that conservation biologists can use, focus group discussion is a commonly used method. Focus group discussion is a technique where a researcher assembles a group of individuals to discuss a specific topic, aiming to draw from the complex personal experiences, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes of the participants through a moderated interaction (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995; Hayward, Simpson, & Wood, 2004; Israel, Schulz, Parker, & Becker, 1998; Kitzinger, 1994; Morgan, 1996).

Focus group discussion is widely used in conservation research unlike some of the other relatively lesser known techniques such as Nominal Group Technique (Hugé & Mukherjee, in prep) and Q methodology (Zabala & Mukherjee, 2017). The method's popularity is closely linked to the rise of participatory research, especially the “active experimentation with focus groups” in the academic social sciences during the 1980s (Morgan, 2002). The technique emerged as a qualitative data collection approach and a bridging strategy for scientific research and local knowledge (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995). Focus group discussion is perceived to be a “cost‐effective” and “promising alternative” in participatory research (Morgan, 1996) offering a platform for differing paradigms or worldviews (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Orr, 1992). Sociologists and psychologists have used the method since the 1940s (e.g. Merton & Kendall, 1946; Merton, Fiske & Kendall 1956). However, its popularity and application has grown across a wide range of disciplines including education (Flores & Alonso, 1995), communication and media studies (Lunt & Livingstone, 1996), sociology (Morgan, 1996), feminist research (Wilkinson, 1998, 1999), health research (Wilkinson, 1998) and marketing research (Morgan, Krueger, & King, 1998; Szybillo & Berger 1979).

Focus group discussion is sometimes seen as synonymous with interviews, especially the semi‐structured “one‐to‐one” and “group interviews” (Parker & Tritter, 2006). Similarities between these techniques relate to the tendency to uncover people's perceptions and values (e.g. Hargreaves, 1967; Lacey, 1970; Mac an Ghaill, 1994; Sewell, 1997; Skeggs, 1997). Consequently, there are cases where authors have confused and conflated these two distinctive methods (Parker & Tritter, 2006). However, existing evidence on the role of the researcher and the relationship with the participants points to a fundamental difference between the two techniques (Smithson, 2000). Interviews involve a one‐to‐one, qualitative and in‐depth discussion where the researcher adopts the role of an “investigator.” This implies the researcher asks questions, controls the dynamics of the discussion, or engages in dialogue with a specific individual at a time. In contrast, in a focus group discussion, researchers adopt the role of a “facilitator” or a “moderator.” In this setting, the researcher facilitates or moderates a group discussion between participants and not between the researcher and the participants. Unlike interviews, the researcher thereby takes a peripheral, rather than a centre‐stage role in a focus group discussion (Bloor, Frankland, Thomas, & Robson, 2001; Hohenthal, Owidi, Minoia, & Pellikka, 2015; Johnson, 1996; Kitzinger, 1994).

The link between people's perceptions and their socio‐cultural situation is critical to decision‐making on natural resources since most people derive their notions, mental constructions and interpretations from their immediate surrounding and develop these from experiential knowledge (Berkes, 2004). Given the rise of participatory research in conservation over the last few decades (Bennett et al., 2017), it is crucial to reflect on the scope and remit of focus group discussion as a methodological tool. Currently, there is relatively little or no critical discussion on the merits and demerits of focus group discussion in comparison to other similar qualitative techniques. It is therefore difficult to ascertain when and in which context, focus group discussion would be most appropriate. There are no guidelines for best practice for the application of the technique in conservation literature. In addition, there are no comprehensive reviews of the use of focus group discussion in conservation to the best of our knowledge.

Here we assess the strength and weaknesses of the focus group discussion technique based on a review of its application in conservation in the last two decades. We first briefly explain the procedure of the technique and then provide an overview of the different forms of focus group discussion. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant literature, we discuss the merits and potential pitfalls of the technique. Finally, we provide guidelines for reporting future applications of the technique and suggestions to address key psychological biases that can impact group interactions.

"Use of Journey Motif to Foreground thematic issues in selected works of K.W. Wamitila." International Journal of Creative Research Studies. 2018;2(1):62-71.
Muhula S, Opanga Y, Kuyo M, Qureshi Z, Memiah P, M N. "Use of performance dashboards in health care project management: a case of an international health development organization in Kenya." Africa Health Agenda International Journal. 2018;1(3). AbstractWebsite

In this paper we document the use of dashboards in health care project management in an international health non-governmental organization. All projects at the organization monitor output performance on specific indicators against set targets and report these as project outputs performance report every month. In addition, projects prepare quality improvement report, compliance report and financial report. The four reports are then used to generate the monthly integrated performance monitoring and management dashboard which is shared with all staff and used by project managers and programme directors to review projects performance in the 4 parameters of measure and then used to provide appropriate technical support. We conducted a client satisfaction survey among staff to assess their levels of satisfaction with the dashboard and it came out that staff consider the dashboard as a “must have” monthly project management tool as it results in timely measurement of projects’ financial performance, programmatic performance, quality of service performance and compliance performance at a glance without the need to go through detailed reports. Programme directors and project managers use the dashboard to quickly identify hotspots, detect outliers in indicators of measure in a project and use this to deeply analyse possible causes of poor performance in projects for targeted technical assistance.

Kamweru AK. "Using Public Health Regulations to Build Resilience Cities in Kenya: Utafiti News Issue No. 6." Utafiti News Issue 6, January 2019 (2018):15.
M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. "Utility of Sonohysterography in Evaluation of Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding." Obstet Gynecol Rep. 2018;2(2):1-7.Website
Mohamed SM1, Anyona AA2, Onyambu CK2*, IM2 M, TM2 M. "Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports. 2018;2(2):1-7.ogr-2-127-1.pdf
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. Abstract

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. AbstractJ Appl Biotechnol Bioeng

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
and H. Indangasi MOAM. "Value Creating Education in Kenya: Building a Humane Society." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-239.
Ondicho TG. "Violence against women in Kenya: a public health problem." International Journal of Development and |Sustainability. 2018;7(6):2030-2047.ijds-v7n6-19.pdf
Mwangi HN, Onyango, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Musonye, MM, Muchiri J, Barasa VN. "Vitimbi as a Commentary of Kenya's Socio-political Experiences." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social sciences. 2018;2(5).
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Mbatiah M. Watoto wa Mwelusi.; 2018.
Khamala D, Njiraine D, Makori E. "Webometrics Ranking and Its Relationship to Quality Education and Research in Academic Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice. 2018.
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R. "Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …." ucl discovery. 2018. Abstracteppi.ioe.ac.uk

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

Mungania BG. Word order in the Kiswahili clause: a Minimalist approach. Schroeder H, Okombo O, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Odundo Paul Amolloh, Wanjiru KG, Lilian GK. "Work-based Learning, Procedural Knowledge and Teacher Trainee Preparedness towards Teaching Practice at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. . 2018;17(3):96-110.
Kemunto N, Mogoa E, Osoro E, Bitek A, Njenga MK, Thumbi SM. "Zoonotic disease research in East Africa." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18(1):545.
m, m. "’The Relevance of Odera Oruka’s Parental Earth Ethics as an Eco-Philosophy .". In: Odera Oruka in the Twenty-first Century Kenyan Philosophical Studies, II. Washington, D.C: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy; 2018.
SWALEH AMIRI. "“Kosa la Nani?”.". In: “Kosa la Nani?” Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
Kunyanga C. "“This is how Agriculture can drive Vision 2030”." The Standard (2018).
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "肯尼亚地区对玉米中霉菌毒素引起的健康风险的管理和降低." Food Quality and Safety. 2018;1(4):268-274.
Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Dulo, Olago, D. O., Kanoti. "Ground water supply and sanitation challenges in developing countries: Case studies from Kenya.". In: International Association of Hydrogeologisy (IAH) Congress . Daejeon, Korea; 2018.
Oredo J. "Cloud Computing Adoption and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Mindfulness.". In: Kibabii University 3rd Interdisciplinary International Scientific Conference. Bungoma; 2018.
Ondieki EO. "TENEMENTS IN NAIROBI’S URBAN GROWTH.". In: Architectural Association of Kenya (AAK) Convention. Pride-Inn Paradise Beach Resort, Mombasa; 2018.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika utoaji wa huduma kwa umma nchini Kenya.". In: CHAUKIDU. State University of Zanzibar; 2018.
simon munayi Janet chumba. "Management of sports in kenyan public and private universities:emerging trends.". In: Laikipia university international conference.; 2018.
Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Kelder EM. "Electrospray synthesis of porous cathode material for lithium ion batteries.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. ") Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 2018;2(1).
Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
Subramanian S, Gakunga R, Kibachio J, Gathecha G, Edwards P, Ogola E, Yonga G, Busakhala N, Munyoro E, Chakaya J, Ngugi N, Mwangi N, Von Rege D, Wangari L-M, Wata D, Makori R, Mwangi J, Mwanda W. "Cost and affordability of non-communicable disease screening, diagnosis and treatment in Kenya: Patient payments in the private and public sectors." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(1):e0190113. Abstract

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, disproportionately to the rest of the world. Our objective was to quantify patient payments to obtain NCD screening, diagnosis, and treatment services in the public and private sector in Kenya and evaluate patients' ability to pay for the services.

Malusi B, L.O O. "Effect of Handedness on Completion Rate of Chemistry Timed Tasks by LeftHanded Learners .". In: The IAFOR International Conference on Education. Dubai; 2018.iicedubai2018_39167.pdf
Mumbi M. "Evolution of Colonial Architecture and its contribution to Tropical Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Bashaeb MO, Mutala TM, Muriithi IM. "Pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain at the department of diagnostic imaging, university of Nairobi." Pan Afr Med J. 2018;31:116. Abstract

the ankle joint is a frequently injured joint. It is also affected by inflammatory, infectious and tumoral lesions. Ultrasound is a safe and cost-effective imaging tool when evaluating the ankle joint, as most structures are superficial and accessible. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain.

Bashaeb MO, Mutala TM, Muriithi IM. "Pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain at the department of diagnostic imaging, university of Nairobi." Pan Afr Med J. 2018;31:116. Abstract

the ankle joint is a frequently injured joint. It is also affected by inflammatory, infectious and tumoral lesions. Ultrasound is a safe and cost-effective imaging tool when evaluating the ankle joint, as most structures are superficial and accessible. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

Nguru W, Moturi CA. "Supplier Selection Process Based on Fuzzy Logic.". In: Conference on Science and Development. College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Chiromo; 2018. Abstract

In Kenyan governmental organizations, supplier selection during procurement process is regulated by the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal act. The act requires the selection to be done on technical and financial basis, taking into consideration price, quality, time and service. The common way of selecting suppliers is by forming an evaluation committee which takes considerable time and may be characterized by biases and associated costs. Furthermore, the “quality” and “service” factors advised by the act are imprecise and subjective during an evaluation process and also challenging to quantify. This study presents an approach to help decision-makers evaluate potential suppliers by utilizing fuzzy inference system. Initially, the main quantitative and qualitative criteria used in supplier selection process in the construction service industry were identified from literatures and experts through structured questionnaires. After ranking the identified criteria, a Matlab Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was utilized to develop the selection model. The proposed model was tested using a real tender for construction works in a government office block. We realized that the proposed model makes the selection process more systematic and achieved a shorter turn-around time as compared to an evaluation committee. It was concluded that using the Fuzzy inference system resulted in an optimum solution and thus can support in decision making when selecting suppliers thus contributes to the advancement of e-procurement in supply chain management.

Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Masese L, Simoni JM, Shafi J, Adala L, Overbaugh J, Jaoko W, Richardson BA, McClelland RS. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Fertility Desire, Unprotected Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2018;78(3):276-282. Abstract

Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers. Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it was associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

BIRIR J, Gatari MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, Mwea SK, MUIA ML. "Interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects.". In: NDE2018. Mumbai, India; 2018.
Lolgisoi LB, Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Improving the Prototyping Manufacturing Processes: The Development of an Assembly Manual for Suction Machine.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Prototyping Process at the University of Nairobi Maker-Space: A Case Study of Medical Devices for Maternal Newborn Health.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Wasamba P. "The Role of Books in Defining a People’s Future in Africa.". In: Indaba. Harare; 2018.
Mwihia EW, Lyche JL, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi JK, Maina J, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, Mulei IR, Eriksen GS. "Co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in fish feed in Kenya.". In: ASM 2018 Scientific Programme. Leisure Lodge Resort, Mombasa, Kenya; 2018.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Implementing a school-based teacher support system for sustainable education development in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and innovation in Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Olali T. "Ecology as thematic foci: The identity of Swahili Poetry and Ecocriticism experiment.". In: Environments of African Literature. Marriott Wardman Park, Washington, D.C, USA ; 2018.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwadime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Preliminary findings of common bacterial pathogens affecting farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Mwadime JM, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Wanja DW, Maina JG, Maina SK, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Heavy Neascus species infestation of farmed Oreochromis niloticus in Kirinyaga county, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Wasamba P. "The Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) in the Age of Disruptions: Boon or Bane?". In: Makerere Humanities and Social Sciences Symposium. Kampala, Uganda; 2018.
Muthomi J. "Technologies and innovations in Phytosanitary Systems.". In: The 2nd Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarter, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Muigua K. "Utilising Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms to Manage Commercial Disputes.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. InterContinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2018.
"Decolonising Language in Kenya by use of Kiswahili and Local Languages.". In: 1st International Conference on Decolonising Education. Embu University; 2018.
Muigua K. "Towards an Overarching Policy: Understanding Kenya’s Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Landscape and Culture.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, ; 2018.towards_an_overarching_policy-ncia_conference_paper-ncia_conference_conference_paper_6th_june_2018_kariuki_muigua_ph.d.pdf
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Maswala ya Afya: mtazamo wa kiekolojia.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2018.
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Mumbi M. "limate Responsive Architecture: Learning from the History of the Origin, Spread and Development of Tropical Modern Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "How to boost citizens’ participation in decision-making." Sunday Nation, February 24, 2018.
Nambati EA, Kiarie WC, Kimani F, Kimotho JH, Otinga MS, Too E, Kaniaru S, Limson J, Bulimo W. "Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications?" Malaria Journal. 2018;17:9. Abstractnambati_et_al_2018.pdfnambati_et_al_2018.pdfWebsite

The use of saliva in diagnosis of infectious diseases is an attractive alternative to procedures that involve blood drawing. It promises to reduce risks associated with accidental needle pricks and improve patient compliance particularly in malaria survey and drug efficacy studies. Quantification of parasitaemia is useful in establishing severity of disease and in assessing individual patient response to treatment. In current practice, microscopy is the recommended technique, despite its limitations. This study measured the levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and investigated the relationship with blood parasitaemia.

Kanyinga K. "What it takes to unify the country goes beyond mega development projects." Sunday Nation, January 28, 2018.
Mitema A, Okoth S, Rafudeen SM. "Molecular biomarkers and phenotypic characterization as a means of determining genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus isolates.". In: 40th Mycotoxin Workshop Munich 2018. Munich; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Expected break with past is still elusive." Sunday Nation, March 10, 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Amusing game of corruption in Africa as the rule of law fails." Sunday Nation, March 24, 2018.
Kiragu H, Mwangi E, Kamucha G. "A rapid MRI reconstruction method based on compressive sampling and concomitant artifacts suppression.". In: 19th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON). Marrakesh, Morocco ; 2018.
"The entitled family relations." People Daily, May 29, 2018.
Gitao, C.G. "PhD supervision at University of Nairobi.". In: Carta Supervision workshop. Johannesburg, South Africa; 2018.
Kamweru K. "Housing as Process: An Approach Based of a Multiple Client Approach.". In: 8th Annual East Africa Workshop and Exhibition,. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

2019
Isaac MM, Muya SM, Kiiru W, Muchai M, others. "Avian Abundance, Diversity and Conservation Status in Etago Sub-County Kisii County Kenya." Open Journal of Ecology. 2019;9:157. Abstract
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Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW, others. "Effects of butorphanol, meloxicam and butorphanol-meloxicam combination on wound healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8:300-307. Abstract
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Otange B, Birech Z, Rop R, Julius Oyugi. "Estimation of HIV-1 viral load in plasma of HIV-1-infected people based on the associated Raman spectroscopic peaks." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2019. Abstract
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Adwet WM, Pant HJ, MANGALA MJ,... "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a wastewater stabilization pond using radiotracer technique. Residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater was measured using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer. The measured RTD was treated and mean residence time …

GATARI MJ. "First WHO Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health: A Brief Report." Clean Air Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

The subject conference (documented in www. who. int) was organized by WHO in collaboration with WMO, CCAC, UNFCC, UNECE, The World Bank, UN-DESA and EU-DEVCO in Geneva, Switzerland from 30 October to 01 November 2018. The conference …

GATARI MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E,... "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya." … Research Part D …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Airborne black carbon (BC) particles have serious implications for human health and climate change and thus represent a prime target for mitigation policies. The sources of BC include vehicles burning diesel fuel, which are common in urban areas in low-income countries. The …

Gitau J, GATARI MJ, Pant HJ. "Investigation of flow dynamics of porous clinkers in a ball mill using technitium-99m as a radiotracer." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a ball mill of a cement plant in Kenya. Residence time distribution (RTD) of raw feed to the mill was measured using Technetium-99m adsorbed on the clinkers as a radiotracer. From the measured RTDs, solid holdup and …

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). AbstractWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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Mutuku MW, Brianna R Beechler, Ibrahim N Mwangi, Otiato FO, Horace Ochanda B. " A Search for Snail-Related Answers to Explain Differences in Response of Schistosoma mansoni to Praziquantel Treatment among Responding and Persistent Hotspot Villages along the Kenyan Shore of Lake Victoria." The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2019:tpmd190089.
Ongolly FK, Bukachi SA. " Barriers to men’s involvement in antenatal and postnatal care in Butula, western Kenya. ." African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine . 2019;11(1):a1911.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. " Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore: Springer; 2019.
Inyo DN. "). Service Quality and Operational Performance of Tour Operators in Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2019;Vol.5(No.1):43-61.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Oredo J. "3D Printing: From Manufacturing to Infofacturing." MANAGEMENT November (2019).

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