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. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Use of ethanol in Diesel Engines: Published in the September/October 1993, Issue of the Kenya Engineer.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Otiang'a-Owiti, G. E., Onyango, D. W., Ouma, J. O., Njogu, A and Mungania, S.K (2000): A review on methods employed in studying embryogenesis. AJST, 1(3):38-43.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Small scale manufacture of replacement crankshaft Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology (JAST) vol 4 (1) 2002 pp 83-90.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2002. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O and Werner, G (2001): Epididymal epithelial cell involution following a single intraperitoneal administration of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) in the goat (Capra hircus). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 175(1): 19-27.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Ojoo, R. O., Otiang.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. AAA. Guidance and Counseling .Educational, Career and Special Cases counseling. Nairobi: Kaswanga Printers and Press Consultancy Ltd; 2012.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Oduor-Okelo, D & Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "v. A cost Effective Method of Ethanol fumigation is small Diesel Engines.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O. Odongo, H., Mugweru, J & Okindo, E (1998):Effects of heptachlor on rat plasma LH, testosterone and cortisol and testicular structure. In;.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Local Development of a Production Process for Replacement Cylinder Head Journal of Agriculture Science and technology (JAST) Vol. 3 (2) 2001.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O., Oduor-Okelo, D and Werner, G (2001): Early testicular response to intraperitoneal administration of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) in the goat (Capra hircus). J. Submicrosc.Cytol. Pathol., 33(1-2): 117-124.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Kisia, S. M and Onyango, D. W (2005): Muscular System of Vertebrates,Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, New Hampshire, USA.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. BLC, Mbuthia P.G., J.M M. "Appraisal of the village chicken’s potential in egg production.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2004.2004_-_appraisal_of_village_chickens_potential_in_egg_production.pdf
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W (1992): Histological and ultrastructural study of the male reproductive system of non-breeding naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber, Ruppell) and in vitro interstitial (Leydig) cell response to luteinizing hormone (LH). MSc. thesis,univers.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "vi. The African charcoal Stove: It.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1985. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Wango, E. O., Onyango, D. W., Odongo, H., Okindo, E & Mugweru, J (1997):In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone and cortisol in male rats treated with heptachlor.Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 118C(3): 381-386.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Ethanol Fuel substitution Through Fumigation Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A vol. 10 No.1 (1996).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W., Wango, E. O., Otiang.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Onyango, D. W (2001): Effects of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) on testicular and epididymal structure, and plasma testosterone profiles in the goat (Capra hircus). Ph.D thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

.E.O O. "Geochemistry of sediments from the Romanche Fracture Zone, equatorial Atlantic." KJS SERIES. 1995;10(1 AND 2):12-30. AbstractKJS

ABSTRACT A suite of sediment samples from the Romanche Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic has been subjected to bulk and partition chemical and mineralogical analyses, together with radiometric dating, in order to study the main controls on composition and origin.The interelement relationships in the sediments revealed by geostatistical analysis indicate that (1) Ca, Sr and P, (2) Al, Fe, Ti, V, Zn, Li, Be and K, (3) Mn, Co, Ni and Cu and (4) Mg, Cr and Ni are associated. Partition chemical data suggest that these element associations represent respectively biogenic, terrigenous, igneous and hydrogenic phases of the sediment.Surface and downcore sediment data indicate that the distribution of the biogenic component of the sediment is influenced by water depth. The distribution of the igneous component is largely controlled by a contribution from ultramafic sources and shows the influence of subsea erosion on the surface sediments. The distribution of the hydrogenic component is influenced by contribution from the water column. Sediment accumulation rate data indicate that these sediments have accumulated fairly rapidly. Bottom topography and turbidity current activity are probably the main factors controlling their accumulation. Metal accumulation rate data indicate that there is no significant hydrothermal contribution to the deposits as has been suggested by other workers.

.E.O O. "African Coastal Areas and their Management for Sustainable Development.". In: Coastal Zone Management Imperative for Maritime Development Nations. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1997.
.Mony F. "Does the Hat Fit."; 2012.
.N O, J A. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstractomoro.pdf

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gitau, A. N and L. O. Gumbe. Triaxial Testing of Agricultural Soil. In: Proceedings of the 2004 CIGR Internaional Conference-Beijing, P.R. China. 11th Oct. 2004. CD-ROM. Paper No. 10-1 14A.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Proposed New Curriculum in Engineering for Agriculture and the Environment at the University of Nairobi. Proceedings of the International Conference on Agricultural Engineering Curriculum and Employment Profile, Lusaka, Zambia, 28 - 30 June.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Development of an Equation/Model for Predicting Temperature in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Friction Coefficient of Cereal Grains on Various Surfaces. Journal of AMA. 21(4): 61-64.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gitau, A. N and L. O. Gumbe. Mechanical Behaviour of Hard Setting Soils of Semi-arid Kenya. In Proceedings of the 3'd, World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Nairobi Kenya. Linking Production, Livelihoods and Conservation. 3rd-7th Oct. 2005. CD-ROM. .". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Calorific Content of Water Hyacinth. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Load-Deformation Behaviour of Soils and En-Masse Grains. Proceedings of the Symposium on Unsaturated Soil Behaviour and Applications. Nairobi, Kenya. 22 - 23 August.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Appropriate Technology and Prospects in Grain Storage. Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal. 1(3): 36 - 42.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Water Resources and Infrastructure Development in Kenya Proceedings of the Symposium of Water Resources and Sanitation Management in Kenya. Tom Mboya Labour College, Kisumu 11-12 May.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "The Environment and Waste Management in African Agriculture. Paper Presented at SESAE96 International Conference. Arusha Tanzania. 2- 4 October.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Prediction Equations for Loads in Grain Silos. Proceedings of the NSAE/CIGR Symposium. September 4-10 Hlorin, Nigeria.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1988. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Simulation and Control of Poultry Production Systems in Kenya. Proceedings the International Conference on Agricultural Science and Technology (ICAST 2001). 7-9 November 2001, Beijing, P. R. China.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanics of Cereal Grains. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Engineering and Food. 13 -17 April Brighton, England.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanical Properties of Coffee. Agricultural Engineering. A Balkema. Rotterdam, Netherlands. 4: 2467 - 2470. Proceedings of the CIGR Congress.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Simplified Temperature Prediction Model for Potatoes Stored Under Natural Convection. Journal of Engineers in Agriculture and the Environment. (2)1:70-73.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanical Properties of Blue-gum Timber. Landwards, 25(4): 24-26.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Selected Physical Properties of Sorghum Grains. K1FST Review. 4(2): 49 - 67.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mutai, E. B. K and L. O. Gumbe. Environmental Modelling of Poultry Structures. JEAE(3):24-31.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Interfacial Bond Strength for Sisal Fibre Composite. Discovery and Innovation, 10(1/2): 60-64.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Quantitative Changes in Some Physical Properties of Potatoes During Storage. Proceedings of The International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Roofing tiles. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 90-5011.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gitau, A. N and L. O. Gumbe. Alleviating Soil Hardpan Formation for Conservation Farming - Case of Semi-arid Kenya. Euro- Asia Journal of Applied Sciences. Vol. 2 No. 3 (ISSN; 14SO-202X).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bluegum Timber. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dynamic Circumferential Wall Strains in Cylindrical Silos. International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 17 - 19.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Material Characterisation and Prediction Equations for Loads in Silos Containing Granular Materials En-masse. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A: 8(1): 1-5.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "The B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering Course. Paper presented at the Agricultural Inter-University subject Meeting. September 5-10 Arusha, Tanzania.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Simulation of the Environment in a Poultry House. Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. l(l):37-47.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. II: Drying Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(703): 2003 - 2008.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Energy for Agriculture Including Energy Plantation: Special case of Biogas Slurry system for Small Scale Kenyan Farmers. Papers presented at the Former DAAD scholarship holders seminar, October 22 - 24, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1987. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Creep and Stress Relaxation Behaviour of Naturally Dried Blue-Gum Timber. Agricultural Engineering in South Africa. 32(1)135 - 142.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Food Security in Africa: Options for Grain Storage. Paper Presented at the ARSSN Workshop. KCB Training College. Karen, Nairobi. Feb 1997.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Physical Properties of Grain Affecting Silo Pressures. Proceeding of the 1 Oth International Symposium on Agricultural Engineering, Beijing, China. September 12 - 14.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Mechanization of Small farms: A Partial Solution to Poverty and Food Security in Kenya. Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment (2)1:34-43.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Some Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fibre Concrete, Discovery and Innovation. 9(3/4): 189-196.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Rheological Models for Shelled Maize En-masse. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Engineering and Food. Makuhari, Chiba, Japan, May 23-27.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Drying of Seed Maize. Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference. Nairobi, August 1-3.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Building Materials. Gumbe, L.O. Submitted to the University of Nairobi Press.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Controlling the Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-9 October, Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1998. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Temperature Fluctuations in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gitau, A. N and L. O. Gumbe. Alleviating Hard Pan Formation in the Semi-arid Kenya Soils for Conservation Farming. In: Proceedings of a Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture and Rainwater Harvesting.1st Nov., 2004 Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. CD-ROM. Pp.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Strength Properties of the East African Bamboo.Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Rural Oil Processing in Kenya: An Overview. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Small Scale Oil Processing. AGROTEC. Arusha, Tanzania. September 5-6.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Elastoplastic Constitutive Parameters for Rice En-masse. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A: 8(2): 15-25.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Blue-gum Timber as a Structural Material. Proceedings of the Forestry Engineering for Tomorrow Conference. Timber. Edinburgh, Scotland. 28- 30 June.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. I: Dewatering Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(702): 1975 - 1983.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Biogas Slurry Systems, Biogas for Rural Development. CSC Technical Publication No, 137.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Prediction of Bulk Potato Temperature During Free Natural Ventilation Storage. Agricultural Engineering in South Africa. 32(1)93 - 104.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Determination of Mechanical Properties of Fresh Avocado Fruits. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 6- 8 August, Milimani Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Considering Material Behaviour in Silo Design. Kenya Engineer, March/April, 1988.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Computer Program for Predicting the Storage Environment of Crops. Proceedings of Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineering Annual Conference of 2001.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Food Engineering for Development: The Cases of Edible Oil and Dairy Industries in Kenya. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Engineering and Food. 13-17 April Brighton, England.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Grain Moisture Content Effects on Pressures in Grain Silos. Discovery and Innovation. 4(2): 49 - 52.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1992. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Physical Properties of Coffee. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 89-6109.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gumbe, L.O. 2003. Engineering and the Future. American Society of Civil Engineers. Virtual World Congress for Civil Engineering, www.ceworld.org.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Prediction of Temperatures in Naturally Ventilated Potato Storage. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-9 October, Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1998. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Discussion on Constitutive Equation for Granular Materials En-masse. East African Journal of Engineering. 1(1): 27 - 38.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.orago N. "Housing rights in comparative perspective.". In: Public Interest Litigation on the Right to Housing. Serena-Amboseli, Amboseli National Park. ; 2014.
.orago N. "Notable issues in litigating socio-economic rights.". In: Public Interest Litigation in relation to the 2010 Kenyan Constitution. Kisumu Kenya; 2013.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Special Report on Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry - Review Editor and Scoping Team.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Observations on Typological Problems in a Changing Subsistence Agriculture in Kenya" presented at the IGU Symposium on Agricultural Typology, Verona, Italy, 1970 - published in the Proceedings of the IGU Agricultural Typology Symposium - Ed. By .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Typological Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture in Kenya" - paper presented at the IGU Commission on Agricultural Typology, Ontario, Canada, August, 1972 (published in proceedings, 1973).". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1973. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review Article: on "Land and Population Movements in Kenya" by Prof. S.H. Ominde in East African Geographical Review, 1969.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1969. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Scientific Basis - Scoping and Final Review Team.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: The Impacts on Society of possible climatic change: if warning prevails in MAZINGIRA Vol. 1 No. 1 April, 1977, pp. 30-39.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1977. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Kenya Population Distribution Map", 1962, in East African Geographical Review, No. 2, 1964, pp. 55-56.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1964. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "R.S. Odingo; Nyakwada and Kagia, J.N. (2002) Factoring Weather and Climate Information and Climate Change Products into Disaster Reduction strategies in Kenya: A contribution to Disaster Management Policies. IGAD/ DMCN, Nairobi.". In: Paper Presented to CLIVAR/University of Arizona/IPCC. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Special Report on Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry - Review Editor and Scoping Team.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Land Reform in the Kikuyu Country" by M.P.K. Sorrenson, 1967, in East Africa Journal, Vol. 4, No. V, November, 1967.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1967. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2003) Review Report on the CP Pre-Proposal "The Challenge of Climate Change - Research to Overcome Its Impact on Food Security, Poverty and natural Resource Degradation in the Developoing World",.". In: Prepared for CGIAR Secretariat. FAO/WFP, Rome, Italy, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Mitigation - Review Editor.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: Land Settlement and Rural Development in Kenya in Studies in "East African Geography and Development" ed. Prof. S.H. Ominde, 1971.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2004) Importance of Adaptation studies for Climate Change and Vulnerability. .". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2001) Resource Management Issues Relevant to Planning and management of Hydro-Power Resources in the Greater Horn of Africa. Paper presented at the IGAD Workshop on the Socio-Economic Aspects of Resources Management relevant to Planning and .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: A chapter 40 pages long on "The Natural Resources of Kenya" - included in the Kenya Official Handbook - published by East African Publishing House Nairobi, 1972.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Contribution of a 33 page article on the Human Aspects of the Geography of East Africa included in the book entitled "UNESCO Source Book on the Teaching of African Geography", 1972.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Impacts and Adaptation - Review Editor.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Book: Edited by Prof. G. White, Academician Gerasimov and R.S. Odingo - Complex Water Development Systems. Westview Press, October, 1977.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1977. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Co-operatives in the Kenya Highlands Settlement Schemes" in Proceedings of the Social Sciences Conference, Makerere, 1969.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1969. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2002) Climate Change and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". In: Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society, Mombasa, 2002. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2000) Good Practice Guidance for Greenhouse Gas Inventories Emissions - Review Editor.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. ""The Scope of Land Re-Settlement in the Kenya Highlands"- publication in the Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of the East African Academy, 1966.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1966. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. and Ogallo, L. (2003) Drought in Eastern Africa - CLIVAR/UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA/IPCC Workshop on Drought in Tucson Arizona. Papers presented to the workshop on Drought and Climate Change.". In: Workshop on Drought Episodes and Climate Change, Tucson Arizona, November, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Impacts and Adaptation - Review Editor.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Observations in the Kenya Highlands" - in book entitled "East African Studies" - published by Wirchafts and Social Geographisches Inst., West Germany. Editor Prof. Herfried Berger, Nurnberger, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1968. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo R.S. (2001) The Clean Development Mechanism - A Framework for the Development of Sustainable Projects. CNA, Nairobi.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Book entitled "The Kenya Highlands - Agricultural Geography" - published by the East African Publishing House, Limited, Nairobi, 1971. This book was the result of my Ph.D research work and, more important, an incorporation of my post-doctoral research on .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report - Review Editor of Chapters on Uncertainty and Risk Assessment - Cambridge University Press.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. ""Problems of Nilotic Migrations" - paper presented in Kisumu Arts Festival Lectures, Dec. 1968 published in the Journal of the Kenya Museum Society, 1972.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Africa in Transition Geographical Essays" - Edited by B.W. Hodder and D.R. Hains published in the East African Geographical Review, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1968. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Co-editor with Dr. Vogel of a book entitled "Health and Disease in Kenya" - published by the East African Literature Bureau, 1974.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1974. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo R.S. (2001) The Clean Development Mechanism - A Framework for the Development of Sustainable Projects. CNA, Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society, Mombasa, 2002. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2000) Good Practice Guidance for Greenhouse Gas Inventories Emissions - Review Editor .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "People and Farms in Growing Kenya" - published in the Geographical Magazine, London, September, 1971.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Edited book entitled "Primary School Visual Geographies - Africa" by V.P. Aggarwall, 1966.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1966. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. and Ogallo, L. (2003) Drought Occurrence in Eastern Africa Sub-Region, as witnessed from Palaeo- and Instrumental Climate records.". In: Paper Presented to CLIVAR/University of Arizona/IPCC. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report - Review Editor of Chapters on Uncertainty and Risk Assessment.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Demographic Implications of Regional Inequalities in Kenya" - paper prepared in collaboration with Prof. S.H. Ominde, presented at the IGU colloquium on Regional Inequalities in Development, Brasil, 1971 published in Proceedings of the Colloquiu.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Land Settlement in the Kenya Highlands - in the book containing the Report of the Kericho Conference on Education, Employment and Rural Development, edited by J.R. Sheffield, East African Publishing House, 1967.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1967. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Kenya's Climate Change Technology Needs assessment Report, May 2004 - Prepared under the Auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Review Editor.". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Scientific Basis - Scoping and Final Review Team. .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Post Independence Agricultural Changes in the Kenya Highlands, paper presented at the IGU, Agricultural Typology Commission Meeting in Hissar, India, and at the 20th International Geographical Union Congress in New Delhi, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2004) Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Kenya. .". In: Papers presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change, Kisumu, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.W.Okuku M. “Uchanganuzi wa Kiisimu wa baadhi ya matini za Kiswahili: mtazamo wa Pragmatiki Leksia’’ . E.M. DM, J PH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
1
1 Ochanda N. "Searching for new opportunities from the International Space Station and using them in Eastern Africa." Searching for new opportunities from the International Space Station and using them in Eastern Africa. 2000:Pp165-173.
and 1 S.K Imagiri KPJMGP. "Restrictions on the Powers of Generalized Aluthge Transforms of w-Hyponormal Operators." Far East Jnl of Maths . 2013.
1) Aleri JW, Mutembei HM MCMGJWMSM2012. "A retrospective study of reproductive conditions in bitches in Nairobi." KVA. 2012;34:29-31.
1) Wachira T, Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and Leadership Styles on Teachers Job Satisfaction in Primary Schools Kenya: A Case of Nakuru County." , International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2016;6(2319-7064 ).wachira_t.pdf
and 1. Chepkemoi J, R. N. Onwonga KKGNVM. "Efficiency and interactive effects of Tillage Practices, Cropping Systems and Organic Inputs on Soil Moisture Retention in Semi-Arid Yatta Sub-County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences . 2014;3(2):145-156.
1. Choi RY, Fowke KR JL-POJOBERBJ-SFJBR. "C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1. Disease Progression Among Postpartum Women in Kenya. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Sep 27." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011. Abstractsingle_nucleotide_polymorphism_and_hiv_type_1._disease_progression_among_postpartum_women_in_kenya.pdf

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

and 1. Elias R. M., G. Wandolo REJNSJMG. "Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin." Circulation Research 1990. 1990;(67):1097-1106. Abstract

1) Elias R. M., G. Wandolo, N. S. Ranadive, J. Eisenhoffer and M. G. Johnston: Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin. Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106. - 1990
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106.

1. Fang G, Kuiken C WR-JPCCHKAAOBKPSMKBSF. "Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations." J Infect Dis. 2004. Abstractlong_term_survivors_in_nairobi_complete_hiv_1_rna_sequences_and_immunogenetic_associations.pdf

Abstract To investigate African long-termsurvivors (LTSs) infected with non-subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1), we obtained full-length HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic profiles from 6 untreated women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. There were no discernible sequence changes likely to cause attenuation. CCR2-V64I, an immunogenetic polymorphism linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women, all of whom carried the HLA B58 allele. Further investigation of 99 HIV-1-infected Nairobi women found an association between CCR2-V64I and HLA B58 (P = .0048). Studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV- 1 subtypes may increase our understanding of slow HIV-1 disease progression. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 70% of HIV-1-infected individuals globally, and infected women in this region outnumber men. The study of long-term survivors (LTSs) is relevant to pathogenesis and the design of an HIV-1 vaccine. The HIV- 1 subtypes and host immunogenetics of LTSs in Africa differ from those of most LTSs studied previously [6–6]; for example, the HLA types are more diverse [6], and Δ32 mutations in coreceptor CCR5 are rarely seen [4]. Recombination between different HIV-1 subtypes has been well documented [2, 3, 7] and, along with viral diversity, is also relevant to the design of a vaccine. Analysis of both viral diversity and intersubtype recombination would benefit from the sequencing of entire viral genomes derived from plasma virions. The examination of plasma HIV-1 RNA offers an opportunity to observe the replicating virus population, including recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Nairobi sex workers, who are exposed to a range of viral strains, may be infected with intersubtype recombinants. To investigate pathogenesis in women with non-clade B HIV-1 infection, we analyzed complete HIV-1 RNA sequences, immunogenetic traits, immune responses, coreceptor utilization, and drug resistance in untreated LTSs from Kenya. Subjects and methods. The subjects were untreated HIV- 1-infected adult women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya [1]. The research was approved by the Kenyatta National Hospital National Ethical and Scientific Review Committee, the University of Manitoba Use of Human Subjects in Research Committee, and the New York State Department of Health Institutional Review Board. Within this cohort, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and LTSs were identified [1]. Both LTSs and LTNPs had been infected with HIV-1 for ⩾10 years, and LTNPs had maintained CD4+ T cell counts ⩾500 cells/μL. To detect coreceptor polymorphisms, human genotyping was performed as
described elsewhere [4, 8]. Extraction of viral RNA from plasma, reverse transcription, long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and analysis of full-length HIV-1 sequences were performed as described elsewhere [7]. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants were determined as described elsewhere [7]. Full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from plasma, and coreceptor usage was determined phenotypically by the use of GHOST cells [9]. The V3 loop sequence of env clones was also determined and was used to genotypically predict coreceptor utilization [10]. Molecular class I HLA types were determined as described elsewhere [6]. Neutralizing antibodies were detected as described elsewhere [11]. Genotypic resistance to antiretroviral agents was analyzed by the ADRA program [2]; phenotypic resistance was measured by the PhenoSense assay [12]. Several nonparametric tests of association were used to correlate the immunogenetic data with the virologic and clinical data. A 2-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to test differences between continuous measures such as the number of CD4+ T cells and viral load. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze HLA types and coreceptor polymorphisms. A number of genetic analyses were performed by use of the Mendel statistical package [13]. Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium (HWE) testing was used to examine whether the genotype frequencies for single loci were equal to products of the population allele frequencies. Gamete-phase equilibrium testing, a generalization of linkage-equilibrium testing that allows one to consider loci on different chromosomes, would normally be used to examine whether the joint frequencies of different alleles at several loci derived from the same parent are the product of the underlying population allele frequencies. To test gamete-phase equilibrium (or linkage equilibrium), however, knowledge of the parental source of the alleles at a locus (i.e., phase information) is required. Because phase information was unavailable but multilocus genotypes were known, we instead tested for genetic equilibrium. Genetic equilibrium holds only when both HWE and gamete-phase equilibrium are maintained. If genetic equilibrium was violated but separate tests of HWE were not rejected at all loci, then we assumed that genetic disequilibrium was a result of gamete-phase disequilibrium. Results. Table 1 shows the clinical, virologic, immunologic, and immunogenetic characteristics of 6 subjects in the Nairobi female sex-worker cohort who had been infected with nonsubtype B HIV-1 for ⩾10 years. Virions were isolated from plasma obtained from all 6 subjects in 1997 and also from additional plasma obtained in 1986 from subject ML013. The complete RNA genome was reverse-transcribed, amplified by long PCR, and directly sequenced. View larger version: In this page
In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 1. Virologic and immunogenetic characteristics in 6 untreated women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Complete HIV-1 RNA sequences were assembled, aligned, and analyzed by computational methods [7]. GenBank accession numbers are shown in table 1. Three subjects—ML752, ML013, and ML605—were infected with HIV-1 genomes identified as entirely subtype A; both the 1986 and the 1997 samples from ML013 also displayed subtype A genomes. Subject ML415 was infected with a viral genome identified as entirely subtype D. Two subjects displayed HIV-1 genomes that were intersubtype recombinants. Virus from ML672 was composed predominantly of clade A sequences with a clade C fragment in the pol gene. Subject ML249's recombinant virus was predominantly composed of clade D but also displayed a clade C fragment in nef and the 3' long terminal repeat. Sequences were examined for mutations that might contribute to attenuation of HIV-1. It is possible that single-nucleotide changes might help to attenuate the virus, and it was reported recently that R77Q, a mutation in the HIV-1 vpr gene, is associated with both LTNP infection and impaired induction of apoptosis [14]. This mutation was present in 3 of the 6 women studied, including 2 of the LTNPs (table 1); the association, however, was not statistically significant. No other clearly attenuating mutations or deletions were detected, nor any polymorphisms common to more than 1 sequence. We determined human genotypes for HIV-1 coreceptors, coreceptor-associated genes, and HLA class I haplotypes, to examine the contribution of immunogenetics to LTSs (table 1). All 6 subjects had homozygous wild-type CCR5 genotypes. Four subjects exhibited polymorphisms in the CCR2 gene; 2 LTNPs (ML672 and ML752) were homozygous for the V64I mutation, and 2 LTS subjects (ML013 and ML605) were heterozygous for it. It is noteworthy that all 4 women who carried the V64I allele also displayed the B58 HLA haplotype. Statistical analyses showed an association between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation (in at least 1 allele) and HLA type B58 (P=.06). To explore this association further, we expanded our immunogenetic analysis to include a larger group of 167 women in the Nairobi sex-worker cohort [1]. In addition to CCR2 and HLA B58, we examined the SDF-1α-3' untranslated region, bringing the total to 3 human genes, each located on a different chromosome [4]. There was no significant association between the CCR2 mutation and the SDF mutation. As shown in table 2, 99 (59.3%) of the 167 women were HIV-1 seropositive and 68 (40.7%) were HIV-1 seronegative. The B58 allele was of interest; all other alleles were combined, and the locus was treated as biallelic. No significant deviations from HWE were found for either CCR2 or HLA-B, either in the entire sample of 167 women or in the groups
stratified by HIV serostatus. In contrast, we did find, in the entire sample, significant evidence for gamete-phase disequilibrium between CCR2 and HLA B (P=.00780), indicating a highly significant association between CCR2-V64I and HLA type B58. This association was also significant in the HIV-seropositive subjects (P=.00486), but not in the HIV-seronegative subjects. View larger version: In this page In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 2. CCR2 mutations and HLA B58 in 167 Kenyan women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. We determined CCR5-promoter genotypes (table 1). One LTNP (ML415) and one LTS (ML249) were homozygous for CCR5-59029G, a polymorphism associated with delayed progression of HIV-1 disease [4]. Coreceptor usage was determined for HIV-1 envelope clones obtained from 5 subjects (table 1). The majority (71/77 [92.2%]) of clones utilized CCR5. A minority of CXCR4-utilizing species were also detected in 3 subjects (ML672, ML752, and ML605). No significant drug-resistance mutations were seen. The Pheno- Sense assay was used to examine phenotypic resistance; only a specimen from subject ML415 gave a result, and no resistance was found. Although the absence of viable cells precluded functional studies of CTL activity, we were able to predict, on the basis of the donor HLA haplotype and predicted epitopes found in the immunology databases in the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oxford University, the likely sites of CTL recognition. At least half the predicted epitopes carried 1 or more amino acid changes from the consensus sequence (data not shown); however, KAFSPEVIPMF, the immunodominant target of CTL recognition through HLA-B57 and B58 in HIV-1 gag, was conserved in all donors [15]. Neutralizing antibody titers ranged from negative to 1:640 (table 1). The serum demonstrated neutralization against strain MN (clade B) but not against strain 92/UG/31 (clade A). Discussion. This study is one of the first to characterize female LTSs and LTNPs from Africa, where both HIV-1 subtypes and immunogenetic traits differ from those of LTSs studied previously. One of the remarkable features of these LTSs is their fairly high viral loads (table 1).
These Kenyan subjects managed to survive, most of them as asymptomatics, for periods of 12–16 years, without antiretroviral treatment. Computational analyses of the complete HIV-1 RNA sequences confirmed both the frequency of intersubtype recombination and the particular HIV-1 subtypes observed in a recent study from Kenya [3]. One LTNP (ML672) and 1 LTS (ML249) had recombinant genomes. The sequence data, which are derived from plasma virions, provide direct evidence of recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Computational analyses of the sequences did not reveal any clearly attenuating mutations except for the vpr R77Q mutation (table 1) [14]; in our small study, the association between this mutation and LTSs was suggestive but not significant. All of the sequences analyzed in this study appeared to be intact and gave no indication that they coded for nonfunctional proteins. In fact, when multiple viral env genes from these subjects were cloned into an expression system to determine coreceptor utilization, most clones yielded functional envelopes. Although it is possible that 1 or more point mutations in the viral genomes may have diminished the pathogenicity of the viruses infecting these 6 women, we did not identify any deletions or mutations that would clearly confer attenuation on any of the viruses. Immunogenetics may have contributed to LTS status in this study (table 1). CCR2-V64I, previously linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women. A highly significant correlation between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation and the HLA B58 allele was found in 167 women in the Nairobi cohort. The association was particularly strong in the 99 women who were HIV-1 seropositive, although it was not significant in the 68 women who were HIV-1 seronegative. The stronger association between these 2 alleles in the infected women, compared with that in the uninfected women, may reflect, in this group, a selection for LTSs bearing both V64I and B58 genes. An alternative explanation, however, is possible, reflecting the genetics of the population under study: when 2 loci are close to each other on a chromosome, departure from gamete-phase equilibrium is often taken as evidence for linkage disequilibrium; because CCR2 and HLA B genes are on different chromosomes, departure fromgenetic equilibrium is likely due to recent ethnic admixture in these subjects; however, joint selective pressures may also be acting on the 2 genes. The association of these human genes, CCR2 and HLA B58, has not been previously noted, and it may possibly provide a clue to the manner in which CCR2 affects the pace of HIV-1 infection. Although multiple studies, including 1 focusing on the Nairobi cohort [5], have reported that the CCR2-V64I allele may slow the progression of HIV-1 disease, the mechanism by which the mutation acts is still unclear [4, 5]. The HLA B57 allele, which is related to B58, has also been associated with both slowed progression of disease and long-term survival [6, 15]. The close association, in HIV-1-infected women, between the CCR2 mutation and B58 suggests that the V64I allele may affect the pace of HIV-1 infection in part or entirely through the HLA B58 haplotype. This question necessitates further investigation. Finally, these studies suggest that
studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV-1 subtypes may increase our understanding of the slow progression of HIV-1 disease.

1. Farquhar C, Rowland-Jones S M-NRLSOOROODMBJ. "Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B*18 and protection against mother- to-child HIV type1 transmission." AIDS Res Hum Retro . 2004. Abstract

Abstract
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules regulate the cellular immune system and may be determinants of infant susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Molecular HLA typing for class I alleles was performed on infants followed in a Kenyan perinatal cohort. Early HIV-1 infection status was defined as infection occurring at birth or month 1, while late infection via breast milk was defined as first detection of HIV-1 after 1 month of age. Likelihood ratio tests based on a proportional hazards model adjusting for maternal CD4 T cell count and HIV-1 viral load at 32 weeks of gestation were used to test associations between infant allelic variation and incident HIV-1 infection. Among 433 infants, 76 (18%) were HIV-1 infected during 12 months of follow-up. HLA B*18 was associated with a significantly lower risk of early HIV-1 transmission [relative risk (RR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.82], and none of the 24 breastfeeding infants expressing HLA B*18 who were uninfected at month 1 acquired HIV-1 late via breast milk. We observed a trend toward increased early HIV-1 acquisition for infants presenting HLA A*29 (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–3.8) and increased late HIV-1 acquisition via breast milk for both Cw*07 and Cw*08 (RR = 4.0; 95% CI 1.0–17.8 and RR = 7.2; 95% CI 1.2–37.3, respectively). HLA B*18 may protect breast-feeding infants against both early and late HIV-1 acquisition, a finding that could have implications for the design and monitoring of HIV-1 vaccines targeting cellular immune responses against HIV-1.

and 1. Francis M. Awah, Peter N. Uzoegwu JOJRPIX-JYKFMOR. "Free radical scavenging activity and immunomodulatory effect of Stachytarpheta angustifolia leaf extract. Food Chemistry, Volume 119, Issue 4, 15 April 2010, Pages 1409-1416." Food Chemistry. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Plant extracts with antioxidant activity could also have immunomodulatory ability. The free radical scavenging activity of an ethanol extract of the leaves of Stachytarpheta angustifolia was assessed by measuring its capability for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH), nitric oxide radicals (NO), as well as its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, using appropriate assay systems. The extract was also assessed for its ability to decrease the phenotypic expression of the immune activation markers CD38 and CD69. This extract showed a potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EC50 = 9.65 μg/ml), significantly inhibited OH radical (IC50 = 99.43 μg/ml), O2- anion radical (IC50 = 64.68 μg/ml), non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 282.91 μg/ml) and accumulation of nitrite in vitro. Ex vivo the extract inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced production of superoxide anion (O2-), and also exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of the immune activation marker CD38 and CD69 on phytohemagglutinin A (PHA)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The observed antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory potentials of the extract suggest that it could impart health benefits when consumed. However, further investigation to verify its effect in vivo is warranted.

1. Gitonga ER, Akpata. "Academic performance of Kenyan Secondary School athletes." African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. 1999;5(1):1-11.
and 1. J. K. Kibugu, J.N. Makumi KNGMMMJMJJN. Effects of mycotoxins on the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in mice. . Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2013.
1. Julius Oyugi, Fredrick Oyugi COWJJBOA. "Use of serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion(STARHS) to estimate HIV-1 incidence among adults visiting a Kenyan tertiary health institution. East African Medical Journal volume 86, no. 5; 2009." . East African Medical Journal volume 86. 2009. Abstractuse_of_serologic_testing_algorithm_for_recent_hiv_seroconversionstarhs_to_estimate_hiv-1_incidence_among_adults_visiting_a_kenyan_tertiary_health_institution._.pdf

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine HIV high risk groups among adults visiting Kenyatta National Hospital Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centre by use of Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS).
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study of adults.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital Voluntary and Counselling Centre.
RESULTS:
Of the 6,415 adults screened for antibodies to HIV at Kenyatta National Hospital VCT Centre between July 2002 and February 2003, 728 tested positive in the two HIV screening tests used at the center, indicating a prevalence of 11%. Of these seropositive cases, 355 consented to participate in the study. Using STARHS, 34 (9.6%) of the plasma samples were classified as being from individuals with recent infection (within 170 days), giving an annual estimated HIV-1 incidence in this population of 1.3 infections per 100 person-years with a 95% CI of 0.872-1.728%. Young adults had a higher rate of new infection than older adults. Young females were infected much earlier in life, with a peak age of new infections of 26 years, versus 31 years for young males.
CONCLUSION:
This study confirms our hypothesis that STARHS or Detuned assay can be used to determine HIV incidence in this population. The HIV high risk groups as identified by this study are young women between ages 16 to 26 years old and men between ages 45 to 55 years of age.

wangi 1. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL KFDKRNROOJKTP. "New insights into HIV-1specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers." Immunol Lett. . 2001. Abstractnew_insights_into_hiv-1specific_cytotoxic_t-lymphocyte_responses_in_exposed_persistently_seronegative_kenyan_sex_workers.pdf

Abstract
A clearer understanding of HIV-1 specific immune responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects is important in developing models of HIV-1 protective immunity. HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) have been described in a cohort of HEPS Kenyan sex workers, and recent work has further elucidated these responses. CTL specific for HIV-1 Env were found in the blood of over half the sex workers meeting criteria for HIV resistance, and in some women recognized unmapped epitopes. The proportion of women with Env-specific CTL increased with the duration of uninfected HIV exposure, suggesting that these responses were acquired over time. CD8+ lymphocyte responses directed against predefined HIV-1 CTL epitopes from various HIV-1 genes were found in the blood and genital tract of >50% resistant sex workers, at a ten-fold lower frequency than in infected subjects. The epitope specificity of CD8+ responses differs between HEPS and HIV infected women, and in HEPS the maintenance of responses appears to be dependent on persistent HIV exposure. Several HIV-1 'resistant' sex workers have become HIV infected over the past 6 years, possibly related to waning of pre-existing HIV-specific CTL, and infection has often been associated with a switch in the epitope specificity of CD8+ responses. These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection

1. Koech OK, RN K, GN K, SM M, R W. "Field curing methods and storage duration affect the quality of hay from six rangeland grass species in Kenya." Ecological processes. 2016; 5(3):1-6.
1. MacDonald KS, Matukas L EJEFKNNJOKKLMAR-JKJJ. "Human leucocyte antigen supertypes and immune susceptibility to HIV-1, implications for vaccine design." Immunol Lett.. 2001. Abstracthuman_leucocyte_antigen_supertypes_and_immune_susceptibility_to_hiv-1_implications_for_vaccine_design._immunol_lett._.pdf

Abstract
T cell responses against HIV-1 have been identified in a number of exposed uninfected populations. We hypothesized that the ability to mount an effective T cell response is partly determined by the human leucocyte antigens (HLA) phenotype of the individual. We examined whether certain HLA supertypes were associated with differential HIV-1 susceptibility in sexually exposed adults and in the setting of mother to child HIV-1 transmission. By multivariate analysis, decreased HIV-1 infection risk was strongly associated with possession of a cluster of closely related class I HLA alleles (A2/6802 supertype) in sexually exposed adults (Hazard ratio=0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22-0.81, P=0.009) and perinatally exposed infants (Odds ratio=0.12, 95% CI: 0.03-0.54, P=0.006). The alleles in this HLA supertype are known in some cases, to present the same peptide epitopes (termed 'supertopes'), for T cell recognition. The identification of HIV-1 supertopes, which are associated with protection from HIV-1 infection, has important implications for the application of epitope-based HIV-l vaccines in a variety of racial groups.

1. Oyugi J. Judie Alimonti, Francoise Vouriot SWFPJBKFA. "The role of CD4 polymorphism on HIV-1 infection. .". In: Canadian Student Health Research Days, . Canada; 2005.
1. Oyugi JO, Vouriot FC AWLLAMAYSRPELJSJNBTBJJSM. "A Common CD4 Gene Variant Is Associated with an Increased Risk of HIV-1 Infection in Kenyan Female Commercial Sex Workers. J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1;199 (9):1327-1334." J Infect Dis. 2009. Abstracta_common_cd4_gene_variant_is_associated_with_an_increased_risk_of_hiv-1_infection_in_kenyan_female_commercial_sex_workers._j.pdf

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
It has been predicted that CD4 C868T, a novel CD4 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that has been found to be highly prevalent among Africans, changes the tertiary structure of CD4, which may alter susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
METHODS:
Participants were from a Kenyan cohort and included 87 uninfected and 277 HIV-1-infected individuals. DNA sequencing was used to determine CD4 genotype. A2.01 cells expressing similar levels of either wild-type CD4 or CD4-Trp240 as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected donors were infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or a Kenyan primary HIV-1 isolate. HIV-1 p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the outcome of infection.
RESULTS:
CD4 C868T was found to be significantly more prevalent among HIV-1-infected participants than among HIV-1-uninfected participants (P = .002), and C868T was associated with an increased incidence of HIV-1 infection as well (P = .005, log-rank test; P = .009, Wilcoxon test), with an odds ratio of 2.49 (P = .009). Both in vitro and ex vivo models demonstrated a significant association between CD4 C868T and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively).
CONCLUSION:
Overall, the present study found a strong correlation between CD4 C868T and increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Given the high prevalence of both HIV infection and CD4 C868T in African populations, the effect of this SNP on the epidemic in Africa could be dramatic

1. Mwangi J. W, P. Malii GL. "Polyphenols of Ximenia americana, uses in traditional medicine and antimicrobial activity." Fitoterapia. 1994;2(LXV):185.
10. Gathumbi JK. "Mycotoxin status in Kenya. .". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Nairobi Branch Scientific Conference . Nairobi, Kenya ; 2003.
12. Fowke KR, Kaul R RKLOKRWJNNJBTBBJJSJNSGMJJ. "HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1-resistant sex workers." Immunol Cell Biol. 2000. Abstract

Abstract
The goal of the present study was to determine whether there were HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses among a subgroup of women within a cohort of Nairobi prostitutes (n = 1800) who, despite their intense sexual exposure to HIV-1, are epidemiologically resistant to HIV-1 infection. Of the 80 women defined to be resistant, 24 were recruited for immunological evaluation. The HIV-1-specific T-helper responses were determined by IL-2 production following stimulation with HIV-1 envelope peptides and soluble gp120. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were determined by lysis of autologous EBV-transformed B cell lines infected with control vaccinia virus or recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the HIV-1 structural genes env, gag and pol. Resistant women had significantly increased HIV-1 specific T-helper responses, as determined by in vitro IL-2 production to HIV-1 envelope peptides and soluble glycoprotein 120, compared with low-risk seronegative and HIV-1-infected controls (P < or = 0.01, Student's t-test). Seven of the 17 (41%) resistant women showed IL-2 stimulation indices > or = 2.0. HIV-1-specific CTL responses were detected among 15/22 (68.2%) resistant women compared with 0/12 low-risk controls (Chi-squared test, P < 0.001). In the two resistant individuals tested, the CTL activity was mediated by CD8+ effectors. Many HIV-1-resistant women show evidence of HIV-1-specific T-helper and cytotoxic responses. These data support the suggestion that HIV-1-specific T-cell responses contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection.

12. Ojwang J.D., R O.Nyankanga, J. Imungi, and M. Olanya, Ukuku D. "Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya." Food Security . 2016;8:757–767. DOI 10.1007/s12571-016-0592-8(8):757-767.. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya.pdf
13. MacDonald KS, Fowke KR KDVANNJBTBONGLKBRCWLJJE. "Influence of HLA supertypes on susceptibility and resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection." J Infect Dis. 2000. Abstract

Abstract
Certain human leukocyte antigens, by presenting conserved immunogenic epitopes for T cell recognition, may, in part, account for the observed differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) susceptibility. To determine whether HLA polymorphism influences HIV-1 susceptibility, a longitudinal cohort of highly HIV-1-exposed female sex workers based in Nairobi, Kenya, was prospectively analyzed. Decreased HIV-1 infection risk was strongly associated with possession of a cluster of closely related HLA alleles (A2/6802 supertype; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.72; P=.0003). The alleles in this supertype are known in some cases to present the same peptide epitopes for T cell recognition. In addition, resistance to HIV-1 infection was independently associated with HLA DRB1*01 (IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.60; P=.0003), which suggests that anti-HIV-1 class II restricted CD4 effector mechanisms may play an important role in protecting against viral challenge. These data provide further evidence that resistance to HIV-1 infection in this cohort of sex workers is immunologically mediated.

14. Gichaga FJ, Mbeche OO. "Transportation for Low Income People in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu.". In: IULA large Cities Forum. Nairobi; 1982.
14. Nduati, R.W. BOGJ & C. "Accidents and Poisoning.". In: Primary health care: A manual for medical students and other health workers (2nd ed.). UNICEF. ; 1995.
14. Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T DOHKKSAOMDKSLGPP. "Broadly cross-reactive HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in highly-exposed persistently seronegative donors." Immunol Lett. . 1999. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play a key part in the control of virus levels throughout HIV infection. An important goal of a potential prophylactic vaccine against HIV is therefore to elicit a strong CTL response which is broadly cross-reactive against a diverse range of HIV strains. We have detected HIV-specific CTL in two groups of highly-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Africa which show extensive cross-reactivity between different viral sequences. In a small group of women exposed to both HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Gambia, studied over 4 years, we have repeatedly detected HLA-B35-restricted CTL which exhibit cross-reactivity between the HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences of the CTL epitopes. In women with particularly intense exposure to what are likely to be multiple clades of HIV-1 in Nairobi Kenya, we have detected CTL directed towards epitopes conserved between HIV-1 clades. In neither group is there any evidence that variation in CCR5 sequence or expression is responsible for their apparent resistance to HIV infection. However, in seropositive donors from Oxford infected with African strains of HIV-1, we have defined CTL responses which are specific for particular clades and have mapped some unique A clade CTL epitopes, together with others to highly-conserved regions of the virus. Further information about the extent of cross-reactive CTL immunity will be important for future vaccine design and evaluation.

15. Fowke KR, Dong T R-JSLORWJKKBSJNSGMPFAJJP. "HIV type 1 resistance in Kenyan sex workers is not associated with altered cellular susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection or enhanced chemokine production." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. . 1998. Abstract

Abstract
A small group of women (n = 80) within the Nairobi-based Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort demonstrates epidemiologic resistance to HIV-1 infection. Chemokine receptor polymorphisms and beta-chemokine overproduction have been among the mechanisms suggested to be responsible for resistance to HIV-1 infection. This study attempts to determine if any of those mechanisms are protecting the HIV-1-resistant women. Genetic analysis of CCR5 and CCR3 from the resistant women demonstrated no polymorphisms associated with resistance. Expression levels of CCR5 among the resistant women were shown to be equivalent to that found in low-risk seronegative (negative) controls, while CXCR4 expression was greater among some of the resistant women. In vitro infection experiments showed that phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from resistant women were as susceptible to infection to T cell- and macrophage-tropic North American and Kenyan HIV-1 isolates as were the PBMCs from negative controls. No significant difference in circulating plasma levels of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta were found between the resistant women and negative or HIV-1-infected controls. In vitro cultures of media and PHA-stimulated PBMCs indicated that the resistant women produced significantly less MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta than did negative controls and no significant difference in RANTES levels were observed. In contrast to studies in Caucasian cohorts, these data indicate that CCR5 polymorphisms, altered CCR5 and CXCR4 expression levels, cellular resistance to in vitro HIV-1 infection, and increased levels of beta-chemokine production do not account for the resistance to HIV-1 infection observed among the women of the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort.

15. Ngaboyisonga, Njoroge K, Kirubi D, Githiri SM. "Effects of field conditions, low nitrogen and drought on genetic parameters of protein and tryptophan concentrations in grain of quality protein maize." International Journal of Plant Production. 2008;2:137-151.
16. Gichaga FJ, Visweswaraiya TG, Sahu BK. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials for earthen Dams and Embankments. .". In: Conference on Materials for Dams. Monte Carlo; 1984.
16. Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T FKRKKNBAONBMDJPHT. "Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi." J Clin Invest. 1998. Abstract

Abstract
Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to HIV infection. These women have had frequent exposure to a range of African HIV-1 variants, primarily clades A, C, and D, for up to 12 yr without becoming infected. Nearly half of them have CTL directed towards epitopes previously defined for B clade virus, which are largely conserved in the A and D clade sequences. Stronger responses are frequently elicited using the A or D clade version of an epitope to stimulate CTL, suggesting that they were originally primed by exposure to these virus strains. CTL responses have been defined to novel epitopes presented by HLA class I molecules associated with resistance to infection in the cohort, HLA-A*6802 and HLA-B18. Estimates using a modified interferon-gamma Elispot assay indicate a circulating frequency of CTL to individual epitopes of between 1:3,200 and 1:50,000. Thus, HIV-specific immune responses-particularly cross-clade CTL activity- may be responsible for protection against persistent HIV infection in these African women.

17. Charles Richard Oyier1, Paul Amollo Odundo1 BN1 JM&. "Budget Planning for Instructional Resources in Secondary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya." Asian Education Studies. 2017.
17. Kimani J, Maclean IW BJJMDOMGMPRWNNJPFABRCKJ. "Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya." J Infect Dis. 1996. Abstract

Abstract
Among 302 female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, who were followed for 17.6 +/- 11.1 months, 146 had one or more infections with Chlamydia trachomatis; 102 had uncomplicated cervical infection only, 23 had C. trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and 21 had combined C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae PID. As determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for C. trachomatis PID included repeated C. trachomatis infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.4; P = .0004), antibody to C. trachomatis heat-shock protein 60 (OR, 3.9; CI, 1.04-14.5; P = .04), oral contraceptive use (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.99; P = .048), and number of episodes of nongonococcal nonchlamydial PID (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; P = .02). Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women, a CD4 lymphocyte count of <400/mm3 was an additional independent risk factor for C. trachomatis PID (OR, 21.7; 95% CI, 1.2-383; P = .036); among HLA-typed women, HLA-A31 was independently associated with C. trachomatis PID (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-29.4; P = .043). The results suggest an immune-mediated pathogenesis for C. trachomatis PID.

19) Kasau, O.M., Kaloki, J.W., Kitoo, B.M., Mutinda, Kalai JM. "Factors Influencing Teacher Attrition in Public Secondary Schools In Mbooni-East Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2016;4(3).13.pdf
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2 TN, Ngugi K, Santie de Villiers, Dan Kiambi, Mutitu E, Sarah Osama, Ngugi AJ. "Introgressing Striga Resistance from a Mapped Donor Source into a Rwandan Adapted Sorghum Variety ." Journal of Renewable Agriculture . 2013;1(1):6-10.
and 2. Clive O. Ondari, Lilly Gathu NKFAIO. "Microbial contamination of oral dosage forms." The New African Journal of Medicine . 1995;1(2):5-8.
2. Kimani S, Moterroso V MWKBMT-KPJSF. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part II. Cross species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium . NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
2. Kyalo DN, Matula DP. Conflict management in Educational Institutions in Kenya: The Art of Avoiding Destructive Conflict Management Strategies in Secondary Schools.. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-337822; 2011.
2. Oyugi J., Bwayo J PNKEFASJ. "Changes in percentages of CD4 in HIV seropositive and seronegative children during a 2-year follow- up.". In: 9th International conference on AIDS, 4th STD World congress. Berlin; 1993.
and 2. Wandolo G., R. M. Elias RJNSMG. "Haeme-containing proteins suppress Lymphatic Pumping." J. Vascular Research . 1992;(29):248-255. Abstract

Red blood cells (RBCs) and lysate products (erythrolysate) are consistently observed in lymph draining inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. We determined previously that erythrolysate modulates lymphatic pumping by altering the pressures over which the lymph pump is active. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxyhemoglobin was the active material within erythrolysate. To quantitate lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure could be applied to the vessels. This procedure stimulated pumping activity. Erythrolysate was prepared from sheep RBCs by lysis in Tris buffer and a portion of this was purified by column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50. Both the purified hemoglobin (10(-5) M) and crude erythrolysate (the latter diluted appropriately in Krebs solution to contain 10(-5) M hemoglobin) reduced lymphatic fluid pumping approximately 70% over a period of 2 h. To determine whether this activity was due to the heme or the protein portion of the molecule, we compared the activity of purified oxyhemoglobin with that of its oxidized methemoglobin derivative. This was achieved by conversion with potassium ferricyanide. Methemoglobin was inactive, suggesting that the heme portion was important for the lymphatic effect. Further confirmation of this observation was provided by experiments with myoglobin which was purified from sheep heart. Oxymyoglobin, which shares an identical heme but has a different protein component, inhibited lymphatic pumping, when tested on the bovine lymphatics

2001 K., M OWMKKMSOWN. Gender Dimensions of Politics, Law and Violence. . Nairobi: Women and Law in East Africa-(WLEA)Kenya; 2001.
2013 PMK; PS; LM-V; JK; AKADEK &. "Missed Opportunities for early HIV Diagnosis: Critical insights from the stories of Kenyan women living with HIV." International Journal of health Promotionand Education. Submitted;(10/3/2013).
29. Irungu LW. "Neglected Tropical Diseases." POST. 2007;13(1):1-3.
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3) Adede CO &, Oboko RO. "Model for Predicting the Probability of Event Occurrence Using Logistic Regression: The Case of Credit Scoring for a Kenyan Commercial Bank." International Journal of Societal Applications of Computer Science. 2013;2(3):216-223.
3. Clive O. Ondari, Eva Njenga LG. " Single dose therapy for uncomplicated Gonococcal Utheritis with Amoxycillin and Probenecid. ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya, . 1995;5(1):30-33.
3. Ndirangu CW. ") Evaluation of the SMASSE PROJECT in Biology in Kajiado District, Kenya. ." VDM Publishing House.Germany. 2010.
3. Ombui J.N., J.M M, Kimotho A.M., J.K. M, Nduhiu J.G. "Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from milk." Afr. Med. J.. 1996;73:380-384.
of 361-368 JA187:. " Stereological methods for estimating the functional surfaces of the chiropteran small intestine." Makanya AN, Mayhew TM, Maina JN . 1995;187:361-368.
of 361-368 JA187:. " Stereological methods for estimating the functional surfaces of the chiropteran small intestine." Makanya AN, Mayhew TM, Maina JN . 1995;187:361-368.
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4 Ochanda N. "Traditional settlements, Pastoral migrations and the Turkwell Dam." Traditional settlements, Pastoral migrations and the Turkwell Dam. 1987.

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