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Kundu PM, Chemelil MC, Onyando JO, Gichaba M. "The Use of GIS And Remote Sensing to Evaluate the Impact of Land Cover and Land Use Change on Discharges in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya." Journal of World Association of Soil and Water Conservation. 2007;J2-08. Abstract

River Njoro watershed represents diverse hydrological environments in Kenya with considerable land use changes. It was once covered by rich vegetation of highland evergreen forests which extended from the Mau hills and turned into woodland dominated by acacia trees in the Rongai-Njoro plains. it was first opened up for settlement in i889 when the Uganda Railway passed through it. Large ranches and farms were started and the area grew to become a major agricultural region. An increase in population between the 1970s and 1990s led to deforestation, land fiagmentation and cultivation of wetlands to meet the demands for food, fuel Wood and housing. To evaluate the impact of land use and land cover changes, remotely sensed data, Geographical Information System (GIS) and ground survey methods Were used. A 322% land use change from forest and Woodland to agriculture and built-up was determined from the analysis of the imagery and ground survey. This impacted negatively on the hydrology of the area, resulting in reduced infiltration, high peak runolf, reduced discharges and “drying up” of many boreholes. The study provided results which could be extrapolated to similar Watersheds, hence the approach could be adopted for Watershed management in Kenya.

Obuhuma JI, Moturi CA. "Use of GPS with Road Mapping for Traffic Analysis." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2012;1(10).
Kimenju JW;, Kagundu AM;, Nderitu JH;, Omuolo FM;, Mutua GK. "Use of green manure plants in cropping systems to suppress root-knot nematodes."; 2007. Abstract

Green manure plants namely Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinartum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, Tithonia diversifolia and Vicia villosa were evaluated to determine their reaction to Meloidogyne javanica. Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minuta were included as susceptible and resistant checks respectively. In the glasshouse, pots were filled with steam-sterilized soil, sown with the green manure plant, and then infested with 4,000 eggs and juveniles of M. javanica. Field experiments were conducted in plots infested with a mixed population of M. javanica and M. incognita. Crotalaria juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens, T. diversifolia and T. minuta had galling and eggmass indices lower than 2 and reduced nematode populations by up to 80%. Calliandra calothyrsus, C. quinoa and C. ensiformis had galling indices lower than 4 and eggmass indices less than 3.2. Vicia villosa and T. purpurea were susceptible with galling indices greater than 7 and nematode population buildup of up to 500%. Chenopodium quinoa, C. juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens and T. diversifolia are suppressive to root-knot nematodes and can therefore be recommended as rotation, fallow or cover crops.

Kimenju JW;, Kagundu AM;, Nderitu JH;, Omuolo FM;, Mutua GK. "Use of green manure plants in cropping systems to suppress root-knot nematodes."; 2007. Abstract

Green manure plants namely Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinartum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, Tithonia diversifolia and Vicia villosa were evaluated to determine their reaction to Meloidogyne javanica. Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minuta were included as susceptible and resistant checks respectively. In the glasshouse, pots were filled with steam-sterilized soil, sown with the green manure plant, and then infested with 4,000 eggs and juveniles of M. javanica. Field experiments were conducted in plots infested with a mixed population of M. javanica and M. incognita. Crotalaria juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens, T. diversifolia and T. minuta had galling and eggmass indices lower than 2 and reduced nematode populations by up to 80%. Calliandra calothyrsus, C. quinoa and C. ensiformis had galling indices lower than 4 and eggmass indices less than 3.2. Vicia villosa and T. purpurea were susceptible with galling indices greater than 7 and nematode population buildup of up to 500%. Chenopodium quinoa, C. juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L. leucocephala, M. pruriens and T. diversifolia are suppressive to root-knot nematodes and can therefore be recommended as rotation, fallow or cover crops.

Nyanchaga NE. "The use of historical trends in the governance of water and sanitation services to predict the future service level: Kenyan perspective”.". In: The Water and Sanitation Challenge in Africa: What΄s History got to do with it? 5th International Water History Association Conference: Past and Futures of Water” . Tampere, Finland; 2007.
Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Were FH. Use of human nails as a bio-indicator of heavy metals overload in children. Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R, eds. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2011. Abstract

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing developing countries. Hair and nail were suggested as more attractive biomarkers among various biopsy materials (teeth, bone, urine, blood and other body fluids) in assessing human metal environmental exposure especially in developing countries because the analysis is economical and not susceptible to contaminations. Recent studies have indicated increasing levels of Pb and Cd in urban and agricultural areas. Studies have identified children as a special risk group as absorption and toxicity of toxic metals is inversely proportional to the age. Absorption of these metals in their gastrointestinal tract also depends on nutritional factors and interaction with other dietary components such as those of Zn, Fe and Ca. This study was therefore set to evaluate the concentration of Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and Fe in the nails of children (n=200) under the age of six years as bioindicators of risk exposure. The concentrations of these metals were compared in toenails and fingernails samples of children (n=33). The sampling covered schools in both urban and rural settings. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained using a questionnaire. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the metals. The heavy metal levels in fingernails of children in urban areas were significantly higher than those of rural areas (P < 0.05; df = 168). The mean levels in urban areas were 27.5±1.8mg/g Pb and 0.73±0.08 mg/g Cd while those of rural areas were 19.7±0.9 mg/g Pb and 0.44±0.06 mg/g Cd. The correlation results indicated that high levels of Pb in the fingernail samples negatively correlated with Zn and Fe (R = -0.256 Zn; -0.188 Fe) but not Ca levels while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe (R = -0.241) only. Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location had more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4±3.5 NLm/g Pb as compared to those whose residence was near the highway (31.6±2.8 mg/g Pb), implying that the contaminants are from a common source. The study established that the mean metal levels were generally higher in the toenail than in fingernail samples. However, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), therefore either the toenail or the fingernail could be used as bio-indicator. The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure and nutritional factors implies that policies and strategies to reduce the heavy metal levels should be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children in this country. This could be facilitated by improving the conditions of the schools and residential areas and sensitizing the general public on nutrition and effects of heavy metals.

Were FH, Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R. "Use of human nails as bio-indicators of heavy metals environmental exposure among school age children in Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2008;393(2-3):376-384. AbstractWebsite

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing the developing countries. Metal poisoning is usually difficult and expensive to assess or screen in these countries due to limited resources, which means that policies, guidelines, regulations and institutional managements are limited. Hair and nail as biopsy materials were suggested as more attractive biomarkers in assessing heavy metals environmental exposure. This paper deals with quantitative determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in fingernails of children (n = 200) in urban and rural areas using atomic absorption spectrometry. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained through a questionnaire. The mean levels of heavy metals in children in urban areas were found to be higher (27.5 ± 1.8 μg/g Pb and 0.73 ± 0.08 μg/g Cd) than in rural areas (19.7 ± 0.9 μg/g Pb and 0.44 ± 0.06 μg/g Cd). The difference was significant (P < 0.05; DF = 168, t-test). Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, health conditions, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location has more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4 ± 3.5 μg/g Pb as compared to those who lived near the highway (31.6 ± 2.8 μg/g Pb), however the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), suggesting a common source of contaminants in the areas. The correlation results also indicated that a high level of Pb in the nail influenced negatively Zn and Fe but not Ca levels (R = − 0.256 Zn; − 0.188 Fe) while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe only (R = − 0.241). The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure, and nutritional status implies that policies and actions to reduce heavy metal levels must be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children and by extension the general public in this country.

Njenga MK, Nyaga PN, Buoro IBJ;, Gathumbi PK. "Use of hyperimmune serum as a prophylaxis in puppies CPV-2 enteritis infection.". 1991.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "USE OF IMMUNOASSAYS IN MONITORING MEAT PROTEIN ADDITIVES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
A review of the methods used for monitoring meat protein additives of fresh and cooked meats using physico-chemical and immunological methods is presented.
Wanjala. G, Omufwoko Esther A. "Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Learning among Students at Technical Colleges in Nairobi Province, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2017;2(8):34-43.abstract.pdf
Okello JJ. "Use of information and communication tools and services by rural grain traders: The case of Kenyan maize traders.". 2011. Abstract

Poor access to agricultural market information is a major factor constraining the performance of agricultural markets in developing countries. The search for new strategies for resolving this constraint has led to several ICT-based market information service (MIS) projects in developing countries. At the same time, the rapid penetration of new generation ICT tools (especially mobile phones) has resulted in wider application of these tools in agriculture. This paper examines the use of ICT tools and ICT-based services by rural grain traders in Kenya. It is based on data collected from 204 traders in Western and Rift Valley regions of Kenya. The study finds widespread use of ICT tools by grain traders. It also finds that the tools are used by grain traders to obtain market information, including information on price, volume, and where to source and sell grains, among others. The implications of these findings are that market development agents must focus on removing constraints limiting the use of ICT tools in rural areas. Spurring greater use of ICT tools has the potential to reduce transaction costs and improve the performance of rural agricultural markets.

Akwale WS, Ongore D, Kimani VN, Njoroge FK. "Use of insecticide treated bed nets among pregnant women in Kilifi District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Malaria is one of the most serious public health problems in Kenya. Pregnant women are among the groups with the highest risk of malaria. Use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) is a cost-effective method of controlling malaria. Despite this, there is low utilisation of ITNs among pregnant women in Kilifi district which is an endemic malaria zone. To determine knowledge, attitude and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women in Kilifi district. A descriptive cross-sectional study. The district hospital and the five health centres in Kilifi district Two hundred and twenty pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) between October and December 2007. Knowledge on malaria illness and ITNs was high with majority of pregnant women having adequate level of knowledge (86.9%). There was significant association between level of education and adequate knowledge (P-value = 0.010). Good attitude on ITNs use was low. There was no association between good attitude and any of the socio-demographic variables. The majority of pregnant women attending ANC owned ITNs (75.4%). ITNs usage was high (70.5%). There was significant association between religion and good practice (p-value = 0.050). Although adequate level of knowledge on malaria and protective role of ITNs was high, there was no association between knowledge with practice and attitude. Before any malaria preventive intervention is implemented in an area, different socio-cultural factors must be considered when behavioural interventions for malaria control are designed and implemented. Targeted health education should be disseminated to the community to remove stigma and misconceptions associated with ITNs. Community concerns and fears should be addressed.

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull Text Link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are
rarely used to facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view
of this, the paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning
in mobile learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents
and integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction.

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull website link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are rarely used to
facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view of this, the
paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning in mobile
learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents and
integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction. The design was implemented in a
collaborative mobile learning system running on Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic
Learning Environment (Moodle) platform. The application was used in some experiments to
investigate the effects of those facilitated interactions on the level of group knowledge
construction.

"Use of Journey Motif to Foreground thematic issues in selected works of K.W. Wamitila." International Journal of Creative Research Studies. 2018;2(1):62-71.
Huch NKM, Hanak AS, Specht I, Dortu CM, Thonart P, Mbugua S, Holzapfel WH, Hertel C, Franz CM. "Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassava fermentations for Gari production.". 2008.
Kuria SG, Gachuiri CK, Wanyoike MM, Wahome RG. "Use Of Linear Body Measurements In Estimating Live Weight Of Camel Calves In Kenya.". 2006.
Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Moturi CA, Maiyo SK. "Use of MapReduce for Data Mining and Data Optimization on a Web Portal." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2012;56(7).
Masika M, Omondi G, Natembeya D, Mugane E, Bosire K, Kibwage I. "Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya." Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21. Abstractabstract_-_use_of_mobile_learning_technology_among_final_year_medical_students_in_kenya.pdfeducational_use_of_smartphones.jpg

Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya.
Masika MM, Omondi GB, Natembeya DS, Mugane EM, Bosire KO, Kibwage IO.

INTRODUCTION: Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi.

METHODS:This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS(®). Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis.

RESULTS: We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory.

CONCLUSION: Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

KEYWORDS: Smartphone; medical education; mobile application; mobile learning; mobile-device

Pan Afr Med J. 2015 Jun 15;21:127. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2015.21.127.6185. eCollection 2015.

Masika MM, Omondi GB, Natembeya DS, Mugane EM, Bosire KO, Kibwage IO. "Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya." Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21(127). Abstractuse_of_mobile_learning_technology_among_final_year_medical_students_in_kenya.pdf

Introduction: Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS®. Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis.
Results: We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory.
Conclusion: Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

Keiyoro K, Ngunjiri. "Use of Mobile Telephone in reporting notifiable diseases in Kenya,." Elearning Africa publications.. 2012.
A N, GO O, C O. "The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist and hand in the assessment of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):3-7. Abstract

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is a
debilitating disease with accrual of joint damage during each flare of the disease that progresses to considerable functional disability. Early treatment is
thus aimed to achieve remission status so as to reduce the progression of joint
damage. Currently the disease activity parameter DAS28 (amongst others)
is used to define a remission status and thus demonstrate the efficacy
of a treatment regimen, however musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is
proving to be superior at determining the amount of inflammation within joints by grading synovial hypertrophy and neo-vascularization of the
inflamed synovium. This article is thus intended to shed light on the usefulness of musculoskeletal ultrasound
both greyscale and Doppler in the determination of treatment response
in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Design: This article will elaborate
the importance and effectiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound. Thus it will involve a discussion on the need for an effective tool to detect inflammatory activity, the ability of ultrasound to detect and grade the disease activity i.e.
being sensitive to change, the various scoring systems currently used, and
lastly a comparison of musculoskeletal ultrasound to other modalities and
clinical and serological evaluation. Data source and extraction:
Published studies, reviews and guidelines regarding the use of
musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist/hand in assessing treatment
response in rheumatoid arthritis patients were sourced through the
internet and library searches and the relevant data extracted. Conclusion:
status of the patient or a high initial ESR with significant serological and clinical
improvement, which will again not be portrayed in the DAS28 results. There may also be variability when assessing joints that are swollen or tender in between different examiners4. Moreover, there is a subset of
patients who still have disease progression despite achieving clinical remission status5.
  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiographic evaluation have also been used as adjuncts to clinical exam but both have their drawb

Wachira P.M. "USE OF NEMATODE DESTROYING FUNGI AS INDICATORS OF LAND DISTURBANCE IN TAITA TAVETA, KENYA." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2009;11(2):313-321. AbstractWebsite

This study was undertaken to determine whether nematode destroying fungi can be used as indicators of
soil disturbances. Soil samples were collected from an indigenous forest, maize/bean, napier grass, shrub and vegetable fields, which represented the main land use types in Taita Taveta district of Kenya. The fungal
isolates obtained were grouped into seven genera and identified. The species identified were, Acrostalagums obovatus, Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Arthrobotrys superba, Dactyllela lobata, Haptoglosa heterospora, Harposporium anguillulae, Harposporium.sp, Monacrosporium cionopagum and Nematoctonous georgenious. Occurrence of nematodedestroying fungi was significantly (P = 3.81 x 10 -7) different among the land use systems in the study area. Out of the isolates that were positively identified, 33.7 %, 27.9 %, 20.9 %, 11.6 % and 5.8 % were from fields under vegetable, maize/bean, napier grass, shrub and forest, respectively. Soil disturbance accounted for the
highest occurrence of nematode destroying fungi (60.77 %) while moisture, accounted for 23.35%.
Fungal isolates from vegetable gardens were most diverse while soils from the forest were most even
with least diversity. The total richness of nematode destroying fungi was nine, seven, six, and three in
maize bean, napier, shrub and forest habitats respectively. This study has established that nematode
destroying fungi increases with increased land disturbance.

Faria PJ, Kavembe GD, Jung'a JO, Kimwele CN, Estes LD, Reilo PR, Mwangi AG, Bruford MW. "The use of non-invasive molecular techniques to confirm the presence of mountain bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci populations in Kenya and preliminary inference of their mitochondrial genetic variation." Conserv Genet. 2011;10. AbstractWebsite

The mountain bongo antelope Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci has rapidly declined in recent decades, due to a combination of hunting, habitat degradation and disease. Endemic to Kenya, mountain bongo populations have shrunk to approximately 100 individuals now mainly confined to the Aberdares mountain ranges. Indirect observation of bongo signs (e.g. tracks, dung) can be misleading, thus methods to ensure reliable species identification, such as DNA-based techniques, are necessary to effectively study and monitor this species. We assessed bongo presence in four mountain habitats in Kenya (Mount Kenya National Park, Aberdare National Park, Eburu and Mau forests) and carried out a preliminary analysis of genetic variation by examining 466 bp of the first domain of the mtDNA control region using DNA extracted from faecal samples. Of the 201 dung samples collected in the field, 102 samples were molecularly identified as bongo, 97 as waterbuck, one as African buffalo and one as Aders’ duiker. Overall species-identification accuracy by experienced trackers was 64%, with very high error of commission when identifying bongo sign (37%), and high error of omission for waterbuck sign (82%), suggesting that the two species’ signs are easily confused. Despite high variation in the mtDNA control region in most antelope species, our results suggest low genetic variation in mountain bongo as only two haplotypes were detected in 102 samples analyzed. In contrast, the analysis of 63 waterbuck samples from the same sites revealed 21 haplotypes. Nevertheless, further examination using nuclear DNA markers (e.g. microsatellites) in a multi-locus approach is still required, especially because the use of mitochondrial DNA can result in population overestimation as distinct dung samples can potentially be originated from the same individual.

Kariuki CN, Waithira MM. "Use Of Operations Research As A Tool For Data Analysis: Fact Or Fiction? An Analysis Of Mba Projects At The School Of Business, University Of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference . African Crop Science Society; 2008. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Kariuki CN, Waithira MM. "Use Of Operations Research As A Tool For Data Analysis: Fact Or Fiction? An Analysis Of Mba Projects At The School Of Business, University Of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Simiyu MT, F Nyongesa, Aduda B, Birech Z, Mwebaze G, A., Sunnerhagen, Maitha G. "Use of Organic Binders to Enhance Defluoridation and Pathogen Removal Efficiency of Diatomaceous Earth-Based Ceramic Filters. ." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences . 2021;6:2313-3317.
S.W. M. Use of organic fibres and cement for repair and retrofitting of structural elements. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Building Research Centre; 2011.
W K, GK G, J M, N A. "The use of participatory epidemiology to determine the Prevalence rate and economic impacts of ppr and ccpp in Turkana county of Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;(60):241-249. Abstractbahpa-2012.pdf

Participatory epidemiological Research was conducted in Turkana to identify the two most important livestock diseases, and then characterize their incidence and the economic impact. The study was carried out between 12th to 26th September 2011. Semi-structured interviews, guided by checklists were completed with groups of respondents in each of the 16 randomly selected villages (adakars) to collect
data on livestock diseases and their impact on the livelihood of the people. Simple ranking techniques,
proportional piling exercises and matrix scoring methods were used to collect data on the importance of
the diseases identified. Matrix scoring of clinical signs was used to correlate the disease terms provided by the respondents in local language with the scientific names. The research focused on Lomooh or peste des petit ruminants (PPR) and Loukoi or contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Disease impact matrix scoring (DIMS) was used to correlate the diseases to the economic losses, while participatory mapping, time lines and seasonal calendars were used describe the spatial and seasonal distribution of the diseases. Transect drives was used to collect data on the pasture conditions. Lomooh (peste des petits ruminants) was reported to occur in outbreaks with a median morbidity of 65% and a range of 25% to 90% and a case fatality rate median and range of 95% and 75, to 100% respectively. Loukoi (CCPP) on the other hand was described to be an endemic disease known by the community for a long time and had a median morbidity rate of 50% (with range of 39 to 75% and a median and range case fatality rate of 62% and 40 to 85%, respectively). These losses led to reduced income and food insecurity at the household levels. The biggest challenge to livestock farming (which contributed to 75% of the livelihood) was recurrent drought, insecurity and diseases, with CCPP and PPR being considered as having the largest impact. Respondents indicated that these challenges have made people worse off than they were 20 and 10 years ago and more reliant on external food aid.

Loewenson R, Mathai MA, Obondo A, Mburu J, Kitazi N, Othieno CJ. "Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya.". 2009.
Othieno CJ, Kitazi N, Mburu J, Obondo A, Mathai MA, Loewenson. R. "Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya: ." International Psychiatry . 2009;6(1).
Muhula S, Opanga Y, Kuyo M, Qureshi Z, Memiah P, M N. "Use of performance dashboards in health care project management: a case of an international health development organization in Kenya." Africa Health Agenda International Journal. 2018;1(3). AbstractWebsite

In this paper we document the use of dashboards in health care project management in an international health non-governmental organization. All projects at the organization monitor output performance on specific indicators against set targets and report these as project outputs performance report every month. In addition, projects prepare quality improvement report, compliance report and financial report. The four reports are then used to generate the monthly integrated performance monitoring and management dashboard which is shared with all staff and used by project managers and programme directors to review projects performance in the 4 parameters of measure and then used to provide appropriate technical support. We conducted a client satisfaction survey among staff to assess their levels of satisfaction with the dashboard and it came out that staff consider the dashboard as a “must have” monthly project management tool as it results in timely measurement of projects’ financial performance, programmatic performance, quality of service performance and compliance performance at a glance without the need to go through detailed reports. Programme directors and project managers use the dashboard to quickly identify hotspots, detect outliers in indicators of measure in a project and use this to deeply analyse possible causes of poor performance in projects for targeted technical assistance.

T
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE USE OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL METHODS IN MEAT SPECIES IDENTIFICATION: A BRIEF REVIEW.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
Meat species identification has been necessitated by cases of unfair trading where label declarations are not met; in respect to the species of origin of the meat. Advantages and disadvantages of using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoenzyme and fat analysis in speciation of raw and cooked meat are presented. Isoelectic focusing of myoglobulin seems to be the only promising method which can be adopted for use in speciation of meat. However, more research work on myoglobulin assay is needed.
U
Gitau GK, Karioki DI. "The use of preserved colostrum for rearing replacement dairy calves: calf performance, economics and on-farm practicability in Kenya.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

A total of 133 observations on mean daily mass gains from 19 calves reared on either whole milk (control) or preserved colostrum (treatment) were estimated. The control group had a total of 104 observations computed, while the treatment group had a total of 29 observations. There was no significant difference in the overall mean daily mass gains between the treatment and control groups which were 0.2257 and 0.3607 kg, respectively (P < 0.1). Partial budgeting analysis estimated that with an annual calf crop of 80 calves, the use of preserved colostrum would result in a direct saving of an estimated US$1,800 per year for the farm.

KIPCHIRCHIR KO, Kinuthia NR, Githaiga WR. "Use of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod as Livestock Feed Supplement in the Arid and Semi-arid Rangelands of Kenya.". In: Science, Policy and Politics of Modern Agricultural System . Netherlands: Springer ; 2014.book_chapter-springer_netherlands..pdf
Shah K;, Choge S;, Wahome R;, Muchiri MN;, Kamondo B;, Ochieng D;, Wanjiku J. "Use of prosopis pods in livestock feeds industry: challenges and way forward.".; 2009. Abstract

Prosopis ('Mathenge') is now a common tree species in northern, northeastern and coastal districts of Kenya. From experience, managing the spread of Prosopis appears to be heavily dependent on the level of human interventions at seed stage. In absence of any intervention, the seed forms the main source of spread of the species. Due to the potential of Prosopis particularly prosopis pods to be utilized as a feed resource for livestock production, ILRI, in consultation with KEFRI, Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) and the Department for International Development (DFID) took the initiative to convene a national workshop in March 2007. The workshop theme was to link industry to the Prosopis resource. Its objectives were to bring together representatives of the Livestock Feeds Industry, researchers, developers, communities, local administration and other stakeholders to share local and international experience in the use of Prosopis as a feed resource and generate novel initiatives to catalyze the interest of feed companies on the use of prosopis pods as cost effective ingredient in the formulation of livestock feeds. This paper provides the results of the experiences of collecting, transporting and processing of prosopis pods in Kenya for the last one year. Recommendations towards community mobilization, pricing and promotion on the use of prosopis pods in Kenya's livestock feeds industry are highlighted.

Ikamari LDE. "The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods in Differential Mortality Analysis.". In: Population, Health and Development in Africa.; 2001.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Kanywiro S, Onchoke C. "The use of Quantitative Forecasting Estimates in Billing Utility.". In: Journal of Management, vol. 1,. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract

The residents of Nairobi on the city council of Nairobi for their provision of water needs. Provision of such an essential service is very challenging for the City Council especially with current population growth rate in the city. Continued provision of water is possible if adequate revenue is generated from water sales to cover capital, operation and maintenance costs. Collection of revenue from water sales has been a perpetual problem to the city council. One of the main problems is attributed to the delay in reading the water meters, an exercise which has to be done before billing consumers. Meter reading is a taxing job especially when the workforce is small. Other problems that hinder smooth operations of meter reading include lack of adequate transport for the meter readers and poor weather conditions. In this paper, it is argued that the meter reading frequency can be reduced through the use of quantitative forecasting methods to provide estimates of water consumption for certain categories of consumers. Such estimates, when used as a basis for billing consumers, have been found to be fairly reliable in some categories of consumers and not others. Although this approach will help to keep down the meter reading expenses, its implementation requires a careful consideration of organizational issues. Important organizational issues such as the co-ordination between the connection and disconnection sections, the finance department and the administration department need to be addressed. For an effective co-ordination and an improved dept collection, an installation of a new computer system will be required to provide easier access to data and provide accurate and timely management information for the billing and revenue collection from consumers. Key words Consumers, Meter reading, billing, quantitative forecasts.

Rohrer GA;, Taylor TF;, Davis SK;, Waruiru RM;, Ravuna F;, Mwanndotto BAJ;, Rurangirwa F. "The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers in analysis of susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia."; 1991.
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Use of repetitive extragenic palindromic, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus and BOX sequences in fingerprinting Exserohilum turcicum isolates.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2007. Abstract
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M. MW, B. KOOPMAN, V. TIEDEMMANNA, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Use of Repetitive Extragenic Palndromic (REP), Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) and BOX sequences to fingerprint Exserohilum turcicum isolates." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;30:1828-1838.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Use of roadside soils and vegetation in monitoring motor vehicle lead pollution," Proceedings:.". In: Inaugral Conference of the Kenya Chemical Society, Nairobi, June 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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O. DROUMAGILBERT. "Use of satellite data in the monitoring and prediction of rainfall over Kenya.". In: Ph.D thesis, Department of Meteorology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 185pp.; 2000. Abstract
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Mweresa CK, Mukabana WR, van Loon JJA, Dicke M, Takken W. "Use of semiochemicals for surveillance and control of hematophagous insects." Chemoecology. 2020;3:139-149.
1. Julius Oyugi, Fredrick Oyugi COWJJBOA. "Use of serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion(STARHS) to estimate HIV-1 incidence among adults visiting a Kenyan tertiary health institution. East African Medical Journal volume 86, no. 5; 2009." . East African Medical Journal volume 86. 2009. Abstractuse_of_serologic_testing_algorithm_for_recent_hiv_seroconversionstarhs_to_estimate_hiv-1_incidence_among_adults_visiting_a_kenyan_tertiary_health_institution._.pdf

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine HIV high risk groups among adults visiting Kenyatta National Hospital Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centre by use of Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS).
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study of adults.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital Voluntary and Counselling Centre.
RESULTS:
Of the 6,415 adults screened for antibodies to HIV at Kenyatta National Hospital VCT Centre between July 2002 and February 2003, 728 tested positive in the two HIV screening tests used at the center, indicating a prevalence of 11%. Of these seropositive cases, 355 consented to participate in the study. Using STARHS, 34 (9.6%) of the plasma samples were classified as being from individuals with recent infection (within 170 days), giving an annual estimated HIV-1 incidence in this population of 1.3 infections per 100 person-years with a 95% CI of 0.872-1.728%. Young adults had a higher rate of new infection than older adults. Young females were infected much earlier in life, with a peak age of new infections of 26 years, versus 31 years for young males.
CONCLUSION:
This study confirms our hypothesis that STARHS or Detuned assay can be used to determine HIV incidence in this population. The HIV high risk groups as identified by this study are young women between ages 16 to 26 years old and men between ages 45 to 55 years of age.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Use of serum retinol-binding protein for prediction of vitamin A deficiency: effects of HIV-1 infection, protein malnutrition, and the acute phase response. Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Wener MH, Kreiss JK, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, McCle.". In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb;79(2):218-25. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mburu JN;, Kamau JMZ;, Badamana MS;, Mbugua PN. "Use of serum vitamin B12 in diagnosis of cobalt deficiency in small East African goats."; 1994.
Mburu JN;, Kamau JMZ;, Badamana MS;, Mbugua PN. "Use of serum vitamin B12 in diagnosis of cobalt deficiency in small East African goats."; 1994.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Use of sexually transmitted disease risk assessment algorithms for selection of intrauterine device candidates.Contraception. 1999 Feb;59(2):97-106.PMID: 10361624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. emorrison@fhi.org. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Miller WC, Weiner DH, Sinei SK. Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. emorrison@fhi.org Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are an important contraindication for intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Nevertheless, laboratory testing for STD is not possible in many settings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of risk assessment algorithms to predict STD and subsequent IUD-related complications among IUD candidates. Among 615 IUD users in Kenya, the following algorithms were evaluated: 1) an STD algorithm based on US Agency for International Development (USAID) Technical Working Group guidelines: 2) a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) algorithm for management of chlamydia; and 3) a data-derived algorithm modeled from study data. Algorithms were evaluated for prediction of chlamydial and gonococcal infection at 1 month and complications (pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], IUD removals, and IUD expulsions) over 4 months. Women with STD were more likely to develop complications than women without STD (19% vs 6%; risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.5). For STD prediction, the USAID algorithm was 75% sensitive and 48% specific, with a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 1.4. The CDC algorithm was 44% sensitive and 72% specific, LR+ = 1.6. The data-derived algorithm was 91% sensitive and 56% specific, with LR+ = 2.0 and LR- = 0.2. Category-specific LR for this algorithm identified women with very low (< 1%) and very high (29%) infection probabilities. The data-derived algorithm was also the best predictor of IUD-related complications. These results suggest that use of STD algorithms may improve selection of IUD users. Women at high risk for STD could be counseled to avoid IUD, whereas women at moderate risk should be monitored closely and counseled to use condoms. PIP: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using risk assessment algorithms in predicting sexually transmitted disease (STD) and subsequent IUD-related complications among IUD candidates. The study population was selected among women who desired an IUD insertion in Nairobi, Kenya. The following algorithms drawn from the study of IUD use and HIV infection among these 615 IUD users were evaluated: 1) an STD algorithm based on US Agency for International Development (USAID) Technical Working Group guidelines; 2) a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) algorithm for management of chlamydia; 3) a data-derived algorithm modeled from data. Algorithms were also evaluated for prediction of chlamydial and gonococcal infection at 1 month and complications (pelvic inflammatory disease, IUD removals, and IUD expulsions) at 4 months. Results showed that women with STDs were more likely to develop complications than women without STDs (19% vs. 6% risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.5). In STD prediction, the USAID algorithm was 91% sensitive and 56% specific, with LR+ = 2.0 and LR- = 0.2. Category-specific LR for this algorithm identified women with very low (1%) and very high (29%) infection probabilities. Thus, sexually transmitted disease was associated with increased risk for complications after IUD insertion. Moreover, it may be concluded that simple risk assessment criteria can assist in the identification of women at high and low risk for STD among women presenting for IUD insertion; it may also be concluded that the use of simple risk assessment tools may facilitate the identification of women who require close observation, thus reducing the incidence of IUD-related complications. PMID: 10361624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Gunga PS. Use of Social Media in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Nairobi, College of Education and External Studies, School of Continuing and Distance Education; 2013.
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies.. 2020;1(2):25-39.
Gichuhi, S, Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education: A Case of School of Education, University of Nairobi." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies. JHEPALS . 2020;2(1).
D.W. Gakuya, T.O.Abuom, C.Onyango, L.K.Cheruiyot. "Use of sodium hypochlorite (jik) in the management of dermatophytosis (ringworm) in a dairy cattle farm in Kiambu County.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

N. O, Delsol JP, Agatsiva JL. "Use of Spot Data in evaluating interrelationships between human settlements and forest resources in Namanga area of Kenya." Proceedings of 23rd Symposium on remote sensing of the environment . 1990.
Maina, mwihaki. "Use of Sustainable Non-Contemporary Materials by East African Multi-Disciplinary Artists: Case of Sanaa Gateja, Evans Ngure and Samson Ssenkaaba." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2020;9(11):140-148.
Okeyo AM, Ruvuma F, Cartwright TC, Maleche JN. "Use of teething technique to estimate age in goats.". 1986.
Schwabbauer ML. "Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills." Am J Med Technol. 1975;41(12):457-62. Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Schwabbauer ML. "Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills." Am J Med Technol. 1975;41(12):457-62. Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Matanji P. Use of the off-the-shelf software in housekeeping activities in academic Libraries in Australia.. Australia.: RMIT, Department of Librarianship.; 1985.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Use of the Oral Traditions in the reconstruction of Africans past: Case Studies from Kenya.". In: Proccedings of the International Conference of Anthropologists, Maputo, Mozambique, SAREC, Sweden. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1990. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Use of the Oral Traditions in the reconstruction of Africans past: Case Studies from Kenya.". In: Proccedings of the International Conference of Anthropologists, Maputo, Mozambique, SAREC, Sweden.; 1990. Abstract

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Prasad SP. "The Use of the Public Trust Doctrine in Environmental Law.". In: The Use of the Public Trust Doctrine in Environmental Law. Hyderabad India: ICFAI Press; 2008.
Vogel JP, Betrán AP, Vindevoghel N, Souza JP, M. R. Torloni ZJ, Tuncalp O, Mori R, Morisaki N, Ortiz-Panozo E, Hernandez B, Pérez-Cuevas R, Qureshi Z, Gülmezoglu AM, Temmerman M. "Use of the Robson classification to assess caesarean section trends in 21 countries." A secondary analysis of two WHO multicountry surveys Lancet Glob Health, 2015.. 2015. Abstract

Background
Rates of caesarean section surgery are rising worldwide, but the determinants of this increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, are controversial. In this study, we aimed to analyse the contribution of specific obstetric populations to changes in caesarean section rates, by using the Robson classification in two WHO multicountry surveys of deliveries in health-care facilities. The Robson system classifies all deliveries into one of ten groups on the basis of five parameters: obstetric history, onset of labour, fetal lie, number of neonates, and gestational age.
Methods
We studied deliveries in 287 facilities in 21 countries that were included in both the WHO Global Survey of Maternal and Perinatal Health (WHOGS; 2004–08) and the WHO Multi-Country Survey of Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS; 2010–11). We used the data from these surveys to establish the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in caesarean section rates per country. Countries were stratified according to Human Development Index (HDI) group (very high/high, medium, or low) and the Robson criteria were applied to both datasets. We report the relative size of each Robson group, the caesarean section rate in each Robson group, and the absolute and relative contributions made by each to the overall caesarean section rate.
Findings
The caesarean section rate increased overall between the two surveys (from 26·4% in the WHOGS to 31·2% in the WHOMCS, p=0·003) and in all countries except Japan. Use of obstetric interventions (induction, prelabour caesarean section, and overall caesarean section) increased over time. Caesarean section rates increased across most Robson groups in all HDI categories. Use of induction and prelabour caesarean section increased in very high/high and low HDI countries, and the caesarean section rate after induction in multiparous women increased significantly across all HDI groups. The proportion of women who had previously had a caesarean section increased in moderate and low HDI countries, as did the caesarean section rate in these women.
Interpretation
Use of the Robson criteria allows standardised comparisons of data across countries and timepoints and identifies the subpopulations driving changes in caesarean section rates. Women who have previously had a caesarean section are an increasingly important determinant of overall caesarean section rates in countries with a moderate or low HDI. Strategies to reduce the frequency of the procedure should include avoidance of medically unnecessary primary caesarean section. Improved case selection for induction and prelabour caesarean section could also reduce caesarean section rates.
Funding
None.

D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Use of the Robson Classification to compare Caesarean Section patterns at the Kenyatta National Hospital after and before free Maternity Services in Kenya." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):46-51.Website
Oketch E. "The Use of Traditional Conflict Management Methods in the Nation- State Conflict in Africa.". In: Governance, Institutions and the Human Condition. Nairobi: Strathmore University Press; 2009.
Kimani P.K., Njoroge B. N. K., Gitau A. N. "Use of UASB reactor in treatment of Dairy industry wastewater in New KCC Kitale factory, Kenya." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5:2(ISSN-0974-407X.):111-125.
Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo, J.K.; Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo JK;, Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
A.S M, T.M. W, et al. "The use of ultrasound to study the prevalence of hydatid cysts in the right lung and liver of sheep and goats in Turkana, Kenya." International Journal for Parasitology . 1996;26:1335-1338.
Karimurio J, Rono H, Njomo D, Sironka J, Kareko C, Gichangi M, Barasa E, A M, Kefa R, Kiio F. "Use of validated community-based trachoma trichiasis (TT) case finders to measure the total backlog and detect when elimination threshold is achieved: a TT methodology paper." Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:18.
6. B M Farah1, S Ogola1 I1 O1 A1 O-M1 J1 G2 BJMOG. "The use of viral peptides as a quality control for ELISPOT assays in HIV-1 vaccine trials in Kenya.". In: International Conference AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand; 2004.
Mwangi KM, Muriuki GM. "The Use of “historical lenses” in navigating dynamic policy discourses with special emphasis on Kenya." Journal of Applied Management Science. 2015;2(9).
Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Gitura DW, Gakuo SM, Kamau GN. "Useful Products from Microalgae: Case Study of Ruai Wastewater Treatment Plant in Nairobi." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;9(1):15-34. Abstract

Microalgae has had a number of applications. This study explores the formation of biodiesel from lipids and
formation of charred biomass fuel from the algae species found at Ruai Wastewater facility at Ruai, Nairobi. The
resulting biomass after solvent extraction was carbonized and the gross calorific value determined using a constant
volume bomb calorimeter. The bio-oil obtained from the algae was transesterified and the calorific value
determined. In one of the cases, carbon dioxide was bubbled through fresh algae from the waste water facility and
the biodiesel from this sample which was later sun-dried, crushed, then subjected to solvent extraction and
subsequent transesterification had the highest calorific value of 27,620 KJ/g compared to 22,758KJ/g in algae
sample which was not subjected to such a treatment. In the case of the charred biomass fuel, the gross calorific
value was found to be approx 23,132 KJ/g which makes it a medium calorific value fuel. GC-MS analysis was
performed on one of the transesterification samples and methyl esters of the isolated fatty acids were identified as
methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acid α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), Hexadecanoic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid. In addition an alkane heptadecane was also isolated. This study shows that algae, which is
present in many water systems in Kenya can be used as a valuable source of fatty acids that are taken in diet by
animals and humans thus building a healthy nation.
Keywords: Microalgae, transesterification, biodiesel

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Gitura DW, Gakuo SM, Kamau GN. "Useful Products from Microalgae: Case Study of Ruai Wastewater Treatment Plant in Nairobi." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;Vol. 9(1):15-34. Abstract

Microalgae has had a number of applications. This study explores the formation of biodiesel from lipids and
formation of charred biomass fuel from the algae species found at Ruai Wastewater facility at Ruai, Nairobi. The resulting biomass after solvent extraction was carbonized and the gross calorific value determined using a constant volume bomb calorimeter. The bio-oil obtained from the algae was transesterified and the calorific value determined. In one of the cases, carbon dioxide was bubbled through fresh algae from the waste water facility and the biodiesel from this sample which was later sun-dried, crushed, then subjected to solvent extraction and subsequent transesterification had the highest calorific value of 27,620 KJ/g compared to 22,758KJ/g in algae sample which was not subjected to such a treatment. In the case of the charred biomass fuel, the gross calorific value was found to be approx 23,132 KJ/g which makes it a medium calorific value fuel. GC-MS analysis was performed on one of the transesterification samples and methyl esters of the isolated fatty acids were identified as methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acid α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), Hexadecanoic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid. In addition an alkane heptadecane was also isolated. This study shows that algae, which is present in many water systems in Kenya can be used as a valuable source of fatty acids that are taken in diet by animals and humans thus building a healthy nation.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Usefulness of indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East. Afr. Med.J. 66: 310 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Usefulness of industrial attachment in FST programmes. Report presented to inter-University workshop, Arusha, Tanzania Karuri, E.G. 1993. Needs Assessment Survey in the Small Scale food Enterprises in Kenya. REPORT.FKE/ILO. 185 pages.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Mulongo AM, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo. "User Centric Integration of Remote Portlets using Presentation Oriented Web Services.". In: IBM/Unesco-Hp Workshop on Trends in Distributed Computing Applications. Nairobi; 2013.
Bedi, A; Kimalu KMS; MDK; MNNNP; G;. "User Charges and utilisation of Health Services in Kenya."; 2003.
Bedi A, Kimalu P, Kimenyi MS, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Nafula NN. "User Charges and utilisation of Health Services in Kenya” Working paper No. 381." Instit ute of Social Studies, the Hague, The Netherlands. 2003.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""User Charges in Government Health Facilities in Kenya: Effect on Attendance and Revenue," (with James Mwanzia and Wilson Liambila), Health Policy and Planning, 10:2(1995), pp. 164-170.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Kiiru J, Mburu, Siddhartha S. "User Costs of Joint Liability Borrowing and their Effects on Livelihood Assets for Rural Poor Households.". In: Gender and Pro Poor Growth. New Delhi: Arise Publishers and Distributors; 2009.
Kiiru J, Mburu J. "User Costs of Joint Liability Borrowing and their Effects on Livelihood Assets for Rural Poor Households." International Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights. 2007.
Owigar JA, Omwenga EI. "User-Centric Evaluation of Government of Kenya Online Services: The Case of iTax." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2016;148(8). AbstractFull Text Link

In recent years, the Kenyan government has worked to use Information and communication technologies (ICTs) to increase openness and transparency in their operations. These ICTs are seen as a cost-effective and convenient means to promote public participation in government in Kenya. While many of these efforts have had a government centered approach, the users perspective has been largely ignored. This research takes a user centered approach and looks at how user’s perspectives and attitudes affect adoption of e-government services. The iTax online service was selected as a case study for this research. The research framework is based on technology acceptance models focusing on the aspects of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use by the users. This view is especially important in developing countries that are still grappling with issues of connectivity and basic infrastructure while developing e-governance initiatives. The data was collected using questionnaires (both paper and online), in depth interviews and a usability study focusing on the primary task of registering on the iTax government service. Findings indicate that the main pain point for both the government and the users is the speed of connectivity. While user/citizens generally think that provision of e-government services is a good idea, there is dissatisfaction with the complexity of the said egovernment service. Findings also show that issues of access in developing countries need to be viewed beyond infrastructure but also on service level. Service level access looks at the extent to which the service is usable to the targeted user. Service level access goes hand in hand with training since some users do have access to the infrastructure but lack the know how to effectively utilize the service. This research concludes that to increase the adoption of e-government services governments need to focus their strategies on the needs of users, their attitudes towards to the services and respond to these needs effectively.

Orwa OD. User-Centric ICT Adoption Model for Rural Farming Communities in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Oketch E. A Users Handbook: A Practical Guide to Election Victory for Women Political Candidates. Nairobi: Caucus for Women’s Leadership; 2012.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Ushairi katika Siasa Lamu.". In: Kiswahili, Utangamano na Maendeleo Endelevu Afrika Mashariki. Zanzibar: Kamisheni ya Kiswahili ya Afrika Mashariki; 2019.
SWALEH AMIRI. "Ushairi wa Kiswahili: Huru na wa Kimapokeo in Sauti ya Umma." Jari da la Maarifa ya Kiislamu . 1996;. No 69 :Pp. 22-23.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U.H.F., Froslie, A., Gathuma, J.M. and Nafsad, I. (1982). Residues of Quintiofos in cattle milk after dermal application of Bacdip. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 287 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U.H.F., Froslie, A., Gathuma, J.M. and Nafsad, I. (1982). Residues of Quintiofos in cattle milk after dermal application of Bacdip. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 287 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
Kabura M, Muriithi L, Gathigi G. "Ushikwapo Shikamana: Increasing Dialogue in Communities.". In: Culture, Entertainment and Health promotion in Africa. Nairobi: Population Communication International; 2005.
Mogambi H. Usilie Yakobo. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers Ltd; 2015.
Oboko RO, Omwenga E, Wagacha P. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

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OBWOCHA MROBOKOROBERT, I DROMWENGAELIJAH, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2009. Abstract
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OBWOCHA MROBOKOROBERT, I DROMWENGAELIJAH, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract
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OBWOCHA DOBOKOROBERT, I POMWENGAELIJAH, W PWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference.; 2009. Abstract
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Oboko RO, Wagacha PW. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming. ." Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology. 2012;8(1):11-25.
WALELA MRMAONGATIMOTHY. "Using Art and Crafts in the teaching of Geography in Kenya Secondary School (M.ED. thesis at McGill).". In: M.ED. thesis at McGill. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1989.
Karanja F, Lohmann P. "Using Developable Land Units as an Indicator of Rate of Growth of an Urban Area."; 2013. Abstract

Developable Land Units (DLU) have been used in combination with remotely sensed data as an indicator for tracking the rate of urban growth. The variables used to model this indicator(DLU) are namely available vacant land, high land value, moderate elevation and compatibility with already existing land uses. Dar-esalaam, Tanzania, is used as the case study, specifically existing land use information (1992) is used to provide data pertaining to available vacant land and neighbourhood (i.e. compatibility), elevation data used was derived from ERS (1/2) data, whereas land value is obtained from mapped landform characteristics. The modelled developable land units is combined with new developed areas from 1998 SPOT multispectral data to estimate the amount of development occurring within this period i.e. between 1992 to 1998. The advantage of remotely sensed data in providing information continuously has been exploited in this regard, thus enabling a growth rate index to be estimated based on developable land units. The results obtained show that developable land units can be used successfully for monitoring growth and not only for predominantly allocating new developments as has been the case in the past.

Karimurio J. "Using Endnote to manage bibliographic information.". In: COECSA Research training and dessemination. Kampala, Uganda; 2013.using_endnote_to_manage_bibliographic_information.pdf
Solomon Mwanjele Mwagha MM. "Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather lore for seasonal weather forecasting over east and Southern Africa." Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. 2017;1(16):1-30. AbstractFull text link

The creation of scientific weather forecasts is troubled by many technological challenges while their utilization is dismal. Consequently, the majority of small-scale farmers in Africa continue to consult weather lore to reach various cropping decisions. Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with the prediction of the weather based on indigenous knowledge and human observation of the environment. As such, it tends to be more holistic and more localized to the farmers’ context. However, weather lore has limitations such as inability to offer forecasts beyond a season. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous societies to come up with weather predictions. Further, meteorologists continue to treat weather lore knowledge as superstition partly because there is no means to scientifically evaluate and validate it. The visualization and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore. This article is aimed at coming up with a method of organizing the weather lore from the visual perspective of humans. To achieve this objective, we used fuzzy cognitive mapping to model and represent causal relationships between weather lore concepts and weather outcomes. The results demonstrated that FCMs are efficient for matrix representation of selected weather outcome scenarios caused visual weather lore concepts. Based on these results the recommendation of this study is to use this approach as a preliminary processing task towards verifying weather lore.

KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Using Geoinformatics to Identify Suitable Middle to Long Distance Athletics.". In: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 473-484. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2007. Abstract
Kenyan athletes have continued to dominate middle and long distance running in the global arena for a very long time now. In this study the use of geoinformation in selecting suitable training sites for endurance running was investigated. The study area chosen was Keiyo district within the Rift Valley province in Kenya, where a considerable number of the top Kenyan athletes reside and train. Different geospatial data sources were used and relevant criteria selected. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was employed as the basic tool for modeling and analysis. For each of the 11 regions within the study area, weights were allocated to each of the multiple criteria identified. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to determine the overall suitability-ranking index. From the results and analysis performed the regions of Iten, Tambach, Kaptarakwa and Kapkenda respectively were ranked as suitable areas for High-Low training. Kamwosor, Chepkorio, Iten and Kaptarakwa respectively were identified as ideal regions for altitude training. Nyaru and Metkei were determined to be unsuitable for both High-Low and altitude training regimens. The approach formulated in this study can be applied to other areas to enable athletes and coaches identify suitable training sites.
Kiema JB, Kipkemei A, Karanja FN, Musyoka SM. "Using Geoinformatics to Identify Suitable Middle to Long Distance Athletics’ Training Sites in Kenya. ." International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching.. 2006;2(4):473-484.
O. J. Olwendo, P.J. Cilliers, P. Baki, and Mito CO. "Using GPS-SCINDA observations to study the correlation between scintillation, total electron content enhancement and depletions over the Kenyan region." Advances in Space Research. 2012;49(9):1363-1372.
Wagoro MCA, Duma SE, Mayers P, Preston Chitere. Using grounded theory to develop a conceptual model: The Kenyan experience. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2017. Abstract
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Beima-Sofie K, John-Stewart G, Shah B, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Kelley M. "Using health provider insights to inform pediatric HIV disclosure: a qualitative study and practice framework from Kenya." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014;28(10):555-64. Abstract

Optimal pediatric HIV disclosure impacts illness and developmental experiences while improving access to timely treatment. However, disclosure rates in high HIV prevalence countries remain low and there are limited data on best practices. We conducted a qualitative study of disclosure practices and interviewed healthcare providers from five pediatric HIV clinics in Kenya. We identified themes central to disclosure practices, rationale for approaches, barriers to implementing disclosure, and creative strategies to overcome challenges. We used these insights to develop a practice-based framework for disclosure that is sensitive to practical challenges. Overall, providers had limited training but extensive experience in disclosure, endorsed individualized disclosure practices, invested substantial time on disclosure despite clinical burden, and noted adverse outcomes associated with unplanned or abrupt disclosure. Providers advocated for an approach to disclosure that is child-centered but respects caregiver fears and values. Caregiver support was provided to enable caregivers to be the person who ultimately disclosed HIV status to children. Unplanned or abrupt disclosure to children was reported to have severe and persistent adverse impact and was a stimulus to accelerate disclosure in scenarios when providers believed children may be suspecting their diagnosis. Based on these expert insights, the framework we developed incorporates concurrent evaluation of child and caregiver readiness, identifies cues to prompt disclosure discussions, includes caregiver education and support, and utilizes a gradual approach of unveiling HIV diagnosis to the child.

Okello JJ;, Ofwona-Adera, Edith; Mbatia, L.E; O, Okello RM. Using ICT to Integrate Smallholder Farmers into Agricultural Value Chain: The Case of DrumNet Project in Kenya.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

This article examines an ICT-based intervention (known as the DrumNet project) that has succeeded in integrating smallholder-resource and poor farmers into a higher value agricultural chain. The article assesses the design of the project, and how it resolves the smallholder farmers’ idiosyncratic market failures and examines member-farmers’ marketing margins. The article finds that the design of the DrumNet project resolves smallholder farmers’ credit, insurance and information market failures and enables them to overcome organizational failure. The article concludes that successful ICT-based interventions for integrating farmers into higher value agricultural value chains require an integrated approach to tackling smallholder farmers’ constraints. The findings have implications for the design of future ICT-based interventions in agriculture.

Okello JJ;, Ofwona-Adera, Edith; Mbatia, L.E; O, Okello RM. Using ICT to Integrate Smallholder Farmers into Agricultural Value Chain: The Case of DrumNet Project in Kenya.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

This article examines an ICT-based intervention (known as the DrumNet project) that has succeeded in integrating smallholder-resource and poor farmers into a higher value agricultural chain. The article assesses the design of the project, and how it resolves the smallholder farmers’ idiosyncratic market failures and examines member-farmers’ marketing margins. The article finds that the design of the DrumNet project resolves smallholder farmers’ credit, insurance and information market failures and enables them to overcome organizational failure. The article concludes that successful ICT-based interventions for integrating farmers into higher value agricultural value chains require an integrated approach to tackling smallholder farmers’ constraints. The findings have implications for the design of future ICT-based interventions in agriculture.

Akunda EM, Kumar B. "Using internal plant water status as a criterion for scheduling irrigation in coffee in east of rift valley Kenya.". In: Kenya coffee vol. 47. No. 560, 281- 284. Kisipan, M.L.; Submitted. Abstract

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Baldygal TJ, Miller SN, Driese KL, Gichaba MC. "Using Landsat Imagery to Analyse Land Cover Change in the Njoro Watershed, Kenya.". In: XX International Grassland Congress: Offered Papers. Wageningen- Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2005. Abstract

Keywords: land cover, remote sensing, Landsat

INTRODUCTION

In developing nations where resources are scarce and increased population pressures create stress on available resources. methods are needed to examine effects of human migration and resultant changes in land cover. Widespread availability and low cost of remotely sensed imagery and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are making such methods a reality to develop quantitative resource mapping and land cover change detection in developing nations (Sheng et al.. l997). However, difficulties arise in tropical regions When trying to analyse traditional vegetation bands (Bands 3 and 4). or indices such as NDVI because saturated pixels limit spectral distinction.

Ayienga EM. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource Allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational GRIDs.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 124-138. VLIR; 2004.
MASIGA MRAYIENGAERIC, O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE, OKELLO PROFODONGOWILLIAM. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource Allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational GRIDs.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 124-138. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2004.
MASIGA MRAYIENGAERIC, O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE, OKELLO PROFODONGOWILLIAM. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource Allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational GRIDs.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 124-138. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2004.
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational Grids.". In: International ICT Workshop on Application of ICT in Enhancing Higher Learning Education. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2004.
Masinde M, Wainaina J, Bagula A. "Using NLIDB to Make Weather Information Relevant to Kenyan Farmers.". In: African Conference on Software Engineering and Applied Computing. Cape Town, South Africa; 2011.
Okumu, F., Biswaro, L., Mbeleyela, E, Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Moore SJ. "Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s." Journal of Medical Entomology . 2010;47(2):274-282.
F Okumu, L Biswaro, E Mbeleyela, Killeen GF, R Mukabana, Moore SJ. "Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s." Journal of medical entomology. 2014;47(2):274-282.
 Kathumo VM, Gachene CKK, Okello JJ, Ngigi M, Miruka M. Using PGIS Reverse Lower Tana River Forest Destruction: Comprehending the Magnitude of Problem, Kenya.; 2012.
Murnane PM, Hughes JP, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Mugo N, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Wald A. "Using Plasma Viral Load to Guide Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation to Prevent HIV-1 Transmission.". 2012. Abstractusing_plasma_viral_load_to_guide_antiretroviral_therapy.pdf

Current WHO guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 counts ≤350 cells/µL. Increasing this threshold has been proposed, with a primary goal of reducing HIV-1 infectiousness. Because the quantity of HIV-1 in plasma is the primary predictor of HIV-1 transmission, consideration of plasma viral load in ART initiation guidelines is warranted. Methods Using per-sex-act infectivity estimates and cross-sectional sexual behavior data from 2,484 HIV-1 infected persons with CD4 counts >350 enrolled in a study of African heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we calculated the number of transmissions expected and the number potentially averted under selected scenarios for ART initiation: i) CD4 count <500 cells/µL, ii) viral load ≥10,000 or ≥50,000 copies/mL and iii) universal treatment. For each scenario, we estimated the proportion of expected infections that could be averted, the proportion of infected persons initiating treatment, and the ratio of these proportions. Results Initiating treatment at viral load ≥50,000 copies/mL would require treating 19.8% of infected persons with CD4 counts >350 while averting 40.5% of expected transmissions (ratio 2.0); treating at viral load ≥10,0000 copies/mL had a ratio of 1.5. In contrast, initiation at CD4 count <500 would require treating 41.8%, while averting 48.4% (ratio 1.1). Conclusion Inclusion of viral load in ART initiation guidelines could permit targeting ART resources to HIV-1 infected persons who have a higher risk of transmitting HIV-1. Further work is needed to estimate costs and feasibility.

Murnane PM, Hughes JP, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Mugo N, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Wald A, Baeten JM. "Using plasma viral load to guide antiretroviral therapy initiation to prevent HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e51192. Abstract

Current WHO guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 counts ≤350 cells/µL. Increasing this threshold has been proposed, with a primary goal of reducing HIV-1 infectiousness. Because the quantity of HIV-1 in plasma is the primary predictor of HIV-1 transmission, consideration of plasma viral load in ART initiation guidelines is warranted.

Murnane PM, Hughes JP, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Mugo N, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Wald A, Baeten JM. "Using plasma viral load to guide antiretroviral therapy initiation to prevent HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e51192. Abstract

Current WHO guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 counts ≤350 cells/µL. Increasing this threshold has been proposed, with a primary goal of reducing HIV-1 infectiousness. Because the quantity of HIV-1 in plasma is the primary predictor of HIV-1 transmission, consideration of plasma viral load in ART initiation guidelines is warranted.

Kamweru AK. "Using Public Health Regulations to Build Resilience Cities in Kenya: Utafiti News Issue No. 6." Utafiti News Issue 6, January 2019 (2018):15.
Muasya, Juliet N. "Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Students’ Perceptions of the University of Nairobi’s Institutional Culture, Kenya." International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies . 2016;4(1):1-8.
Odhiambo JO. "Using roof-storage rainwater systems as a coping strategy on drought related disasters.". 2006. Abstract

Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters. An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community. Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.

Mwangi H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z. "Using system dynamics to understand the role of cofactors TB and malaria in the progression of HIV." International Journal of System Dynamics. 2015.

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