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K'Kakumu D. "Urban migration policy and its implications for housing in Nairobi.". In: The First Conference on Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration in Sub- Saharan Africa. Nairobi,Kenya; 2012.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urban Open Spaces in the City of Nairobi in Ramu S. Melkote and Sheda Prasud (eds). The Third World City: Emerging Contours. Hyderabad: Delta Publishing House 1997: 57-80, ISBN 81-744-038-0. (With S.O. Owuor).". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Urban Planning Practice and Experiences in the Africa Region", published in the African Urban Quarterly, Vol. No. 3 & 4, 2000.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2000.
Oucho JO. "Urban population trends."; 2001.
Foeken D, Owuor SO, Mwangi AM. "Urban School Farming to Improve School Feeding: The Case of Nakuru Town, Kenya." Children, Youth and Environments . 2010;20(1):276-300.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Urban Self-employemnt in Kenya: Panacea or Viable Strategy?.". In: World Developemnt, Vol. 21, No. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Dorothy McCormick. "Urban Self-Employment in Kenya: Panacea or Viable Strategy?". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

n/a

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Urban traditional medicine: a Nairobi case-study. Good CM, Kimani VN. East Afr Med J. 1980 May;57(5):301-17.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 May;57(5):301-17. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. ""Urban Transport and Land Values: the case of Mombasa, Kenya",in ARDHI.". In: Journal of Land Development, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "Urban Transportation in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Syagga, P.M; J.M K. "Urbanization and Housing in Africa.". 1991.
Syagga, PM; Kiamba JM. "Urbanization and Housing Problems in Africa.". 1991.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urbanization and Sub-Urbanization Process over Time and Space , in R.A. Obudho (ed) Urbanization and Management of Urban Centres in the 21s* Century Nairobi: Kenya Academy of Sciences, 1999:1 -49.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
No abstract available.
OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Urbanization as a Component of Regional Development. A paper presented atFourth Africa Training course on Local and Regional Development and Management, Nairobi, Kenya (1998), UNCRD.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urbanization In Jan Hoorwen, Dick Foeken and R.A. Obudho (Eds) Kenya Coast Handbook: Culture, Resources and Development in the East Africa littoral. Hamburg, Lit Verlag, 2000, pp 85-100, ISBN: 3-8258-3937-0.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2000. Abstract
No abstract available.
Koech ID. ""Urbanization Process and the Spread of STDs, HIV and AIDS in Africa.". In: (eD) Demistifying AIDS in Africa: Nairobi: KEMRI. Nairobi; 2007.
Obudho RA. "Urbanization Process and the Spread of STDs, HIV and AIDS in Africa.". 2003. Abstract

It is well known that levels of HIV prevalence tend to be appreciably higher inurban areas. This article considers the reasons for this and shows that within world regions that are relatively homogeneous with respect to their experience of HIV/AIDS, variation in the level of urbanization corresponds to about one-third of variation in estimated HIV prevalence. Furthermore, for populations in the world's worst-affected area—eastern and southern Africa—there are signs that, partly by differentially raising urban death rates and depressing urban birth rates, HIV/AIDS is slowing the pace of urbanization. Finally, in countries with very high levels of HIV infection and relatively low birth rates, such as in South Africa, the urban sector will soon constitute a “demographic sink”—with death rates exceeding birth rates.

Shillington K. ""Urbanization, Housing and Environment".". In: (ed) Encyclopedia of African History. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; 2007.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Urbanization, Urban Violence and Its implications for Urban Planning".". In: In African Urban Quarterly (AUQ) Vol. 12 No. 4 of November 1997. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njeri KM. "Urbanization: Detour." African Executive (2011).
Randall DJ, CM W, Perry SF, Bergman H, Maloiy GMO, Mommsen TP, Wright PA. "Urea excretion as a strategy for survival in a fish living in a very alkaline environment.". 1989.
Ongadi Patrick Mudavadi, Mpolya Abraham Emmanuel, Lukuyu Adubwa Bernard, Haule Alphonse, David Peter Ngunga, Gachuiri Charles, Muyekho Francis Namasake, Wolde-meskel E. "Urea-molasses Pre-treatment to Enhance Nitrogen Gain, Digestibility, Intake and Milk Yield from Crop-Residues in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Eastern Africa." Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2020:28-43.
OLIECH JS. "Ureteric injuries at KNH (6 years experience) Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract

No abstract yet

Magoha GAO. "Ureteric Injuries. ." East African Medical Journal, 76: 181-183, 1999.. 1999;76:181-183. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, since its inception in 1967.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective (1975-1987) and prospective study (1988-1999).
SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a National Referral Hospital and University of Nairobi Teaching Hospital.
SUBJECTS: All surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi for postgraduate MMed in general surgery, anaesthesia,
ENT surgery and ophthalmology from 1975 to March 1999. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five surgeons with Master of Medicine degree were trained by the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi between 1975 and March 1999. They included 181 (63.51%) general surgeons; 46 (16.14%) anaesthetists; 35 (12.28%) ophthalmologists and 23 (8.07% ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons. One hundred and seventy-six, (61.75%) were from retrospective studies; 94 (32.98%) were from prospective studies while 15 (5.26%) were from both retrospective and prospective studies. Two hundred and thirty-two (81.40%) surgeons were Kenyans while 53 (18.60%) were foreigners. The majority, 42 (79.24%) of the foreigners were from other African countries. Thirty one (58.50%) were from neighbouring Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Zambia. There was also one PhD in anaesthesia and one MD in urology during the same period.
CONCLUSION: The University of Nairobi, Department of Surgery based at Kenyatta National Hospital has played a very significant and leading role in the training of surgeons for Kenya and even other African and foreign countries since its inception. Of the forty surgeons who constitute the academic staff in the Departments of General Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery and Ophthalmology of the University of Nairobi, thirty-five surgeons (87.50%) have been trained by the Faculty of Medicine at KNH.
PIP: This study was carried out as a retrospective (1975-87) and prospective study (1988-99) to determine the number of surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya, since its inception in 1967. Over the 25-year period (1975-99), the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi trained a total of 285 surgeons with a Master of Medicine degree. These included 181 (63.51%) general surgeons, 46 (16.14%) anesthetists, 35 (12.28%) ophthalmologists, and 23 (8.07%) ear, nose, and throat surgeons. 176 of the dissertations (61.75%) were from retrospective studies, 94 (32.98%) were from prospective studies, and 15 (5.26%) were from combined prospective and retrospective studies. 53 (18.60%) of these surgeons were foreigners, with the majority (79.24%) coming from other African countries. The neighboring countries of Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Zambia accounted for 31 (58.50%) of the foreign surgeons. There was also one Doctor of Philosophy in anesthesia and one Master's Degree in urology during the same period.

Moses S, Kreiss JK, Nagelkerke NJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Rakwar JP, Jackson DJ. "Urethral infection in a workplace population of East African men: evaluation of strategies for screening and management.". 1997. Abstract

Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infection

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Urethral Infection in a Workplace Population of East African Men: Evaluation Strategies for Screening and Management. D.J. Jackson, J.P. Rakwar, B. Chohan, K. Mandaliya, Bwayo J J , J.O. Ndinya-Achola, N.J. D. Nagelkerke, J.K. Kreiss, and S. Moses. Journa.". In: AIDS 1997; 11: 875-882. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
Ngugi PM. "Urethral stricture disease." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(1):1-2.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Urethral strictures, treatment by one stage urethroplasty. (press).". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Jan;56(1):40-1. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1978. Abstract
No abstract available yet.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Urethral Trichomonas vaginalis infection and HIV-1 transmission. Jackson DJ; Rakwar JP; Bwayo JJ; Kreiss JK; Moses S. Lancet. 1997 Oct 11;350(9084):1076.". In: Lancet. 1997 Oct 11;350(9084):1076. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
Ondieki EO. "The urgent need for new housing policies in an entrenched neoliberal economic environment.". In: “Forms of Freedom, African Independence and Nordic Models” . Vol. Volume 10. Museums of Kenya, Nairobi; 2016:.abstract_-_forms_of_freedom.pdfa_need_for_new_housing_policies_.pdf
MCLIGEYO SO, Otieno LS, Mwongera FK. "Urinalysis and electrolyte profiles in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.". 1991. Abstract

One hundred and twenty six patients diagnosed as having AIDS had their urinalysis and electrolyte profiles studied. The commonest electrolyte abnormalities were a low serum bicarbonate in 56% of the patients and hyponatraemia in 48%. Possible aetiological factors are discussed. Significant pyuria was found in 10% of the patients and significant bacteriuria in 13%. Escherichia coli was the commonest isolated organism (56% of all the culture positive cases). Proteinuria above the upper limit of normal was detectable in 13% of the patients; of these, 25% had proteinuria in the nephrotic range. Of the patients 3% had clinical and biochemical evidence of renal insufficiency. It is concluded that significant bacteriuria occurs commonly in AIDS and that renal insufficiency and nephrotic syndrome may be associated with the disease. It is also noted that other electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, in particular hyponatraemia and low bicarbonate levels may contribute to the morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from AIDS.

Ndaguatha PPLW. "Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult." Medicom. 2013;26(July-August):27-28.
Njaanake KH, Simonsen PE VBJMDARCMGJWGEBBK &. "Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2014;14: 501.
Njaanake KH, Simonsen PE, Vennervald BJ, Mukoko DA, Reimert CM, Gachuhi K, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2014;14:501. Abstract

Pathological changes due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium include cytokine-mediated urinary tract inflammation. The involved cytokines may be excreted in urine and their presence in urine may therefore reflect S. haematobium-related urinary tract pathology. The present study, for the first time, reports on the relationship between selected cytokines in urine and infection with S. haematobium in children from an area highly affected by this parasite.

Topps JH;, Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "Urinary Excretion Of Nitrogenous Compounds By Sheep And Red Deer."; 1968.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "The urinary levels of catecholamines, aldosterone and cortisol in hypertensive East Africans: a pilot study.Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):357-63.". In: Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):357-63. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This pilot project studies the prevalence of hypertension among unique social groups in Kenya, as well as the hormonal profiles accompanying the hypertensive and normotensive states in these populations. The purpose of this report is to enlarge and improve upon the statistical data currently available concerning the prevalence, etiology and prognosis of hypertensive disease in this region. In this study, the urinary concentrations of three vasoactive metabolites were measured in hypertensive and normotensive outpatients. The excretion values for the metabolites were ultimately tabulated as the quantity excreted per milligram of creatinine. The results demonstrate that the subjects with elevated blood pressures (>140/90 mm Hg) excreted double the concentrations (ng/mg creatinine) of cortisol and aldosterone excreted by normotensives. There were no apparent differences in urinary catecholamines between hypertensives and normotensives.
OLIECH JS, KAYIMA JK, Otieno LS. "Urinary tract stone disease in Nairobi.". 1998. Abstract

At the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and other private hospitals in Nairobi urinary stone disease is not being correctly diagnosed. Over a 15 year period (1980-1995) only 56 patients have been confirmed to have urinary tract stones out of the expected number of 220 patients. The age range was 10-60 years. The peak age was 30-40 years. Pain and haematuria were the commonest presenting symptoms. Ultrasonography and plane abdominal radiology were the commonest methods of diagnosis. Open surgery and endoscopic stone removal were the commonest modes of management. Extracorporeal shortwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has recently been introduced into the Nairobi Hospital, but was not functional at the time of this study. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is possible but has not been adequately used due to lack of correct equipment. Septicaemia and haemorrhage were the commonest complications of the open surgery

OLIECH JS. "Urinary tract stone disease in Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):30-4. Links. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1998. Abstract

At the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and other private hospitals in Nairobi urinary stone disease is not being correctly diagnosed. Over a 15 year period (1980-1995) only 56 patients have been confirmed to have urinary tract stones out of the expected number of 220 patients. The age range was 10-60 years. The peak age was 30-40 years. Pain and haematuria were the commonest presenting symptoms. Ultrasonography and plane abdominal radiology were the commonest methods of diagnosis. Open surgery and endoscopic stone removal were the commonest modes of management. Extracorporeal shortwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has recently been introduced into the Nairobi Hospital, but was not functional at the time of this study. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is possible but has not been adequately used due to lack of correct equipment. Septicaemia and haemorrhage were the commonest complications of the open surgery.

Dhananjaya G, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H. "Urine as a transport medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae.". 1984.
Essajee F, Were F, Admani B. "Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in asphyxiated neonates: a prospective cohort study." Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;30(14):1189-1196. Abstracturine_neutrophil_gelatinase-associated_lipocalin_in_asphyxiated_neonates_a_prospective_cohort_study.pdf

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common complication of perinatal asphyxia. Recent research indicates that urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early marker for AKI; yet, there is a paucity of data about its use in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 108 term babies in the new-born unit of Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital. Urine NGAL and serum creatinine were measured in 108 term asphyxiated neonates on days 1 and 3 of life.
Results: One-hundred and eight patients were recruited (male:female 1.4:1). At a cut-off of 250 ng/ml, urine NGAL had an acceptable discriminative capability of predicting AKI (area under the curve 0.724). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and likelihood ratios were 88, 56, 30, 95 %, 2 and 0.2 respectively. Urine NGAL levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI compared with those without AKI. An NGAL level greater than 250 ng/ml on day 1 was significantly associated with severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE); odds ratio=8.9 (95 % CI 1.78– 37.69) and mortality; odds ratio=8.9 (95 % CI 1.78–37.69).
Conclusion: Urine NGAL is a good screening test for the early diagnosis of AKI. It is also a predictor of mortality and severity of HIE in asphyxiated neonates.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Urine proves a poor specimen for culture of Trichomonas vaginalis in women. Mohamed OA, Cohen CR, Kungu D, Kuyoh MA, Onyango JA, Bwayo JJ, Welsh M, Feldblum PJ. Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Feb;77(1):78-9.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Feb;77(1):78-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Uriyo, P. Nsereko, J. Mbatia, O.L.E. Overview of Selected Crop Research Institutes in Eastern Africa, FAO, 1980.". In: First World Conference on Food Storage, Pasco Washington, U.S.A., October, 11-22, 1982. University of Nairobi.; 1980. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Magoha GAO, Ngugi PM, Kiptoon D. "Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87(10). AbstractNCBI

Background: Urolithiasis is an emerging problem in Kenya previously thought to be very rare and in which the use of modern methods of treatment has not been widely practiced
Objective: To review the presentation and management of patients presenting with urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya
Design: A retrospective study Setting: The Nairobi hospital and Upper Hill Medical Centre a day care facility next to the Nairobi hospital
Subjects: One hundred and twenty five males and fifty three females aged 9 to 75 years
Results: One hundred and seventy eight patients were treated for urolithiasis over a five-and- half year period. Their mean age was 44.8 years, and the median was 45 years The 178 patients required 262 procedures to achieve stone clearance. One hundred and two patients had ESWL, with an overall stone clearance rate of 95%. Twentythree
patients had PCNL; 18 as the first procedure and 5 after failed ESWL. Fifty-one patients had ureteroscopic
Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by Dormia basket. Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in Nairobi than earlier literature. Study demonstrates that ESWL and ureteroscopic methods are highly effective in the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi as day care procedures.

Ngugi PM, Magoha GA, Kiptoon D. "Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Urolithiasis is an emerging problem in Kenya previously thought to be very rare and in which the use of modern methods of treatment has not been widely practiced OBJECTIVE: To review the presentation and management of patients presenting with urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya DESIGN: A retrospective study SETTING: The Nairobi hospital and Upper Hill Medical Centre a day care facility next to the Nairobi hospital SUBJECTS: One hundred and twenty five males and fifty three females aged 9 to 75 years RESULTS: One hundred and seventy eight patients were treated for urolithiasis over a five-and- half year period. Their mean age was 44.8 years, and the median was 45 years The 178 patients required 262 procedures to achieve stone clearance. One hundred and two patients had ESWL, with an overall stone clearance rate of 95%. Twenty-three patients had PCNL; 18 as the first procedure and 5 after failed ESWL. Fifty-one patients had ureteroscopic management. Forty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by Dormia basket. Seven patients had bladder calculi managed by either cystolitholapaxy or forceps retrieval. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a higher annual incidence of urolithiasis in Nairobi than earlier literature. Study demonstrates that ESWL and ureteroscopic methods are highly effective in the treatment of renal and ureteral calculi as day care procedures.

Ngugi PM, Magoha GAO, Kiptoon D. "Urolithiasis in Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(10):395-9. Abstract

Urolithiasis is an emerging problem in Kenya previously thought to be very rare and in which the use of modern methods of treatment has not been widely practiced

O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Urolithiasis.East African Medical Journal, 67: 681-683, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67: 681-683, 1990. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract

Inguinal varicocelectomy was performed on 27 selected infertile males with Grade III varicoceles. Follow up was effected for eighteen months. 18 (66%) patients recorded improvement in sperm count to above (20 X 10(6)/ML). 17 (63%) patients recorded improvement in active sperm mortility to above 40%. 15 (55%) patients showed diminution in the level of abnormal sperms to less than 30% abnormal forms. A pregnancy rate of 33.3% was recorded. These findings indicate that varicocelectomy is effective in the management of carefully selected infertile males with varicoceles in conformity with the findings of previous other studies.

Magoha GAO. "Urological Foot Prints in Kenya: "That Water May Flow": A story about Male Genital Cancer and Dysfunction." Journal of Discovery and Innovation. . 2004;16:5-19. Abstract

The main thrust of my Urological research has been on genital cancer (penis, prostate and testis), torsion of the testis and erectile dysfunction. This lecture will focus on these although I have also researched on many other Urological topics in this locality including chronic prostititis (Magoha, 1996), Scrotal gangrene (Ayumba and Magoha 1998), renal transplantation (Rowe and Magoha 1987, Magoha and Ngumi 2001) and autologous blood transfusion (Magoha et al 2001 among others. The immediate environmental impact of my research works on genital cancer and dysfunction has resulted not only the free flow of water, but the free flow of knowledge from one doctor to another within this country and beyond. These are my Urological footprints in Kenya which I hope have made modest but significant contribution to the surgical history of this country and locality 'that water may flow'.

Moraa OC, N KC, Ontinta CG, Narla RD, W KJ. "urrent status on production and utilization of sider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) an underutilized leafy vegetable in Kenya. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution." Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2013;60(6):0925-9864.
Dasarathy S, Acharya KS. "Ursodeoxycholic acid–new drug for liver diseases.". 1993.
N. DRIRAKIW. "US Economic Indicators 1970-2000: a Comparative analysis. In Global Prospects, The Research Yearbook of International Association of Business Disciplines (IABD), 2002 (With Dharam Rana).". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2002.
Iraki XN. "US President Barack Obama trip: It’s more than just a visit." The Standard, July 21, 2022.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "US-Africa Trade in Macharia Munene et al, (ed): The United States and Africa: From Independence to the Independence to the End of the Cold War.". In: East African Publishers Ltd, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Kimengu EK. Usage of electronic information resources in academic libraries. Nairobi: Univesity of Nairobi; 2010.
USAID/OPH Adjustment to Change. Naivasha, Kenya; 2006.
Jerono P. "Usaliti.". In: Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus ; 2007.
Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Gatere Lucy Njeri, Omboga Zaja and Rayya Timmamy. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya, ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5,(Na.1, April 2020,):185-196.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Use and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in Africa.". In: Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (7) 1147 - 1155. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Saidi HS, Chavda SK. "Use of a modified Alvorado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(8):411-4. Abstract

The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform.

Sleper DA. "Use of a Prepaid Cellulase Solution for Screening Forage Grass Germplasm for Digestibilit.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

A reliable rapid and inexpensive laboratory procedure is needed to screen native African forage grass species for forage quality. This study determined the potential of using a prepared cellulase solution to assess in vitro dry matter solubility of 22 native Kenyan forage grasses and 18 native warm season grasses from Missouri, USA. A prepared cellulase solution was used for screening the grass species for digestibility using two procedures. One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulose solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pretreatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulose solution (APCS). The CSD procedures in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter solubility by a rand of up to 23%. The variations were highly species dependent. Although the APCS procedure more time consuming, it made it possible to identify a group of species resolvable into high (42.6-61.4%), medium (36-40%) and low (29-34%) digestibility. With intensified efforts it is possible for one person to obtain in vitro dry matter solubility estimates on up to 200 samples in 30 days with minimal expense. Results of this investigation points to the end need for further research on the potential of the two digestibility procedures for rationalizing numbers in germplasm collection for initial screening

Ooko JO, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM. "Use of Accelerated Tests to Estimate Rate of Corrosion of Roofing Sheets." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2018;37(3):1-8.
Ooko JO, J.O. O, A.O. Y, P.M. G. "Use of accelerated tests to estimate corrosion rates of roofing sheets." International Journal of Sciences. 2018;37(3):1-8.publication_juspher_onyatta_yusuf_guto.pdf
Latif KA, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Qureshi N. "The use of alkali therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2113-2114. Abstract
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MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "The use of allyl (All) and allyloxycarbonyl (Alloc) protecting groups in the preparation of cyclic glucagon analogues.". In: presented at the 16th American Peptide Society Symposium, June 26-July 1, Minneapolis, Minnesota. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Use of ambient conditions and saw dust in storage of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) roots in Kenya. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol.33(1),83-90.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
and 4 Emmanuel Wesonga Atsango, William Maina Muiru AWM’ombe LG. "Use of Amino Oligosaccharins and Alternaria Fine Protein in the Management of Crown Gall Disease in Roses." Current Agriculture Research Journal. 2020;8(2).
Atsango EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L. "Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses." Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2020;Vol. 7,( No. 1 January).use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf
Vogel JP, Souza JP, Gülmezoglu MA, Mori R, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Carroli G, Laopaiboon M, Fawole B, Ganchimeg T, Zhang J, Torloni MR, Bohren M, Temmerman M. "Use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in 29 countries: an analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Lancet. 2014;384(9957):1869-77. Abstract

Despite the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth, little evidence is available for use of antenatal corticosteroids and tocolytic drugs in preterm births in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS) to assess coverage for these interventions in preterm deliveries.

Maingi, N., Bjørn, H., Thamsborg SM, Nansen P. "Use of anthelmintics on goat farms in Denmark and implications for the development of anthelmintic resistance.". In: 3rd Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Lusaka, Zambia; 1994.
P.N N, J.I. K, J.N K, R.K. W. Use of Anthocyanin morphological markers to select hybrids from non-hybrids Basmati lines.; 2012. Abstract

Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) is preferred by consumers over other varieties because of its aroma and good cooking traits. However, its yield is genetically low compared to other pure bred lines. To increase yield of Basmati per hectare, it has become necessary to adopt hybrid rice technology that has been reported to increase yield by up to 30% above pure dwarf lines. Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) and Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) rice lines contain genes that confer male sterility under long day light-length and high temperature growth conditions, respectively. Pollination of these lines, in their male sterile period, with a viable male parent pollen produce hybrid seeds. The problem of using PGMS or TGMS is that in the tropics, day-light length is 12hours and diurnal temperature range is high, making induction of complete male-sterility in these lines difficult. The result is contamination of hybrid seeds with self-bred pure line seeds. The objective of this research work was to produce pure hybrid Basmati seeds. Hypothesis to be tested is that anthocyanin markers can be used to differentiate hybrid F1s from pure inbred seedlings. This tool can be used in selection of Basmati hybrid seedlings free from contamination with self-bred parents before transplanting and therefore save on the associated losses. The F1 seeds from a cross between PGMS or TGMS and Basmati were sown in greenhouse at KARI Mwea- Kimbibi station. Hybrid seeds were scored for anthocynanin morphological marker, by observation, to differentiate them from the pure bred lines. All hybrids involving Basmati370 and Basmati217 had very conspicuous incidence of anthocyanin which made them distinct from the parents. The conclusion is that anthocyanin can be used as a marker to separate F1 hybrid plants from the parents.

Key words: Anthocyanins, Morphological marker, Basmati, Hybrid rice seed

Kokwaro GO. "Use of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) derivatives in the treatment of malaria.". 1998. Abstract

Derivatives of the Chinese herbal remedy ginghaosu (artemisinin) are useful in the treatment of multiple-drug resistant malaria. This review covers the discovery, development, clinical pharmacology and toxicology of these compounds, with emphasis on those derivatives currently in use in parts of Africa

Moturi CA, Kioko FK. "Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting of Kenya National Grid Power System." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2013;63(2):26-30.
HM M. "Use of assisted reproductive technologies in cattle." Biennial scientific conference, Nairobi; 2010.
Omweri EA, Manyasi BN, Migosi J. "Use of Athletics and Debate in Developing Competencies Among Learners: Perception of Teachers." Journal of Education and Practice. 2019;10(35):54-62.
Kimeli P, Mogoa EM, Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Muasya DW, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Mijele D. "Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus)." BMC Veterinary Research. 2014;10:249.kimeli_et_al._2014__cheetah.pdf
Kimeli P, Mogoa EM, Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Muasya DW, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Mijele D. "Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus)." BMC veterinary research. 2014;10:249. Abstract
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Kimeli P, Mogoa EM, Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Muasya DW, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Mijele D. "Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus)." BMC veterinary research. 2014;10:1-5. Abstract
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Kimeli P, Mogoa EM, Mwangi WE, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Mande JD, Kariuki E. "Use of Brachial Plexus Blockade and Medetomidine-Ketamine-Isoflurane Anaesthesia for Repair of Radio-ulna Fracture in an Adult Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)." BMC Veterinary Research. 2014;10:249.
Kimeli  P, Mogoa EM, Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Muasya DW, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Mijele D. "Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus).". 2014.
Muindi EM, Muthomi W, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN, Chemining'wa GN, Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009.
Muindi EM, Muthomi W, Nderitu, John H, Kabira JN, Chemining'wa GN, Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

A field experiment was conducted over two cropping seasons to investigate the effectiveness of cereal border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses during seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum or wheat borders. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included viral disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid population on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids were caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, viral disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border crops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of seed grade was increased. Thus use of border crops is beneficial in management of viral diseases during seed potato production.

Chemining'wa GN, Nderitu, John H, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN, Kiretai SM, Kabira JN. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009.Website
Muindi EM, Nderitu, John H, Olubayo FM, Kiretai SM, Muthomi W, Chemining'wa GN. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

A field experiment was conducted over two cropping seasons to investigate the effectiveness of cereal border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses during seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum or wheat borders. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included viral disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid population on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids were caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, viral disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border crops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of seed grade was increased. Thus use of border crops is beneficial in management of viral diseases during seed potato production.

Muindi, E.M., Muthomi, J.W, Nderitu, J., Olubayo, F., Kabira, Chemining’wa, and Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Use of cereal border crops in management of aphid-transmitted viral diseases during seed potato (Solanum tuberosum) production." African Journal of horticultural science. 2008:69-78.
Karau PB, Mutwiri MG, Ogeng’o JA, Karau GM. "Use of Cervical Cerclage as a Treatment Option for Cervical Incompetence: Patient Characteristics, Presentation and Management over a 9 Year Period in a Kenyan Centre.". 2012. Abstract

reatment of cervical incompetence by cerclage and other methods has yet to be standardized, as its diagnosis is not uniformly accepted. Its diagnosis, particularly in the African setting, is mostly based on past obstetric history of pregnancy losses, while in developed centres; ultrasound diagnosis is increasingly being used. The mainstay of treatment in developing countries is cervical cerclage, although the indications and contraindications of this mode of treatment are not documented. Our aim was to appraise this practice in terms of patient characteristics, the diagnostic process and management at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. This was a descriptive retrospective study over 9 years. Predesigned questionnaires were employed to collect data on patient’s socio-demographic profile, presentation, risk factors, diagnosis and management of cervical incompetence. Chisquared test and student’s t-test were used to correlate variables. A total of 199 patients were treated for cervical incompetence, with the patient mean age being 27.97. 87.4% of the patients (p=0.02) were in the 20 to 35 years category. Most of the patients (60.1%) were of low socio-economic status. Cervical cerclage was employed in all the patients, although ultrasound investigation was not employed in 65.8% of them. Diagnosis of cervical incompetence still relies on history of previous pregnancy losses, with the standard transvaginal ultrasound relatively unemployed. There is need to intensify investigations for this condition, standardize the indications for cerclage, and diversify management to other newer modalities.

Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
Werunga KP, Khainga SO, Musau P, Emarah M, Lumarai L. "Use of combined paracetamol and low dose ketamine in pain control during change of dressings in burn patients.". 2011. Abstract

To determine the effectiveness of Paracetamol and low dose Ketamine in controlling burn pain during dressings. Setting: The burns ward of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, a 750 bed capacity tertiary centre in Western Kenya. Subjects: Consenting patients were recruited to the study on admission. Babies and minors had consent given by their parents or guardians. Results: Of the Fifty nine patients who were recruited into the study, seventy percent of them were children. Male to Female ratio was 1.2:1. There was statistically significant change in the pain score on both FLACC and VAS (both p<0.001) after the introduction of low dose Ketamine with Paracetamol. The patients and healthcare providers were satisfied with the new mode of pain management during change of dressings for burn wounds. Conclusion: The use of oral Paracetamol combined with the low dose intravenous Ketamine, is effective in controlling burn pains during change of dressings. It is a safe and cheap alternative, that can be applied in remote and resource limited medical facilities.

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Use of Complexing Ligands in the Determination of Antimony and Tin by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.". In: Talanta, 26, 333. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1979. Abstract
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Ndiritu A, Mwangi N, Mburu D. "use of computers in education: for kids or adults learning?". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

Abstract
Development has greatly been associated with the level of technology. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. There are however a lot of imbalances between countries that have access to ICT hence the notion of digital divide. In developing countries, this divide can be found in the preliminaries of being able to reap the advantages of ICT. In Kenya, there are not just discrepancies in the availability of resources but also in the ability to use the few available resources. This digital divide is even wider in that investment of ICT seems to be more biased towards the formal sector than other sectors of education. Although there is a lot of effort made like digitization of educational materials for the formal sector, it is important to find out how this is realized in adult literacy classes. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of computers by the ECD student teachers and adult education learners. The study further explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in the two categories of learners. Two researcher developed questionnaires were used to gather the required information: one for the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions and the other for adult learners in session in all parts of country. The paper stresses the indisputable need for use of computers to promote education whether in formal or non-formal sector. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teacher trainees and 200 adult learners. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) ECD teacher trainers and (90%) of adult learners had not acquired any computer skills. All the learners in ECD training and 88% of the respondents felt that computer skills would greatly improve their learning and help them to engage better with their environment which is full of ICT related gadgets. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in computers which should be made available in all centres in Kenya.

Keywords: Computer literacy, computer, information and communication technology, digital divide, teaching and learning

Oboko RO, Njeng ST. "Use of Concept Map Scaffolds to Promote Adaptive E-Learning in Web-Based System." International Journal of computing and ICT Research. 2011;5(2):59-66. AbstractFull text link

Scaffolds are a good method of implementing self-regulated learning. Use of prior knowledge makes the
learner to understand a topic better. Learner adaptation enables a learner to be presented with content that
matches his/her level of understanding.
The main aim of this project is to use the adaptive scaffolds in form of concept maps in web-based elearning
systems to play the role of learner guide. The learner creates a concept map from prior knowledge
to show how he/she understands a certain domain of knowledge. The concept map takes into account the
knowledge of the learner in that topic, and uses it to adapt to the user level. This is done by integrated
evaluation where the learner is presented with a concept map that matches his level of understanding as
he/she draws the concept map. The scaffolding and the adaptation are implemented using production rules.
Categories and Subject Descriptions: H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: User Interfaces –
User Centered Design; H.5.4 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: Hypertext/Hypermedia –
Navigation, User issues; I.2.6 [Artificial Intelligence]: Learning – Concept learning; Induction; K.3.1
[Computers and Education]: Computer Uses in Education – Distance Learning, Computer Assisted
Instruction (CAI); J.4 [Social and Behavioral sciences]: Psychology
General Terms: Algorithms, Human Factors, Experimentation, Measurement, Performance
Additional Key Words: Scaffold, adaptation, prior knowledge, learner evaluation, concept maps,
cognition, adaptive e-learning systems, adaptive scaffolds, integrated assessment.

Asilla WJ. "The use of controlled electronic communication to enhance visibility and impact; a case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Association of Commonwealth Universities. Southern Sun, Elangeni, Durban South Africa; 2008.mr._asilla.pdf
Mwangi W, Mwembe O. "The use of Corporate Social Responsibility as a tool of Doing Business amongst Kenya’s Construction Firms." International Journal Of Research In Business Management . 2015;3(9).
Gachene CKK;, Klingspor P;, Oduor AR. Use of cover crops to improve soil productivity: preliminary studies using tropical velvet bean.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Initial observations of a two-phase trial on the use of Mucuna deeringianum [M. deeringiana] to improve soil productivity are presented. In phase one, 42 seeds were sown at Kabete, Kenya, in October 1990 with 89% germination rate. By September 1991, 4 kg of beans had been harvested. The second phase studied the effects of M. deeringiana on improving crop cover and reducing soil loss at Mbooni and Kabete, resp. Initial observations show that the crop preformed fairly well, providing a cover of up to 25cm uncompressed thickness. Treatments on the runoff plots at Kabete include: bare ground (control), M. deeringiana; maize; the two crops intercropped and sown at the same time; intercropping with M. deeringiana sown one week after the maize; or intercropped with M. deeringiana sown two weeks after the maize. The highest soil loss was found on the bare plot (65 t/ha), followed by the intercropped plot with two weeks between sowing (50 t/ha). Soil loss was lowest in runoff plots with a pure stand of M. deeringiana (11 t/ha). Intercropping and sown at the same time provided highest percentage cover.

(eds.) OCO, et al. "The Use of Criminal Law in Enforcing Environmental Law.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law. Nairobi: East African Education Publishers; 2008.
Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Karanja N, Cornelis W, Verplancke H. "Use of CROPWAT Model to Predict Water Use in Irrigated Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Production at Kabete, Kenya." E. Afr. agric. For. J.. 2014;80(3):175-183.
"D.Mbugua", "C.N.Kimwele", "J.O.Jung'a", "E.Gatebe", "F.Gakuya", "M.J.Kinuthia", 'M.M.Mugambi", "E.S.Kwamboka". "use of cytochrome oxidase 1 gene region: a molecular tool for the domestic and wildlife industry in Kenya." Scientific Journal of Animal Science. 2014;3(3):87-94.
Ngaruiya N, Moturi CA. Use of Data Mining to Check the Prevalence of Prostate Cancer: Case of Nairobi County. Lilongwe, Malawi: IIMC International Information Management Corporation; 2015. Abstract

Prostate cancer has been on the rise in the past years and alarming cases being
found in men in their 20’s. The problem is that most of the cases are diagnosed in their late
stages thus the mortality rate being high. In recent years data driven analytic studies have
become a common complement with novel research where different tools and algorithms
are taking a centre stage in cancer research. In this research, the main objective was to use
data mining to derive patterns which were used in building a prognostic tool that helps in
identification of the Gleason score once screened and deciding the treatment technique. In
this research, we used two popular data mining tools (R Environment and WEKA) which
exhibited almost same results .The dataset contained around 485 records and 7 variables. In
WEKA, a 10-fold cross-validation was used in model building and comparison between
ANN and J48. The results showed that ANN is the most accurate predictor compared to
J48 in all the instances displaying varying levels in the different zones created. This study
contributes to society, academics and cancer research which ultimately assist in reduction
of mortality rates by use of pattern recognitions which leads to better decision making.
Furthermore, this is a potential impact in helping the GOK (Government of Kenya) in
establishing where they should correctly place the cancer diagnosis and treatment
equipment that were rolled out by the National government early 2015.

W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the management of abdominal trauma (extracted from M.MEd thesis). Submitted for publication to the east African Medical Journal. Authors: Dr. J. W. Githaiga, Prof. J. Adwok.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
Mary Taabu, F Nyongesa, Birech Z, Aduda B. Use of Diatomaceous Earth Wastes and Plant derived Binders in Water Purification Systems. NAIROBI, KENYA: MSSEESA; 2018.
Obel OA, Camm AJ. "The use of drugs for cardioversion of recent onset atrial fibrillation and flutter. Focus on ibutilide.". 1998. Abstract

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia, particularly in the elderly population. It is well recognised that AF is a major cause of stroke, even in the absence of underlying heart disease. Although AF and atrial flutter share many causes and may be seen in the same patient, there are differences between these arrhythmias: atrial flutter is less common, and the risk of stroke associated with it is less than that with AF. In addition to stroke, both AF and atrial flutter may cause cardiomyopathy, which may be fully reversible with effective treatment of the arrhythmia. Both AF and atrial flutter can result in severe symptoms and may precipitate heart failure, ischaemia and syncope. Recent research indicates that AF is a self-perpetuating arrhythmia, and that the longer it is left untreated the less likely it is that effective cardioversion will be possible. Drugs are an attractive option for the cardioversion of AF and atrial flutter because their use does not require anaesthesia. Antiarrhythmic drugs in class III of the Vaughan-Williams classification are effective in the treatment of AF, but they have adverse effects; several new 'pure' class III agents are under development. The first of these to be made available is ibutilide, a methanesulphonamide derivative. Initial results are encouraging, particularly for atrial flutter. However, the drug has the potential for proarrhythmic effects and physicians who use it will need to be aware of these.

Kipchirchir KO, Ngugi KR, Wahome RG. "Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2011;5(2):66-73. AbstractWebsite

This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups.

Kipchirchir, Koech O, Ngugi K. "Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups

Kipchirchir, Koech O, Wahome RG. "Use of Dry Land Tree Species (Prosopis juliflora) Seed Pods as Supplement Feed for Goats in the Arid and Semi Arid Lands of Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the potential of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seed pods into typical dry land livestock production systems to minimize feed scarcity during the dry seasons and avoiding weight losses and poor performance. The study evaluated supplementation of weaner Galla goats with increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpods that is widely distributed in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. This species is drought tolerant and with high productivity of seed pods whole year round. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating P. juliflora seedpods into a typical dry land livestock production system. The study further sought to find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of 5 weaners each. The treatments were No P. juliflora (PJP0), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP100), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP200), 400 g/goat/day P. juliflora (PJP400). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as difference in previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week up to the 10th week, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment PJP200 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.960c) followed by PJP400 (2.700 kg). Group PJP0 had the lowest weight gain by the end of the experiment. The supplemented groups showed good weight gains, body condition and retained nitrogen levels compared to the un-supplemented groups

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Use of educational Technology in schools. Case of ivory coast.". In: Paper read at the international seminar on Evaluation of Educational programmes, at the Univesity of southmpton,U.K. in June, 1977. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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Graham MD, Nyumba TO. The use of electrified fences to mitigate human-elephant conflict: experiences from the Laikipia Plateau in northern Kenya. South Africa: Mammmal Research Institute, University of Pretoria.; 2010.
Graham MD, Nyumba TO. "The use of electrified fences to mitigate human-elephant conflict: experiences from the Laikipia Plateau in northern Kenya.". In: Fencing Impacts: A Review of the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Game and Veterinary Fencing in Africa with Particular Reference to the Great Limpopo and Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Areas. Mammmal Research Institute, University of Pretoria.; 2010:. Abstract
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Wachira K. "Use of Emergent Mid-Level Computational Devices in the Creation of Robust and Affordable Auxiliary Infrastructure Subsystems.". In: 22nd Institution of Engineers of Kenya International Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.
KAAYA GP, HEDIMBI M. "The use of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, as bio-pesticides for tick control." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012;2(6):245-250.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE, CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Use of Equatorial Total Ozone as a predictor of Sea Surface Temperatures for the East African Seasonal Rainfall Prediction.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6. No. 2, pp 1-10. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2003.
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Use of ethanol in Diesel Engines: Published in the September/October 1993, Issue of the Kenya Engineer.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "The use of fine needle aspiration in urological practice Medicom 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract
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O.Nyumba T, Wilson2  K, Derrick CJ, Mukherjee  N. "The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation." Methods in Ecology and evolution. 2018;9(1):20-32. Abstractdio.org

Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an in‐depth understanding of social issues. The method aims to obtain data from a purposely selected group of individuals rather than from a statistically representative sample of a broader population. Even though the application of this method in conservation research has been extensive, there are no critical assessment of the application of the technique. In addition, there are no readily available guidelines for conservation researchers.
Here, we reviewed the applications of focus group discussion within biodiversity and conservation research between 1996 and April 2017. We begin with a brief explanation of the technique for first‐time users. We then discuss in detail the empirical applications of this technique in conservation based on a structured literature review (using Scopus).
The screening process resulted in 170 articles, the majority of which (67%, n = 114,) were published between 2011 and 2017. Rarely was the method used as a stand‐alone technique. The number of participants per focus group (where reported) ranged from 3 to 21 participants with a median of 10 participants. There were seven (median) focus group meetings per study. Focus group discussion sessions lasted for 90 (median) minutes. Four main themes emerged from the review: understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%). Most of the studies were in Africa (n = 76), followed by Asia (n = 44), and Europe (n = 30).
We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. More than half of the studies (n = 101) did not report the sample size and group size (n = 93), whereas 54 studies did not mention the number of focus group discussion sessions while reporting results. Rarely have the studies provided any information on the rationale for choosing the technique. We have provided guidelines to improve the standard of reporting and future application of the technique for conservation.
1 INTRODUCTION
Conservation social science has come of age (Bennett et al., 2017). From being an outlier and on the sidelines of the discourse on conservation, the importance of understanding human perspectives is now centre stage in conservation decision making (Bennett et al., 2017; Khadka, Hujala, Wolfslehner, & Vacik, 2013; Paloniemi et al., 2012). Within the repertoire of tools that conservation biologists can use, focus group discussion is a commonly used method. Focus group discussion is a technique where a researcher assembles a group of individuals to discuss a specific topic, aiming to draw from the complex personal experiences, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes of the participants through a moderated interaction (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995; Hayward, Simpson, & Wood, 2004; Israel, Schulz, Parker, & Becker, 1998; Kitzinger, 1994; Morgan, 1996).

Focus group discussion is widely used in conservation research unlike some of the other relatively lesser known techniques such as Nominal Group Technique (Hugé & Mukherjee, in prep) and Q methodology (Zabala & Mukherjee, 2017). The method's popularity is closely linked to the rise of participatory research, especially the “active experimentation with focus groups” in the academic social sciences during the 1980s (Morgan, 2002). The technique emerged as a qualitative data collection approach and a bridging strategy for scientific research and local knowledge (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995). Focus group discussion is perceived to be a “cost‐effective” and “promising alternative” in participatory research (Morgan, 1996) offering a platform for differing paradigms or worldviews (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Orr, 1992). Sociologists and psychologists have used the method since the 1940s (e.g. Merton & Kendall, 1946; Merton, Fiske & Kendall 1956). However, its popularity and application has grown across a wide range of disciplines including education (Flores & Alonso, 1995), communication and media studies (Lunt & Livingstone, 1996), sociology (Morgan, 1996), feminist research (Wilkinson, 1998, 1999), health research (Wilkinson, 1998) and marketing research (Morgan, Krueger, & King, 1998; Szybillo & Berger 1979).

Focus group discussion is sometimes seen as synonymous with interviews, especially the semi‐structured “one‐to‐one” and “group interviews” (Parker & Tritter, 2006). Similarities between these techniques relate to the tendency to uncover people's perceptions and values (e.g. Hargreaves, 1967; Lacey, 1970; Mac an Ghaill, 1994; Sewell, 1997; Skeggs, 1997). Consequently, there are cases where authors have confused and conflated these two distinctive methods (Parker & Tritter, 2006). However, existing evidence on the role of the researcher and the relationship with the participants points to a fundamental difference between the two techniques (Smithson, 2000). Interviews involve a one‐to‐one, qualitative and in‐depth discussion where the researcher adopts the role of an “investigator.” This implies the researcher asks questions, controls the dynamics of the discussion, or engages in dialogue with a specific individual at a time. In contrast, in a focus group discussion, researchers adopt the role of a “facilitator” or a “moderator.” In this setting, the researcher facilitates or moderates a group discussion between participants and not between the researcher and the participants. Unlike interviews, the researcher thereby takes a peripheral, rather than a centre‐stage role in a focus group discussion (Bloor, Frankland, Thomas, & Robson, 2001; Hohenthal, Owidi, Minoia, & Pellikka, 2015; Johnson, 1996; Kitzinger, 1994).

The link between people's perceptions and their socio‐cultural situation is critical to decision‐making on natural resources since most people derive their notions, mental constructions and interpretations from their immediate surrounding and develop these from experiential knowledge (Berkes, 2004). Given the rise of participatory research in conservation over the last few decades (Bennett et al., 2017), it is crucial to reflect on the scope and remit of focus group discussion as a methodological tool. Currently, there is relatively little or no critical discussion on the merits and demerits of focus group discussion in comparison to other similar qualitative techniques. It is therefore difficult to ascertain when and in which context, focus group discussion would be most appropriate. There are no guidelines for best practice for the application of the technique in conservation literature. In addition, there are no comprehensive reviews of the use of focus group discussion in conservation to the best of our knowledge.

Here we assess the strength and weaknesses of the focus group discussion technique based on a review of its application in conservation in the last two decades. We first briefly explain the procedure of the technique and then provide an overview of the different forms of focus group discussion. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant literature, we discuss the merits and potential pitfalls of the technique. Finally, we provide guidelines for reporting future applications of the technique and suggestions to address key psychological biases that can impact group interactions.

O.Nyumba T, Wilson K, Derrick CJ, Mukherjee N. "The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation." Methods in Ecology and evolution. 2018;9:20-32. Abstract
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MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "The use of Folk Media for Community Motivation.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "The Use of Folk Media in Community Motivation.". In: FPPS. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The use of genetic diversity in maize breeding in Kenya. In C. Almekinders and Walter De Boef (editors) Encouraging Diversity. The conservation and development of plant genetic resources. Intermediate Technology Publications, 2000, p 156- 160.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya.". In: 13th ARI Conference: Agricultural innovation system for improved productivity and competitiveness in pursuit of vision 2030”. KARI HQs; 2012.
Karanja LW, Wachira PM, Muthomi JW, Phiri NA, Mutegi CK, Nzioki HS, Gikaru AK, Kanampiu F, J.M W. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;Accepted.
Karanja, N.K, Wachira, P.M, Muthomi, J.W, Phiri, I.K., Mutegi, C.K, Nzioki, H.S, Gikaru, A.K, Kanampiu F, Wagacha, J.M. "Use of geographical information system to determine incidence of Aspergillus section flavi in different soils in Kaiti, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO, KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Use of Geospatial Technology in Identifying Tax Evasion on Rental Income.". In: 1st Eastern African ESRI User Conference. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2006. Abstract
This paper discusses a novel approach for delineating watersheds by integrating spatial and dynamic modeling techniques. In particular, loose coupling between ArcMap and CatchmentSim software is demonstrated. The demarcated watershed can then form the basis for designing appropriate conservation works. The above procedure was successfully applied for the Kinze dam catchment area in Machakos district in Kenya. This study also reiterates that local communities can only be expected to participate in and fully support conservation works if they are involved throughout the entire conservation design process.
Kosgei T, Makumbi D, Njoroge K. "Use of GGE biplot method to evaluate stability of performance of new maize hybrids in eastern Africa.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference c2098.; 2011.
Karanja FN, Alegana VA, Musyoka SM. "The Use of GIS and Remote Sensing in mapping malaria prevalence: Case Study of Bondo and Kisii Districts, in Nyanza Province, Kenya. ." International Journal of Spatial Health. 2009;111(12):342-354.

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