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MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "A Systems Thinking Framework for Quality Assurance in Transnational Education - The Case of Kenya.". In: The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Afendi FM, Kiboi SK, Kanaya S. "Systems biology in the context of big data and networks." BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
Kithinji NB. Systems approach to building project management: experience from Kenya .; 1988. Abstract

This report is an attempt to impress on managers of building projects the relevance and importance of the systems approach to management in their field. To achieve this aim the report has started by examining some common theoretical models of management and their inherent shortcomings in the management of complex problems such as building projects. The complexity of building projects is demonstrated throuqh a discussion of their resource markets which are found to be highly differentiated yet interdependent. The building process itself is made up of different activities which often require different skills, materials and facilities. As a consequence, a wide range of participants are involved in building projects. This raises the need to coordinate their inputs. The systems approach and its concepts which are most relevant to building project management is discussed. Its place in project management is illustrated with parallels drawn from districts which form the case studies for the research. ~. Among" the most important concepts discussed is the environment. It is the framework of forces within which construction activity takes place. The extent of the environment of a project depends on its resources requirements. Various aspects of the environment affect the execution of building projects. The environment is usually turbulent and projects are vulnerable to the turbulence. The functions of the managerial system of a project are considered in detail. They include the planning; securing and bringing together various inputs in amounts and modes which best suit the requirements of a project. It resolves disputes among project participants and controls the interaction between the project and its environment. In so doing the project is shielded from harmful environmental effects while the environment is protected from the harmful products of a project. Two case studies reveal that project management in districts is disjointed and suffers from technical, managerial, and logistic problems. There is poor coordination between and among participants and projects. Resources are not adequately planned and controlled. Procedures are constrained by bureaucracy and shortage of facilities. A major conclusion of the study is that the organization structure within which building projects are managed is not suitable for the tasks involved in building. The inappropriateness-is largely, the result of Iack of channels for speedy communciation within the structure and the rigidity of the structure especially with regard to the expenditure of authority. The recommendations that are given aim to make the authority structure more flexible to allow a faster rate of discharging duties while at the same time disallowing wasteful operations which result from poor planning and control.

ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "A Systems Approach in the Study of Environmental Factors.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

DN K, TA N, JK W, C BL. "Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of mortality in small-holder pig farm in Kenya." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2013;28(1):8-13.
Lehman DA, Ronen K BCABJMJ-LJMRBAMCRSOZWK. "Systemic cytokine levels show limited correlation with risk of HIV-1 acquisition." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . 2014;66(2):135-9.
Awori M, Mohamed A, Mohammed N. "Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):96-98.shunts-sapas-utilisation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Systemes Photosynthetiques Arficiels.". In: Conference. CEAER - UNR; 1983.
Mitema A. Systematics of Aspergillus species from maize and ground nuts in Kenya.. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town; 2015.
Opanga SA, Mulaku MN, Okalebo FA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Kuria KAM. "Systematic review, meta-analysis and grading of evidence on the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis for neurosurgical site infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):1-13.
Nanyingi MO, Munyua P, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Bitek AO, Bett B, Muriithi RM, Njenga MK. "A systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 2015;5:28024.
MO N, P M, SG K, M MG, M TS, AO B, B B, RM M, MK N. "A Systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015;5:28024.
Willy E Mwangi, Eddy M Mogoa JMPMSMNGW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World. 2018;11:1725-1735. Abstract
n/a
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary world. 2018;11:1725. Abstract
n/a
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World . 2018;11(12):1725.
Ngugi EN, Bonell C, Rhodes T, Jolley E, Sorhaindo A, Fletcher A, Grenfell P, Platt L. "Systematic review examining differences in HIV, sexually transmitted infections and health-related harms between migrant and non-migrant female sex workers.". 2010. Abstract

I have picked this evaluation because it focuses on the special needs of migrant female sex workers (FSWs), in particular those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STls) and HIV is high and the health infrastructure is insufficient to respond to these problems. In addition, migrant FSWs might initially be too afraid to immediately seek medical help in the 'new country' due to the fear of being apprehended for real or perceived reasons. By the same token, they might not have access to male or female condoms, but may have a high incidence of partner change and unprotected sex. Fear of stigma and discrimination might also keep them away from appropriate services.

Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "Systematic creativity methods in engineering education: a learning styles perspective." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2007;22:566. Abstract

The traditional approach to creativity (using methods such as brainstorming, C-sketch, morphological charts, scamper, etc.) calls upon the designer to look inward for inspiration. TRIZ, on other hand, invites the designer to use a ready pool of knowledge for inspiration. TRIZ does not discount the use of the traditional approaches. On the contrary, TRIZ ensures that design teams use these traditional methods in a systematically directed manner by carrying out intelligent idea generation in areas where other people have solved a similar general design problem. The main focus of this paper is to look at systematic creativity methods, such as TRIZ, from a learning styles perspective. Three learning styles dominant in the engineering education literature are explored: MBTI, Kolb and Felder-Silverman. For each it was found that the tasks required of each of the TRIZ steps matches a broader range of engineering student learning styles, than the sole use of brainstorming.

KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No. 2, pp.102-1.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Kivuti-Bitok LW, McDonnell G, Abdul R, Pokhariyal GP. "System dynamics model of cervical cancer vaccination and screening interventions in Kenya." Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2014;12(26):1-19.
Awuondo CO. Syracuse memos.; 1995.Website
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Syphilis control during pregnancy: effectiveness and sustainability of a decentralized program. Fonck K, Claeys P, Bashir F, Bwayo J, Fransen L, Temmerman M. Am J Public Health. 2001 May;91(5):705-7.". In: Am J Public Health. 2001 May;91(5):705-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mwaniki JM. "SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED FLAVONOIDS.". In: 12th NAPRECA SYMPOSIUM, Hotel Africana, Kampala Uganda, Tuesday 24th July 2007. Napreca; 2007. Abstract

Chalcones, flavanones and other flavonoids have been shown to have varied anti-plasmodium activity. In this work, chalcones were synthesized from corresponding flavanones  extracted from Senecio roseiflorus, Erythina abysinica and Polygonum senegalense, using conventional organic reagents and green chemistry approach.Dihydrochalcones were converted to homoisoflavones using the Kostanecki reaction. Characterization and bioassay on the synthetic derivatives was also undertaken.

Takken W, AF Hiscox, R Smallegange, Mukabana WR, Collins Mweresa. "Synthetic odour blends for sampling of malaria mosquitoes." Antenna: Bulletin of the Royal Entomological Society. 2014;(Special Edition 2014):92-93.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Michira IN. Synthesis, Electrodynamics and Biosensor Applications of Novel Sulphonated Polyaniline Nanocomposites . Iwuoha PI, Baker PP-L, eds. CapeTown: University of the Western Cape; 2007. Abstract

The overall aim of this thesis was to prepare nanostructured more processable heteronuclear sulphonated polyanyline nanocomposites with electroconductive properties suitable for applications in biosensors. The sulphonated self-assembled polyaniline and derivatised polyaniline nanocomposites (SPAHs) were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerisation or electrical decomposition. The SPAHs prepared include those of polyaniline (PANi), poly-o-methoxyaniline (POMA) and poly-2.5 dimethoxyaniline (PDMA). Two types of sulphonic acids of heteronuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were used in the production of sulphonated SPAH composites. These were anthracene sulphonic acid (ASA) and naphthalene sulphonic acids (NSA) wich played both doping and surfactant roles.

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020((5409)):1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meye M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA-Binding Kinetics of New Pd(II) and Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, and Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry. 2020:1-17. AbstractJournal of Chemistry

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. 'e ligands (E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1), (E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2), and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 and L2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1 (C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2 (C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2), respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3 (C6H7Cl2N3PtS2), while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4 (C24H21BrClN3PPtS2). 'e structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1 H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. 'e compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1 and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50

Michira IN, Katithi DN, Guto PM, Kamau GN, Baker P, E. Iwuha E. "Synthesis, Characterization of Green Tea Stabilized Iron Nanoparticles and their Synergistic Effect on Polyaniline." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2014;13(2):63-76.
Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanja SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, Characterization and Ion-Binding Properties of Oxathiacrown Ethers Appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+: Selectivity Towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+." RSC advances. 2018;8(7):3663-3672. AbstractRSC Advances

Description
A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis …

Michira IN, Richard A, Priscilla B, Immanuel I. "Synthesis, characterization and Application of Sulfonated polyaniline in Construction of a biosensor for Diazinon." International Journal of Polymeric Materials. 2011;60:469-489. AbstractWebsite

A series of sulfonated polyaniline=derivatized polyaniline nanocomposites was chemically synthesized in the presence of anthracene and naphthalene sulfonic acids. UV-vis and FTIR results indicated the emergence of new bands at 420 and 700nm and1100cm-1 in their spectra, respectively, meaning the dopant/polymer intercalations involved electronic interactions between dopant/polymer sub-lattices. The electroactive
composites displayed moderately fast electrode kinetics. A composite-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide reached a steady state current of 9.2 and 5.3 mA, and when fine-tuned for diazinon detection gave % inhibitions to be 41 and 81% for thepolyaniline and poly-o-methoxyaniline biosensors, respectively.

MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Synthesis, characterisation of novel polyaniline nanomaterials and applications in amperometric biosensors." Macromolecular Symposia, 2007, 255, 57-69.. 2007;255:36-49. AbstractWebsite

Summary: Anthracene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline nanomaterials were prepared through the chemical oxidative polymerisation process. Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) was employed as oxidant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show the resultant polyaniline (PANi) materials exhibited nanofibrillar morphology with diameter sizes less than 300 nm. Using the nanofibrillar PANI, amperometric biosensors for H2O2 and erythromycin were constructed through the drop-coating
technique. Anthracene sulfonic acid (ASA) doped PANi and the test enzymes horseradish peroxidase, (HRP), or cytochrome P450 3A4, (CYP4503A4) were mixed in phosphate buffer solution before drop coating onto the electrode. The resultant biosensors displayed typical Michaelis-Menten behaviour. The apparent Michaelis-
Menten constant obtained was 0.18-0.01 mM and 0.80-0.02 µM L-1 for the peroxide and erythromycin biosensor respectively. The sensitivity for the peroxide sensor was 3.3x10-3A .cm-2 mM-1, and the detection limit was found to be 1.2x10-2 mM respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity for the erythromycin sensor was
in the same order at 1.57x10-3 A . cm-2 mM-1 and detection limit was found to be 7.58x10-2 µM.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanjac SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, characterisation and ion-binding properties of oxathiacrown ethers appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+. Selectivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+†." Journal of Royal Society of Chemistry. 2018;(8):3663-3672. Abstractwww.pubs.rsc.org

A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis absorbance with Hg2+ making it possible to detect mercury down to a detection limit of 68 ppm. The binding constants and limits of detection of the complexes have been calculated, with values ranging from 4.37 to 5.38 and 1.4 × 10−3 to 6.8 × 10−5 for log[thin space (1/6-em)]Ks and LOD respectively.

Tacon C, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Smith PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Mechanistic Studies of Totarol Amino Alcohol Derivatives as Potential Antimalarial Agents." Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 2012;20:893-902. Abstract

Herein we report on the semisynthesis and biological evaluation of b-amino alcohol derivatives of the natural product totarol and other simple aromatic systems. All beta-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol exhibited higher antiplasmodial activity than totarol [IC50: 11.69 microM (K1, chloroquine and multi-drug resistant strain), and 11.78 microM (D10, chloroquine sensitive strain)]—12e was the most active [IC50: 0.63 microM (K1), and 0.61 microM (D10)]. The phenyl and naphthyl b-amino alcohol derivatives were much less active than their corresponding totarol equivalents. The majority of the b-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol were more active against K1 than the D10 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a trend similar to the inverse relationship observed with the established aryl-amino alcohol antimalarial mefloquine. Selected compounds were shown to affect erythrocyte morphology, inhibit erythrocyte invasion and trigger CQ accumulation.

Mutai P, Pavadai E, Wiid I, Ngwane A, Baker B, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimycobacterial evaluation and pharmacophore modeling of analogues of the natural product formononetin." Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters . 2015;25(12):2510-2513.
Hans RH, Guantai EM, Carmen L, Smith PJ, Baojie W, Gut J, Franzblau SG, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones.". 2010. Abstract

A series of acetylenic chalcones were evaluated for antimalarial and antitubercular activity. The antimalarial data for this series suggests that growth inhibition of the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum can be imparted by the introduction of a methoxy group ortho to the acetylenic group. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents

BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of vernolamides from vrnonia galamensis oil under varied conditions and their anti-microbial activities.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. M.N. Mbugua, A.O. Yusuf, B.M Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Vernolamides containing tertiary amino groups from Vernonia Galamensis oil and their biological activities, Bull, Chem, Soc.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1998. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Vernolamides containing tertiary amino groups from Vernonia Galamensis oil and their biological activities, Bull, Chem, Soc.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract
1) , V. J. Hruby, F. A. Muscio, W. Brown, and P. M. Gitu, 1972, 331.
V B, Evans A, Bolo AZ. "A Synthesis of the Strategic Orientation and NGO Lgitimacy in the African Economic Setting." Journal of Business and Economics. 2014;5(8):1358-1373.
Maina DSM. "Synthesis of the "eco" and product design." Design for all of india. 2015;10 No 2:91-112.
Kamau FN. "Synthesis of Steroidal Indoxyl, and Derivatives from 3-ketosteroid.". 2005. Abstract

5&alpha-Androstan-17&beta-ol-3-one condenses with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde in alkaline conditions to give the steroidal indoxyl 17&beta-hydroxy-1-(3′-oxoindan-2′-yliden)-3-nor-1,2-secoandrostan-3-oic acid (I) which on refluxing with acetic anhydride affords the lactam 17&beta-acetoxy-3′-aza-4a-homoandrost-1-eno-(3,2-a)-indan-3′,4-dione (II). Reduction of I with sodium borohydride gives the indole 17&beta-hydroxy-1-(indol-2′-yl)-3-nor-1, 2-secoandrostan-3-oic acid (III). The results of this synthesis suggest that 3-ketosteroids saturated in ring A react in a similar manner to 17-ketosteroids, with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde.

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Side Chain Conformationally Restricted alpha-Amino Acids.". In: Methods of Organic Chemistry, Volume E 22c, 5-51. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Fleming I, Mwaniki JM. "A synthesis of enantiomerically enriched propargylsilanes." J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. . 1998;1:1237-1247. Abstract

Reduction of ethyl 3-methyl-, 3-isopropyl- and 3-n-pentyl-3-[dimethyl(phenyl)silyl]propanoates with DIBAL to the aldehydes, enol trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) formation using trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) anhydride and 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, and elimination using LDA, gives the propargyl silanes . The esters could also be prepared enantiomerically enriched, and the final products are the enantiomerically enriched propargyl (homochiral) silanes.

BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of carboxamide, Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivative,'.". In: International Journal of Biochemiphysics, Vol. 3, p. 42 - 47. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1994. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivatives.". In: Inter. J. Biochem. Phy., 4, 3, 22. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of carboxamide protactel glutamine and isoasparagine derivatives and their cleavages in Triflouracetic Acid - Methyylene chloride and Boran Triflouride with Acetic acid.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis of aminoalkyl vernolamides from vernonia oil at varied conditions.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. JJournal of Kenya Chemical Society, 3 (1), 1-8.; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Abstract. The oil extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,8-diaminooctane using a 1:3 molar ratio of vernonia oil to amine to give the corresponding vernolamides. Varied temperatures and solvents were applied. The vernolamides exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and on gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.
Mbugua MN. "Synthesis of aminoalkyl vernolamides from vernonia oil at varied conditions." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2006;3(1):1-8. Abstract

The oil extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,8-diaminooctane using a 1:3 molar ratio of vernonia oil to amine to give the corresponding vernolamides. Varied temperatures and solvents were applied. The vernolamides exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and on gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "The synthesis of Aldehydes from 2-methyl-2- thiazolines.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
", Tetrahedron Lett., 4543-4546 ()
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER, BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of 12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic, octanedioic and nonanedioic acids from Vernonia galamensis Seed oil.". In: Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1993. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER, BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of 12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic, octanedioic and nonanedioic acids from Vernonia galamensis Seed oil.". In: Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of 12,13 - dihydroxyoctadec-9- enoic and nonanedoic acids from Vernonia gelamensis seed oil.". In: Kenya Chemical Society inaugural conference proceedings, 110, June. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1993. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Bhatt B, Gitu P, Yusuf A. "Synthesis of 1-aminotetralin and its derivatives by reductive amination of their corresponding 1-tetralones"." Int. J. BioChemiPhysics. 1993;2(1,2):55-77.
YUSUF DROKEYOAMIR. "Synthesis of 1-aminotetralin and its derivatives by reductive amination of their corresponding 1-tetralones.". In: Int. J. of BioChemiPhysics. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
Tetralones were converted to their corresponding N-formyl derivatives using ammonia and formic acid at 170-180 degrees Celsius. These were then hydrolyzed to the corresponding amines using acid and base. In all cases base hydrolysis gave better yields as compared to acid hydrolysis.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of 1-Aminotetralin and its derivatives by reductive amination of their corresponding 1-1 tetralones (a Leuckart reaction),.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, vol. 2 Nos. 1 & 2, 55 - 57. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1993. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of 1-Aminotetralin and its derivatives by reductive amination of their corresponding 1-1 tetralones (a Leuckart reaction),.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, vol. 2 Nos. 1 & 2, 55 - 57. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Synthesis and reactions of mixed N, P ligands.". In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Onyari JM, Huang SJ. "Synthesis and Properties of Novel Polyvinyl alcohol-Lactic acid Gels." Journal of Applied Polymer Science . 2009;113:2053-2061.
Njogu RNE, Njenga LW, Wendt OF, Kariuki DK, Amir OY. "Synthesis and characterization of Tris-cyclometalated Iridium (III) and Ruthenium (II) complexes.". In: 3rd Nordic meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Simiyu J, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A, Lindquist S-E. Synthesis and Characterization of Titania Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells. Arusha, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract

TiO2 nanofibres have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process in 10M NaOH. TEM images have shown that nanofibres measuring average length 500nm and diameter 10nm were formed by this method. XRD analysis indicated strong anatase peaks with crystal orientation in the direction (101) with slight rutile peaks appearing at 5000C calcinations temperature. Thin films prepared from the nanofibres had thickness varying from 4.5 – 5.5μm. The films were used to fabricate complete dye sensitised solar cells with Ruthenium complex dye as sensitizer. I-V characteristics yielded Voc and Jsc of 0.46V – 0.58V and 0.16mA/cm2 – 4.5mA/cm2 respectively under standard illumination of 100mW/cm2 (using a halogen lamp and data acquired using Keithley 2400 Source Meter® controlled by LabVIEW® software).

Oyagi M, Michira I, Guto P, Iwuoha E, Kamau G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using tea extracts and their Application in nanobiosensors." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2013;21:30-44.
Odhiambo R, Muthakia GK, Kagwanja SM. "Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenated meta-functionalized Manganese(II) Schiff Base Complexes." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2009;17(1):37-44.
Osiro OO, Kariuki DK, Joyce K G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Ionomer-type Cements from Alkalin-Activated Kaolinite." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids-X. 2022;13(100079):2-10.
Katithi DN, Michira IN, Guto PM, Baker PPGL, Kamau GN, Iwuoha EI. "SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GREEN TEA SYNTHESIZED IRON NANOCATALYSTS FOR BRYMOTHYMOL BLUE (BTB) DEGRADATION." Journal of Nano Research. 2016;42:1-13.
Katithi" "DM, Michira" "IN, Guto" "PM, Baker" "P, Kamau' "GN, Iwuoha" "E. "SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GREEN TEA STABILIZED IRON NANOCATALYSTS FOR BRYMOTHYMOL BLUE (BTB) DEGRADATION." Journal of Nano Research. 2016;42:1-13.
Katithi DN, Michira IN, Guto P, Kamau GN, Baker P, Iwuoha E. "SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GREEN TEA STABILIZED IRON NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR SYNERGISTIC EFFECT ON POLYANILINE." International Journal of Applied Science: Basic and Applied Research, . 2014;13(2):63-76.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Synthesis and characterization of alkyltris(2-pyridyl)phosphonium salts.". In: Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Silicon and the Related Elements. Taylor & Francis; 2006. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Synthesis and characterisation of ionomer-type cements from alkaline activated kaolinite." Non-crystalline solids: X. 2022;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nocx.2021.100079.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis and binding studies of ring constrained glucagon analogues.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110. Ph.D thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2007.
Schröder H. "Syntactic and discourse features in Eastern Nilotic.". In: Workshop on Nilotic Languages. Leipzig, Germany, 25-27 July; 2002.
Muia BM. "Synovial Fluid Microscopy.". In: UWEZO RHEUMATOLOGY AND AUTO IMMUNE DISEASES WORKSHOP. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Dede, J. A, M.F. O. "A Synopsis of Training, Employee retention and Performance." Global Journal of Human Resource Management. 2021;9(2):73-85.
NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Synopsis of Nuclear Medicine. Waweru F.N, Othieno J.O E.A.M.J. Vol. 66, No. 10. Oct. 1989.". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1989. Abstract
The application of radionuclides to medical diagnosis and treatment has a relatively short history. The phenomenon of radioactivity was originally discovered by Henri Bacquerel in 1896, whereas Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the naturally occurring element radium in 1899. The use of radium in the treatment of malignant disease was first introduced at the turn of this century, and was established by 1920. It was not until 1938, however, that the discovery of nuclear fission made possible the subsequent development of the nuclear reactor, and the large-scale production of artificial radioactive nuclides. It was immediately realised that the latter opened up great possibilities in the medical field. The radioactive isotope was chemically indistinguishable from the stable isotopes of the element, and minute quantities of it in the body could be detected externally by virtue of the radiation they emitted; it could be used as a "tracer" to follow the metabolism of a substance throughout the body. The following synopsis is a brief attempt to introduce the Kenyan medical personnel into the scope of nuclear energy in medicine. PMID: 2612403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. OD, O. WS,.A. A’oD. "SYNERGYSTIC EFFECTS OF TITANIUM (IV) OXIDE MODIFIED CLAY FOR DISINFECTION AND PURIFICATION OF WATER." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(5):26. Abstracteijst.org.uk

Access to potable water is a problem facing developing countries worldwide. The spread of water related diseases is expected to grow worse in the coming decades with water scarcity occurring globally even in regions currently considered water rich. A study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of titanium oxide (TiO2) modified clay filters in water purification. Clay soils used for the filter making and samples filtration were collected from Kenyatta University, Department of Ceramics and Got Ramogi in Thika and Bondo Sub-counties respectively. The chemical compositions of the clay samples were determined using X-ray fluorescence. Clay filters were molded and coated with TiO2 (DEGUSSA P25, calcination at 600oC) and degradation of methyl orange was used to test its photo catalytic activity. The water parameters analyzed were turbidity, pH, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, Escherichia Coliform (E.coli), pesticides and heavy metals. Results showed that modified clay filters reduced turbidity from 24.667 NTU to 0.0212 ± 0.0016 NTU, TSS from 276 ± 14.730 mg/L to 1.00 ± 0.328 mg/L. The E. coli colonies were reduced from 4310.83 ± 15.718 c.f.u/100 to 0.00 c.f.u/100ml and the spiked 1000ppm of lead, copper and organochlorine pesticides to below detection limits. Improved efficiency of the TiO2 modified clay filters had the enhanced ability to reduce the contaminant levels in water. Key words: Modified clay filters, DEGUSSA P25, photo catalyst activity, physico-chemical and biological parameters, water filtration

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

O OD, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD. "Synergistic Effects of Titanium (IV) Oxide Modified Clay for Disinfection and Purification of Water." European International Journal of Science and Technology . 2017;6(5):7-32.
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Osero B, Libendi D, Christopher A. "Synergistic effects of lambacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-dichlorobenzene for the control of sand fly and mosquito vectors in Baringo and Kirinyaga Counties, Kenya." Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences. 2018;7(1):21-27.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Synergistic Effects of Alpha-cypermethrin and Dimethoate against Insect Pests.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ISSN 1026-552X. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
Kariuki DK, Miaron JO, Kuria AK, Mugweru J. "Synergistic Effects of �� -Cypermethrin and Dimethoate against Insect Pests.". 2003.
"SYNERGISTIC BIO-PESTICIDE COMBINATION OF PYRETHRINS AND ROTENOIDS." International Journal of Humanities, Arts,. 2014;2(3):43-48. Abstract

Pyrethrins and Rotenoids extracts from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Tephrosia vogelii plants
respectively were combined at various ratio mixtures and tested against adult cockroach Americana periplaneta for their
efficacy. A mortality rate of 86% in 200 minutes with a synergistic ratio mixture of 28.5:1 w/w was established.
The mixture was found to have an observed LC50 of 0.23mg/g and a theoretical LC50 of 0.92mg/g calculated from the
individual Pyrethrins and Rotenoids extracts. The synergism expressed as co-toxicity coefficient CC, was found to be 4.
The photodegradation of Rotenoids in the combination was found to have a half life of t1/2 of 6.1hrs compared to that of
Rotenone and Pyrethrins of 3hrs respectively.

Kangethe LN, Ahmed H, Omar S, Gathirwa J, Kirira P, Kaniaru S, Kamau T, Kimani F, Joseph K Nganga, IRUNGU LUCY. "Synergistic Antiplasmodial Activity of Artemisia annua fractions against in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(4).
Derese S. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Products Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke
Owor, R. O., Bedane, K. G., Openda, Y. I., Zühlke, S., Derese, S., Ong’amo, G., Ndakala, A., & Spiteller, M.
Abstract
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "The Syndrome of Haemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes and Low Platelet Count (HELLP) in patients with Preeclampsia/eclampsia at Kenyatta National Hospital;.". In: J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 17; 1-8, 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Omondi SF, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Synchrony in leafing, flowering and fruiting phenology of Senegalia senegal within Lake Baringo woodland, Kenya: Implication for conservation and tree improvement." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FORESTRY RESEARCH. 2016:ID 6904834.
Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, J. M, A. L, J.G O, S.W. G. "Synchronous Occurence of Ossifying Fibroma of the Mandible and Maxilla.". 2008.
okwoyo james. "Synchronization of all-to-all Coupled Oscillators." journal of Mathematical sciences. 2008;2(19):239-252.
Silver MA, Stryker MP. "Synaptic density in geniculocortical afferents remains constant after monocular deprivation in the cat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1999;19:10829-10842. Abstract

Monocular eyelid closure in cats during a critical period in development produces both physiological plasticity, as indicated by a loss of responsiveness of primary visual cortical neurons to deprived eye stimulation, and morphological plasticity, as demonstrated by a decrease in the total length of individual geniculocortical arbors representing the deprived eye. Although the physiological plasticity appears maximal after 2 d of monocular deprivation (MD), the shrinkage of deprived-eye geniculocortical arbors is less than half-maximal at 4 d and is not maximal until 7 d of deprivation, at which time the deprived arbors are approximately half their previous size. To study this form of plasticity at the level of individual thalamocortical synapses rather than arbors, we developed a new double-label colocalization technique. First, geniculocortical afferent arbors serving either the deprived or nondeprived eye were labeled by injection of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into lamina A of the lateral geniculate nucleus. Then, using antibodies to synaptic vesicle proteins, we identified presynaptic terminals within the labeled arbors in layer IV of the primary visual cortex. Analysis of serial optical sections obtained using confocal microscopy allowed measurement of the numerical density of presynaptic sites and the relative amounts of synaptic vesicle protein in geniculocortical afferents after both 2 and 7 d of MD. We found that the density of synapses in geniculocortical axons was similar for deprived and nondeprived afferents, suggesting that this feature of the afferents is conserved even during periods in which synapse number is reduced by half in deprived-eye arbors. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that a rapid loss of deprived-eye geniculocortical presynaptic sites is responsible for the prompt physiological effects of MD.

Kimani EWN;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo SW;, Obukosia SD;, Kimani PM;, Ikahu JM;, Waithaka K. "Symptoms, causal agent and distribution of wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium Vis) in Kenya."; 2001.
Kimani EWN;, Mutitu EW;, Waudo SW;, Obukosia SD;, Kimani PM;, Ikahu JM;, Waithaka K. "Symptoms, causal agent and distribution of wilt disease of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium Vis) in Kenya."; 2001.
Okallo G, mwaniki DL, S.W. G, F.G. M. "symptoms of health personnel exposed to disincfectants.". 2001.
James JE. "Symptoms of alcoholism in women: a preliminary survey of A.A. members." J. Stud. Alcohol. 1975;36(11):1564-9.
Dech H, Ndetei DM, Richter P, Kathuku DM, Sanderman S, Othieno C, Mundt CH. "Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population."; 1996.
C. Ludia Mattakwa, Oliech PJ, Owillah F. Symptomatic and Uroflometry Outcomes Of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride Combination In Management of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Black Race . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Objective: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) incidence and progression has been shown to vary by race, geography and ethnicity with African-Americans having a more aggressive disease than other races. Combination drug therapy has been shown to be a favorable option for medical therapy of symptomatic BPH but data is lacking on the effects of this therapy in black race patients locally. This study aims to assess the early (six months) response, by both International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak urinary flow rate (QMax), to combination drug therapy of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride for management of symptomatic BPH in a predominantly African black race population cohort as a pilot study.
Patients and Methods: Dutasteride 0.5mg and Tamsulosin 0.4mg once daily were administered orally to 52 patients aged 45years and above of black race with confirmed BPH for six months. The main outcome measures of change in mean QMax and IPSS were assessed at three months and six months. Secondary outcome measures were mean Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and Prostate Volume (PV) changes. Drug compliance by Modified Morisky Scores (1) and adverse/side effects reported were documented. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation as well as ANOVA were used to analyze the data.
Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean QMax by 13.3ml/sec and decrease in mean IPSS by 14.5 points at six months. There was a fairly rapid reduction in mean Total PSA of 0.9ng/ml as early as two months and a slower fall in mean PV of 10.224mls most evident at the last follow-up. Safety and tolerability of the drugs was consistent with previous experience and majority of the patients portrayed an excellent drug compliance profile.
Conclusion: These results suggest the efficacy of combination drug therapy of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin for moderate-to-severe BPH in the black race. These patients seem to have a more drastic and rapid mean IPSS, QMax and PV response to therapy than reported for other races but their mean total PSA decrease was less. Combination drug therapy is therefore recommended as a useful alternative to surgery in management of BPH in the black race.
Key Words: Benign Prostatic Enlargement, Urinary flow rate, Prostate Specific Antigen, IPSS
Corresponding Author: Professor J.S. Oliech Professor of General Surgery/Urology
Department Of Surgery, University Of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.Email:

OLIECH JS, Owillah F, Oliech PJ, Ludia Mattakwa C. "Symptomatic and Uroflometry Outcomes Of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride Combination In Management of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Black Race.". 2012. Abstract

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) incidence and progression has been shown to vary by race, geography and ethnicity with African-Americans having a more aggressive disease than other races. Combination drug therapy has been shown to be a favorable option for medical therapy of symptomatic BPH but data is lacking on the effects of this therapy in black race patients locally. This study aims to assess the early (six months) response, by both International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak urinary flow rate (QMax), to combination drug therapy of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride for management of symptomatic BPH in a predominantly African black race population cohort as a pilot study. Patients and Methods: Dutasteride 0.5mg and Tamsulosin 0.4mg once daily were administered orally to 52 patients aged 45years and above of black race with confirmed BPH for six months. The main outcome measures of change in mean QMax and IPSS were assessed at three months and six months. Secondary outcome measures were mean Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and Prostate Volume (PV) changes. Drug compliance by Modified Morisky Scores (1) and adverse/side effects reported were documented. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation as well as ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean QMax by 13.3ml/sec and decrease in mean IPSS by 14.5 points at six months. There was a fairly rapid reduction in mean Total PSA of 0.9ng/ml as early as two months and a slower fall in mean PV of 10.224mls most evident at the last follow-up. Safety and tolerability of the drugs was consistent with previous experience and majority of the patients portrayed an excellent drug compliance profile. Conclusion: These results suggest the efficacy of combination drug therapy of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin for moderate-to-severe BPH in the black race. These patients seem to have a more drastic and rapid mean IPSS, QMax and PV response to therapy than reported for other races but their mean total PSA decrease was less. Combination drug therapy is therefore recommended as a useful alternative to surgery in management of BPH in the black race.

Kosgei RJ, Ndavi PM O’ech JOAJMSAMW-KK, Fojo T, Mwangi A MREMEJCHTE. "Symptom screening: diagnostic usefulness to detect pulmonary tuberculosis in HIVinfected pregnant women in Kenya." Public Health Action . 2011;1(2):30-34.
Kosgei RJ, Ndavi MP, Ong’ech JO, Abuya JM, Siika AM, Wools-Kaloustian K, Mabeya H, Fojo T, Mwangi A, Reid T, Edginton ME, Carter JE. "Symptom screening: diagnostic usefulness to detect pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected pregnant women in Kenya." Public Health Action . 2011;1(2):30-33.symptom_screening_diagnostic_usefulness_to_detect_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_hiv-infected_pregnant_women_in_kenya.pdf
Guyenet PG. "The sympathetic control of blood pressure." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7:335-346. AbstractWebsite

Hypertension — the chronic elevation of blood pressure — is a major human health problem. In most cases, the root cause of the disease remains unknown, but there is mounting evidence that many forms of hypertension are initiated and maintained by an elevated sympathetic tone. This review examines how the sympathetic tone to cardiovascular organs is generated, and discusses how elevated sympathetic tone can contribute to hypertension.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Symmetry and Asymmetrical forms in Traditional African Architecture.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculutre and Technology. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
S Mbala, Manene MM, Ottieno JAM. "Symmetric truth detection model: A randomized response approach." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(4):50-55. AbstractWebsite

When collecting sensitive information on abortion, drug addiction, examination dishonesty and tax
evasion among others, many researchers use direct questioning which may not yield valid data. This is
because respondents fear embarrassment and victimization. In this study we have formulated a
Symmetric Truth Detection Model which uses two randomization devises to protect the privacy of
respondents leading to a more honest response. This model is more efficient than the earlier models
namely the Asymmetric Truth detection Models

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Symbolism in the Maragoli Circumcision Songs and its implications for Gender Relations." In Delusions. Nairobi: Femnet.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1994. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Oduor J. "Syllable Weight in Dholuo." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6:44-63.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M.(1994),Real Estate Valuation Handbook.Nairobi University Press.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M.(1993),Promoting the use use Appropriate Building Materials in shelter provision in Kenya Habitat International,Vol.17 No.3,PP143-154.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M.(1992),Public policies for infrastructure Development in secondary Towns in Kenya.open House Iternational,VOL. 17 No. 1, PP 11-19.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M, W Mitulla and S. Karira-Gitau (2001), GOK/UNCHS Nairobi Slum Upgrading Initiatives: Nairobi Situation Analysis. Consultative Report to GOK/UNCHS (Habitat) (186 pages).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2001. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M(2005),Land as a Resouce and its Management for Construction..Paper presented at the Architects and Quantity Surveyors Education Board Professional Development Workshop 14-15 September,2005.Safari Park Hotel,Nairobi.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M(2003),Real Estate Valuation Practice in Africa: A Profession in search of a Discipline. Paper presented at Investment Property Data Bank Conference, 29th May,2003 Johannesburg,South Africa.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2003. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M and H.Kamau(2002),"Education,Training and Research for Urban Land Management Practice", in Urban Land Management in Africa,V.Kreibich and W.H.Olima(edts), Spring Centre,University of Dortmund,Germany, pp.335-343.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2002. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga,P.M (2002),"Informal Urban Land Management-Property Rights and Tenure Security in Kenya", in Urban Land Management in Africa,V.Kreibich and W.H.Olima(edts), Spring Centre,University of Dortmund,Germany, pp.117-123.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2002. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M., R.G. Kamau and P. Ondiege (1989), Access by Women and the Poor to Land and Credit in Urban III Housing Project in Kenya, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1989. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M., R.G. Kamau and P. Ondiege (1989), Access by Women and the Poor to Land and Credit in Urban III Housing Project in Kenya, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1989. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M., Olima, W.H.A. (1996): "The Impact of Compulsory Land Acquisition and Displaced Households: The Case Study of the Third Nairobi Water Supply Project, Kenya", Habitat International - A Journal for the Study of Human Settlements. Vol. 20. No. 1.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M., Olima, W.H.A. (1996): .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M., Olima, W.H.A. (1996): .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M., Olima, W.H.A. (1996): .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M.( 2001), PESTE Analysis in the Eastern Africa Region. Report to ITDG-East Africa (45 pages).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2001. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. G.N. Kamau, B.Waswa-Sabuni and S.O.Dulo (2001),.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2001. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and W.O. Omoto (1998),.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and W.H.A. Olima (2001), Final Evaluation of Third Nairobi Water SupplyProject. Report to Nairobi City Council/World Bank( 51 pages).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2001. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and W.H.A. Olima (1999), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1999. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and W.H.A. Olima (1999), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1999. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and W.H. Olima (1996), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and W.H. Olima (1996), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and R.G. Kamau (1987), Rural Health Housing Survey (S. Nyanza and Kilifi Districts), HABRI, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1987. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and P.O. Ondiege (1995), Kariobangi Housing and Settlement Co-operative Society Ltd: An Evaluation of Private Community Development Project. Report Prepared for USAID (80 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and P.O. Ondiege (1990), Urban Basic Needs Assessment in Nairobi, HABRI, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1990. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Syagga, P.M. and Olima W.H.A. (1998); Urban Shelter Problems in R.A. Obudho. Environment and Development in Kenya. Centre of Urban Research.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; 1998.
OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Syagga, P.M. and Olima W.H.A. (1998); Urban Shelter Problems in R.A. Obudho. Environment and Development in Kenya. Centre of Urban Research.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and J.M. Malombe (1995), Development of Informal Housing in Kenya, HABRI, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and J.M. Kiamba (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and J.M. Kiamba (1991), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1991. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and E.M. Aligula (1993),.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and E.M Aligula (1999), Management and Agency in the Urban Real Property Market in Kenya. Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Germany.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1999. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and E. Aligula (1993), Nairobi Housing Condition Survey Report. Department of Land Development, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. and Diana Lee-Smith (1989), Access by the Urban Poor to Basic Infrastructure Services. Report to EDI, World Bank (47 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1989. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1998),"Property Investment in Kenya". Proceedings of AFRES/SAPIX Conference 16-17 September, Johannesburg, South Africa.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1998), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1998), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1996), Mtonga/Grand Falls Hydropower Project Compensation Assessment: Report prepared for Otieno Odongo and Partners Consulting Engineers (15 pages).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1996), Industrial Dynamics and Fragmented Labour Markets: Construction firms and Labourers in India. Sage Publications. In Habitat International.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1996), Building Maintenance and Technology in Tropical Climate. Singapore University Press, 1995, pp 191. In Habitat International Vol. 20 No. 2, pp 331-333.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1996), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1996. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994)."Integrating Environmental, Social and Economic Policies in Urban Planning and Development Research in Eastern and Southern Africa". Highlights Report Intesep Workshop, 7-10 June 1994, Abidjan, Cote d'/lvoire. Annexe pp 2 - 23.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), Urban Housing Market for Zambia. Report prepared for Shelter Afrique (62 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), Socio-Economic Evaluation for Third Nairobi Water Supply Project. Report to Nairobi City Council/World Bank (93 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), Real Estate Valuation. Nairobi University Press.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), Human Settlements Development & Management in the African Region. Background paper to High Level Meeting of African Experts at UNCHS (Habitat), Nairobi (76 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), "Promoting Sustainable Construction Industry Activities in Kenya". African Centre for Technology Studies, Research Memorandum Series No. 8.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1994), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1994. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), Promoting Sustainable Construction Industry Activities: A Regional Overview for the African Region. Prepared for UNCHS (Habitat) (50 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), Promoting Sustainable Construction Industry Activities: A Regional Overview for the African Region. Prepared for UNCHS (Habitat) (50 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), "Waste Management in Eastern and Central African Region". Report and Proceedings of an IDRC Workshop, 4-6 May, 1993, Ottawa, pp 190 - 203.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), Employment Generation on Urban Works Programmes. Report prepared for ILO (41 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), "Public Policies for Infrastructure Development in Secondary Towns in Kenya". Open House International Housing, Vol.17 No 1 pp11-19.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), "Problems of Solid Waste Management in Urban Residential Areas in Kenya". Proceedings of African Research Network (ARNUM) Workshop, Nairobi, pp 27 - 37. Also published in Architecture, Vol. 17 pp 12 - 17.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1991), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1991. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1990), Technical Recommendations on Standards and Specifications for Use of Soil Blocks in Kenya. Prepared for Common Wealth Science Council (51 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1990. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.

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