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J.W. N, P.N. K. Soil factors influencing occurrence of Jigger flea ( Tunga penetrans) in Kenya . Germany: Lambert academic publications ; 2011.
Ayuke FO;, Karanja NK;, Wickama J;, Awiti A;, Hella J. "Soil fauna community structure across land manage ment systems of Kenya and Tanzania.".; 2007.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Wickama J, Awiti A, Hella J. Soil fauna community structure across land management systems of Kenya and Tanzania. Kigali, Rwanda; 2007. Abstract

Changes in soil fauna communities were studied across land use systems in parts of Lake Victoria basin in Kenya and Tanzania. The study sites included primary forest, secondary forest, plantation forest, fallow and arable lands under different cropping systems and intensity, with cultivation in some systems ranging from one to more than 40 years. In Kenya, a total of 47 species were recorded across the land use systems while in Tanzania, a total of 36 species were recorded of which 25 species were unique to the forest soils. Isopterans were the most abundant of the total macrofauna groups observed across the two benchmark sites, constituting between 38 and 46%. Forest disturbance, cultivation and higher levels of intensification had a substantial effect on macrofauna diversity. This study has demonstrated that macofauna species and their density declined, particularly when natural forest was disturbed, cleared or cultivated, and when agro-chemicals were applied in the cropping systems.

Key words: Community structure, diversity, land use system, soil fauna

Mbuvi JP. "Soil fertility.". 1930.
Gachene CKK, Kimaru G. "Soil fertility and land productivity.". 2003.
Kinyanjui SM;, Mureithi JG, Saha HM, Lynam J, Mugah JO, Ndun'gu J, Maina FJ. "Soil fertility management handbook for extension staff and farmers in Kenya.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

This manual was developed by the Legume Research Network Project of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute to provide basic, simple information about soils and their management in order to maintain or improve their fertility. The subjects addressed by the manual are: composition and formation of soils, soil fertility, inorganic ferlitilizers, organic manures, soil erosion and conservation, and cropping systems

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Soil Fertility Management in Africa: A Regional Perspective ASP (2003) ISBN No. 9966-24-063-2. Publishing Support Editor S.O. Akatch.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2003.
Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Soil fertility management strategies in agroecosystem and implication on Soil Macrofauna diversity and populations.". In: Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) Proceedings of the 18th Conference and End of the Millennium Celebrations . Mombasa, Kenya; 2001. Abstract

Soil fauna functions in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations are well appreciated. However the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to assess how soil fertility management strategies within an Agroforestry system affect soil biodiversity (macrofauna diversity and populations). The study was conducted on farm during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) Tithonia diversifolia biomass at 5 t ha1 dry weight and (4) Senna spectabilis at 5 t ha1 dry weight. Riparian natural forest and a six-year grassland fallow were assessed and used as reference standards. Macrofauna diversity and populations were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) at the beginning of the season, 6 weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. Faunal diversity was assessed using the Shannon-Wiener index of diversity (H′). Data were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) in a split-plot design and treatment differences evaluated using least significance difference (LSD) at P=0.05. Macrofauna diversity and populations of most of the macrofauna groups were significantly higher under natural forest (H′ = 2.31) than in all the other treatments (each H′ = < 1). Although the 2 organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna significantly increased earthworm population by 400% and tithonia by 240% over the no input control. Even though termite population increased by 145% in senna and 118% in tithonia over the control, the increase was not significant because of high variability between replications of the same treatment. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or population of termites and earthworms. The study indicates that: (1) short-term addition of organic residues do not significantly increase faunal diversity, (2) Soil invertebrates fauna populations can be manipulated by external additions of organic residues such as senna and (3) Changes in land use systems, especially those that reduce the amount, range and diversity of food resources for macrofauna bring about instability in below ground biodiversity. There is therefore need to clearly define the conditions in which such impairment is critically important to agricultural production and sustainability and to determine what management interventions may be made to alleviate or ameliorate problems resulting from loss of diversity.

Key words: Biodiversity, macrofauna, population, Tithonia diversifolia, Senna spectabilis

Chemining'wa GN, Wahome PK, Muthomi JW. "Soil fertility status and nodulation of selected legumes in farmer’ fields in south-eastern Kenya.". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference, Faculty of Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi; 2011.
Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Karanja N, Cornelis W, Verplacke H, Kironchi G. "Soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol in Kabete, Ken." Soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol in Kabete, Kenya International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 15 (2012): 595-609. 2012.
Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Karanja N, Cornelis W, Verplancke H, Kironchi G. "Soil hydraulic properties of a nitisol in Kabete, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Water relations are among the most important physical phenomena that affect the use of soils for agricultural, ecological, environmental, and engineering purposes. To formulate soil-water relationships, soil hydraulic properties are required as essential inputs. The most important hydraulic properties are the soil-water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity. The objective of this study was to determine the soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol, at Kabete Campus Field Station. Use of an internal drainage procedure to characterize the hydraulic properties and soil and water retention curves allowed for the establishment of the moisture and matric potential at field capacity and permanent wilting point. The Bt2 (84 -115) and Bt3 (115 - 143 cm) had the highest clay contents of 619 compared to Ap, AB and Bt1 horizons. The PWP was attained at soil moisture contents of 0.223, 0.284, 0277, 0.307 and 0.314 m3m-3 in the Ap, AB, Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizons, respectively. Horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was high at 6.0 cm hr-1 in Ap horizon and decreased to 0.4 cm hr-1 in the subsurface horizon (Bt3). Ksat in the vertical direction was higher than horizontal and ranged from 8.3 cm hr-1 in surface layer to 0.6 cm hr-1 in Bt3 horizon, with exception of Bt1 and Bt2 where horizontal Ksat was greater than vertical. The Ap horizon also had the highest crop extractable water. Though the AB and Bt1 had the same water content at low matric suction, the variation was very wide as the SWRC approached saturation point. Bt1 and Bt2 also had similar water contents at suction range of – 7kPa after which Bt1, tended towards Bt3. Bt3 had the narrowest range of crop extractable water and thus was attributed to texture. The Bt3 retained the most amount of water at 0.314 m3m-3concluding that θPWP increased with depth. The total available water capacity between FC and PWP in the profile was 79.2 mm m-1. The study observed that the field capacity, crop available water contents and hydraulic conductivities were influenced positively by soil organic matter. The Van Genuchten parameters of air entry value (α) and pore size distribution (n) indicated that pore size distribution was not even in the AP and AB horizons. The field capacity was attained at higher matric potential at -5kPa for Bt1 while Bt2 and AP, AB, Bt2 and Bt3 was at -10kPa.The functional relationship, K(θ) = aθb that deals with water redistribution as a result of soil hydraulic properties and evaporative demand of the atmosphere was highly correlated to soil moisture content and texture with R2 values > 0.85.

Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Cornelis W, Verplancke H, Kironchi G. "Soil hydraulic properties of a nitisol in Kabete, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Water relations are among the most important physical phenomena that affect the use of soils for agricultural, ecological, environmental, and engineering purposes. To formulate soil-water relationships, soil hydraulic properties are required as essential inputs. The most important hydraulic properties are the soil-water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity. The objective of this study was to determine the soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol, at Kabete Campus Field Station. Use of an internal drainage procedure to characterize the hydraulic properties and soil and water retention curves allowed for the establishment of the moisture and matric potential at field capacity and permanent wilting point. The Bt2 (84 -115) and Bt3 (115 - 143 cm) had the highest clay contents of 619 compared to Ap, AB and Bt1 horizons. The PWP was attained at soil moisture contents of 0.223, 0.284, 0277, 0.307 and 0.314 m3m-3 in the Ap, AB, Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizons, respectively. Horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was high at 6.0 cm hr-1 in Ap horizon and decreased to 0.4 cm hr-1 in the subsurface horizon (Bt3). Ksat in the vertical direction was higher than horizontal and ranged from 8.3 cm hr-1 in surface layer to 0.6 cm hr-1 in Bt3 horizon, with exception of Bt1 and Bt2 where horizontal Ksat was greater than vertical. The Ap horizon also had the highest crop extractable water. Though the AB and Bt1 had the same water content at low matric suction, the variation was very wide as the SWRC approached saturation point. Bt1 and Bt2 also had similar water contents at suction range of – 7kPa after which Bt1, tended towards Bt3. Bt3 had the narrowest range of crop extractable water and thus was attributed to texture. The Bt3 retained the most amount of water at 0.314 m3m-3concluding that θPWP increased with depth. The total available water capacity between FC and PWP in the profile was 79.2 mm m-1. The study observed that the field capacity, crop available water contents and hydraulic conductivities were influenced positively by soil organic matter. The Van Genuchten parameters of air entry value (α) and pore size distribution (n) indicated that pore size distribution was not even in the AP and AB horizons. The field capacity was attained at higher matric potential at -5kPa for Bt1 while Bt2 and AP, AB, Bt2 and Bt3 was at -10kPa.The functional relationship, K(θ) = aθb that deals with water redistribution as a result of soil hydraulic properties and evaporative demand of the atmosphere was highly correlated to soil moisture content and texture with R2 values > 0.85.

Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Karanja N, Cornelis W, Verplancke H. "Soil hydraulic properties of a nitisol in Kabete, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Water relations are among the most important physical phenomena that affect the use of soils for agricultural, ecological, environmental, and engineering purposes. To formulate soil-water relationships, soil hydraulic properties are required as essential inputs. The most important hydraulic properties are the soil-water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity. The objective of this study was to determine the soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol, at Kabete Campus Field Station. Use of an internal drainage procedure to characterize the hydraulic properties and soil and water retention curves allowed for the establishment of the moisture and matric potential at field capacity and permanent wilting point. The Bt2 (84 -115) and Bt3 (115 - 143 cm) had the highest clay contents of 619 compared to Ap, AB and Bt1 horizons. The PWP was attained at soil moisture contents of 0.223, 0.284, 0277, 0.307 and 0.314 m3m-3 in the Ap, AB, Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizons, respectively. Horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was high at 6.0 cm hr-1 in Ap horizon and decreased to 0.4 cm hr-1 in the subsurface horizon (Bt3). Ksat in the vertical direction was higher than horizontal and ranged from 8.3 cm hr-1 in surface layer to 0.6 cm hr-1 in Bt3 horizon, with exception of Bt1 and Bt2 where horizontal Ksat was greater than vertical. The Ap horizon also had the highest crop extractable water. Though the AB and Bt1 had the same water content at low matric suction, the variation was very wide as the SWRC approached saturation point. Bt1 and Bt2 also had similar water contents at suction range of – 7kPa after which Bt1, tended towards Bt3. Bt3 had the narrowest range of crop extractable water and thus was attributed to texture. The Bt3 retained the most amount of water at 0.314 m3m-3concluding that θPWP increased with depth. The total available water capacity between FC and PWP in the profile was 79.2 mm m-1. The study observed that the field capacity, crop available water contents and hydraulic conductivities were influenced positively by soil organic matter. The Van Genuchten parameters of air entry value (α) and pore size distribution (n) indicated that pore size distribution was not even in the AP and AB horizons. The field capacity was attained at higher matric potential at -5kPa for Bt1 while Bt2 and AP, AB, Bt2 and Bt3 was at -10kPa.The functional relationship, K(θ) = aθb that deals with water redistribution as a result of soil hydraulic properties and evaporative demand of the atmosphere was highly correlated to soil moisture content and texture with R2 values > 0.85.

V B, R.M O, T.H N, J G. "Soil Ingestion is Associated with Child Diarrhea in an Urban Slum of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2017;96(3):201-207.
TURNER1 WENDYC, IMOLOGHOME PEACE, HAVARUA ZEPEE, KAAYA GODWINP, MFUNE JOHNKE, MPOFU IRVINDT, GETZ1 WAYNEM. "Soil ingestion, nutrition and the seasonality of anthrax in herbivores of Etosha National Park. ." Ecosphere. 2013;4(1):1-19.
Karanja N.K, F.O A, E.M M, B.K M. "Soil macrofauna community structure across land use systems of Taita, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna in various land use systems in Taita (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, napier, and maize, Horticulture. Each was sampled for macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall trapping). Seventy eight (78) genera/species were recorded across the different land use systems of Taita. Rényi diversity profile indicated no significant differences in species richness across land use systems as reflected by the very close diversity profiles at α = 0. However, the two diversity indices (Shannon index: α = 1 and Simpson’s index: α = 2) indicated that plantation forest was the most diverse of the land use systems, while fallow and maize were least diverse. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species distribution which was least in maize. However because some of the profiles for some land use systems cross each other, they could not be ranked. The major macrofauna groups recorded in the Taita benchmark site included: Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera, Oligochaeta and Orthoptera and Arenae. Generally Hymenoptera were the most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 36% of the total followed by Isoptera (22%), Oligochaeta (16%), Coleoptera (10%). The other macrofauna (Arenae, Diplopoda, Diptera, Orthoptera, Blattidae, Isopoda, Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Hemiptera, Opiliones,Chiopoda-Scolopendromorpha, Lepidoptera, Dermaptera, Phasmidae, Blattelidae and Mantodea each constituted <10% of the total macrofauna recorded. Hymenoptera was ranked 1st as it had the highest total abundance (59,440 individuals m-2), while Mantodea was ranked 18th and had the lowest total abundance (6 individuals m-2). Generally macrofauna density was higher in arable systems than forests, although the differences were not always significant. Except for Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda, all the other macroafauna groups were not significantly different across land use systems. The three groups (Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda) were significantly highest in the forests than in all the other land use systems. These variation appear to be associated with management practices that consequently results in the destruction of nesting habitats, modification of soil microclimate within these habitats and removal of substrate, low diversity and availability of food sources for the associated macrofauna groups. The significant correlations between some soil macrofauna groups with selected soil chemical properties too show that, soil chemical characteristics may indirectly play a role in influencing the density, distribution and structure of macrofauna communities. This indicates the potential of using these fauna groups as bio-indicators of soil productivity. Key words: Macrofauna; community structure; diversity; abundance; land use systems.

Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Muya EM, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil macrofauna community structure across land use systems of Taita, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11(2):385-396. Abstract

This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna in various land use systems in Taita (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, napier, and maize, Horticulture. Each was sampled for
macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall trapping). Seventy eight (78)
genera/species were recorded across the different land use systems of Taita. Rényi diversity profile indicated
no significant differences in species richness across land use systems as reflected by the very close
diversity profiles at α = 0. However, the two diversity indices (Shannon index: α = 1 and Simpson’s index: α
= 2) indicated that plantation forest was the most diverse of the land use systems, while fallow and maize were least diverse. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species distribution which was least in maize. However because some of the profiles for some land
use systems cross each other, they could not be ranked. The major macrofauna groups recorded in the Taita
benchmark site included: Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Coleoptera, Oligochaeta and Orthoptera and Arenae.
Generally Hymenoptera were the most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 36% of the total followed by Isoptera (22%), Oligochaeta (16%), Coleoptera (10%). The other macrofauna (Arenae,
Diplopoda, Diptera, Orthoptera, Blattidae, Isopoda, Chilopoda- Geopholomorpha, Hemiptera, Opiliones,Chiopoda-Scolopendromorpha, Lepidoptera, Dermaptera, Phasmidae, Blattelidae and Mantodea
each constituted <10% of the total macrofauna recorded. Hymenoptera was ranked 1st as it had the
highest total abundance (59,440 individuals m-2), while Mantodea was ranked 18th and had the lowest total
abundance (6 individuals m-2). Generally macrofauna density was higher in arable systems than forests,
although the differences were not always significant. Except for Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda-
Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda, all the other macroafauna groups were not significantly different
across land use systems. The three groups (Chilopoda-Geopholomorpha, Chilopoda- Scolopendromorpha and Isopoda) were significantly highest in the forests than in all the other land use systems. These variation
appear to be associated with management practices that consequently results in the destruction of nesting
habitats, modification of soil microclimate within these habitats and removal of substrate, low diversity
and availability of food sources for the associated macrofauna groups. The significant correlations between some soil macrofauna groups with selected soil chemical properties too show that, soil chemical characteristics may indirectly play a role in influencing the density, distribution and structure of macrofauna
communities. This indicates the potential of using these fauna groups as bio-indicators of soil productivity.

Key words: Macrofauna; community structure; diversity; abundance; land use systems.

N.K. Karanja, F.O. Ayuke, E.M. Mua, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil Macrofauna community structure across land-use systems of Taita, Kenya, ." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. . 2009:385-396.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Awiti A. "Soil Macrofauna in soils under differing levels of disturbance and land use intensity in Kakamega District, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal (In Press). 2013;78(1):63-75.
Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'anga JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and its consequences under different management in a six year old hedged agroforestry demonstration plot in semi-arid Kenya, for two successive contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis

Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and maize-bean yields under different management in a six years old hedged Agroforestry system in Semi-Arid Laikipia, Kenya, for two contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis.

Mulebekea R, Kironchi G, Tenywa MM. "Soil moisture dynamics under different tillage practices in cassava–sorghum based cropping systems in eastern Uganda.". 2013. Abstract

Soil moisture storage in the root zone determines availability of water in crop production, but there is limited attention on water resource management in cassava–sorghum production systems. Soil moisture content was higher under ripping than mouldboard ploughing. Mouldboard ploughed plots had more moisture in the upper (0–10 cm) layer while, the ripped plots accumulated more moisture in the lower (20–40 cm) root zone. Soil surface roughness was stable two months after ploughing. Crop combinations and seasons influenced soil moisture storage over the growing period. The different cropping systems vary in their soil moisture extraction capacities at different growth stages, hence influencing the overall moisture storage and water used in the root zone.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil moisture extraction by different cover crops. In (eds J.G. Mureithi, C.W. Mwendia, F.N. Muyeko, M.A. Onyango and S.N. Maobe) Participatory Technology Development for Soil Management by Smallholders in Kenya. Special Publication of Soil Management and.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Gachene CKK, Makau M, Haru H. "Soil moisture extraction by different legume cover crops.". 1997.
Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Hillary K Rotich., Richard Onwonga., Judith S Mbau., Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2):143-155.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in eroded sediments from runoff plots on a clay soil in Kenya. Applied Plant Sciences, 12(3), pp. 72-76.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Eunice GW, Charles K K, Jesse T N. "Soil physicochemical properties under Acacia senegal varieties in the dryland areas of Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a multipurpose drought-tolerant tree or shrub legume and is commonly used in agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa for gum arabic production and soil fertility improvement. Despite its wide distribution in Kenya, there has not been exhaustive evaluation on the effects of the extant varieties (kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal) on soil properties under their canopies for sustainable utilization of the species. Three sites in the drylands of Kenya representing the three varieties were selected for assessment. Soil samples were collected under tree canopies at a depth of 0 to 25 cm and were compared with the soils from the open canopies. There were significant differences in soil physicochemical properties among the three varieties (P<0.05 and P< 0.01). Soil nutrients under the canopies were higher than in the open canopies mainly due to effects of litter accumulation. The three varieties have beneficial effects on soil nutrient status in their natural ecosystems and would most likely improve crop productivity in agroforestry systems as well as enhance herbage productivity in the rangelands. The varieties growing under different soil types may have an effect on their gum Arabic production and quality. Key words: Acacia senegal varieties, soil nutrients accumulation, sustainable utilization.

Eunice GW, Charles K GK. "Soil physicochemical properties under Acacia senegal varieties in the dryland areas of Kenya.". 2011. Abstractabstract24.pdfWebsite

Acacia senegal is a multipurpose drought-tolerant tree or shrub legume and is commonly used in agroforestry systems in sub-Saharan Africa for gum arabic production and soil fertility improvement. Despite its wide distribution in Kenya, there has not been exhaustive evaluation on the effects of the extant varieties (kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal) on soil properties under their canopies for sustainable utilization of the species. Three sites in the drylands of Kenya representing the three varieties were selected for assessment. Soil samples were collected under tree canopies at a depth of 0 to 25 cm and were compared with the soils from the open canopies. There were significant differences in soil physicochemical properties among the three varieties (P<0.05 and P< 0.01). Soil nutrients under the canopies were higher than in the open canopies mainly due to effects of litter accumulation. The three varieties have beneficial effects on soil nutrient status in their natural ecosystems and would most likely improve crop productivity in agroforestry systems as well as enhance herbage productivity in the rangelands. The varieties growing under different soil types may have an effect on their gum Arabic production and quality. Key words: Acacia senegal varieties, soil nutrients accumulation, sustainable utilization.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil productivity evaluation under different soil conservation measures in Harerge highlands of Ethiopia. Special Issue of E.A.A.F. Journal, Vol. 65 No. 2, 95 .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Marenya P, Barrett CB. "Soil quality and fertilizer use rates among smallholder farmers in western Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Studies of fertilizer use in sub-Saharan Africa have been dominated by analyses of economic and market factors having to do with infrastructure, institutions, and incentives that prevent or foster increased fertilizer demand, largely ignoring how soil fertility status conditions farmer demand for fertilizer. We apply a switching regression model to data from 260 farm households in western Kenya in order to allow for the possibility of discontinuities in fertilizer demand based on a soil carbon content (SCC) threshold. We find that the usual factors reflecting liquidity and quasi-fixed inputs are important on high-SCC plots but not on those with poorer soils. External inputs become less effective on soils with low SCC, hence the discernible shift in behaviors across soil quality regimes. For many farmers, improved fertilizer market conditions alone may be insufficient to stimulate increased fertilizer use without complementary improvements in the biophysical conditions that affect conditional factor demand.

Sketchley HR, Mbuvi JP, Scilley FM, Wokobi SM. "Soil science [in the Marginal Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya].". 1978.
Sketchley HR, Scilley FM, Wokobi SM. "Soil science [in the Marginal Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya].". 1978.Website
M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Mnene WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Jamnadass RH;, Hanson J;, Stuth. JW. "Soil Type And Forage Genetic Diversity Dictate The Need For Conservative Use Of Native Rangelands.".; 2002.
Mainuri ZG, Maina-Gichaba C, Wakindiki IIC. "Soil Use and Management Effects on Aggregate Stability, Organic Matter and Hydraulic Conductivity Within River Njoro Watershed in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Sumawa Mau Forest Complex Conference. Nairobi - Kenya: Sumawa; 2009. Abstract

There has been tremendous changes in soil use and management in the River Njoro Watershed during the last three decades. Formerly large-scale farms converted into smallholder farms and plantation forests have gradually been lost. These changes in soil use have brought in different soil use and management approaches that have triggered soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. Up to 8.6 Kg of soil, loss per hectare from the cultivated soils has reportedly been lost in one storm. This massive soil loss was probably due to reduced aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity. The objective of this study was to trace the changes in soil use and determine their effects on aggregate stability, organic matter and hydraulic conductivity. The study undertook a semi detailed soil survey of the watershed through a three-tier approach comprising image interpretation, field surveys and laboratory analysis. The measured variables in the soil were analysed using a two - way ANOVA and correlation analysis. The study found the major land uses to be forest, agriculture, grassland, and Wetland, and also observed a strong soil — landscape relationship within the Watershed. Soils of slopes were moderately to severely eroded, shallow and les developed whereas those on summits, pen plains, uplands, plateaus and valleys were deep and well developed. Aggregate stability Was in the order of forests > grasslands > agriculture Wetland. The mean Weight diameter in various land uses Was 0.68, 0.64, 0.58, and 0.41 respectively. Hydraulic conductivity Was in the order of forests > agriculture > grasslands > wetland. Hydraulic conductivity significantly correlated negatively With bulk density and Lay content. We concluded that land use changes that reduced the amount of organic matter significantly reduced aggregate stability. In addition, soil use and management activities that reduced organic matter content significantly lowered hydraulic conductivity and therefore likely to contribute to erosion and other forms of land degradation.

Key words: land use, land management, land degradation

Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Macharia P. "Soil water behavior under different cover crops and management practices. In. Development and Up-scaling of Green Manure Legume Technologies in Kenya: Enhancing Agricultural Productivity in East Africa (Eds). Edited by Joseph G. Mureithi, Charles K.K. Ga.". In: Enhancing Agricultural Productivity in East Africa (Eds). Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). Pp 171.November 2006.ISBN 9966-879-71-4, KARI (2006); 2006.
Shisia K. S1*, Ngure V 4, Oduor F. D. 0.3, Jumba I.O.3, Nyambaka H.2, Murungi J.2. "Soil-plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu district." Journal of Technology & Socio - Economic Development. 2011;Volume 1 No.1(September 2011 Issue ):126. Abstract

Livestock industry is one of the major contributors to the country's GDP and provides one third of the total available food in the country. Mineral deficiencies and imbalances in soils and forages can be a challenge in relation to production in grazing cattle in developing countries. A number of factors influence the availability of such minerals in terms of proper growth and development of cattle. The study was done in selected parts of Uasin Gishu and revealed severe nutritional deficiencies in soils and forages. The study also revealed a number of factors that influenced mineral concentration in the region. The study has suggested recommendations to help identify and alleviate any constraints on animal health and production.
Key words Livestock industry, mineral deficiencies, soils, animal health and production

Shisia KS, Murungi J, Nyambaka H, Jumba IO, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Soil-Plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu District." Journal of Technology & Socio-Econmic Development. 2011;1(1).
Gachene CKK. "Soils of Bondo area.". 1986.
Gachene CKK, Michieka DO, Rachilo JR. "Soils of Busia area.". 1982.
Okwaro HW, Mbuvi JP, Sombroek WG. "Soils of semi-arid savanna zone of the north-eastern Kenya : site evaluation report.". 1976. Abstract

Recent ground observation and study of ERTS imagery, in connection with national programme for country-wide soils mapping at scale 1: 1,000,000, have yielded substantial new information on the nature and distribution of the soils in the savanna-covered semi-arid plains of the North-Eastern Kenya. The findings differ in several aspects from earlier schematic mapping, notably in the near absence of well-drained calcerous soils and the wide extent of saline/alkali soils in the central-eastern section. The origin of the different soils development at the various geomorphologic levels is discussed, in relation to the character of the sediments as well as the quaternary changes in climate. Also, an outline is given of the significance of such exploratory mapping, on physiographic basis, for the sound planning of range management, wildlife conservation and irrigation development in the area.

Muchena FN, Gachene CKK. "Soils of the Highland and Mountainous Areas of Kenya with Special Emphasis on Agricultural Soils.". 1988. Abstract

Kenya's landscape is of great topographic diversity, rising from sea level to 5,199 m a.s.l. at the summit of Mount Kenya. Climate, geology, and relief have created different agro-climatic zones with highly variable soil developments. These are discussed with reference to the highland areas above 1,500 m. Of the fourteen major soil types, the dominant ones are Ferralsols, Acrisols, Phaeozems, and Nitosols. Deforestation, agricultural use of slopes, and overgrazing have significantly degraded most soils in the highlands, although they have good structure and relative resistance to soil erosion. A number of conservation measures were introduced in the late 1920s and again after 1972. Since 1980, the government has also heavily encouraged afforestation to control erosion.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soils of the highlands and mountainous areas of Kenya with special emphasis on agricultural soils: In: African Mountains and Highlands: problems and perspectives (eds. B. Messerli and H. Hurni). AMA, Switzerland, 157-169.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1990. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Mbuvi JP. Soils of the Kindaruma area (quarter degree sheet 136..; 1975. AbstractWebsite

A programme of systematic inventory of the soil and land resources of Kenya was initiated in 1972. It aimed at the mapping of the high and medium potential areas at scale 1: 100, 000 and of the low potential areas at scale 1: 250, 000. This first soil survey report deals with the Kindaruma area, covering some 300, 000 ha in the Eastern Province. Descriptions are given of climate, geology and vegetation. The soils are surveyed and mapped on reconnaissance level and details are given on mapping units, classification (FAO-system), fertility and physical and management aspects. Land suitability classification has been carried out for different agricultural purposes and levels of technology. Finally suggestions are given for further research in the area on climate, agroclimatology, dryland farming, crop selection and erosion control

JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Solar Cell with Extremely Thin Absorber (eta) Based on Novel eta Concept.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. , Africa Journal of Science and Technology; 2008. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Bayon R. "SOLAR CELL WITH Pb(OH)xSy EXTREMELY THIN ABSORBER (ETA) BASED ON NOVEL ETA CONCEPT." African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series. 2008;9(2). Abstract

A new highly structured In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS solar cell has been
developed based on the novel eta concept, and characterized by photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron spectroscopy, photovoltaic response and quantum
efficiency spectroscopy. In this system, In(OH)xSy, PbS and PEDOT:PSS serve as electron conductor,
light photon absorber material and hole conductor respectively. The electron conductor and absorber
layer were prepared by chemical bath deposition, while the hole conductor was prepared by spin
coating technique. The band gap of as prepared In(OH)xSy has been found to vary with pH of the
solution; furthermore the bandgap of Pb(OH)xSy can be engineered to make it suitable as absorber
material.

Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Bayon R, Belaidi A, Bär M, Gumiskaya T, Th. Dittrich, Lux-Steiner MC. "Solar cell with PbS extremely thin absorber (eta) on porous substrate based on novel eta concept.". In: 6th Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute International Conference on Physics and Technology for sustainable development in Africa (EBASI2007). Cape Town, South Africa ; 2007. Abstract

A new highly structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS solar cell has been developed based on the novel eta concept, and characterized by photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, scanning electron spectroscopy, photovoltaic response and quantum efficiency spectroscopy. In this system, TiO2, In(OH)xSy, PbS and PEDOT: PSS serve as electron conductor, recombination barrier, absorber and hole conductor respectively. The buffer and the absorber layer were prepared by chemical bath deposition, while the electron and hole conductor were prepared by spray pyrolysis/sol-gel and spin coating respectively. The band gap of as prepared In(OH)xSy has been found to vary with PH of the solution, also the band gap of PbS can be engineered to make it suitable as absorber material for solar cell application. At present, a solar cell device has been realized with efficiency up to over 1%, Jsc = 8 mA/cm2 and Voc= 3.0 V.

Imungi JK. "Solar dehydration of cassava for production of flour for local foods in Kenya."; 1992. Abstract

Kenyans subsist for the most part on maize and wheat-based foods. The rapid population increase, however, has not been paralleled by a corresponding increase in maize production and has increased the need for wheat imports. This situation has led to the consideration, on a national basis, of the use of composite flours as potential alternatives to expanded maize production and increased wheat importation. This paper reports on the attempts to produce cassava flour for combining with maize meal in ugali, sorghum and millet flours in uji, and wheat flour in mandazis. Evaluations were also made on the shelf-stability of flour under the prevailing weather conditions in Kenya and in package commonly used for milled cereal product storage. Cassava slices 2-mm thick were dried within 5 hr during fine, sunny weather, and were milled to produce good quality flour. Up to 50 of the composite flour was acceptable in uji and mandazi, but only up to 20 was tolerable in ugali. The flour maintained good color and organoleptic properties for up to 6 months of storage. Results indicate that cassava flour has potential for combining with milled cereal products in ugali, uji, and mandazis.

Aduda BO. "Solar Energy.". In: National Symposium on “Science, Technology, Innovation and Society: The African Perspectives and Experiences. Lenana House Nairobi; 2006. Abstract

Energy is important to life, and the amount of energy consumed per capita by a country is indicative of the level of development of that nation. There exist different sources of energy with solar energy as the primary source on our planet. The sun’s energy is inexhaustible, unlimited (by geographical boundaries), and non-polluting. Tapping and utilizing this energy efficiently- even with 10 to 20% efficiency- can solve the threat of climate change caused by the global warming, and also contribute towards the easing of the demand for fossil-fuel. In the developing countries a large proportion of the population is poor and not connected to the national electricity grid. This group of people is weighed down with the high cost, high risks and low benefits of the traditional fuels, candles, paraffin, and dry battery cells. Addressing their energy needs, particularly with clean energy from the renewable sources, will not only result in tangible developmental benefits but also social and environmental benefits. In this article we consider only the direct energy from the sun, and its conversion to heat or electrical forms- the energy carriers of choice.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Solar refrigeration for Kenyan rural communities. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, .". In: Proceedings of the Annual Seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (Engineering the environment), pp.72-77, August 7-9, 1991, Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agric. & Technol., NAIROBI. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Solar refrigeration for Kenyan rural communities. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, .". In: Proceedings of the Annual Seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (Engineering the environment), pp.72-77, August 7-9, 1991, Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agric. & Technol., NAIROBI.; 1990. Abstract
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O O, EM N. "Solar retinopathy: a case report." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):30-31.joecsa_july_2017.pdf
O O, EM N. "Solar retinopathy: a case report." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):30-31.joecsa_july_2017.pdf
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire IKMSTHPOCMBOM. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal 2012. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire, Ibrahim Kiche, Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Prisca Oria, Collins Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Margaret Ayugi, Teun Bousema, Patrick Sawa, Jane Alaii, Thomas Smith, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.". 2006.
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Solid Phase Synthesis of (2-Isoluecine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and (2-phenylalanine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and Some of Their Pharmacological Properties.". In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1973. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
Goh BKP, Tan Y-M, Cheow P-C, Alexander Chung Y-F, Chow PKH, Wong W-K, Ooi LLPJ. "Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: an updated experience." Journal of surgical oncology. 2007;95:640-644. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Qahtani S, Gudinchet F, Laswed T, Schnyder P, Schmidt S, Osterheld M-C, Alamo L. "Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in children: typical radiological findings and pathological correlation." Clinical imaging. 2010;34:152-156. AbstractWebsite
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Yu P-F, Hu Z-H, Wang X-B, Guo J-M, Cheng X-D, Zhang Y-L, Xu Q. "Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a review of 553 cases in {Chinese} literature." World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2010;16:1209. AbstractWebsite
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Papavramidis T, Papavramidis S. "Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas: review of 718 patients reported in {English} literature." Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2005;200:965-972. Abstract
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Ng’ang’a TM, Wachira PM, Kimenju JW, Wango TJ, Matheri JN. "Solid Waste Dumping Site Selection Using GIS and Remote Sensing for Kajiado County, Kenya. ." Journal of Earth Science and Engineering. 2014;4(2014): 693-702.
Njoroge BNK, Gitau AN, Gakungu NK, Kimani MW. "Solid Waste Management in Kenya: A case study of Public Technical Institution." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5( No. 3 (2012) ):127-138.gakungu_paper.pdf
Gakungu NK, N GA, K NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5 (No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakungu NK, N. GA, K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5(No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakungu, N. K., Gitau A. N., K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya; A case study of Public Technical Training Institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5:3(ISSN-0974-407X):127-138.
Dulo. "Solid Waste Management ISBN No #39649 978-3-639-30918-8.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118. HABRI,UoN; 2010.
Dulo. "Solid Waste Management Privatisation in Nairobi City.". In: Proceedings of the 25th WEDC Conference on Integrated Development for Water Supply and Sanitation. HABRI,UoN; 1999.
Dulo. Solid Waste Management: Leachate Migration into Groundwater. VDM Publishing House Ltd; 2010.
YUSUF DROKEYOAMIR. "Solid-phase peptide syntheses of oxytocin, oxytocin analogs and interferon short chain with the amide side-chain functionality of asparagine protected with 1-tetralinyl group.". In: Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry. Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society; 1998. Abstract
1-Tetralone was converted to 1-aminotetralin. This amine was then used to protect the carboxamide side-chain of asparagine. Syntheses of oxytocin and its derivatives were then done via Boc-solid-phase peptide synthesis using this protected asparagine. After syntheses of the nonapeptide resins, cleavage and eventual cyclization of the hormones was done using trifluoromethane sulphonic acid at 40 degrees Celcius for two hours.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt BM, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin With Amide Side chain of Asparagine Protected With 1-Tetralinyl Group." Journal of Chemistry & Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60-65.
Yusuf AO, Gitu PM, Bhatt BM, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin With Amide Side chain of Asparagine Protected With 1-Tetralinyl Group." Journal of Chemistry & Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60-65.cmr_spps_arg_vaso.pdf
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;6(4):60.scan0010.pdf
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;6(4). AbstractChemistry and Materials Research

Description
Arginine-vasopressin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc-strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl, tetralinyl and tosyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine, asparagine and arginine side-chains respectively. TFMSATFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used to cleave the peptide from the resin under different conditions to obtain arginine-vasopressin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave argininevasopressin quantitatively (77% yield)

BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Solid-phase peptide synthesis of isotocin with amide of Asparagine protected with 1-tetralinyl.". In: Trifluoromethanesulphoric acid (TFMSA) deprotection, cleavage and air oxidation of mercapto groups to disulphide; Bull, Chem, Soc. Ethiopia, 15(2), 143 - 149. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 2001. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Solid-phase peptide synthesis of isotocin with amide of Asparagine protected with 1-tetralinyl.". In: Trifluoromethanesulphoric acid (TFMSA) deprotection, cleavage and air oxidation of mercapto groups to disulphide; Bull, Chem, Soc. Ethiopia, 15(2), 143 - 149. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Shimizu M, Matsumoto T, Hirokawa M, Monobe Y, Iwamoto S, Tsunoda T, Manabe T. "Solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma of the pancreas." Pathology international. 1999;49:231-234. AbstractWebsite
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Zin AAM, Shakir KAR, Aminuddin AR, Mahedzan MR, Irnawati WAR, Andee DZ, Hassan SA, Ezane MA, Hasnan MN. "Solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma: a case study and literature review." BMJ case reports. 2012;2012:bcr2012006495. AbstractWebsite
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Notohara K, Hamazaki S, Tsukayama C, Nakamoto S, Kawabata K, Mizobuchi K, Sakamoto K, Okada S. "Solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: immunohistochemical localization of neuroendocrine markers and {CD}10." The American journal of surgical pathology. 2000;24:1361-1371. AbstractWebsite
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Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Kelder EM, Marijnissen JCM. "Solid-state electrolytes for lithium ion batteries: Application of Electrospray technique.". In: European Aerosol Conference. Zurich, Switzerland; 2017.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Solidification projection of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner."; 2011.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Solidification projection of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner.". In: Proceedings of the Microscopic Society of Southern Africa Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
"Solitary retinocytoma in a seven year old boy." joecsa- journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern central & southern africa. 2015;19(2):88-90.solitary_retinocytoma-_joecsa_-_2015.pdf
M W, L N, K K, Gachago MM. "Solitary Retinocytoma In A Seven Year Old Boy." JOECSA. 2015;19(1):1-3.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Solomon M M. Onyango J.F, Nyabola L.O, Opiyo A, Chindia M. L: Evaluation of Acute Morbidity and Quality of Life among head and neck cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. East Afr Med J 2009; 86: 173 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009; 86: 173 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Solomon Thuo, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo, Job scheduling in grid computing using simulated annealing. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in N.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Solution of the Coulomb scattering potential problem by method of contour integration and change of approximation functions.". In: African Journal of Sci. & Tech. 6(2):52-58. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
Ogana W. "Solution of the transonic integro-differential equation using a decay function." Appl. Math. Modelling. 1990;Vol. 14(No.1):pp. 30-35.
Lucy OP, Odero AN. "Solution to Economic Load Dispatch Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization.". In: KSEEE. Mombasa, Kenya; 2014. Abstractpso18sept2014.pdf

This paper proposes to determine the feasible optimal solution of the economic load dispatch power systems problem using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) considering various generator constraints. The objective of the proposed method is to determine the steady-state operating point which minimizes the fuel cost, while maintaining an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator power, line flow,
prohibited operating zone and non linear cost function. Three diff erent inertia weights; a constant inertia weight CIW, a timevarying inertia weight TVIW, and global-local best inertia weight GLbestIW, are considered with the (PSO) algorithm to analyze the impact of inertia weight on the performance of PSO algorithm. The PSO algorithm is simulated for each of the method individually. It is observed that the PSO algorithm with
the proposed inertia weight (GLbestIW) yields better results, both in terms of optimal solution and faster convergence.

G.O.Oyoo, E.Busulwa. "Solvent abuse: A case report.". 2006.
Peter Musau Moses, Abungu DNO. "Solving The Active Distribution Network Reconfiguration (ADNR) Problem Taking Into Consideration A Stochastic Wind Scenario and Load Uncertainity." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2013;3(7).p._musau_and_dr._abungu.pdf
Moses MP, Abungu NO, Mbuthia PMJ. "Solving The Active Distribution Network Reconfiguration (ADNR) Problem Taking Into Consideration A Stochastic Wind Scenario and Load Uncertainity By Using HBFDE Method." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2013;3(7):26-36. Abstractijetae_0713_05.pdfClick here to read more...

Past literature has attempted to solve the problem of network reconfiguration with Distributed Generators(DGs) without taking into consideration the intermittent renewable at a close proximity. Distribution Network Reconfiguration (ADNR) must account for uncertain behavior of loads and wind when the commercial wind based DG, Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) supports a significant part of network. In this paper, a new Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Differential Evolution (HBFDE) algorithm is considered for the ADNR problem with minimum loss and an improved voltage profile. In the HBFDE algorithm the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is combined with the Bacterial Foraging (BF) algorithm to overcome slow and premature convergence of BF. Indeed, the proposed algorithm is based on the evolutionary natures of BF and DE, to take their advantage of the compensatory property, and avoid their corresponding drawbacks. In addition, to cope with the uncertainty behavior of loads and wind, a stochastic model is presented to solve the ADNR problem when the uncertainty related to wind and load forecast is modeled in a stochastic framework on scenario approach basis. The proposed algorithm is tested on the IEEE 33 - Bus Radial Distribution Test Systems. The results of the simulation show the effectiveness of proposed algorithm real time and real world optimization problems facing the smart grid.

BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Solvolysis of carboxamide protected Asparagine and Glutamine derivatives with Boron. Tris (trifluoroacetate) in Trifluroacetic Acid and in Acetic Acid Solution,'.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, vol. 2, Nos 1 & 2, 161 - 162. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1993. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the camel: Ecology, management and economics."; 2004.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics.". 2004. Abstractabstract7.pdfWebsite

The Somali are one of the multi-state communities of Eastern Africa. Somalia is their main state, but they also occupy a large part of Djibuoti, northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rangelands, loosely referred to as arid and semiarid lands (ASAL). Unpredictable rainfall, long periods of drought, limited water, and inadequate knowledge and technology of water resource management characterize the ASAL. There is also rapid population growth, coupled with low or declining real incomes, low nutritional levels, serious environmental degradation, and the externalities of modernization and economic development (Darkoh, 1996). Somali pastoralists are a camel community mainly because of the dry and harsh environment they live in; pastoralists, by definition, being those who primarily derive their living from the management of livestock on rangelands (Prior, 1994). There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world, of which 65% are found in the northeast African states of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya. The Somali community (in Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia) has the largest population and highest density of camels in the world, and to the same extent this animal also pervades the Somali culture. Historically, the geographical area that is now Somalia may have been a focal point in the introduction and dispersal of the domesticated dromedary (Abokor, 1993). The possession of a certain amount of livestock and of physical strength are the primary requirements for survival and success in the demanding environment of Somali pastoral nomads. The climatic and geographic conditions prompt the Somali pastoral nomads to pursue animal husbandry with constant movement from place to place in search of better pasture and water. This economic system in part determines social relations and institutions and creates a division of labour whereby tasks essential for survival are allocated to particular groups of people. The camel is an important livestock species uniquely adapted to hot and arid environments (Schwartz, 1992) and therefore contributes significantly to the food security of the nomadic pastoral households. This unique adaptability makes it ideal for exploitation under the ASAL conditions. The contribution of camels to the human welfare of developing countries, including Kenya, is generally obscured by a combination of several factors, which tend to underestimate their true value. Firstly, the estimates of camel populations are usually inaccurate due to lack of regular census. Secondly, their products seldom enter a formal marketing system; thus their contribution to subsistence and the national economy tends to be grossly underestimated. As a consequence, less attention has been given to camel improvements for many years when planning national development. For example, the major livestock development effort in Kenya between 1969 and 1982 (funded by the European Community) aimed at developing range areas completely ignored the camel (Njiru, 1993). In Somali occupied northern Kenya, camels are raised under traditional management systems. However, the changing socio-economic and environmental conditions are leading to a change in pastoral production systems from mainly subsistence towards market orientation. Generally, there are few practical, result-oriented studies on camel production. Wilson and Bourzat (1988) stated that the vast amount of research in the last two decades has contributed little to increased productivity. This has been attributed to the fact that most studies have had little general application to the practical aspects of camel production under pastoral production systems. Pastoral camel production is under pressure because of multiple changes in the production environment. Increasing human population pressure on pastoral grazing areas and the economic implications resulting from diseases and lack of veterinary services are some of the factors that adversely affect traditional camel production. Additionally, reproductive performance is low in camels due to late first parturition, long parturition intervals, and high calf mortality. Improvement of the reproductive performance and reduction of animal losses by management measures that are applicable to a mobile system appear to offer possibilities of increasing camel productivity and capacity to support the increasing human population. An adequate understanding of traditional camel production practices forms the foundation upon which improvement and innovations could be based. Using Moyale District as a case, this study was carried out in order to understand the status of traditional camel production systems of the Somali camel keeping pastoralists.

T
S
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mbwayo A, Mutiso V. "The Somali Experience: Have Mental Health Workers Forgotten The Country?". 2009.
Kogi-Makau W, Opiyo R. Somali Knowledge Attitude and Practices Study (KAPS) - Infant and Young Child Feeding and Health Seeking Practices. Nairobi: Food Security Analysis Unit(FSAU)/FAO; 2007.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Somalia Developed (with others) 10 books for the refugee literacy programme at various stages and levels (1986-9) and 7 Teachers.". In: Guides in Literacy and Numeracy for ADRA (2005-6). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Somalia IN:E. Fahlbusch; J.N. Lochman; J. Mbiti (eds), Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon: Internationale theologische Enzyklopaedia. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1994.
FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "SOMALIA: TWENTY YEARS AFTER.". 2010.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Somaliland Facilitators.". In: A Manual for Facilitators of Adult Education (2005).Developed (with others) 10 Teachers. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
KARORI DRMBUGUA. "Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Some Ethical Considerations'.". In: Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics, 2006, 16 (3): 78-85. (Available at http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/shs/EJAIB/EJAIB52006.pdf). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006.
Hutchinson MJ, Senaratna T, Tsujita JM, Saxena. P. "Somatic embryogenesis in liquid cultures of a tetraploid Alstroemeria." Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture . 1997;47:293-297.somatic_embryogenesis_in_liquid_cultures_of_a_tetraploid_alstroemeria.
Hogan NM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G, Uwakwe R. "Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders."; 2006.
Kuria MW. "Somatoform Disorders Chapter 3.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Mulei CM, Munyua SJM, Kiptoon JC, Kariuki DI. "Some Aetiological And Epidemiological Observations Of Infectious Keratoconjuctivitis In The Bovine In Kabete Area Of Kiambu District, Kenya.". 1989. Abstract

An investigation on the bacterial organisms isolated from clinical field cases of infections bovine Keratoconjuctivitis (IBK) was carried out from data obtained from the large Animal Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete, covering a period of 10 years (1978-1988). The main bacterial organism isolated was (Moraxella bovis). Other bacterial organisms isolated were (Neisseria spp, Corynbacteria, Strptococcus, Staphylococcus) and (E. coli). In three outbreaks of IBK the prevalence of thedisease was higher in the (Bos taurus) adult cow (30 percent) and calves (67 percent) than in the (Bos taurus) adult cows (4.5 percent) and calves (30.5 percent). The disease was more severe in (Bos taurus) animals than in the Bos indicus cattle. The results of the study showed than (M. bovis) is probably the main pathogen of IBK at Kabete area, and that IBK is not an economically important disease in Bos inducus as it is in the (Bos taurus) cattle.

P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Some Analysis on Marx's Intertionist Theory of de-Alienation. Thought and Practice.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.IV No.1, pp. 43-58.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Some Aromatic plants of Kenya of proven medicinal value." Proc. 2nd Ann. Conf. KEMRI. 1981. AbstractWebsite

Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.

Wairire GG. "Some Aspects for harmonized social work education and practice in East Africa.". In: Association of Schools of Social Work in Africa (ASSWA) 2012 Conference. Ingwenyama Conference and Sports Resort, White River – Nelspruit, South Africa; 2012.
W MRWAMBUAABRAHAM. ""Some Aspects of Christian Pastoral Care and Counselling in the Contemporary Secondary Schools of Kenya: A study of selected schools in Machakos District.".". In: A paper presented at the EATWOT - E.A. Pre-Conference at Methodist Guest House on 17/5/1990. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1989. Abstract
"
DR. Ogola ESN. Some Aspects Of Dilated Cardiomyopathy As Seen At Kenyatta National Hospital With Emphasis On Echocadiographic Features.; 1985. Abstract

A total of 37 patients were studied, 16 males and 21 females. The ages ranged from 13-78 (mean!
Almost all the males (except

one) were 30 years and above, while the females showed a peak in the twenties followed by another from the fifties.
A11 the patients presented in severe heart

failure, most (81%) being in New York Heart

Association (NYHA) class 4. Third heart sound

was universal, while murmur of mitral regurgitation was heard in about two thirds. Chest pain was present in 10 patients (27%) but only in one case was it angina-like. Embolic phenomena occured in two patients, both in association with pregnancy.
Mean rate(velocity) of circumferential fibre

shortening (Mean Vcf) was depressed in a~l patients, range, 0018-0095 circ/sec, Mean ± 5.0, = 0048
+ 0.22 circ/sec.

Electrocardiographic abnormalities were present in all except one patient. ST - T changes were the most common (64.9%), followed by left bundle branch
block (LBBE) (24.3%)0

- 5 -

No single case of atrial fibrillation was seene

Pregnancy was a strong contributory factor

in the female population, being associated in

52% of the caseSe

Association with alcohol was observed

exclusively in the males. There was association in 6205% of the maleso
Elevated blood pressure was found in 6

patients (l6.20/0)e

Ruigu G. "Some Aspects of Employment on Small Holder Farms in Selected Areas of Kenya.". In: Agricultural Policy Issues in East African.; 1973.
Muganzi ZK, Muchunga EK. "Some aspects of infant mortality in Kenya since 1948.". 2000. Abstract

This paper looks at a number of factors related to infant mortality in the country since 1948. First it examines the type of data for the estimation of infant mortality through history that is pre-independence and post-independence. The errors in such data and their possible causes are pointed out. The second part of the data looks at the various estimates derived from these data and provides some of the possible factors contributing to such estimates. As it is known mortality differs by various factors within a given population, the third part briefly points out the regional differentials and their possible causes. The last part looks at the future trends in infant mortality and the factors that could make the trend possible.

ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Some Aspects of juvenile delinquency in the Urban and rural Areas in kenya, paper read at the African institute for economic development and planning ANECA, dakar, Senegal, in proceedings on urbanization, Addis Ababa, ethiopia, october 1973. Also in erast.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1975. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "Some Aspects of Juvenile Delinquency in the Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya, Paper read at the African Institute for Economic Development and Planning ANECA, Dakar, Senegal, in Proceedings on Urbanization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 1973. Also in Erast.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1975. Abstract
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Mile J. K. RJ. "Some Aspects of Numerical Ranges of Bounded Linear Operators in a Complex Hilbert Space." Journal of Mathematical sciences, Dattapukur. 2009;vol.20(No.4).
DAVIS-COLE, J.O.A., MORGAN, H. G., CHAUDHURY MFB, KAAYA GP. "Some aspects of sexual receptivity and refractory behavior in female Glossina morsitans Morsitans Westwood." Insect Science and its Applications . 1993;14:723-727.
Lesan WR. Some Aspects Of Solubility Of Silicate And Glass Ionomer Cements A Laboratory Study.; 1982. Abstract

Three aspects of the in-vitro solubility of silicate and glassionomer
dental cements were studied.
a) The solubility of silicate cements was studied using the "weight
of evapourated eluate method. It was shown that the dissolution
of these cements depends on the volume of solution in which they
are immersed and also the frequency in which this was changed.
It was seen that these cement~ were capable of taking up fluoride
ions from concentrated solutions while releasing the same ions
in more dilute solutions. Studies with samples of varying surface
area:volume ratios confirm that dissolution is not only dependent
on the surface area but that matter is also lost from the bulk
of the specimen.
b) The release of organic materials from glass ionomer cements
immersed in water or phosphate solution was studied using a total
organic content (T.O.C) analyser. It was seen that upto 0.l0mg
of organics could be detected in such solutions. The concentration
of detected organic species rises with increasing time, then
falls off again. This is explained in terms of re-adsorption
of the organic species by the cement.
c) Thermogravimetric analysis studies glass ionomer cement samples
"
with various histories were made. Weight loss (presumably of
water) was shown to be related to the history of the samples
as well as to the thermogravimetric conditions. The thermogravimetric
conditions used in this study were air and Nitrogen
atmospheres. The results are used to assess the merits of the

sample-weight loss" method for investigating solubility.
This method, in view of the simultaneous water loss or uptake
by the sample, is not recommended.

n Kasina M;, Hagen M;, Kraemer M;, Nderitu JH;, Martius C;, Wittma. "Some aspects of squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) pollination ecology in Kenya."; 2010.
Kasina M;, Kraemer M;, Nderitu JH;, and MC, Wittmann D. "Some Aspects of squash(Cucurbita pepo L.) pollination ecology in Kenya.". In: KARI Scientific Conference, Nairobi,. Nairobi; 2010.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Some Aspects of Suppurative Lung Lesions at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: East African Medical Journal, 55 (1): 25 - 30. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1978. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Some aspects of teenage pregnancy in Nairobi: a prospective study on teenage mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jun;67(6):432-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jun;67(6):432-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
In order to determine the magnitude of teenage pregnancy and also to determine the demographic and socio-economic problems associated with these pregnancies, a prospective study was conducted in two major delivery centres in Nairobi. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was found to be 10.5%. For Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the incidence was 13.1% and Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) recorded an incidence of 8.8%. Most of the teenagers (82.8%) were from large families, and upto 59.4% had been pregnant at least once. They had low education; 66.7% had only primary level education. Both the teenager and their parents were unemployed. Their average age at menarche was 14.2 years. 70% had had intercourse by 16 years. Up to 60% had no knowledge of contraceptives and; most of those who knew, had it from informal sources. Only 1% had used any known contraceptive method. It is concluded that intervention programme like adolescent antenatal clinics, adolescent sexuality education and appropriate use of contraceptives be provided as a matter of priority. All health facilities should open special units for handling adolescent sexuality. This should include both sexes. Teachers, parents and respectable community leaders should effectively be involved in formulation of programmes that would reduce teenage pregnancies. These measures should be started right at the primary school level.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Some aspects of the legal regulations of economic decision-making in Kenya"; paper forming part of the Inter-Ministerial Study team on Costs, Prices and Market Structure for Kenya's 1979/83 Development Plan, October.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1977. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Odada EO, Olago DO. "Some aspects of the physical and chemical dynamics of a large rift lake: The Lake Turkana north basin, Northwest Kenya.". In: The Limnology, Climatology and Palaeoclimatology of the East African Lakes (T. C. Johnson and E. O. Odada eds. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publ; 1996.
Olango DO, Odada EO. "Some Aspects of the Physical and Chemical Dynamics of a Large Rift Lake: The Lake Turkana North Basin, Northwest Kenya.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Omo River accounts for about 90% of the lakes water budget, and thus contributes. significantly to its physical and chemical identity. The seasonal Kerio and Turkwel rivers contribute most of the remaining fluvial input. The lake is moderately saline, alkaline, and is well mixed by strong, diurnal, southeasterly winds. The dissolved salt composition is characterized by high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations. Wind stress generated on the lake surface, coupled with the basin morphometry results in a closed-gyre circulation pattern centred along the basins north-south trending axis. The Omo River plume seasonally augments the subsurface currents and effects reductions in salinity. The relative difference in the concentration of solvated ions with large hydration sizes between the lake and river water determine the rate limiting step during mixing of the two waters. Other processes modulating dissolved salts concentrations include authigenic mineral precipitation, adsorption/exchange with suspended clay particles, biogenic uptake and bottom sediment resuspension.

Odada E, Olago D. "Some aspects of the physical and chemical dynamics of a large rift lake: The Lake Turkana north basin, Northwest Kenya.". In: Limnology, Climatology and Palaeoclimatology of the East African Lakes (T. C. Johnson and E. O. Odada eds. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publ; 1996.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Some Aspects of Treaty Practice in Kenya.". In: Lesotho Law Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2. University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
Mwaura. F, and Ogendo RB. "Some Aspects of Vegetation Structure in a High Altitude Tropical Lake Elementaita Drainage Basin, Kenya." Eastern & Southern Africa Geographical Journal. 1993;4[1]:73-89.
Mwaura F. "Some aspects of water quality characteristics in small shallow tropical man-made reservoirs in Kenya." African Journal of Science & Technology (AJST) . 2006;7(1):82-96.
Kanyari PWN;, Ngatia TA;, Mathiu PM;, Oyejide A;, Srivastava KK. "Some Causes of Poor performance and chick mortality in farmed ostriches in Alabama[USA] and Kenya."; 2005.
Wairire GG. "Some Challenges for Social Workers in Political Conflicts: The Case of Kenya’s Post Election Crisis.". In: 34th Global Social Work Congress organized by the International Association of Schools of Social Work. International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa; 2008.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Some characteristics of pea necrosis elicitor from compatible interactions of Pseudomonas syringae p.v. pisi and Pisum sativum, African Crop Science Journal , 4 (No. 1,) : 89-95, (1996).". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1996. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
MURIUKI JN. "Some classes of correlation functions with the aid of operators in Hilbert spaces." Accepted in the African Journal of Science and Technology. 2005.
J.O. K. "Some common African herbal remedies.". In: Madicinal and poisonous plants of the tropics. Wageningen: Pudoc Wageningen; 1987:.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Some Consequences of Land Adjudication in Mbeere Division, Embu". Co-authored with David Brokensha.". In: Working Paper No. 320, IDS (Institute for Development Studies), University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1977. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Mogoa EGM, Omiti JM, Tsuma VT, Bwanga CO. "Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.". 1991. Abstract

Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities

Ochoro WE. "Some Cosiderations on the opportunities for and the feasibility of rural industrialization programmes.". In: Eastern Africa Social Science Consultati ve Group workshop on Industrialization and Rural Development. Arusha, Tanzania; 1979.
M. NL, S G, L W, N. KE. "Some Determinants of Students Performance in Biology in KCSE: A Case of Central Division of Machakos District. ." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies. 2014;3(1):553-567.Website
LM Ngesu, S Gunga LNWENK. "Some determinants of students’ performance in Biology Kcse: A case of Central Division of Machakos District." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2014.
Lewis Muli Ngesu, Samson Gunga LWENKN. "Some determinants of students’ performance in Biology Kcse: A case of Central Division of Machakos District." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2014.
Moronge JM. "Some Effects of Economic Liberalisation on Formal Manufacturing Industries in the City of Nairobi Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;Volume 2(Issue No. 9):pp 6-17.
Maloiy GMO;, Kay RNB;, Goodall ED;, Topps JH. "Some Effects Of Nitrogen And Water Intake In Sheep And Red Deer."; 1968.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED, M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Some effects of the rising case load of adult HIV-related disease on a hospital in Nairobi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED, M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Some effects of the rising case load of adult HIV-related disease on a hospital in Nairobi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 1;18(3):234-40. Taylor & Francis; 1998. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Some essential features in developing a Text to Speech System in Kiswahili.". In: LLSTI workshop, www.llsti.org, Lisbon, Portugal, 2004. FARA; 2004. Abstract
This paper discusses the important aspects to be considered when developing A Text To Speech System (TTS) in Kiswahili. These include linguistic features such as the phoneset, stresses and intonation. The choice of the standard dialect is also discussed. TTS features such as the text normalisation and the lexicon for Kiswahili are discussed.

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