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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Selection of Drifts or Bridges in Semi-Desert Areas of Flash Floods;.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology,Finland. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1981. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Bayissa W, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, KAAYA GP, Wagacha JM, R Hanna, Maniania NK. "Selection of fungal isolates for virulence against three aphid pest species of crucifers and okra." Journal of pest science. 2017;90(1):355-368.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI. "Selection of impression materials and techniques by dentists in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(12):1040-1051.selectionofimpressionmaterialsandtechniquesemployedbydentists_kisumbietal2017.pdf
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Selection of Marketable bean lines with Improved Resistance to Angular leaf spot, Root rots and Yield for smallholder farmers in ECA.". In: Presented at Rockefeller Foundation Workshop, 23-27 January 2005, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Dossaji SF, Wrangham RW, Rodriguez E. "Selection of Plants with Medicinal Properties by Wild Chimpanzees." Fitoterepia. 1989;60(4):378-380. Abstract

In 1983 Wrangham and Nishida described an unusual feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Tan
troglodytes schweinfurthii) whereby the consumption of leaves of three species of Aspilia (Asteraceae) led them to suggest that such selection of certain plant species by the chimpanzees was for therapeutic purposes. In 1985 Rodriguez et al. confirmed that Aspilia mossambicensis and A pluriseta, which are also used medicinally by man, contain a potent antibiotic, thiarubrine A This important plant-primate interaction provided a new and valuable insight on how African primates select diets containing bioactive constitutents other than for nutritional benefits. Subsequent field studies in Africa have established that wild chimpanzees are using a variety of plant species as medicinal plants. These include Lippia, Hibiscus and Rubia. The significance of plant use by chimpanzees is discussed in this communicatio

Ganatra FA, Kisumbi BK, Gathece LW. "Selection of posterior dental restoratives by dentists." JKDA. 2009;1(3):59-64.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngunjiri JK. "The Selection of Public Investment Projects: A multicriteria Approach.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management vol. 5 January/April,. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This study examined the process of project selection to determine the priority public investment project portfolio in any given year. since resources are limited and different stakeholders tend to have different, often conflicting objectives, an efficient and effective approach is necessary. The result of the study indicates that the current approach to the selection of public investment projects lacks objectivity and consequently, may not be sensitive to the needs of various stakeholders. It is demonstrated that the use of multicriteria approach to project selection helps to assess projects from a "wholistic thinking" perspective, which is achieved through the adoption of a systems approach to the selection process. Decision makers can be aided by installing and running a Decision support system. This approach promises the selection of a more superior portfolio of public investment projects.

Ndugire N;, K’omudho B;, Kuhumba F;, Onyango JC;, Okoth MW;, Magambo J;, Ikiara M;, Mutunga C. Selection, design and implementation of economic instruments in the solid waste management sector in Kenya: The case of plastic bags.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and public health problem everywhere in the world, but particularly in developing countries. The fast expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial activities spurred by rapid population growth has produced vast amounts of solid and liquid wastes that pollute the environment and destroy resources.

Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball BT. "Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of canadian and East African women.". 2012.
Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball BT. "Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of canadian and East African women.". 2012.
Gitau EN, Muchohi SN, Ogutu BR, Githiga IM, Kokwaro GO. "Selective and sensitive liquid chromatographic assay of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in whole blood spotted on filter paper.". 2004. Abstract

We have developed a sensitive, selective and reproducible reversed-phase HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (340 nm) for the simultaneous quantification of amodiaquine (AQ) and its major metabolite, desethylamodiaquine (AQm) in a small volume (200 microl) of whole blood spotted on filter paper. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether followed by elution from a reversed-phase phenyl column with an acidic (pH 2.8) mobile phase (25 mM KH2PO4-methanol; 80:20% (v/v) +1% (v/v) triethylamine). Calibration curves in spiked whole blood were linear from 100-2500 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.99) for AQ and 200-2500 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.99) for AQm. The limit of detection was 5 ng for AQ and 10 ng for AQm. The relative recovery at 150 ng/ml of AQ (n = 6) was 84.0% and at 300 ng/ml of AQm the relative recovery was 74.3%. The intra-assay coefficients of variation at 150, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQ and 300, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQm were 7.7, 8.9 and 6.2% (AQ) and 10.1, 5.4 and 3.9% (AQm), respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation at 150, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQ and 300, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQm were 5.2, 8.1 and 6.9% (AQ) and 3.3, 2.3 and 4.6% (AQm). There was no interference from other commonly used antimalarial and antipyretic drugs (chloroquine, quinine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, artesunate, acetaminophen and salicylate). The method is particularly suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in settings where facilities for storing blood/plasma samples are not available.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Selective control and rate enhancement of reactions involving catalytic reduction of organohalides and reduced form of myoglobin in microemulsions, Pure Appl.". In: Chem., Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 815-828, 2004. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Selective Formation of 2-Esters of some methylD-Hexopyranosides via Dibutylstannylene Derivatives.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1976. Abstract
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Chaurasiya ND, Midiwo J, Pandey P, Bwire RN, Doerksen RJ, Muhammad I, Tekwani BL. "Selective Interactions of O-Methylated Flavonoid Natural Products with Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and-B." Molecules. 2020;25(22):5358. AbstractMolecules

Description
A set of structurally related O-methylated flavonoid natural products isolated from Senecio roseiflorus (1), Polygonum senegalense (2 and 3), Bhaphia macrocalyx (4), Gardenia ternifolia (5), and Psiadia punctulata (6) plant species were characterized for their interaction with human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and-B) in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed selective inhibition of MAO-A, while 4 and 6 showed selective inhibition of MAO-B. Compound 3 showed~ 2-fold selectivity towards inhibition of MAO-A. Binding of compounds 1–3 and 5 with MAO-A, and compounds 3 and 6 with MAO-B was reversible and not time-independent. The analysis of enzyme-inhibition kinetics suggested a reversible-competitive mechanism for inhibition of MAO-A by 1 and 3, while a partially-reversible mixed-type inhibition by 5. Similarly, enzyme inhibition-kinetics analysis with compounds 3, 4, and 6, suggested a competitive reversible inhibition of MAO-B. The molecular docking study suggested that 1 selectively interacts with the active-site of human MAO-A near N5 of FAD. The calculated binding free energies of the O-methylated flavonoids (1 and 4–6) and chalcones (2 and 3) to MAO-A matched closely with the trend in the experimental IC 50′ s. Analysis of the binding free-energies suggested better interaction of 4 and 6 with MAO-B than with MAO-A. The natural O-methylated flavonoid (1) with highly potent inhibition (IC 50 33 nM; Ki 37.9 nM) and> 292 fold selectivity against human MAO-A (vs. MAO-B) provides a new drug lead for the treatment of neurological disorders. View Full-Text

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Selective Reactivities of some mono and disaccharides.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1975. Abstract
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Kishosha PA, Galukande M, Gakwaya AM. "Selenium deficiency a factor in endemic goiter persistence in sub-{Saharan} {Africa}." World journal of surgery. 2011;35:1540-1545. AbstractWebsite
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Otieno SB, Were F, Afullo A, Waz K. "Selenium levels in foods in a high hiv prevalence community, A case of pala in Bondo district Kenya." East African Journal of Public Health. 2013;10(3). Abstractselenium_levels_in_foods_in_a_high_hiv_prevalence_community_a_case_of_pala_in_bondo_district_kenya.pdf

Introduction: An investigation of dietary patterns and selenium levels in diets of smallholder farmers was carried out in Pala Sub-location between June and August 2008.
Methods: In this study a total of 386 respondents selected randomly were interviewed in the four villages in the sub-location and 17 foods commonly eaten sampled. The data was coded and analyzed by SPSS program while food selenium levels were analyzed by AAS.
Results: The foods eaten by 75.2% of the respondents were Oreochromis niloticus,Lates niloticus and Ugali-Sorghum bicolour spp , 64.1% eat vegetables and that both children and adults eat same types of food. It was further shown that traditional foods which have become extinct are mainly vegetables (46%). The study established that selenium levels in foods eaten in Pala sub-location varies, vegetables have higher levels of selenium,(,Laurnea cornuta (148.5mg/kg)Cleome gynandra(121.5mg/kg), Vignia unguculata (21.97 mg/kg), while Rastrineobola argentea (51mg/kg) Oreochromis niloticus( 0), Lates niloticus(0) Sorghum bicolour spp (red) 19.97 mg/kg, and Sorghum bicolour spp(white)(0).The study showed that there is inverse relationship between foods eaten and selenium levels with foods eaten by 75.2% of respondents (Oreochromis niloticus/Lates niloticus) having no detectable selenium .
Recommendation: To increase selenium levels in the diet, more production and consumption of traditional vegetables should be encouraged, this should be accompanied by nutrition education targeting women and possibly using mass media on short term, while long term intervention should include fortifying the foods commonly purchased and eaten in the community like sugar, table salt, and maize meal and accompanied by increased selenium in animal feeds and in fertilizer.

K DRKARIUKIDAVID, N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Selenium Status of Livestock in Koibatek District in Kenya.". In: International Journal of BioChem Physics. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
Kariuki D. K. KDN. "Selenium status of livestock in Koibatek District, Kenya." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2004;13 (2): :66-69.
H DRODARIMASUMI. "Self Identity: Reflections on Yusuf K. Dawood Journal: The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Author: Odari H.Masumi.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Kanyinga K. "Self interests have ruined institutions." Daily Nation, January 16, 2016.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "SELF MEDICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF MINOR HEALTH PROBLEMS IN KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. C.K. Maitai, AN Guantai, Mwangi; 1981. Abstract
A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used inslf-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self-medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.
Maitai CK, Guantai A, Mwangi JM. "Self medication in management of minor health problems in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used in self-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self•medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.

Wachira S, Mageto IG, Mapesa J. "The self-assessed clinical judgment competencies of newly graduated nurses post internship in Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Education. 2017.
Wachira S, Mageto IG, Mapesa J. "The self-assessed clinical judgment competencies of newly graduated nurses post internship in Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Education. 2017.
Roth EA, Ngugi EN, Masako F. "Self-deception does not explain high-risk sexual behavior in the face of HIV/AIDS: A test from northern Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is resistance to changing sexual behavior despite survey data indicating high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission patterns and high-risk behavior. Previous explanations for this paradox emphasize indigenous cultural models. An alternative explanation is that, due to a strong natural selection for sexual gratification, individuals evoke the evolved trait of selfdeception to continue practicing high-risk sexual behavior. This alternative is tested using survey data from an Ariaal community in Marsabit District, northern Kenya. Results indicate that respondents make highly accurate self-assessments of HIV risk, negating the concept of self-deception in this study. These results are discussed within the larger context of the applicability of evolutionary theory to the AIDS pandemic.

Owuor G, Wangia SM, Onyuma S, Mshenga P. "Self-Help Groups, A social Capital for Agricultural Productivity.". 2004.
M.OGUTU. "Self-image and Retail Store Patronage .". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1982. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

Nganga W. "Semantic analysis of Kiswahili words using the Self-Organizing Map.". 2003:405-423. Abstract

Acquisition of semantic knowledge to support natural language processing tasks is a nontrivial task, and more so if manually undertaken. This paper presents an automatic lexical acquisition method that learns semantic properties of Kiswahili words directly from data. The method exploits Kiswahili’s system of nominal and concordial agreement that is inherently rich with semantic information, to capture the morphological and syntactic contexts of words. Classification of nouns and verbs into clusters of semantically-similar words is done based on this contextual encoding. The method uses training data from the Helsinki corpus of Kiswahili while the machine-learning component is implemented using the Self-organizing Map algorithm. The proposed method offers an efficient and consistent way of augmenting lexicons with semantic information, where electronic corpora of the language in question are available. It also provides researchers with an investigative tool that can be used to identify dependencies within linguistic data and represent them in an understandable form, for further analysis.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, SamuelsdortI PO. "Semantic Analysis of Swahili Applied "Extension - A Functional Approach." Language in Function, 8213508 MTA KESZ Sokszor~sito. 1983.
Okoth-Okombo D. "Semantic issues ."; 1989.
E.Muriuki. Semantics of formal systems. Ukraine: Kharkov, ; 1988.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "The Sematics of Dholuo Colour Tearms' In AAP 40 131 - 138.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1994. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, JM; Kang’ethe EK, Bwangamoi O;, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis : research communication.". 1999. Abstract

A study on the semen obtained from breeding goats suffering from mild to severe chronic besnoitiosis revealed marked changes in semen volume, colour, density, concentration, mass and individual motility and percentage live. There were also many neutrophils and spermatozoa with primary and secondary defects, including missing tails and deformed heads and tails. The observed changes were considered to be severe enough to account for the infertility observed in the flock. Sections of testes obtained for histopathology were characterised by massive blockage of the pampiniform plexus, degeneration of the germinal epithelium, tubular necrosis with an inflammatory infiltrate and, in some cases, accumulation of haemosiderin-like material in the tunica vaginalis.

Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, Kangethe EK, Bwangamoi O, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis. Journal of South African Veterinary Association(1999) 70(1):14-17. Citation:.". 1999.
Gichohi KE;, Wandayi OM;, Imungi JK;, Okoth M;, Njenga JN. "Seminar on Food Science and Technology special project proposals and research findings."; 2009.
Gichohi KE;, Wandayi OM;, Imungi JK;, Okoth M;, Njenga JN. "Seminar on Food Science and Technology special project proposals and research findings."; 2009.
Gichohi KE;, Wandayi OM;, Imungi JK;, Okoth M;, Njenga JN. "Seminar on Food Science and Technology special project proposals and research findings."; 2009.
IRAKI WN. "Seminar participant at United States International University(Nairobi, Campus) on the Following Topical Issues; Reporting Human Rights, Reporting on Foreign Policy, and The Role of Media in Conflict Resolution.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, . WN Iraki; 1997.
Leo S. "Semiotic Survey of Kivumba Superstitions." International Journal of Innovative Research And Knowledge (IJIRK). 2020;5(5).
M DRSENERWADANIEL. "Senerwa, D. and O. Olsvik (1990). Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Kenya neonates. In Applications of Molecular Biology in Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, Olsvik, O., Bukholm, G. (Edt.), Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, Oslo, Norway. P. 21-.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 1990. Abstract
All 97 strains of Salmonella typhimurium isolated from patients at a hospital in r A), 6% tetr B, and 4% tetr c genes. Three strains possessed both type A and B tetracycline resistance determinants, which were shown to be located on the large 65-MD plasmid. There was no correlation between strains isolated from stools, blood cerebrospinal or epidural fluids, pus or urine with respect to the tetracycline genotypes, MIC values or plasmid content. Key words: Salmonella typhimurium; tetracycline resistance genes; plasmids;Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D. Mutanda, L.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Olsvik, O (1991). Antimicrobial resistance enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a nosocomial outbreak in Kenya. Acta. Path. Microbiol. IGathummunol. Scand. 99, 728 .". In: journal. FARA; 1991. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D., Olsvik, O, and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from neonates in a hospital ward. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (Special issue), 123 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D., Olsvik, O., Mutanda, L.N., Gathuma, J.M., Fossum, K. and Wachsmuth, K. (1989). Colonization of neonates in a nursery ward with enteropathogenic Escherechia coli and correlation to the clinical histories of the children J. Chin. Microbiol., 27.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D., Olsvik, O., Mutanda, L.N., Lindqvist, K.J., Gathuma, J.M., Fossum, K. and Wachsmuth, K. (1989). Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 0111:HNT isolated from pre-term neonates in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 27, 1307 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sengupta S, Rehman S, Durgapal H, Acharya SK, Panda SK.Role of surface promoter mutations in hepatitis B surface antigen production and secretion in occult hepatitis B virus infection.J Med Virol. 2007 Mar;79(3):220-8.". In: J Med Virol. 2007 Mar;79(3):220-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract
The production, secretion, and localization of surface proteins of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the ratio of large to small surface protein S was studied in HepG2 cells transfected with the wild-type and mutant pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters of HBV molecular clones 313.1 (GenBank accession no. AY161147) and 761.1 (GenBank accession no. AY161159) from two patients with occult HBV infection. Fusion constructs were made by in frame fusion of the wild-type surface gene to the mutant pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters and wild-type promoter so that the structural part of the small surface protein remains identical. HepG2 cells transfected transiently were used for analysis. HBV surface proteins production and secretion was determined by enzyme linked immuno assay (ELISA) and localization by immunofluorescence. Immunoprecipitation of the large, middle, and small surface protein was carried out in transient transfected and metabolically labeled cells to determine the ratio of the large to small surface protein. The results indicate that HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV promoters had reduced HBV surface proteins secretion compared to wild-type HBV. HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters showed cytoplasmic aggregation of HBV surface proteins compared to wild-type HBV promoters, which showed diffuse cytoplasmic localization. In all cases, the HBV surface proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The ratio between the large and small surface protein was 1.89 and 0.56 with mutant HBV 313.1 and 761.1 pre-S1 and pre-S2/S promoters, respectively, compared to 0.17 in wild-type. Thus, the aggregation of surface proteins, altered ratio and secretion of surface proteins were possibly the causes of occult hepatitis B infection.
Musiga LA. "Sensitivity Analysis of Cisco 12000 GSR." Kenya Journal of Sciences. 2021;17(1):1-9.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine."; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine.".; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Wabacha JK;, Bebora LC. "The Sensitivity And Specificity Of Clinical Signs, Post-mortem Findings And Isolation Of Escherichia Coli In Diagnosing Edema Disease Of Swine.".; 2008. Abstract

Commonly used diagnost ic techniques for edema disease in Kenya were tested for their sensitivity and specificity on 84 pig carcasses submitted to Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology between June 2004 and June 2007. Clinical signs gathered from anamnesis, post - mortem lesions revealed at autopsy and E. coli isolated from intestinal contents and characterized using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reacti on were compared using receiver - operating characteristic analyses. A combination of clinical signs, post - mortem findings and isolation of E. coli carrying F18 and shiga - toxin type II variant genes were used as gold standard test. Forty nine (58.3%) cases w ere diagnosed as edema disease, based on clinical signs and post - mortem findings . Of these, thirty eight (77.6%) had variable amounts of edema in various body si tes and clinically, twenty six (53.1%) had neurological signs, 18 (36.7%) were found dead, 3 ( 6.1%) had swollen eyelids and 2 (4.1%) expressed respiratory distress. Hemolytic E. coli carrying the tested genes were isolated from thirty one (62.2%) of these cases. Presence of edema in various body cavities and observation of defined clinical signs h ad 75.3% and 57.4% sensitivity, respectively. Considered individually, the sensitivity was 64.7% for found dead, 50% for neurological signs and 84.4% for isolating hemolytic E. coli. All had a specificity of 81.3%. The results show that none of the diagnos tic techniques had the expected 100% sensitivity and specificity, but isolation of hemolytic E. coli may be an important screening test for suspected edema disease cases

Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Olaka LA, Odada EO, Trauth MH, Olago DO. "The Sensitivity of East African rift lakes to climate fluctuations." Journal of Paleolimnology. 2010;44:629-644.
Odada EO, Olaka LA, Trauth MH, Olago DO. "The sensitivity of East African rift lakes to climate fluctuations." Journal of Paleolimnology. 2011;44(2):629-644 . Abstractspringer

Sequences of paleo-shorelines and the deposits of rift lakes are used to reconstruct past climate changes in East Africa. These recorders of hydrological changes in the Rift Valley indicate extreme lake-level variations on the order of tens to hundreds of meters during the last 20,000 years. Lake-balance and climate modeling results, on the other hand, suggest relatively moderate changes in the precipitation-evaporation balance during that time interval. What could cause such a disparity? We investigated the physical characteristics and hydrology of lake basins to resolve this difference. Nine closed-basin lakes, Ziway-Shalla, Awassa, Turkana, Suguta, Baringo-Bogoria, Nakuru-Elmenteita, Naivasha, Magadi-Natron, Manyara, and open-basin Lake Victoria in the eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) were used for this study. We created a classification scheme of lake response to climate based on empirical measures of topography (hypsometric integral) and climate (aridity index). With reference to early Holocene lake levels, we found that lakes in the crest of the Ethiopian and Kenyan domes were most sensitive to recording regional climatic shifts.

Their hypsometric values fall between 0.23–0.29, in a graben-shaped basin, and their aridity index is above unity (humid). Of the ten lakes, three lakes in the EARS are sensitive lakes: Naivasha (HI= 0.23, AI = 1.20) in the Kenya Rift, Awassa (HI = 0.23, AI = 1.03) and Ziway-Shalla (HI = 0.23, AI = 1.33) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (Main Ethiopian Rift). Two lakes have the graben shape, but lower aridity indices, and thus Lakes Suguta (HI = 0.29, AI = 0.43) and Nakuru-Elmenteita (HI = 0.30, AI = 0.85) are most sensitive to local climate changes. Though relatively shallow and slightly alkaline today, they fluctuated by four to ten times the modern water depth during the last 20,000 years. Five of the study lakes are pan-shaped and experienced lower magnitudes of lake level change during the same time period. Understanding the sensitivity of these lakes is critical in establishing the timing or synchronicity of regional-scale events or trends and predicting future hydrological variations in the wake of global climate changes.

Keywords: East African Rift-Tectonics-Geomorphometry-Aridity index-Sensitive lakes

Bouwer LM, Odada E, de Moel H, Ward PJ, Renssen H, Aerts JCJH. "Sensitivity of global river discharges under Holocene and future climate conditions.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparative analysis of global river basins shows that some river discharges are more sensitive to future climate change for the coming century than to natural cliniate variability over the last 9000 years. In these basins (Ganges, Mekong, Volta, Congo, Amazon, Murray-Darling, Rhine, Oder, Yukon) future discharges increase by 6-61 %. These changes are of similar magnitude to changes over the last 9000 years. Some rivers (Nile, Syr Darya) experienced strong reductions in discharge over the last 9000 years (17- 56%), but show much smaller responses to future warming, The simulation results for the last 9000 years are validated with independent proxy data. Citation: Aerts, J. C. J. H., H. Renssen, P. J. Ward, H. de Moel, E. Odada, L. M. Bouwer, and H. Goosse (2006), Sensitivity of global river discharges unde~ Holocene and future climate conditions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19401, doi:10.1029/2006GL027493.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, J.M NJOROGE. SENSITIVITY OF KENYAN ECOSYSTEMS TO ACIDIC DEPOSITION: VALIDATION OF THE 1996 SEI MAP. HARARE: Global Terrestrial Ecosystem sensitivity Mapping Africa Region; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY
Kenya is a land of contrasts, having a variety of ecological and climatic zones, and many soil types of different characteristics and composition. In view of the adequate data available, the sensitivity of Kenyan ecosystems to acidic deposition needs to be reviewed and vulnerable areas properly delineated. The 1996 SEI map therefore needs to be re-assessed.
Where land use is the most important activity, consideration needs to be made of socio-economic and demographic factors when creating boundaries. Reduction in the already staggering soil fertility and an imbalance in soil mineral composition and organic matter could bring about negative changes in crop yields. Consequently insufficient food supply, poor incentives, unemployment, decreased foreign exchange earnings and a search for areas with richer soils will ensue. The overall effects will be population shifts and accelerated deforestation and soil degradation. We consider this to be the greatest problem that would be caused by acidic deposition in Kenya.
Geological influences on land use are important since soil type, soil pH and to some extent C.E.C. depend on the underlying parent rock. The present map might be altered if geology is considered as a factor.
Data needs to be analysed at regional level (or on a district basis) to aid validation of the map. This will further refine the boundaries of sensitivity classes, especially if emphasis is placed on soil type, soil buffering ability and base saturation.
Regular monitoring of possible sources of acidic gas emissions, if undertaken, should take into account wind speed, wind direction and wind strength in addition to rainfall regimes and average humidity in each study area. In Kenya, sulphur dioxide emissions by some industries might in the near future be a great threat to a variety of ecosystems.

LW. N, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotis and disinfectants." East African Medical Journal. 2004;81(10):534-537.abstract-_sensitivity_of_listeria_-eamj-2004.pdf
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.; 2018. Abstractjournal.pone_.0199357.pdfWebsite

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and vegetation cover, and its implications for malaria risks in Baringo County, Kenya. Remotely sensed temperature, rainfall, and vegetation data for the period 2004–2015 were used. Poisson regression was used to model the association between malaria cases and climatic and environmental factors for the period 2009–2012, this being the period for which all datasets overlapped. A strong positive relationship was observed between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and monthly total precipitation. There was a strong negative relationship between NDVI and minimum temperature. The total monthly rainfall (between 94 -181mm), average monthly minimum temperatures (between 16–21°C) and mean monthly NDVI values lower than 0.35 were significantly associated with malaria incidence rates. Results suggests that a combination of climatic and vegetation greenness thresholds need to be met for malaria incidence to be significantly increased in the county. Planning for malaria control can therefore be enhanced by incorporating these factors in malaria risk mapping.

AJ A, DO O, GO O, Oriaso, Nanyingi MO, Nyamongo IK, B.A. B, Estambale BA. "Sensitivity of Vegetation to Climate Variability and its Implications for Malaria Risk in Baringo, Kenya." PLoS One. 2018;13(7).
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Sensitizing students to small group work. A paper presented at the International Conference of Communication Skills, Nairobi, 1992.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Macharia-Mutie CW, Moreno-Londono AM, den Wiel VAM, Mwangi AM, Brouwer ID. "Sensory Acceptability and Factors Predicting the Consumption of Grain Amaranth in Kenya." Ecology of Food & Nutrition . 2011;50(5):375-392.
Sanders EJ, Borus P, Ademba G, Kuria G, Tukei PM, LeDuc JW. "Sentinel surveillance for yellow fever in Kenya 1993 to 1995.". 1996. Abstract

Virus Research Centre, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 8903238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Achilla R, Majanja J, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Schnabel D. "Sentinel surveillance of pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Kenya in the period August-November 2009." Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:E286. AbstractWebsite
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Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives of Ubanization in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Wasamba P, Muchiri J. Seoul Speaks: Narratives on Urbanisation in Korea. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2013.
Kameri-Mbote P;, Kabira N. "Separating the baby from the bath water: women's rights and the politics of constitution-making in Kenya .". 2008. AbstractWebsite

This article looks at the process of constitution-making in Kenya from 1990s to 2005 when the proposed new constitution (the product of the process) was rejected in a national referendum held in October 2005. It avers that Kenyan women had succeeded in getting many of the issues that they considered important included in the constitution and should have lobbied to have that constitution adopted. The defeat of the constitution, the authors assert amounted to throwing away the baby with the bath water. It also negated gains that seemed so close to being realised setting the quest for gender equality back considerably.

MUTURI NE, Khalagai JM, Pokhariyal GP. "Separation axioms on function spaces defined on bitopological spaces." Journal of Advanced Studies in Topology. 2018;9(2):113-118. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we introduce separation axioms on the function space p− Cω(Y, Z) and study how they relateto separation axioms defined on the spaces (Z, δi) for i = 1, 2, (Z, δ1, δ2), 1 − Cς(Y, Z) and 2 − Cζ(Y, Z). Itis shown that the space p − Cω(Y, Z) is pT◦, pT1, pT2 and pregular, if the spaces (Z, δ1) and (Z, δ2) are bothT0, T1, T2 and regular respectively. The space p − Cω(Y, Z) is also shown to be pT0, pT1, pT2 and pregular,if the space (Z, δ1, δ2) is p − T0, p − T1, p − T2 and p-regular respectively. Finally, the space p − Cω(Y, Z) isshown to be pT0, pT1, pT2 and pregular, if and only if the spaces 1 − Cς(Y, Z) and 2 − Cζ(Y, Z) are both T0,T1, T2, and only if the spaces 1 − Cς(Y, Z) and 2 − Cζ(Y, Z) are both regular respectively.

Barkera IK, Bartlea KD, Clifforda AA, Kithinji JP, Shilstonea GF, Phillips TR, Thomas G. "Separation of compounds from gasifier tars by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide.". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Coal gasification tars were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at different temperatures and pressures, and the properties of the extraction residues (pitches) were determined by elemental analysis, size-exclusion chromatography and simulated distillation. Extract fractions were analysed by supercritical fluid chromatography. The pitches generally had softening points near the temperature of extraction. Raising the extraction temperature at constant pressure reduces the solvent density, and hence reduces the solubility of tar constituents. Extraction is optimized by extracting at low flow rates, initially at low temperature (high density) to remove low molecular mass compounds, and then increasing the temperature to ensure good contact with molten pitch and increasing the pressure to increase the density. Contact with powdered pitch is preferable. In agreement with calculated solubilities, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene, are the principal constituents of the extracts. More polar compounds remain in the pitch.

Kibwage IO, Roets E, Hoogmartens J, Vanderhaeghe H. "Separation of erythromycin and related substances by high-performance liquid chromatography on poly (styrene-divinylbenzene) packing materials.". 1985. Abstract

A comparative evaluation of three brands of polyrstyrene-divinylbenzene) co¬polymers, Hamilton PRP-I (10 ,um), Rogel (8 ,um) and TSK-Gel (10 Jim), as column packing materials for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of eryth¬romycins is presented. Erythromycins A, Band C, anhydroerythrornycin A, eryth¬rornycin A enol ether, Nvdcmcthylerythromycin A, anhydro Nvdemethylerythro¬myci n A and Nvdemethylerythromycin A enol ether were chromatographed. The effects of column temperature, concentration of organic modifier in the mobile phase, concentration of phosphate buffer, the addition of quaternary ammonium salts and pH are described. The best separations were obtained on TSK-Gel with the mobile phase acetonunle-methanot-uz M tetramethylammonium hydroxide pH 8.0-0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0-water (30:15:25:5:25). PRP-l and Rogel gave equally good separations but with higher retention volumes .

N. DRNJENGAHELLEN. "Separation of hydrated ethanol from aqueous solutions by alternative strategies.". In: IchemE Symposium Series No. 128. Elsevier; 1992.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Separation of Mean Analysis of Corn Basis Movement in Selected Locations in Southern United States:.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Separation of Particles in Nonaqueous Suspensions by Thermal Field-Flow Fractionation.". In: Anal. Chem., 67, 2705-2713,. AWC and FES; 1995. Abstract
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N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Seppala, O.T., Rodiqi, I, Nyangeri,W.N. and Hukka, J.J. (2004). Visionary leadership and knowledge management in water services. Manuscript of an article to be submitted to Journal of Infrastructure Systems. ASCE, USA. Reviewed, corrected and accepted for.". In: Manuscript of an article to be submitted to Journal of Infrastructure Systems. ASCE, USA. Reviewed, corrected and accepted for printing. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Sept. 1992 - Rat bite fever - A case of a Kenyan. Bhatt, K. M. and NB Mirza. EAMJ Vol. 69 no. 9 pg 542-543.". In: EAMJ Vol. 69 no. 9 pg 542-543. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1992. Abstract
Rat bite fever has not been reported from Kenya previously. A case of 17 year old Kenyan male who was diagnosed to have rat bite fever after a bite of domestic rat is described. The history, clinical features and demonstration of spirillum like organisms from a thick blood film suggest infection due to spirillum minus. The patient recovered completely after a course of penicillin and gentamicin.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Septate Uterus. Repair and Successful Delivery.". In: J.Obstet. Gyna. East Afr15(1) 2000. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Septate Uterus. Repair and Successful Delivery.". In: J.Obstet. Gyna. East Afr15(1) 2000. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
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O MROUKOKENNEDY. "September 2003: " Family Health programmes in Kenya: an evaluation of the succeses and failures". Published by Maendeleo Ya Wanawake, 2004.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2004. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Lawrence PO, Mwaengo DM. "Sequence analysis of a putative DNA helicase and four peptides encoded by ORFs of the Diachasmimorpha longicaudata entomopoxvirus (DlEPV.". 2003. Abstract

DlEPV is a symbiotic entomopoxvirus (EPV) of the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata(Dl). It has a double stranded DNA genome of 250-300 kb and is >60% A-T rich. We describe five DlEPV open reading frames (ORFs) within the first 2.87 kb of the 5’ region of clone #35 (RI-35) from a DlEPV EcoRI genomic library. Our goal was to identify unique motifs and compare them with others in the database, particularly those of poxviruses, using Sequencher, PROSITE, and SwissPROT. RI-35-I encodes a putative nuclear peptide of 113 aa, contains a late promoter (TAAATG) and an early transcription stop sequence (TTTTTCT) three nucleotides downstream of the stop codon, and is likely an early/late gene. RI-35-2 is a late gene that presumably encodes a 117 aa cytoplasmic peptide and contains a leucine zipper-like sequence that is predicted to bind DNA, and is probably a transcription factor that regulates viral gene expression. RI-35-3 is a presumed DNA helicase gene whose protein of 480 aa is highly homologous to those of Melanoplus sanguinipesEPV (72%), Amsacta mooreiEPV (72%) and vaccinia virus (69%). DNA helicases unwind the DNA helix during replication and transcription. The DlEPV-encoded enzyme contains six conserved motifs that characterize helicases and is likely a member of the DEXH DNA and RNA helicases. Like its homologs, the RI-35-3 protein has a predicted cytoplasmic location and is probably an intermediate/late gene. RI-35-4 and –5 encode 81 and 106 aa respectively, and are predicted to be cytoplasmic proteins expressed during the intermediate phase of viral morphogenesis. Our results provide additional evidence that DlEPV is a member of the Entomopoxvirinae and is the first symbiotic EPV described to date. Support from the National Science Foundation grants, IBN 9514583 and 9986076 to POL is gratefully acknowledged.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, Magana J, Bulimo W. Sequence Analysis of the Neuraminidase (NA) Gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya.. Istanbul, Turkey.; 2012. Abstract

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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Sequence and peptide-binding motif for a variant of HLA-A*0214 (A*02142) in an HIV-1-resistant individual from the Nairobi Sex Worker cohort. Luscher MA, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA, Barber BH. Nucleotide. Immunogenetics. 2001 Feb;53(1):10-4.". In: Immunogenetics. 2001 Feb;53(1):10-4. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
"The sequential in Toposa.". In: 9th Nilo-Saharan Linguistic Colloquium. Karthoum 16-19 February; 2004.
Shartry AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S. "Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves." Research in Veterinary Science. 1981;30:1980-1984.
Shartry AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S. "Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves." Research in Veterinary Science. 1981;30:1980-1984. Abstract
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Mailu AM, Rose DJW, Khamala CPM. "Sequential surveys for the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.) Homoptera: Adelgidae in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractWebsite

Sequential survey procedures are described from Kenya for classifying the damage caused by the aphid Pineus pini (Gmel.) to Pinus patula. The criteria used are the degree of needle stunting caused by a given number of aphids per centimetre of shoot length, the percentage of twigs on individual trees with mats of aphid wool, and the amount of tree surface covered with aphid wool. Field procedures for making measurements are given, and the survey procedures are presented.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Serek, M. Waithaka, Kimani; Rodney B. Jones and Michael S. Reid, 1994. Senescence of florets in the Gladiolus Inflorescence. Physiologia Plantarum, 91(3): A1-A22.". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
HUDSON DRWEREJAMEN. "Series for functions belonging to the Class.". In: KARI Scientific Conference, Nairobi, November 1998(ISBN-9966-879-25-0). Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1988. Abstract
J.H. Were, Faber Schander: Series for functions belonging to the Class Hw/Odessa State University 1988-23 pages Ukriniiti 05.05.88, No. 1072 yk88.
K DRNDERUFM. "A sero-epidemiologica study of Brucellosis in abattoir workers in Kenya. J.M. Gathuma, S. Waghela and F.M.K. Nderu East Afr. J. of Med. Research 4 No. 4 of 1977.". In: M.Sc. Thesis University of Nairobi. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1997. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Mary N. Gichure, PM. Kitala MJDJNM, Kihurani DO. A sero-epidemiological study of African Horse Sickness and associated risk factors in donkey population in Kenya.. Master of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Univesity of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Bwihangane, A, Misinzo, G, Sviteck, N, Bebora, L.C., Gitao, C.G. "Sero-epidemiology of Peste des petits ruminants infection and the associated risk factors in South Kivu, DR. Congo." RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607- 9345). 2016;14(2):737-746.bwihangane_b.pdf
Bwihangane, A, Bisimwa P, Misinzo, G, Sviteck, N, Bebora, L.C., Gitao, C.G. Sero-epidemiology of.Pesfe des pefifs ruminants infection and the associated risk factors in South Kivu, DRGongo. Cape Town, South Africa: 19-22 Sep 2016; 2016.sero_icgeb.pdf
S K, M KP, M MG, MK N, M N. "Sero-prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Marsabit County, Kenya (2014)." PAMJ - One Health. 2021;4(9).
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:125-131. Abstract
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E.S. K, G. G, J. VL, P. K, T.O. A, D. G, J. M, D. M. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (type 1) in Meru County, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;175:104863.
Kipyego ES, Gitau G, Vanleeuwen J, Kimeli P, Abuom TA, Gakuya D, Muraya J, Makau D. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of Infectious rhinotracheatis virus( type1) in Meru county, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;104863.(175).
Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK, Shah, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Sero-prevalence of avian leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(3).
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "SERODIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS BY DETECTING LIVE Taenia saginata CYSTS USING A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY- BASED ANTIGEN ELISA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
{ An ante-mortem antigen ELISA based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n=24) and naturally (n=25) infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in natural infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificially infected calves it was above14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 1 and 2 in naturally infected steers escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harboring dead cysticerci gave negative results in the assay as were the case in non infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially and natural infected calves (r=o.798
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA. ." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association . 2002;73:201-206.
Nanyingi MO, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Ade F, Onyango CO, Kiama SG, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological survey of Rift Valley Fever in ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. 2017;2:141-146.
MO N, M MG, M TS, F A, CO O, SG K, B B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;7(2):141-146.
Nanyingi Mark O., Muchemi GM, Samuel M. Thumbi, Ade F, Clayton O. Onyango, G.Kiama S, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 17, Number 2, 2017.". 2017.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A virus infection among school children in Delhi and north Indian patients with chronic liver disease: implications for HAV vaccination. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jul;18(7):822-7.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Jul;18(7):822-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Universal vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been recommended for children because of the changing epidemiological pattern of HAV. Vaccination has also been advised for patients with chronic liver disease as HAV superinfection in these patients can result in severe or even fatal disease. In India, the indications for HAV vaccination are not clear due to contradictory seroepidemiological data in children and lack of data on HAV seroprevalence in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: Sera were collected from children studying in two government-run schools and from patients with chronic liver disease attending the Liver Clinic at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). The sera were tested for anti-HAV antibodies. The incidence of HAV-induced acute hepatitis and acute liver failure at AIIMS over the last 10 years was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 93.2% (1328/1424) of the school children between 4-18 years of age who were included in the study had anti-HAV antibody in their sera. Eighty percent of the children had antibodies against HAV in their sera by the age of 5 years, whereas all the children above 16 years were positive for anti-HAV antibody. A total of 256 patients with chronic liver disease (94 with cirrhosis of the liver, 160 with chronic hepatitis) were tested for the presence of anti-HAV antibody. Of them, 97.6% (248/254) had anti-HAV antibody in their sera. The annual frequency of HAV-induced acute viral hepatitis and acute liver failure at AIIMS during the last 10 years did not show any change. CONCLUSION: Mass vaccination against HAV is not required in north India because of the presence of protective antibodies against HAV in the majority of the population. Copyright 2003 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Nyaboga EN, Ateka EM, Bulimo WD. "Serological detection of virus diseases of sweet potato in Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;7:222-229. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To identify virus diseases attacking sweet potato in the major production areas in Kenya.Methodology and results: A total of 220 symptomatic and 108 asymptomatic sweet potato vines were collected from farmers’ fields, established in an insect-proof screenhouse and tested for viruses by nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCM-ELISA). The viruses detected were Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV). SPFMV was the most prevalent virus and the most widespread, detected in 67 and 20% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively. SPCSV was the second most common and it was detected in 64 and 13% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples, respectively. SPMMV was present in 12% of the symptomatic plant samples. SPCFV was rare, being detected in only 4% of the plant samples. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Sweet potato latent virus (SwPLV), Sweet potato caulimo-like virus (SPCaLV), Sweet potato mild speckling virus (SPMSV) and C-6 virus were not detected in any of the samples assayed. SPFMV and SPCSV were detected in all the 15 districts that were surveyed, whereas SPMMV and SPCFV were detected in 9 and 4 districts, respectively. Five different virus complexes were detected in the samples assayed. Dual infection with SPFMV and SPCSV was the most common multiple infection and was detected in 52 and 12% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively.Conclusion and application of findings: This study has provided a quantitative assessment of co-occurrence of viruses in sweet potato plants in Kenya, and highlights the importance of developing resistance specifically targeting SPCSV in either conventional or non-conventional breeding programs as a means of virus disease management.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

No abstract available.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYDATID DISEASE BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) USING PARTIALLY PURIFIED HYDATID CYST FLUID ANTIGENS.". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYDATID DISEASE BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) USING PARTIALLY PURIFIED HYDATID CYST FLUID ANTIGENS.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
Musil M. "Serological differences between some isolates of bean yellow mosaic virus." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):473-80. Abstract

The degree of serological relatedness of three isolates of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was studied. One common antigenic group (m) was demonstrated in all 3 isolates. In addition, another antigenic group (a) was demonstrated in the isolate FvM1. This group was absent from the isolates TpM3 and TpM11, in which the antigenic group n was found. Antisera to the 3 isolates contained the corresponding antibody groups. The antibody group (M) shared by all 3 BYMV isolates was present in the FvM1 antiserum in a level only a little higher than the second antibody group (A). Antisera to TpM3 and TpM11 isolates showed only a low titre of M antibody, while the second antibody group (N) reached titres from 512 to 1024. Cross-absorption tests revealed serological identity of both isolates of the "necrotic type" (TpM3 and TpM11) and allowed to estimate the degree of their serological relatedness to representatives of the "mosaic type" isolates of BYMV (FvM1).

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Serological investigation of HIV-1 variant subtype strains in transmission in Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1996. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

MWANGI DRMACHARIAS. "A serological Survey Leptospiral Agglutinins in Cattle, Sheep and Goats in semi-arid areas of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Pro. Afr. (Accepted).". In: journal. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1992. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
Macharia SM, Mulei CM, Gathuma JM, Kagiko MM. "Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua district of Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease of a world-wide importance. It causes economic loss to livestock industry from abortions, stillbirths, deaths, decreased milk production and infertility, The Leptospira organisms survive best in areas with high rainfall, soil pH of around neutral and temperature range of about 7-34°Cl11. A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua district which has climatic conditions favour¬able to survival of Leptospira organisms. The district has a high relative humidity (65%)' high annual average rainfall (839 mm), annual average temperature of about 14.1°C and an average soil pH of 6.4(31.

MWANGI DRMACHARIAS. "Serological Survey of Leptospiral Antibodies in Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Pro. Afr. (1994), 42: 335-337.". In: journal. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1993. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
Kitonyi G W, Wafula E M MAGKKPMFK. "Seropositivity of HIV, HBV, & HCV in transfused patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya .". In: 6th International Congress of the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion .; 2012.
J M, M TS, M O, S W, M N, E O, A B, S K. "Seroprevalence and factors associated with Coxiella burnetii infection in small ruminants in Baringo County, Kenya." Zoonoses Public Health. 2017;64(7).
Awili H, Gitao C, Muchemi G. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Keny." Hindawi BioMed Research International. 2020;Volume 2020, Article ID 8578172,: 6 pages.
Awili HO, Gitao GC, Muchemi GM, Muchemi GM. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Kenya." Hindawi BioMed Research International . 2020;2020:6.
Njagi LW, Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Shah DN, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Seroprevalence of Avian Leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29.
K KE, GK G, M MG, J V, Kairu-Wanyoike. "Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus infection in contrasting farming systems in Kenya ." Ethiopian Veterinary Journal . 2019;23 (1):12-23 .
Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range Pigs in Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2010;84(4):398-403.2010_seroprevalence_of_cysticercus_cellulosae_and_associated_risk_factors_in_free_range_pigs_in_kenya.pdf
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Seroprevalence of cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Maingi,N.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M." Journal of Helminthology. 2010;84:398-403. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9-14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (χ2 = 4.4, P = 0.034, odds ratio (OR) = 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

Kagira J.M, Maingi. N, Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia S.M., J. C. Ng’ang’a, Gachohi. JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya." Journal of Helminthology. 2010;84:398-403.8_kagira_et_al_2010_1.pdf
Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9–6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9–14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (x2 ¼ 4.4, P ¼ 0.034, odds ratio (OR) ¼ 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

Gitao G, Kibore B, Sangula A. Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Kenya. Saarbrucken: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2016.978-3-330-01103-8.pdf
Chepkwony EC, Gitao CG, Muchemi. GM. "Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in the Somali Eco-System in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in the arid and semi-arid areas where the pastoral mode of livestock rearing is pre-dominant in Kenya especially in the Somali Eco-system. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted in the Somali Ecosystem (SES) in Kenya with 499 sera collected from January 2007 to December 2008 to determine the seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle in the SES. The samples were screened against the five serotypes of FMD known to be in circulation in Kenya i.e., FMD O. A, C, SAT1, SAT2 and measured by microneutralizationassay. The overall sero-prevalence of FMD in the Somali-ecosystem was found to be 45.3% (95% CI = 40.96 to 49.66%). Twenty seven percent of all animals sampled tested positive for only one serotype while 17.6% tested positive for multiple serotypes. There was a high prevalence (p#0.05) in the circulation of serotype O (23 and 95% CI = 20.13-27.57%) as compared with the other serotypes, while the prevalence of serotype C was significantly lower (p#0.05) compared to the other four serotypes (1.6 and 95% CI = 0.82-3.12). Wajir district recorded the highest prevalence (24.8 and 95% CI = 16.71 to 27.54) while Garissa district recorded the least (6.2%). There was no significant sero-prevalence variation in relation to sex while older animals had higher sero-prevalences. The pastoral mode of livestock production, porous borders and wildlife inter-phase are significant factors that need consideration for effective control programmes.

Chepkwony EC, Gitao CG, Muchemi GM. "Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in the Somali Eco-System in Kenya." International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2012;4(3):198-203.fmd_seroprevalence.pdf
Nthiwa D, Bett B, Odongo D, Kenya E, Wainaina M, Grazioli S, Foglia E, Brocchi E, Alonso S. "Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2020;176:104929. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area < 20 km from the MMNR), another two in zone 2 (area between 20-40 km away from the MMNR) and one in zone 3 (area >40 km away from the MMNR). A total of 1170 cattle sera were collected from 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) using two 3ABC-based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA kits. All sera samples were also screened for serotype-specific antibodies using Solid Phase Competitive ELISA (SPCE) kits (IZSLER, Italy). We targeted FMDV serotypes A, O, South African Territory [SAT] 1 and SAT 2, known to be endemic in East Africa including Kenya. Data on putative risk factors for FMD seropositivity in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level FMD seroprevalence based on the parallel comparison of the two anti-NSPs ELISA kits was 83.8 % (95 % CI; 81.8-85.9), and differed significantly across zones. Zone 1 had a higher seroprevalence than zones 2 and 3 (χ = 116.1, df = 2, p < 0.001). In decreasing order, the overall seroprevalences of FMDV serotypes A, SAT 2, O and SAT 1 were 26.3 % (95 % CI; 23.5-29.2), 21.4 % (95 % CI; 18.8-24.0), 21.2 % (95 % CI; 18.7-23.9) and 13.1 % (95 % CI; 11.1-15.3), respectively. The distribution of these serotypes differed significantly between zones (p < 0.05) except for SAT 2 serotype (χ = 0.90, df = 2, p = 0.639). Both serotypes A and O were more prevalent in zones 1 and 2 than zone 3 while serotype SAT 1, was higher in zone 3 compared to other zones. The results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (i.e., female), raising of cattle in zones 1 and 2 (areas < 40 km away from the MMNR); mixing of cattle from multiple herds at watering points, and pastoral husbandry practices, as significant predictors of animal-level FMD seropositivity. This study established that FMD seroprevalence declined with distance from the MMNR.

and Otedo A. E. O., McLigeyo S.O. OKFAJK. "Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in maintenance dialysis in a public hospital in a developing country South African Medical Journal, 93 (3): 380-384; 2003." South African Medical Journal, 93 (3): 380-384; 2003. 2003;93(3):380-384. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis are predisposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for a number of reasons. In a similar way, the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies among patients on chronic haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is consistently higher than in healthy populations. There are few published data on these diseases in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in patients on maintenance dialysis. SETTING: Renal Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest public referral and teaching hospital in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: All 100 patients on maintenance dialysis during the 9-month study period were evaluated. METHOD: The following information was obtained from all the patients: socio-demographic data, date of diagnosis of ESRD and commencement of dialysis, and number of blood transfusions. Additionally, a history suggestive of hepatitis in spouses was looked for and physical examination for tattoos and other scars was carried out. Laboratory investigations included urea, electrolytes and serum creatinine, liver enzymes, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis B core antibody (IgM anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Student's t-test was used to assess the significance of the data collected. RESULTS: The results were expressed as mean (+/- SD). Fifty-seven males and 43 females were studied. Mean age was 44.3 +/- 14.6 years. Ten patients (10%) had elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 40 U/l for both). HBsAg was found in 8 patients (8%), IgM anti-HBc in 2%, and HBeAg in none. Anti-HCV antibody was found in 5%. Six of the HBsAg-positive patients were on haemodialysis, the other 2 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). There was no coexistence of HBV and HCV markers. Longer duration of dialysis and the number of blood transfusions were associated with an increased seroprevalence of HBV and HCV. CONCLUSION: There is a low seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in our dialysis population. This should not lead to complaisance in screening for these potentially lethal complications.

FLORENCE DRMURILA. "Seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers in pregnant women in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 2006 Sep; 83 ( 9 ): 485-93 . PMID: 17447350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okoth F, Mbuthia J, Gatheru Z, Murila F, Kanyingi F, Mugo F, Esamai F, Alavi Z, Otieno J, Kiambat.". In: East Afr Med J . 2006 Sep; 83 ( 9 ): 485-93 . UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
Virus Research Center, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 54628, 00200, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hepatitis B serological markers in pregnant women from various geographical sites in Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study of women attending antenatal clinics. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital and eight hospitals from five provinces in Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women in their third trimester of pregnancy attending the antenatal clinic over the period June 2001 to June 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each pregnant woman age and gestation were documented. Hepatitis serological markers were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2241 pregnant women were enrolled. Among them 205 women (9.3%) were positive for HbsAg and from these 18 (8.8%) were found to have HbeAg. Protective antibodies (anti-HbsAg) were detected in 669 (30.2%) of the women. There were notable significant regional differences for HbsAg rates. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the presence of high disease carrier rate and the corresponding previously reported low level of HbeAg suggesting questionable low rate of perinatal transmission but high rate of horizontal transmission. PMID: 17447350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Fardolo EK, Bulimo W, Aluora PO, Gachara G. "Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Voluntary Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya: A Pilot Study." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:78-85. Abstractjbm_2020121415213791.pdf

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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Seroprevalence of HIV antibodies, HBs Ag and Syphilis in Western Kenya. Omari M., Bwayo JJ., Ndinya?Achola J.O., Wanzala P. (1989). Proceeding of 9th Annual Scientific Conference of KEMRI and KETRI.". In: Proceeding of 9th Annual Scientific Conference of KEMRI and KETRI. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
Admani B, Macharia WM WF. "Seroprevalence of varicella zoster antibodies among children with malnutrition, malignancies and HIV infection." East Afr Med J. 2008 Oct;85(10):480-6.. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the seroprevalence of varicella zoster in paediatric patients at a high risk of developing complications.
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Paediatric general wards at Kenyatta National Hospital.
SUBJECTS:
Children with malignancies, severe malnutrition and were HIV positive.
INTERVENTIONS:
The sample size was calculated at 147 subjects. Venous samples were tested for varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies using enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) laboratories, The data were analysed using the SPSS software and presented in form of tables and graphs. The prevalence of VZV antibodies was determined and 95% confidence interval computed.
RESULTS:
The overall seroprevalence of VZV antibodies in the three groups of children studied was 23.6% (95% CI = 17.4, 29.8). The seroprevalence of VZV antibodies in those with malignancies and severe malnutrition was 24.1 and 25.0% respectively. About 22% of HIV positive children had protective levels of VZV antibodies. Though the seroprevalence increased with age, it was not significantly associated with area of residence, size of residence, family size or income.
CONCLUSIONS:
The low prevalence of protective VZV antibodies among children with severe malnutrition, malignancies and HIV infection children at Kenyatta National Hospital warrants routine immunisation of the high-risk population

Milanoi S, Ongus JR, Gachara G, Coldren R, Bulimo W. "Serotype and genetic diversity of human rhinovirus strains that circulated in Kenya in 2008." Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 2016:n/a–n/a. Abstractmilanoi_et_al-2016-influenza_and_other_respiratory_viruses-2.pdfWebsite

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Mbui FM, Achilla RA, Coldren RL, Bulimo WD. "Serotype Diversity of Respiratory Human Adenoviruses amongst Pediatric Patients from Western Kenya, 2010-2012." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(3):142-148. Abstractmbui_et_al._2016.pdf

Background: Respiratory illnesses are common among pediatric patients in Kenya, and many are attributed to viral causes. However, there is limited knowledge of the diversity of viral etiologies associated with these illnesses. Objective: To characterize respiratory adenoviruses isolates using serological and molecular approaches. Methods: A total of 1,879 samples were collected from symptomatic pediatric patients seeking medical care at New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital during the period of June 2010 to June 2012 and screened for adenoviruses as well as other respiratory viruses. Sixteen respiratory human adenoviruses (HAdVs) were isolated in Hep 2 cell culture and characterized hem using Immunofluorescence Assay, viral DNA amplification, sequencing and phylogenomics. Results: Phylogenetic characterization of the HAdVs using the hyper variable region 7 of the hexon gene identified HAdV B and C as the major species associated with respiratory infections during the study period. Amongst these, a single B-type and four C-type serotypes were identified. The serotype distribution consisted of 31% HAdV B7, 25% HAdV C1, 25% AdV C2, 6% HAdV C5, and 13% HAdV C6. Positive selection was observed in the nucleotide sequences from HAdV B7 and HAdV C5 signaling evolution of these two serotypes. Conclusion: These finding may be useful to policy makers regarding appropriate strain selection for vaccination in Kenya.

Ndegwa P.N, Amayo A.A QKZACS. "Serum CRP in patients with PET." ClinChem. 2005;(51):A89.
G.O.Oyoo, D.K.Katukui, J.Rajab. "Serum erythropoietin in patients with anaemia on HAART attending the Kenyatta National Hospital, Comprehensive Care Centre." EAJP. 2014;Vol. 1(1):2-6. Abstractserum_erythropoietin.pdf

Background: Anaemia is the leading haematological abnormality in HIV/AIDS and an
independent contributor to morbidity and mortality. HAART has been shown to be effective
in reversing anaemia in HIV/AIDS, however a significant proportion of patients remain
anaemic despite being on antiretroviral therapy. Deficiency of erythropoietin has been
demonstrated as a cause of anaemia in HIV infected HAART naïve patients. The levels of
erythropoietin have not been studied in anaemic patients who are on HAART.
Objectives: To describe serum EPO levels of HIV infected anaemic patients who have been
on HAART for more than six months.
Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.
Setting: The study was carried out at a national hospital HIV treatment and follow-up
outpatient facility: Comprehensive Care Centre, Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: A total of 196 HIV elisa positive HAART experienced patients with anaemia
visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre were consecutively recruited. They were evaluated
by total blood counts, CD4 count, documented WHO clinical stage and serum erythropoietin
levels. Serum erythropoietin levels were measured by IMMULITE 2000 Elisa method.
Accrued data was entered in SPSS version 17 and analyzed therein.
Results: A total of 196 HIV positive adult patients with anaemia and who had been on
HAART for more than six months were evaluated. A total of 181 (92.3%) were found to
have a deficient erythropoietin response to anaemia in HIV, (EPO < 500IU/L). In this study
Hb was the main predictor of erythropoietin response.
Conclusion: Erythropoietin deficiency is nearly universal in anaemic patients on HAART
for more than six months.

Oyiro P, Mwanda W, Odhiambo A, Ogutu E, Otieno CF, Abdalla F. "Serum Ferritin Levels In Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):31-40.serum_ferritin_sickle_cell_knh.pdf
Wambua J.V., Amayo A.A GOADAO. "Serum fructosamine in Diabetics at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ." Healthline. 1998;(2):3-6.
O PROFORINDADA. "Serum Lysozymes (Muramidase) levels in the normal and various Pathological States in Kenyan African.E. G. Kasili, D.A.O. Orinda, and J. Mudasia E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 58 No. 3, Marhc (1981).". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1981. Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Odhiambo AO, Kiarie GW, Ngugi MP, JOSHI MD. "Serum Vitamin D Profile In Black African Men with Prostate Cancer at Tertiary Referral Facility in Sub-Saharan Africa." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences . 2014;13(4):60-64. Abstract

Background: Considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer risk and outcome. Few studies have examined t his association in African men with p rostate cancer. The vitamin D status in pat ients with prostate cancer in Kenya is unknown. This study aimed to determine the profile of vitamin D levels in patients with prostate cancer and to correlate this to patient and disease characteristics. Methods: H ospital - based cross - sectional study that evaluated black African men with incident or 3 - month prevalent histologically confirmed prostate cance r seeking ambulatory care at KNH . M edical history was obtained by direct interview and the information recorded in questionnaires. Treatment history , pre - diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score were abstracted from patient records. Every participant had their anthropometric measurements taken and plasma samples drawn for 25 - hydroxyvitamin D (25 - VD) concentrations using the LIAISON® 25 - OH automated chem iluminescent immunoassay method . The relationship between age, body mass index, pre - diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score on vitamin D status was evaluated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: 162 black African men were evaluated. The mean 25 - VD was 19.15 ng/ml and 144 (88. 9 %) men had vitamin D deficiency (25 - VD < 30ng/ml). 29 (17.9%) were severely deficient (25 - VD < 10ng/ml), 115 (71%) were moderately deficie nt (10 - < 30 ng /ml) and 18 (11.1%) were normal ( 30 - 100ng/ml). Gleason scores > 7 (OR 2.9 ; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.5 , p = 0.001) and serum PSA ≥ 50ng/ml (OR 2.2 ; 95% CI 1.7 - 5.1 , p = 0.014) were associated with vitamin D deficiency (25 - VD < 20ng/ml) whereas age and BMI were not. Adjusted for age, BMI and serum PSA l evels, having Gleason scores > 7 was independently associated with vitamin D deficiency (OR 2.5 ; 95% CI 1.2 – 4.9 , p = 0.01). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in black African men with prostate cancer, p articularly in those with higher Gleason scores.

Odhiambo AO, Kiarie GG, Joshi MD, Ngugi PM. "Serum Vitamin D profile in black African men with Prostate Cancer in a tertiary refferal facility in sub-saharan Africa." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2014;13(4 vers III):60-64. Abstractvitamin_d_prostate_cancer_iosr_jdms.pdf

Abstract:

Background: Considerable epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical data support an association between vitamin D deficiency and prostate cancer risk and outcome. Few studies have examined this association in African men with prostate cancer.The vitamin D status in patients with prostate cancer in Kenya is unknown. This study aimed to determine the profile of vitamin D levels in patients with prostate cancer and to correlate this to patient and disease characteristics.

Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study that evaluated black African men with incident or 3-month prevalent histologically confirmed prostate cancer seeking ambulatory care at KNH. Medical history was obtained by direct interview and the information recorded in questionnaires. Treatment history, pre-diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score were abstracted from patient records. Every participant had their anthropometric measurements taken and plasma samples drawn for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-VD) concentrations using the LIAISON® 25-OH automated chemiluminescent immunoassay method. The relationship between age, body mass index, pre-diagnostic serum PSA and Gleason score on vitamin D status was evaluated using bivariate and multivariate analysis.

Results: 162 black African men were evaluated. The mean 25-VD was 19.15 ng/ml and 144 (88.9%) men had vitamin D deficiency (25-VD < 30ng/ml). 29 (17.9%) were severely deficient (25-VD < 10ng/ml), 115 (71%) were moderately deficient (10-<30 ng/ml) and 18 (11.1%) were normal (30-100ng/ml). Gleason scores >7 (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.5, p = 0.001) and serum PSA ≥ 50ng/ml (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.7-5.1, p = 0.014) were associated with vitamin D deficiency (25-VD < 20ng/ml) whereas age and BMI were not. Adjusted for age, BMI and serum PSA levels, having Gleason scores > 7 was independently associated with vitamin D deficiency (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.2 – 4.9, p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in black African men with prostate cancer, particularly in those with higher Gleason scores.

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Service Centres and Rural Development in Kenya: Paper written lor the Overseas Development Agency. 1985.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1985. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Rading, G O; Gumbe ML; DO. "Service Life Of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining.". 2012.
Mbuge(3) DO, Gumbe L, Rading G. Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO, Rading GO. Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining - Prediction Using Viscoelasticity. Saarsbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.

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