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Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 1. Muriuki D, Ng'ang'a E, eds.; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 2. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 3. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 4. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 5. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 6. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Sanya BO, Ng'ang'a PM, Ng'ang'a RN. Causes and pattern of missing permanent teeth among Kenyans.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):322-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):322-5. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Malindi District Hospital, PO Box 4, Malindi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of missing permanent teeth among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five districts in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and twenty two persons aged 6-85 years (346 males and 376 females). METHODS: This study was undertaken in October 2001 during the National Dental Health Action Month organised by the Kenya Dental Association. Six centres in five districts were identified and subjects randomly selected. Intra- oral examination was done visually and results were recorded on specially designed clinical examination forms. RESULTS: The mean number of missing teeth in the population was 1.60. Among those with missing teeth, the mean number of missing teeth was 3.35. The most commonly missing teeth were lower molars followed by upper molars. No record of complete edentulousness in both jaws was encountered. Dental caries was the commonest cause of tooth loss (52.6%), followed by periodontal disease (27.6%). Extractions, as a form of traditional practice, accounted for 12.3% of total tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment and trauma accounted for 2.2% and 2.0% respectively of total tooth loss. The upper and lower posteriors were the commonest teeth lost due to dental caries and periodontal disease. Teeth lost due to trauma were mostly upper anteriors, whereas those extracted due to traditional practices were exclusively lower anteriors. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that the commonly lost teeth are molars and the principal cause of tooth loss is dental caries followed by periodontal disease. Overall, very few extractions had been done for orthodontic reasons.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Saraya A, Acharya SK, Vashisht S, Mittal A, Tandon RK.Is protein-deficient diabetes mellitus a pancreatitis?J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 Jul;14(7):705-8.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 Jul;14(7):705-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus is a distinct clinical entity subdivided into protein-deficient diabetes mellitus (PDDM) and fibrocalculus pancreatic diabetes (FCPD). Whereas FCPD has obvious pancreatitis manifested by pancreatic duct calculi, the evidence for involvement of the pancreas in PDDM is limited to the presence of ketosis-resistant hyperglycaemia. METHODS: We studied 10 patients with PDDM biochemically and radiologically. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed to determine if they had any evidence of chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS: Their mean faecal chymotrypsin level was low (13.2+/-5.72 microg/g), as was their basal c-peptide value (0.35+/-0.15 mmol/L). Islet cell antibodies were not detected in any of these patients. Ultrasound examination revealed pancreatic atrophy. In two patients, however, the pancreas was bulky. The ERCP showed generalized thinning of the pancreatic duct, measuring 2.4+/-0.06mm in the head, 2.01+/-0.08 mm in the body and 1.02 +/- 0.03 mm in tail region; side branches were seen but they were too sparse and thin. CONCLUSIONS: The significance of these changes is not clear, but they may represent an ongoing pancreatic disease and may, indeed, be the earliest changes of chronic pancreatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Saraya A, Acharya SK, Vashisht S, Tandon RK.A pancreaticographic study of malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus.Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jul-Sep;24(3):120-3.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jul-Sep;24(3):120-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
Pancreatic involvement is considered to be the hallmark of malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM). Of the 2 subgroups of the disease, fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is characterized by pancreatic calcification. The nature of pancreatic abnormalities in MRDM have not been studied extensively in Indian patients. The present study was designed to compare pancreatic abnormalities (exocrine and endocrine) including endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography in patients with FCPD and protein deficient pancreatic diabetes (PDPD), in relation to controls. Ten patients each of FCPD and PDPD were studied with regard to clinical features, biochemical exocrine and endocrine pancreatic responses, C-peptide response, islet cell antibody, and pancreatographic changes. Five normal pancreatograms were taken as control. Clinical and biochemical features in patient with FCPD and PDPD were as follows: pain in 8 and 2 patients, respectively; the mean duration of diabetes was similar in both groups (62.28 +/- 71.92 months V. 72 +/- 50.9 months); and faecal fat excretion and insulin requirements were comparable in both groups. The main pancreatic duct was dilated in 6 of 10 patient with FCPD and only 1 of 10 with PDPD on ultrasonography. On pancreatography the duct was dilated in 9 of 10 patients with FCPD and only 1 of 10 patients with PDPD. The number of side branches was reduced in all cases with MRDM; in those with FCPD, these were stunted and dilated while in PDPD side branches are thin and spastic. We conclude that pancreatic ductal changes involving the main duct and side branches are more frequent in patients with FCPD as compared to those with PDPD.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Saraya A, Acharya SK, Vashist S, Tandon RK.A pancreatography study of chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics.Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Oct-Dec;23(4):167-9.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Oct-Dec;23(4):167-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis of Tropics is a disease of unknown aetiology and is characterised by chronic pancreatitis with calcification in young persons who present with pain, diabetes, and/or steatorrhoea. ERCP performed on 42 patients with this condition revealed changes compatible with chronic pancreatitis. These changes were however, more marked and somewhat different from those seen in the alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Cystic dilatation, tortuosity, and obstruction of the main pancreatic duct were similar to that in alcoholic pancreatitis. The features of CCPT that were different from those of latter, were large pancreatic calculi, absence of strictures/stenosis and absence of irregularity of the ductal wall. The calculi were predominantly in the head region of the pancreas causing maximal dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the head of pancreas. The secondary branches were stunted, short and scanty but revealed a lower grade of changes, than the changes documented in the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic ductal changes in CCPT seems to be different from that seen in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and may be due to the difference in the pathophysiology of the underlying disease.
Ngatia TA, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njiro SM, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK, Weda EH, Ngotho JW. "Sarcocystis in slaughtered wild animals in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1998;46:1-4.
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
and FRANCIS GAKUYA1*, JACKSON OMBUI2 NDICHUMAINGI3 GERALDMUCHEMI2 WILLIAMOGARA2 RAMÓNSORIGUER4 SAMERALASAAD4C 5. "Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system." Parasitology. 2012:1-9.summary.pdf
Gakuya F, Ombui J, Maingi N, Muchemi G, Ogara WO, Soriguer RC, Alasaad S. "Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chisia M. Sarufi Pevu ya Kiswahili Sanifu.; Forthcoming.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Satellite Environmental Sensing.". 2013.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Satellite imagery study of the tectonic setting of a volcano: Menengai caldera in the Kenya Rift.". In: In Nyambok, I.O. and Ichangi D.W.(Editors). Geology for Development within a Sustainable Environment. GSA 95 International Conference Proceedings. 667-675. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
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KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Satellite on-Board Processing", V. K. Oduol, Seminar Presentation at MPB Technologies, Montreal, Canada, October 1991.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1991. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Ouma GO, Kumar OSRUB, Ogallo LJ. "Satellite Remote Sensing Estimates of Point and Areal Rainfall Over Some Parts of East Africa." Journal of the African Meteorological Society. 1995;2(1):80-92.
Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Satpathy BK, Acharya SK, Satpathy S.Comparative study of intravenous metronidazole and intramuscular dehydroemetine in amoebic liver abscess.J Indian Med Assoc. 1988 Feb;86(2):38-40.". In: J Indian Med Assoc. 1988 Feb;86(2):38-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Twenty three patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics in Northern India were prospectively studied. All had pancreatic calcification and ERCP changes typical of chronic pancreatitis, the most predominant being ductal dilatation which was detected in all patients by both ERCP and by ultrasonography. Pain was present in 19 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (48%) patients. Exocrine pancreatic dysfunction was uncommon, steatorrhoea being present in only 9% of patients. Ten of the 11 patients with diabetes required insulin for control and one case was able to be controlled by an oral antidiabetic agent. Two patients developed ketoacidosis during acute episodes of pancreatitis, 3 patients had peripheral neuropathy and one patient had visual changes. Recurrent severe pain was the reason for operation in 7 patients. All had a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. In order to obtain an objective assessment of pain, a scoring system was developed to grade its severity according to its intensity, frequency and consequences. Six patients who preoperatively had a pain score of 15 or more (out of a maximum score of 24) attained significant relief after the surgery. We feel this scoring system may provide an easy objective assessment of pain in the subsequent follow-up of these patients.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Saturation Effects of Collision Broadened Rotational Lines.". In: J. Chem. Phy. 65, 945,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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Wasamba P, Timamy R. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 1999.
Wasamba P. "Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1 .". 1999.Website
Wasamba P, Rayya T. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 2. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2001.
Kinyamario JI, Imbamba SK. "Savanna at Nairobi National Park, Nairobi.". 1992.Website
Kyule MD. "Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behaviour." Hekima (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.. 2005;3(1):27-42. AbstractWebsite

Biotic and abiotic factors interact to influence plant and animal community structures, which in turn, influence human subsistence, land use, mobility, population density, territorial organization and social structure. This paper evaluates the extent to which human behaviors reflect adaptations to environments over time, as well as the relationship between these adaptations and the gradual evolution of human behavior from archaic to modern.

Kibet S, M N, L MO, D K. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock-wildlife landscape." Journal of Ecological Solutions and Evidence.. 2021;2(3):1-13.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Saved by a Leopard, Writer's forum, A journal of the Writers's association of Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Saved by Leopard" published in Writers' Forum: A journal of the writers Association of Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Fischer-Jores A. "Saving livestock fodder in East Africa: development of a rapid penside diagnostic assay for detection of napier grass stunt phytoplasma." Phytopathogenic Mollicutes. 2015;5(1s):S23-S24.
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "The SAWA corpus: a parallel corpus English-Swahili." Association for Computational Linguistics. 2009:9-16. AbstractFull Text

Abstract Research in data-driven methods for Machine Translation has greatly benefited
from the increasing availability of parallel corpora. Processing the same text in two different
languages yields useful information on how words and phrases are translated from a source
language into a target language. To investigate this, a parallel corpus is typically aligned by
linking linguistic tokens in the source language to the corresponding units in the target
language. An aligned parallel corpus therefore facilitates the automatic development of a

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Say, and WAMOLA I. A. Problems of Salmonellosis Chapter in .". In: (Paper presented to East and Central Physicians Conference, Zambia, June, 1975). IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Abade OE, Kaji K, Kawaguchi N. "Scalable QoS for XCAST using Differentiated Services Architecture." Journal of Information Processing. 2013;21(1).
Omoni DG. "Scaling Up Nursing Education in Two African Countries (Sigma Theta Tau International's 23rd International Nursing Research Congress).". In: Sigma Theta Tau International's 23rd International Nursing Research Congress.; 2012. Abstract

Scaling Up Nursing Education in Two African Countries (Sigma Theta Tau
International's 23rd International Nursing Research Congress)

Tuesday, 31 July 2012: 3:30 PM

Barbara Smith, PhD, RN, FAAN
School of Nursing, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD

Grace M. Omoni, PhD, MSc. School of Nursing Sciences,
University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676 – 00200 NAIROBI, Kenya

Purpose: Describe nurse and nurse faculty shortage in two African countries and activities by the World Health Organization (WHO), President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief(PEPFAR), Clinton Health Care Initiative etc. to address nurse and nurse faculty shortages in Kenya and Rwanda, and discuss early progress.

Methods: Review of literature and government documents, participation in WHO scale-up, focus group with African nurse educators, and direct observation of efforts to scale-up education of nurses and nurse faculty.

Results: Africa, which bears 24% of the global burden of disease yet has 3% of the workforce (WHO, 2007), is thought to need an additional 2.4 million doctors and nurses. Kenya has 10 nurses/10,000, Rwanda 4 nurses/10,000 compared to the US which has about 100 nurses/10,000 people. There are 68 accredited institutions training nurses in Kenya: 6 teaching enrolled
nurses, 53 teaching registered nurses and 9 offering the BScN. In Rwanda, the A2 level nurses have been eliminated. There are now 5 diploma schools (A1 Nurses) and the Kigali Health Institute offers the only bachelors program in nursing sciences (A0 nurses). African nurse educators state they need both fiscal and human resources to expand and enhance their nurse education programs.

The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) supports institutions in 12 African countries that receive support from PEPFAR to expand/enhance medical education. A program similar to MEPI, the Nurse Capacity Building Program (NCBP/NEPI), is planned for nursing but on a much smaller scale. The Clinton Health Initiative, Rwandan MOH and a coalition of US Schools of Nursing were recently funded by the US government to support nursing and midwifery faculty and strengthen clinical teaching programs in Rwanda.

Conclusions: Although the NCBP/NEPI and Rwanda programs are promising, more innovative global and local solutions are desperately needed to address nurse and nurse faculty shortage in Africa.

Maina JN, Maloiy GMO. "A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of the lung of a caecilian Boulengerula taitanus.". 2009. Abstract

The lung of an apodan amphibian Bouiengerula taitanus has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This caecilian has only a single, long tubular lung that tapers towards the caudal end of the body. The lung has a central air duct which radially opens into a single stratum of alveoli lined by well developed septa that attach to two diametrically opposite trabeculae. The trabeculae carry the pulmonary artery and vein. The septa have blood capillaries on both surfaces and supportive and contractile elements like collagen, smooth muscle, elastic tissue and fibrocytes. The alveolar surface has only a single population of pneumocytes that combine the morphological features of the mammalian type 1 and 2 cells, i.e. they contain the osmiophilic, lamellated bodies and are squamous in form. Through subepithelial cytoplasmic invaginations, the pneumocytes, together with their basement lamina, were observed to be firmly attached to the septa1 tissue elements, presumably to avoid mechanical detachment during the rapid respiratory movements. The compartmentation of the whole lung in this species is viewed as a means of increasing the surface area available for gas exchange which, coupled with other already established cardiovascular adaptations in this species, may be of significance in its fossorial mode of life, an environment that is usually hypoxic and hypercarbic

Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Maina JN, Weyrauch KD, Gehr P. "A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.". 1998. Abstract

The luminal surface of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, was examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the blood vessels are generally of two types, the small-calibre capillaries and the large-calibre afferent and efferent vessels. The luminal surface of the efferent blood vessels possesses a few low microplicae. Conversely, the luminal surface of the afferent blood vessels is characteristically smooth except at the cell junctions and at the point of entry into the capillaries. The cells junctions are marked by low ragged ridges while the luminal surface is studded with low sparse pleiomorphic microprojections at the point of capillary emergence. The luminal surface of the blood capillaries is characterised by a labyrinth of closely disposed microplicae that projects into the lumen. These microplicae show no particular orientation with respect to either the longitudinal or transverse axis of the capillary. Instead, they are diffusely orientated. It is conjectured that such a heterogeneous design of the endothelium in the blood vessels of the pecten oculi has developed in order to augment the role of the pecten in the transport of nutrients to the avascular neural retina by an energy saving diffusion process. The process through which the design of the microfolds affects haemodynamics and their putatite role in facilitating the delivery of nutrients are discussed in the perspective of the available data

http://www.cde.unibe.ch/Pages/Pub Gichuki, Francis N; Liniger H; MML; SG; GURI:G. "Scarce water: Exploring resource availability, use and improved management.". 1998.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "SCH 403 - Electrochemistry ODL Module.". In: Electrochimica Acta, Accepted for publication (2009). University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Samuel K. Kallavi and Austin Aluoch The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Schade-Sch.". In: Mycotoxin Research,16A (1): 30 - 37. Landwirtschaftliche Fakult; 2000. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Schattenkerk, J. K. Bhatt, S. M., Rees, P. H.: Antituberculous drugs and kala-azar. Lancet 1981; vol. 2:304.". In: Lancet 1981; vol. 2:304. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1981. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Schipper, L.., and O. O. Mbeche, "Present and Future Energy Demand in Industry and Services Sector in Kenya", Proceedings: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 1980.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1980. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
A. EO. "Schism and Renewal in Africa; The AICN revisited." Journal of African studies, June 1992 issue; 1992. Abstract
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Munyua JK, E.N.M. Njagi, K.N. Lerna, Kinyua AM. Schistomme Mansoni - Effects on Glucose metabolism in mice.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Schistosoma mansoni ova in urine of children from an endemic area of Kenya: a short report East African Medical Journal 1998 Sept 75(9): 558-559.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 USA. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics. Adult-stage parasites that infect humans are also occasionally recovered from baboons, rodents, and other mammals. Larval stages of the parasite are dependent upon certain species of freshwater snails in the genus Biomphalaria, which largely determine the parasite's geographical range. How S. mansoni genetic diversity is distributed geographically and among isolates using different hosts has never been examined with DNA sequence data. Here we describe the global phylogeography of S. mansoni using more than 2500 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 143 parasites collected in 53 geographically widespread localities. Considerable within-species mtDNA diversity was found, with 85 unique haplotypes grouping into five distinct lineages. Geographical separation, and not host use, appears to be the most important factor in the diversification of the parasite. East African specimens showed a remarkable amount of variation, comprising three clades and basal members of a fourth, strongly suggesting an East African origin for the parasite 0.30-0.43 million years ago, a time frame that follows the arrival of its snail host. Less but still substantial variation was found in the rest of Africa. A recent colonization of the New World is supported by finding only seven closely related New World haplotypes which have West African affinities. All Brazilian isolates have nearly identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting a founder effect from the establishment and spread of the parasite in this large country. PMID: 16202103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Schistosomiasis control in the community. East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):493-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):493-4. Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract
Four hundred and ninety nine children (aged between one month and five years) admitted with clinical features of meningitis were recruited in cross-sectional survey of bacterial meningitis in hospitals within Nairobi. Lumbar punctures were done on all of them and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysed bacteriologically and serologically for the common causative organisms. Two hundred and fifty (50.1%) cases were diagnosed clinically as having meningitis. Of these, 132 (52.8%) had turbid CSF specimens, while 118 (47.2%) were clear. When turbid CSF specimens were cultured, 83 (62.8%) yielded three common bacterial micro-organisms namely; Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in that order of frequency. The implications of these findings in paediatric meningitis together with the drug sensitivity patterns is presented and discussed.
Othieno C, Abdelrahman A, editor Ndetei, D.M., Sebit MB, Musisi S, Szabo CP. "Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders."; 2006.
Kiragu JW, King’oina JO, Migosi J. "School - Based Management Prospects and Challenges: A Case of Public Secondary Schools in Murang’a South District, Kenya." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2013;3(5):1166-1179.
Mwangi, E.W.& Okoth UA. "School Based Factors Influencing Pupils’ Discipline in Complimentary Primary Schools in Makadara Sub-County, Nairobi, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technoledge. 2018;6(4):78-83 .
EM Muriithi, SO Gunga LMNAKK’OLNW. "School Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice . 2013.
Parmeejet A. "'SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION IN KERIO VALLEY.". In: Arid & Semi Arid Region Development Programme (ASAL) . Nairobi; 1985.
undefined, S. P, M OJ. "School feeding program and pupils’ participation in primary schools in Kenya. A study of Taita Taveta and Nairobi districts." Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) . 2013;Vol 1 No 1.khatete_5.pdf
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "School Knowledge and its relevance to everyday life in rural western Kenya. Nordic Journal of African studies 15 (3): 393-40.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. WHO; 2006. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Khatete I. W., Mogute P.K., Kebenei P. J. "School Management Committees’ Influence on Provision of Teaching/Learning Resources in Public Primary Schools in Kenya; A Case of Kisii South Sub-County." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2).abstract_4.doc
Wagacha P. "SCHOOL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATICS.". 2015. Abstract

The increased demand for higher education has made online learning popular
and appealing to many stakeholders including working staff and students. Though online
learning has gained popularity, it is still being criticized for being a faceless medium that
does little to support social interaction. Social constructivist argue that knowledge is
constructed through social activities and therefore, knowledge developed using
collaboration is more than what can be achieved by an individual alone. Online learning,

Wambua RN. SCHOOL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATICS. University of NAIROBI; 2007. Abstract
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Ogot MM, Okudan Gül E. "School of Engineering Design and Professional Programs The Pennsylvania State University." age. 2004;9:1. Abstract

This paper introduces a spreadsheet-based method of integrating project management
techniques into project-based engineering courses. The use of a spreadsheet approach
alleviates (1) the need for institutions to purchase additional commercial project
management software and (2) additional training of faculty and students on how to use
the software. Spreadsheet programs, for example Microsoft Excel, are already
entrenched in college computer laboratories with students and faculty having familiarity
with their use. We present our experiences in implementing this approach in one section
(32 students) of a freshman introduction to engineering design course. A preliminary
assessment is also presented.

Kalai JM. School principals’ preparation and development.. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers. ISSBN-978-3-8465.; 2012.
Kalai JM. "School principals’ preparation and development." Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers.. 2011;(ISSBN-978-3-8465.).
Neumann CG, Bwibo NO, Jiang L, Weiss RE. "School snacks decrease morbidity in Kenyan schoolchildren: a cluster randomized, controlled feeding intervention trial." Public Health Nutr. 2013:1-12. Abstractschool_snacks_decrease_morbidity_in_kenyan_schoolchildren.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of three different school snacks on morbidity outcomes. DESIGN: Twelve schools were randomized to either one of three feeding groups or a Control group. There were three schools per group in this cluster randomized trial. Children in feeding group schools received school snacks of a local plant-based dish, githeri, with meat, milk or extra oil added. The oil used was later found to be fortified with retinol. Physical status, food intake and morbidity outcomes were assessed longitudinally over two years. SETTING: Rural Embu District, Kenya, an area with high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. SUBJECTS: Standard 1 schoolchildren (n 902; analytic sample) enrolled in two cohorts from the same schools one year apart. RESULTS: The Meat and Plain Githeri (i.e. githeri + oil) groups showed the greatest declines in the probability of a morbidity outcome (PMO) for total and severe illnesses, malaria, poor appetite, reduced activity, fever and chills. The Meat group showed significantly greater declines in PMO for gastroenteritis (mainly diarrhoea) and typhoid compared with the Control group, for jaundice compared with the Plain Githeri group, and for skin infection compared with the Milk group. The Milk group showed the greatest decline in PMO for upper respiratory infection. For nearly all morbidity outcomes the Control group had the highest PMO and the least decline over time. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention study showed beneficial effects of both animal-source foods and of vitamin A-fortified oil on morbidity status.

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Schroeder TL, Burger H, Weiser B, Bengualid V, Kimani J, ANZALA AO, Parker MM, Lamson D, Philpott SM. Characterization of intersubtype recombinant HIV type 1 genomes using a nonradioactive heteroduplex tracking assay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2005 April.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2005 April; 21(4):314-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
The Asp-derived amino acid pathway has been studied during the early stages of development in two maize genotypes, Io and F2, differing in germination efficiency and post-germination growth. In both genotypes expression of Ask2 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-2), Akh1 and Akh2 (bifunctional Asp-kinase-homo-Ser dehydrogenase-1 and 2), increased throughout germination and post-germination growth, suggesting a developmental regulation, whereas Ask1 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-1) was expressed constitutively. The major difference between Io and F2 concerned genes encoding bifunctional enzymes, particularly Akh2, the expression of which was dramatically low in F2. 15N-Asp labelling showed differences in in vivo Asp-kinase activities between the genotypes studied. Asp flux through the Met/Thr branches was higher in Io than in F2, while the latter exhibited a higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. Physiological results, together with the higher Akh2 expression in Io, suggest that bifunctional enzyme activity, favourable to Met/Thr, was higher in Io than in F2 and that the monofunctional pathway was boosted in F2 because of the lower competition by the bifunctional pathway, thus allowing for higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. In conclusion, it is suggested that F2 germination and post-germination growth might have been partially inhibited due to a limitation in Met and Thr availability. A negative physiological effect related to Lys accumulation in F2 is also discussed.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Science 2002, Heredity 2003, Animal Genetics 2003, 2000, Molecular Ecology 2000, JCPR 2004, Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 2006,.". In: Plant & Animal Genome 2006, proceedings & book chapters. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
Mark SR, Kelly MR, Gheorghe C, Raymond M, Nikolay A, Sansanee C, Navy H, Karen KA, Odada EO, Oscar P, Geoffrey P, Sergei R. "Science and Management of Transboundary Lakes: Lessons Learned from the Global Environment Facility Program.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The International Waters Science Project Lakes Working Group reviewed 58 Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects that addressed serious environmental and human development issues in transboundary lakes. The lessons learned from the review of these projects were integrated with the intention to contribute to the design and success of future projects. Issues that will continue to impact lake ecosystems and their management include changing agricultural practices, resource extraction, emerging contaminants, energy policies, and water allocation. Future lakes projects addressing these issues must also consider the potential confounding effects of changing land use and climate on watershed processes, water quality, food web structure and biodiversity. Current and future scientific challenges include developing strategies for climate adaptation, improving the capacity to detect change and enhancing the application of an ecosystem approach within lakes management. Failure to consider the unique physical and biological features and processes in lakes can be a barrier to effective remediation. The spatial and temporal variability in lakes and their often slow response to remedial actions need to be considered in the design of monitoring programs. Factors that improved the success of GEF transboundary projects included early and strong communication, engagement of stakeholders, rigorous peer review and international science teams linked to local capacity building and policy development. The application of both natural and socio-economic science based assessment, and adaptive management were essential for full project implementation and led to optimization of water resources allocation while sustaining ecosystems on which social and economic systems depend.

PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Science and Technology and the Future.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium, 10-12 July, Nairobi, Kenya. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
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PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Science and Technology for Development.". In: Proceedings of Seminar, 21-24 March, Nairobi, 215pp. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
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ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Science and Technology, Socio-Economic Development Issues', Paper presented to NCST National Workshop on Science and Technology Management for Development, Kisumu, 14-18 June 1993.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1993. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Science and the man - MEDICOM.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Wandiga SO. "Science for Development.". 2000.Website
Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE. The Science of Climate Change.; 1996.
Onyango M, Ouma G, Ogallo L. "Science of the Elders." Alternatives Journal. 2010;36(4):11. AbstractAlternatives Journal 2010

At heart, these elders are fellow scientists, and some of their myths and taboos serve to protect endangered species the community depends on for medicines, rituals and other uses. Launched in 2006 by Canada's International Development Research Centre and Britain's Department for International Development, this program aims to improve the capacity of African countries to adapt to climate change in ways that benefit the most vulnerable. The participation of the Kenya Industrial Property Institute, a department under the Ministry of Trade and Industry, is also crucial to preserving the Nganyi's intellectual property rights.

Magoha GAO. "Science Technology and Innovation for Africa's development." Journal of Discovery and Innovation . 2006;18(3):269-274. Abstract

To provide an overview of the aetiology, investigations and the various treatment methods currently available in the management of haemospermia. DATA SOURCE: Review of literature was effected through medline and index medicus search of major published indexed journals and books. DATA SELECTION: Published data on haemospermia, hemospermia, haematospermia and semen over the last five decades (1967-2007) were utilised. DATA EXTRACTION: Abstracts of selected articles were read and analysed to determine their possible contribution and relevance to this article. DATA SYNTHESIS: All relevant articles were reviewed in full and contribution extracted for this review as necessary. CONCLUSION: Haemospermia (haematospermia) is a relatively frequent, distressing and frightening symptom in sexually active men. It is usually a benign self-limiting condition resolving within several weeks except for the few with underlying aetiology including prostate malignancy and idiopathic. Patients presenting with haemospermia should have a detailed medical history, physical examillation including blood pressure measurement, genital and digital rectal examination. Persistent and recurrent haemospermia is best investigated by TRUS, CT, MRI, urethrocystoscopy, and biopsy and histological confirmation of malignancies. Specific treatment depends on the underlying pathological cause but often involves only minimal investigations and simple reassurance.

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Science, leisure and common sense.". In: –-Calcutta Medical college Magazine p.69. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1967. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Science-Technology Balance: Policy Concerns for Developing Countries.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Science-Technology Interaction in Development: A Review on Policy.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Nyangena IO, Owino WO, Imathiu S, Ambuko J. "Scientific African.". 2019. Abstract
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Ogeto JO, Maitai CK. "The scientific basis for the use of strychnos henningsii(gilg) Plant material to stimulate appetite.". 1983. Abstract

The mediciinal value of Strychnos henningsii plant. Particularly as an appetite stimulant has long been recognised by the indigenous people of Kenya even before this is properly documented in scientific literature The present work involves isolation and purification of the bitter alkaloidal principles present in powdered plant material. Quantitative estimation of the alkaloidal content, in each morphological part of the plant was done and the result compared with that of closely related species. Strychnos nux vomica, an officiall drug in several pharmacopoeia. Examination of the isolated alkaloidal was done using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas, liquid chromatography (GLC) to deter¬mine the number of alkaloids present in the plant. The median lethal du-e (I.D) in rats and the bitterness threshold in humans for the isolated alkaloidal rnixture were determined and compared with those reported for S, nux vomica. Result-, of this work indicate that S. henningsii can be substitute for S. nux vomica as an apettite stimulant

Ogeto JO, Maitai CK. "The scientific basis for the use of strychnos henningsii(gilg) Plant material to stimulate appetite.". 1983. Abstract

The mediciinal value of Strychnos henningsii plant. Particularly as an appetite stimulant has long been recognised by the indigenous people of Kenya even before this is properly documented in scientific literature The present work involves isolation and purification of the bitter alkaloidal principles present in powdered plant material. Quantitative estimation of the alkaloidal content, in each morphological part of the plant was done and the result compared with that of closely related species. Strychnos nux vomica, an officiall drug in several pharmacopoeia. Examination of the isolated alkaloidal was done using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas, liquid chromatography (GLC) to deter¬mine the number of alkaloids present in the plant. The median lethal du-e (I.D) in rats and the bitterness threshold in humans for the isolated alkaloidal rnixture were determined and compared with those reported for S, nux vomica. Result-, of this work indicate that S. henningsii can be substitute for S. nux vomica as an apettite stimulant

Cham DT, Fombong AT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Nungo RA, Michael WO, Mbugua SK. "Scientific Research.". 2012. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<-2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = -0.207: -0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sclerema neonatorum (a study of 16 cases in the special care unit, Mulago Hospital, Kampala). East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1): Bwibo NO, Anderson BT.". In: East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

LULE GN, Ogutu EO, Okoth F, Were IB, Wambugu M. "Sclerotheraphy in the treatment of bleeding oesophageal, varices: preliminary report.". 1988. Abstract

I n an on-going clinical trial 12 patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to oesophageal varices have undergone injection sclerotherapy. Another 5 have been followed up on conservative management. Of the sclerosed group 8, had schistosoma! disease, J cirrhosis of the liver while I had portal vein thrombosis. Three of the controls had schistosomiasis and 2 had cirrhosis. All of them were in Child's Classfication A or B. Sclerotherapy effectively stopped acute bleeding in all cases reducing further transfusions and hospital visits although 2 cases have been lust to follow-up and 3 have had repeat scler otherapy within 3 months, of initial management. Three art! alive and well. whereas I died ofa bout of haem ate me sis in the absence of the authors. A cast of 14-Jear-old boy who has had portal hypertension since birth and has had 2 shunt operations and oesophagectomy following which sclerothe rapy has been done is highlighted. Of the 5 control groups 2 patients have died due to bleeding varices within one year of follow-up, 1 patient has had to be changed to sclerotherapy as a life saving manoeuvre, however, the remaining 2 are a live and well on conservative management but have high rebleeding rates.

Impellizzeri P, Romeo C, Borruto FA, Granata F, Scalfari G, De Ponte FS, Longo M. "Sclerotherapy for cervical cystic lymphatic malformations in children. {Our} experience with computed tomography-guided 98% sterile ethanol insertion and a review of the literature." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2010;45:2473-2478. AbstractWebsite
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Okoth S. "Sclerotia Formation and Toxin Production in Large Sclerotial Aspergillus flavus Isolates from Kenya." Advances in Microbiology. 2016;6(01):47-56. Abstractsclerotia_formation.pdfWebsite

We studied the relationship between sclerotia formation and aflatoxin production by Aspergillusflavus
strains isolated from maize kernels from Nandi County. Isolates recovered from maize kernels
were tested for their ability to form sclerotia on different growth media. PCR analysis was
done on the isolates to detect 2 structural genes, aflD and aflQ, involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis
pathway. Positive A. flavus isolates for one or both genes were grown on Yeast Extract Sucrose
Agar medium and aflatoxins quantified using LCMSMS. All the isolates formed large sclerotia and
their formation was influenced by media type but could not be related to amount of aflatoxins
produced both in vivo and in vitro. Though sclerotia are perennating structures and so contribute
to survival index of a fungus, their initiation is regulated by external factors though ability to form
is genetic. This brings ambiguity of their presence or abundance as a measure of toxicity.

Muriithi EM. "Scool Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(8):196-305.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Scope and constraints for utilization of sorghum and millets as fermented and germinated products.". In: National workshop on sorghum and millets Systems K.I.A. April 10 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Scope and Some salient Features of Rural Employment in Kenya KIDMA: The Israel Journal of Development Vol.5, No.2.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1979. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Otieno SP, Chege M. Scorned. (Mrs) JM, ed. Talent Empire; 2019.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Scratching where it itches: Developing Christian Literature in Africa, a paper presented at a Conference on the production of Christian Education materials in Africa, Limuru, Kenya.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Screening Africa bean germplasm for iron and zinc.". In: Biofortification Challenge Program, bean planning meeting, 30 Sept- 4 Oct 2003, Naivasha, Kenya. CIAT, Cali, Colombia. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Agnes Njoki Mwaura, Betty Nyambura Mbatia EKMPWO. "Screening and Characterization of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Isolated from Oil-contaminated Soils from Auto Garages." International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;3:11-24. Abstract
n/a
Magoha GAO. "Screening and Early detection for prostate cancer." East African Medical Journal.. 1997;74: 664-666. Abstract

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men. Mortality due to prostate cancer has continued to increase over the past five decades despite all the different options of treatment at the disposal of the urologist, such as, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. Presently, effective therapy for prostate cancer is only possible with early diagnosis of the disease still localised within the prostate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the present screening techniques including Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) concentration, Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) and Random Ultrasonically guided multiple prostatic biopsies can detect some potentially curable asymptomatic localised cancers. The main goal of a cancer screening test is to help reduce mortality. To date, it has been established that screening increases early detection and survival but there is no evidence that screening reduces mortality. If in future early detection and intervention is proved to provide real benefit apart from the overdiagnosis of latent non aggressive tumours, then the mortality from prostate cancer could begin to decline in the next decade. However, if our current armamenteria of therapies continue to be ineffective in treating men with prostate cancer, the current emphasis on screening and early detection will decline.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Screening and participatory evaluation of germplasm for aluminium resistance in low fertility acid soils in East and Central Africa.". In: Acid Soils Workshop, 25-27 February, 2004, CIAT, Cali, Colombia. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Screening common bean accessions for resistance to charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in Eastern Kenya, Exp. Agric. 33: 459-468 (1997).". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1997. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
E.K K, R.D N, R.K M, L.M.S A. Screening Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Genotypes for Resistance to Septoria Leaf Spot in Kenya.. Eldoret, Kenya: Department of Horticulture, Moi University, ; 2004.
Kiprok EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey, RK; Akundabweni LMS, Akundabweni LMS. "Screening Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Genotypes for Resistance to Septoria Leaf Spot in Kenya.".; 2004.
Onyambu1* CK, Tharamba2 NM. "Screening for congenital fetal anomalies in low risk pregnancy: the Kenyatta National Hospital experience." BMC pregnancy and child birth. 2018;18(180):1-9.
Tende RM;, Nderitu JH;, Mugo S;, Songa JM;, Olubayo F;, Bergvinson D. "Screening for development of resistance by the spotted stem borer, Chilo Partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Bt-maize delta-endotoxins."; 2005. Abstract

Stem borers are one of the major limiting factors to maize (Zea mays L.) production in the world. In Kenya the damage caused by stem borers leads to 13.5% yield loss estimated to be 400,000 MT of maize annually. The spotted stem borer Chilo partellus, Swinhoe is one of the major species of stem borers in Kenya. Bt-maize has been proved to reduce losses due to stem borer damage. Development of insect resistance among stem borers is one of the concerns of using Bt-maize. A study was conducted at the KARI Biosafety Greenhouse level 11, to determine the development of stemborer resistance to two Bt cry proteins for over four generation cycles of selection. The cry proteins were cry1Ab and cry1Ba expressed from Bt-maize event 223 carrying Bt cry1Ab gene and event 10 carrying Bt cry1Ba gene. Three hundred neonates of C. partellus were infested into maize leaves and allowed to feed for 24 hours. The surviving larvae were reared in artificial diet up to adult stage. The performance of each protein was assessed over time by estimation of the number of surviving larvae over each generation. The results showed significantly fewer surviving larvae from the Bt-maize events compared to the non-transgenic CML 216 control. The means were70.4 for CML216, 13.3 and 7.4 for Event 10 and 223 respectively. There were highly significant differences between the control and the two Bt-maize events. The two Bt-maize events were statistically not different in controlling the pest over the studied generations, indicating that there was no development of resistance to cry proteins in the tested C.partellus colony.

J O, Kimani PM. "Screening for drought resistance in small seeded common." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal . 2013;78(78):99-108.
Kinyua MG;, Ayiecho PO;, Wanga H;, Akundabweni L. "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Kenyan Commercial Wheat Varieties and Introduced Lines."; 1993. Abstract

Twenty-five commercial wheat varieties and four introduced lines were tested for tolerance to drought in Kenya from 1989 to 1992 at Kajiado, Katumani and Naivasha. Performance varied significantly amongst these cultivars as well as across locations. K. Mbweha, K. Chririku and Mbuni performed best amongst the commercial varieties. Mbuni, for example, had a mean yield of 3.9 t.ha. R672 and R674 performed best amongst the introductions with average yields of 3.7 and 3.5 t/ha, respectively. Further comparative testing of these lines is needed to ascertain the stability of their agronomic performance in these marginal environments.

Cettomai D, Kwasa JK, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kendi C, Meyer A-CL. "Screening for HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in resource-limited settings.". 2013. Abstract

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-limited settings. We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by non-physician health care workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy. METHODS We enrolled 240 HIV-infected outpatients using two-stage cluster randomized sampling. HCWs administered the several screening tools. Trained study staff performed QST. Tools were validated against a clinical diagnosis of neuropathy. RESULTS Participants were 65% women, mean age 36.4 years, median CD4 324 cells/μL. 65% were taking antiretrovirals, and 18% had moderate/severe neuropathy. The screening tests were 76% sensitive in diagnosing moderate/severe neuropathy with negative predictive values of 84-92%. QST was less sensitive but more specific. DISCUSSION Screening tests administered by HCW have excellent negative predictive values and are promising tools for scale-up in resource-limited settings. QST shows promise for research use. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cettomai D, Kwasa JK, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kendi C, Meyer A-CL. "Screening for HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in resource-limited settings." Muscle Nerve. 2013;48(4):516-24. Abstract

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-limited settings. We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by nonphysician healthcare workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy.

P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Screening for Resistance to Bacterial Blight under Natural Field Conditioned in Upland Cotton.". In: KJS (B) 10 (1&2) pp95-100. Taylor & Francis; 1989. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Screening for Resistance to Bacterial Blight under Natural Field Conditioned in Upland Cotton.". In: KJS (B) 10 (1&2) pp95-100. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1989. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Njambere EN, Mwang’ombe AW, Kimani PM, Siboe GM. "Screening for resistance to floury leaf spot of beans.". 1997.
Muthumbi W, De Boever P, Pieters JG, Van Langenhove H, Comhaire F, Verstraete W. "Screening for the presence of estrogenic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental flue gas matrices."; 2001.
Musembi S, Janoo R, Sohanpal B, Ochanda H, ole-Moi Yoi O, Bishop R, Nene V. "Screening for Theileria parva secretory gene products by functional analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 2000;109:81-87.
P.W M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Screening for tolerance in selected sweet potato germplasm to Sweet-potato Virus Disease in Kenya.". In: Regional Universities Forum Biennial Meeting. Mangochi, Malawi; 2007.
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy do we need more than a symptom screen Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(4):294-298.screening_for_tuberculosis_in_pregnancy_do_we_need_more_than_a_symptom_screen_experience_from_western_kenya.pdf
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Association. 2013;3:294-298.
Karaya H;, Mugo S;, Njoroge K;, Ariga E;, Nderitu JH;, Kanampiu. "Screening gene bank maize accessions for Straiga hermontica resistance."; 2010.
Karaya H;, Mugo, S; Njoroge ANKK; E; J, Njoroge K;, Ariga E;, Nderitu JH;, Kanampiu. "Screening gene bank maize accessions for Straiga hermontica resistance."; 2010.
Karaya H;, Mugo S;, Njoroge K;, Ariga E;, Nderitu JH;, Kanampiu. "Screening gene bank maize accessions for Straiga hermontica resistance."; 2010.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Screening herbaceous forage legumes on the basis of soil moisture utilization for integration into natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Screening legume cover crops for dry-season survival in a semi-arid environment of Kenya. In (eds J.G. Mureithi, C.W. Mwendia, F.N. Muyeko, M.A. Onyango and S.N. Maobe). Participatory Technology Development for Soil Management by Smallholders in Kenya. Sp.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Karaya H, Kiarie N, Mugo S, Nderitu H, Kanampiu F, Ariga S. "Screening maize (Zea mays) genotypes for Striga hermonthica resistance from among genebank accessions.". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Ogoma SB, Lweitoijera DW, Ngonyani H, Furer B, Russell TL, WR M, GF K, SJ. M. "Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;4(8):e773.
Ithondeka, P; Wafula MWIWEN; TN;. Screening of goats for Contagious Caprine Plueropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (biotype F38) in ranches with potential for export.; 2013. Abstract

Contagious Caprine Plueropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae, biotype F38) is the most contagious and virulent type of pneumonia in goats. It is an important trade disease associated with both direct and indirect costs arising from mortality (ranges from 60-100%) and trade restrictions (in import and export) respectively. The OIE Terrestrial code requires that in endemic regions, goats for export be vaccinated within a period of 4 months prior to shipment or be subjected to a complement fixation test with negative results, on two occasions. The two tests should be at an interval of not less than 21 days and not more than 30 days between each test, with the second test being performed within 14 days prior to shipment. In Kenya, it is a requirement that both vaccination and testing be carried out prior to export. A study was undertaken to access the CCPP situation in selected ranches that have potential for export. A total of 1400 goats were observed in Taru ranches before 140 goats were randomly selected, bled and tested for important trade diseases, including CCPP, PPR, Brucellosis and RFV. Approximately 2 goats in each flock were in poor body condition and showed signs of persistent cough. In Laikipia district, a total of 100 goats and 100 sheep were sampled. To test for CCPP, the compliment fixation test (CFT) was used. Out of the 140 serum samples from Taru ranches, 4 (3%) were found positive for CCPP. All goats from Lakipia district were negative for CCPP, while 5 sheep were positive on CFT for CCPP. These findings indicate that Kenya is able to export CCPP free goats as per the Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) requirements.

Otieno NA, Culhane J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling DN. "Screening of large collections of plant associated bacteria for effective plant growth promotion and colonisation.". In: Positive Plant Microbial Interactions: Their role in maintaining sustainable and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, nr Brigg, orth Lincolnshire, UK; 2013. Abstract

The use of potent and effective live microbial biofertilisers in agricultural has significant
potential to reduce the costs of crop production and in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions
and water pollution associated with excessive fertiliser use. Many plant associated
bacteria possess plant growth promotion traits. However, when used as plant inoculants
these bacteria often do not result in statistically significant plant growth promotion. This
paper describes the screening process used to identify a number of endophytic strains
with multiple plant growth promotion traits and effective plant colonisation ability in
Brassica napus crops.

Njoroge D, Anyango B, Dossaji SF. "Screening of Phyllanthus Species for Antimicrobial Properties, Chemical Sciences Journal." Chemical Sciences Journal. 2012;2012(CSJ-56):1-12. Abstractcsj-56_2012.pdf

The development of resistant pathogenic microorganism against conventional antibiotic drugs has risen to a point of global concern. New antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action are therefore needed to curb the new and re-emerging infectious diseases. This study has identified two Phyllanthus species (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus odontadenius) sampled from Nairobi and Siaya counties in Kenya. In vitro activity of extracts of these species and correlated their efficacy was compared with the commercial extracts of P. niruri that are in the Kenyan market. Disk diffusion method was employed to screen the antimicrobial activities of both the extracts and two standard antibiotics; 0.32mg mL-1 gentamycin and 0.30 mg mL-1 Nystatin. The dichloromethane(DCM):methanol (1:1) extracts of Phyllanthus odontodenius showed the strongest activity against all the organisms both at 100 mg μL and 50 mg μL-1 followed by both the hot water and
cold water methanol extracts. The solvents in comparison to antibiotics showed 80% activity for methanol, 48% for DCM:MeOH 1:1, 43% in hot water and 28% for cold water. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the compounds found in the three species were identical. This study has shown that, the two species possess significant antimicrobial activity and justifies the use
of their extracts by herbalists in the treatment of many microbial diseases. Therefore, further bioassay guided fractionation, isolation and characterization studies of compounds from these extracts are needed to confirm the active components and mechanisms of action of these two species.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus; Phyllanthus odontadenius; Phyllanthus niruri; antimicrobial activity; infectious diseases.

Derese S. Screening of Plant Extracts for Searching Antiplasmodial Activity. Madagascar: NAPRECA; 2005. Abstractscreening_of_plant_extracts_for_searching_antiplasmodial_activity.pdf

The aim objective of this study consists in isolating the active molecules from plants used in traditional medicine to treat malaria and its symptoms.
197 plants were collected following to the ethnobotanic investigations. Plants were dried, powdered and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro & in vivo antimalarial and toxicity activities.
For the plants collected in Madagascar: 15 extracts (i.e. 16%) prepared from 91 medicinal plants (of which 57 are antimalarial) present an interesting antiplasmodial activity with a value of IC50 less than 10 μg/mL, their cytotoxicity are weak with a value of IC50 evaluated at more than 50 μg/mL. Two of these extracts have an ED50 lower than 100 mg/kg.
With regard to the Congolese plants: five out of twenty six (i.e. 19%) collected plants would be interesting.

Key words:
Malaria, Screening, Plants, Madagascar, Africa

Wagate CG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Kareru PG, Njuguna A, Gitahi N. "Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity." Phytother. Res, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2009;2866(1002):DOI: 10.1002.screening_of_some_kenyan_medicinal_plants_for_bacterial_activity.pdf
CG W, JM M, DW G, MO N, et al. "Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity." Phytother Res.. 2010;24(1):150-3.
Wagate, Cyrus G, Mbaria, James M, Gakuya DW, Nanyingi MO, Kareru PG, Njuguna A, Gitahi N, Macharia JK, Njonge FK. "Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity.". 2010. Abstract

Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundijlora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significantMIC at <1mglmL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps, aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation.

Wagate CG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Mark O. Nanyingi, Kareru PG, Njuguna A, Gitahi N, Macharia K, Njonge FK. "Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity." Phytotherapy research: .. 2009;24:151-153.
Mwangi JW, Masengo W, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 1999;2:63-71.
Mwangi JW, Masengo W, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Screening Of some Kenyan medicinal plants using the brine shrimp lethality test.". 1999. Abstract

The latex of two plants and the methanol and petroleum ether extracts of thirty four plants from twenty one families were screened for their biological activity using the brine shrimp lethality test. The plants were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal uses in Kenya. Thirty six of the seventy eight samples showed toxicity to the brine shrimp (LCso < 1000 ug/ml). The most active extracts (LCso < 250 Ilg/ml) were from Bridelia micrantha, Brucea antidysenterica, Croton megalocarpus, Engleromyces goetzi, Euclea schimperi, Mondia whitei, Persea americana, Phytolacca dodecandra, Salvia nilotica, Tagetes min uta, Teclea simplifolia and Toddalia asiatica. The results could be useful in the search for new compounds with pesticidal, antitumour and other pharmacological actions.

Thoithi GN, Amugune BK. "Screening of some plants used traditionally for antifungal activity in Vihiga district, Western Kenya." AICAD Research Mini-reviews. 2005;(4):72-75.
M.E Y, Kimani PM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Muthomi JW. "Screening Upland Rice Genotypes for Grain Yield and Grain Quality in Kenya." Research journali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2018;5(7):1-15.
Dimova I, Karthik S, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Semela D, Volarevic V, Djonov V. "SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling is involved in blood vessel growth and remodelling by intussusception." J. Cell. Mol. Med.. 2019;23(6):3916-3926. Abstract

The precise mechanisms of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in angiogenesis are not fully elucidated. Recently, we showed that Notch inhibition induces extensive intussusceptive angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells and it was associated with increased levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the current study, we demonstrated SDF-1 expression in liver sinusoidal vessels of Notch1 knockout mice with regenerative hyperplasia by means of intussusception, but we did not detect any SDF-1 expression in wild-type mice with normal liver vessel structure. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling by AMD3100 perturbs intussusceptive vascular growth and abolishes mononuclear cell recruitment in the chicken area vasculosa. In contrast, treatment with recombinant SDF-1 protein increased microvascular density by 34% through augmentation of pillar number compared to controls. The number of extravasating mononuclear cells was four times higher after SDF-1 application and two times less after blocking this pathway. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDC) were recruited to vessels in response to elevated expression of SDF-1 in endothelial cells. They participated in formation and stabilization of pillars. The current study is the first report to implicate SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in intussusceptive angiogenesis and further highlights the stabilizing role of BMDC in the formation of pillars during vascular remodelling.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "SE OF ELISA METHOD TO DETERMINE CHLORAMPHENICOL KINETICS IN RED MASAAI SHEEP AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION.". In: j. VET PHARMACO. THERAP. O Wesongah*l, GA Murilla, AN Guantai, RE Mdachi I, WM Karanja and TE Maitho; 2007. Abstract

hloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine due to its low cost and ready availability. However its use has been associated with serious adverse effects, (bone marrow suppression, hemolytic anaemia and aplastic anaemia) that may or may not be dose related. Consequently chloramphenicol is currently banned for use in food producing animals and restricted to non-food producing animals and management of life threatening infections in humans in absence of alternative therapy. Exposure to chloramphenicol can occur after regular consumption of animal foods from treated animals. Therefore the pharmacokinetic of chloramphenicol should be determined using a highly sensitive and specific assay method that can detect residue levels at the lowest concentration possible. Previous methods were limited due to low sensitivity (10 ng/m1-50Ong/mi). Therefore the aim of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol and potential residue levels in food producing animals using a published highly sensitive detection method; Chloramphenicol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml. Methods: Eight male red Maasai sheep aged 9 to 12 months and weighing between 21kg to 25 kg, were weaned and allowed to acclimatize for three weeks. Pre-treatment blood samples (10m1) was collected from each animal and then 25mg/kg chloramphenicol sodium succinate administered by deep intramuscular injection. Post treatment blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15 and 30minutes, I, 2, 4, 6 8, 12, 24 and 32 hour intervals then twice a day (week 1), once daily (week 2) thrice daily (week 3) twice daily (week 4). Phannacokinetic parameters were measured using chloramphenicol ELISA method. Data was analyzed by fitting four, parameter logistics regression curve of calibration standards and sample chloramphenicol concentration calculated from optical densities using ELISA data Eiaquik program (MC. Eisler, 1995). Samples were analyzed in duplicate. Results from these assays were compared with those from published data with respect to elimination half life, species variation, and minimum retention time. Results: Chlorarnphenicol elimination half life (36.4+3.66 h) obtained in the present study was significantly (P<0.05) longer than that of 5.75+1.25 h reported in similar species using colorimetric method. The method was able to detect the drug 7 days post administration. The area under the curve of 124,487.8 ng.h/m1 observed in sheep in the present study was significant higher than that of 31.220+3.25 rig.himl reported in literature in goats using similar treatment route and dose but different assay method. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetic parameters are significantly influenced by animal species and analytical assay methods used in their determination and care must be taken when reporting the residue levels in food producing animals.

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