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O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N .O Bwibo Nutrition and Child Health in Kenya In: Paediatrics .". In: Pitman Medical Publishers 1980, pp 177-184. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1980. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N .O Bwibo Tuberculosis: Chapter 14 In: child Health in Tropics Editor: D B Jelliffee, fifth Edition pp 135-147. Edward Arnold Publishers, 1985.". In: Edward Arnold Publishers. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

No abstract available

Giangrande M, Kim YW, Mizukami H. "N-terminal spin label studies of hemoglobin, Ligand and pH dependence." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):187-93. Abstract

Human hemoglobin was spin labeled with 4-isothiocanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperdinooxyl, which is known to bind specifically to the N-terminal alpha-amino groups of proteins and slightly to the reactive sulfhydryl groups. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated a partially resolved five-line spectrum, suggesting that the label was attached to at least two different binding sites. Using specific blocking reagents prior to spin labeling, the two binding sites were attributed to the sulfhydryl group of beta-93 (immobile) and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal valines (mobile). The relative motion of the spin at one set of binding sites was restricted regardless of the state of ligation and pH, while the motion at the other site showed dependence on those parameters, e.g. the spin-labeled N-terminal ends of deoxyhemoglobin have restricted motion at all pH ranges studied, while those of oxyhemoglobin are relatively free to move at the basic pH range, but become more restricted in the acidic pH range.

O DROPEREALFRED. "N. J. Muthama, A. O. Opere and C. Oludhe (2003): Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperatures useful for East African seasonal rainfall prediction. Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no2, (2003) p1-10.". In: Journal of African Meteorological. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N. O Bwibo Diarrhoea including Oral Dehydration Therapy. Chapter 28 In: Health care of women and Children in Developing countries.Editors: Helen Wallace and Kanti Girii third Party Publishing Company Oakland, California 1990. Pg. 327-333.". In: Helen Wallace and Kanti Girii third Party Publishing Company Oakland, California. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1990. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which cognitive competence in 5-yr old Kenyan children was associated with earlier nutritional factors, family conditions and toddler characteristics. Food intake during the 18th-30th mths and physical stature at 30 mths were associated with cognitive skills at 5 yrs. Measures of family background, abilities of the child as a toddler and current schooling were also associated with cognitive abilities at 5 yrs. These variables influenced development independently, so that later cognitive competence was best predicted by a combination of earlier nutritional, family and toddler characteristics.

PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N. O Bwibo Haematological Diseases in Tropics In: Paediatrics Practice in Developing countries. Editor: G.J Ebrahim, MacMilla Press Ltd 1981 London pp 239-256.". In: MacMilla Press Ltd. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1981. Abstract

This paper reviews clinicopathological and hematological manifestations of sickle cell anemia as seen in Kenyan children in the first decade of life. The information is based on a study of 447 patients. The findings are similar to those that are well documented from America, West Africa, and other parts of Africa. However, local variations and complications such as malnutrition and topical infections that may affect prognosis are high-lighted.

PMID: 6180653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "N. Wagara, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings vol. 5: 123-128, 2001 (ISSN 1023-070X). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1999. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Karanja, A.K. Mwala, J.P. Kahindi and P.L. Woomer, 1998. The East African Rhizobium MIRCEN: A review of the Progress in research, training and information dissemination. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 101-102.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Mureria, 1980. Activities of Nairobi MIRCEN.". In: A paper presented at CAIRO - MIRCEN training course held at Ain-Shams University of Nairobi on 8-22 September, 1980.; 1980. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Mureria, S.O. Keya and M.A. Arshad, 1980. Effects of termite activity on soil microflora.". In: A paper presented at the 4th AGM of Soil Science Society of East Africa in Arusha, Tanzania held on 27th-28th October, 1980.; 1980. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "N.M. Ngakinya, B.N. Ngotho, H.N. Kariuki , J.T. Kaimenyi and F.L. Ndungu. Periodontal Health status of patients attending Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital . Indian Journal of Dental Research 8 (4) 105-110, 1997.". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 8 (4) 105-110, 1997. MOH; 1997. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
W DRNDUNGUNAHASHON. "N.W.Ndung."; 2006. Abstract
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W DRNDUNGUNAHASHON. "N.W.Ndung."; 2006. Abstract
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Jerono P. "Nadharia ya Eksibaa katika Kiswahili.". In: Nadharia katika Taaluma ya Kiswahili na Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2008.
Mungania BG. "Nadharia za kisasa na uamili wa mofimu za Kiswahili Kimofosintaksia.". In: Lugha ya Kiswahili: utafiti na maendeleo yake. Dar es Salaam: CHAKAMA/TUKI; 2018.
"Nafasi ya Hadithi za Watoto katika kubuni Mtazamo Ulimwengu wao.". In: CHAKAMA. Dar-es-Salaam University; 2016.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Elimu na Maendeleo.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2019.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Maswala ya Afya: mtazamo wa kiekolojia.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2018.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika utoaji wa huduma kwa umma nchini Kenya.". In: CHAUKIDU. State University of Zanzibar; 2018.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nagabhusan G, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Nundy S, Tandon BN.Ultrasonography in portal hypertension: a sensitive noninvasive test to demonstrate portal-vascular anatomy.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Aug;24(4):442-5.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Aug;24(4):442-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
The accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in delineating the portal vascular anatomy was assessed clinically by the clinician in 30 cases of portal hypertension due to noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and extra hepatic portal venous obstruction. Ultrasonography detected portal vein block in 19 and in 11 patients it was found to be patent. These ultrasonic diagnoses were confirmed by spleno-portovenography (SPV) in all, except in 2 cases due to technical failure. Ultrasononic assessment of the splenic vein was found to be accurate in 93.3% (28/30) of cases. SPV also had similar accuracy of splenic vein assessment when compared with the surgical findings. In one patient, intraperitoneal haemorrhage was encounted following SPV, necessitating emergency surgery. Thus, US was found to be as accurate as splenoportovenography in the assessment of portal vascular anatomy. The imaging technique is cheap, easy, safe, and can be repeated as often as necessary. It should be the procedure of choice in assessing the anatomy of portal vascular system.
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Nagona and Mzingile. Kezilahabi's Metaphysics. KISWAHILI VOL. 58. Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Naiki, M., Ramasamy., J.O. Ochanda and G.Maina: Lipid composition of Schistosoma mansoni and surface labelling of glycolipids. Jpn. J.Vet. Sci. 47, 777- 786.". In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Medical Scientific Conference page, 189. Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
Owour, S & Mbatia T. "Nairobi.". In: Power and Powerlessness: Capital Cities in Africa. Nairobi: HSRC Press; 2012.
Wanjiru TM. "Nairobi.". 2012.Website
Gichuyia LN. "NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE.". In: NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press ; 2019.
Mwamba PM SBN. "The Nairobi Hospice--tribute to the late professor Edward George Kasili." East Afr. Med J.. 2009;86(12):s110-s111.
Ooko GO, Masenge E, Gitari FK, Oduor FDO, Mavuti KM, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK. "The Nairobi river basin programme; assessment of the Nairobi rivers.". 2009. AbstractThe Nairobi river basin programme; assessment of the Nairobi rivers

Nairobi Rivers have deteriorated over time due to rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization coupled with poor urban planning. The water is currently considered unfit for human use thaugh it continues to be used for urban agriculture and drinking at Athi River where Nairobi Rivers drain thus exposing human to a risk of adverse hiealth effects. Water was collected from 14 sites 0101'19 the three rivers and enclysed for physiccl-chemicclpcrcme ter-s, pesticides, PCBs, and coliforms, Benthic mccroinver-rebrctes were also investigated. Most of the investigated parameters were above the recommended levels by NEN\A and 'NHO "for dripking water. Low diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates .. was a good indication o.f. p. oor water quality. This calls for a serious government intervention in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals MDGs

o Anyamba TJC. "The Nairobi Sprawl; Misery or Felecity? ." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Social Sciences. . 2016;4(4, April 2016).
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Nairobi University Geology Magazine.". In: Editors), (NUGSA). 126P. Wiley Interscience; 1990. Abstract
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Iraki XN. "Nairobi vs. Toronto: A tale of two cities and reality of urban economics.". In: Sixth annual Africa International Business and Management (AIBUMA 2015) conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.
Dorothy McCormick. "Nairobi's Clothing Retailers: Some Preliminary Findings.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1991. Abstract

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Anyamba TJC, Kamweru AK. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". In: Africa 2000: Towards the Millenium. University of Cape Town, South Africa; 1995.
Anyamba, TJC KAK;. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". 1995.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Nairobi: National Capital and Regional Hub in Rakodi Carole (ed) The Urban Challenge in Africa: Growth and Management of its Large Cities. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1997: 292-334. ISBN 92-808-0952-0.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Nairobi’s Informal Modernism.". In: 6th N-AERUS Workshop, Promoting Social Inclusion in Urban Areas: Policies and Practice. Lund, Sweden; 2005. Abstractn-aerus_workshop_paper_2005.pdf

Nairobi was established more than 100 years ago as a transit point for the Uganda
Railway. The Uganda railway was built by the British Colonial Administration, to link Mombasa on the
Indian Ocean coast with Lake Victoria in the interior of East Africa, in order to extract natural resources. In
1900 commissioner Charles Eliot introduced hut tax, and encouraged European settlement based upon a
policy of integrated development. However the advent of the first European settlers swiftly changed this
vision, and separate development was established as policy. These were the beginnings of social, economic
and spatial exclusions. By the end of the Second World War, most of the land in Nairobi had been
privatised, making it almost impossible for any inclusive civic development to take place.
At independence in 1963, the restriction of the movement of Africans was relaxed, creating a large influx
of people into the city. These people were excluded from main stream formal operations of the city, and
had to survive from their own `wits’. In recent times, neo-liberal policies have had no meaningful impact
on the provision of urban services to the poor. The reduced role of the state has created a haven for
privateers to exploit the urban poor. In the process an informal modernism has emerged in Nairobi, where
moneyed developers build 8-10 storey rental business cum residential blocks, further marginalising the
poor. This paper further argues that for there to be any meaningful progress, the state should provide
subsidised rental housing for the poor, as they are unable to get into the home ownership bracket based on
market rates.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Naivasha: Geology and natural resources.". In: In Kenya from space. East African Educational Publishers. 60-62. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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Opiyo ETO, Ayienga E, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowe A. "Naive reinforcement learning as a guide for path discovery.". 2011. Abstract
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R.M.J. Deacon, T.D. Dulu, Patel NB. "Naked mole-rats: Behavioural phenotyping and comparison with C57BL/6 mice." Behavioural Brain Research. 2012;231:193-200.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Nakedness in East African Aesthetics.". In: Action Publishers. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
MALECHE MRZACHARIAH. "Nakuru Strategic Structure Plan, 2001. In collaboration with United Nations Habitat and the Belgian Government. Was member of the Planning Team.". In: KISE Bulletin, July 1987. Vol. 1 No. 2. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2001.
Osengo C. Nakuru Strategic Structure Plan.. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

Nakuru Town is the farming capital of Kenya. It is located in the Rift Valley within the rich agricultural highlands, formerly known as "The white Highlands" locally the town is sandwiched between the scenic Menengai crater to the North and Lake Nakuru national park to the south. There has been a tremendous increase in its population over the past three decades. This has led to an increase in the demand for basic services and infrastructure such as housing, water and sanitation, roads among others. This in turn has put a strain on the available resources and increased challenges to the municipal council to meet the needs of the town's inhabitants.

In view of the foregoing, there was an urgent need to initial planning and management interventions to improve the quality and efficiency of urban life and social economic activities respectively. If on this basis that the strategies structure planning process sponsored by United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) in partnership with Department of Urban and Regional Planning . Physical Planning Department prepared the Nakuru Strategic Structure plan. This will enable the council to respond to the aforementioned planning and management challenges.

Osengo C. Nakuru Strategic Structure Plan. In collaboration with United Nations Habitat and the Belgian Government.. Belgian: United Nations Habitat and the Belgian Government.; 2001.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Namaara W, Kunimoto DY, D'Costa L, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze R, Ronald AR, Plummer FA,Treating chancroid with enoxacin. Genitourin Med 6A: 189 -192, 1988.". In: Genitourin Med 6A: 189 -192, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Namaara W, Plummer FA, Greenblatt R, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR.Treatment of chancroid with ciprofloxacin: A prospective randomised clinical trial. Am. J. Med.82 (Suppl. 4A): 317 - 320, 1987.". In: Am. J. Med.82 (Suppl. 4A): 317 - 320, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Nambari tatu katika Utenzi wa Ayubu.". Forthcoming.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Nambi, J., P. N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1991) Effect of heat processing on the chemical and bacteriological composition and gross protein value of poultry waste. Discovery and Innovation 3 (3): 91-96.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Nambi, J., P. N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1992): The nutritive value of dried poultry excreta as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 37:99-109.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
Jerono P. "Names and Naming System of Tugen ." International Journal of Linguistics & Communication . 2019;7(1):10-16.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Namibia Trained writers and participated in the development of nearly all the literacy books published in the Directorate of Adult Basic Education and for distance education materials developed by NAMCOL, the Namibian Open Learning College. (1990-1996).". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Nana O.F., Mati J.K.G., Lequin R.M., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B.,J. Obster. Gynaecol. E. and Central Africa, 1:1, 42, 1982:Pituitary-Ovarian Function during and afterpelvic Irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix.". In: Obster. Gynaecol. E. and Central Africa, 1:1, 42, 1982:. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Njeri KM. "Nancy Baraza: war against Women Elite: african executive." Online Magazine, February 25, 2020.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Nancy K. Karanja and Paul. L. Woomer, 2000. Legume inoculation and overcoming constraints to inoculant use: Activities of the Rhizobium Ecology Network of East and Southern Africa (Abstract).". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 2000. Abstract
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N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Nancy Macharia, B.N.K.Njoroge, D.M.Wanjau .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nanda SK, Panda SK, Jameel S, Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.The epidemiologic significance and clinical pattern of HCV induced chronic hepatitis in India.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul-Sep;15(3):145-51.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul-Sep;15(3):145-51. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) was tested for in a group of 16 defined non-B chronic hepatitis patients using specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These were chosen from amongst 56 biopsy proven cases of chronic hepatitis of which majority (40) were positive for hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis C virus RNA could be demonstrated in 12 (75%) of remaining 16 cases. These include all seven patients positive for antibody to HCV. Two of these patients had past history of blood transfusion and in another two the clinical course started with severe acute liver disease. This study establishes the association of HCV with severe liver disease. The clinical and biochemical profiles are also discussed. In view of limited sensitivity of the antibody assays it is justified to develop diagnostic testes based on local strains.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nanda SK, Yalcinkaya K, Panigrahi AK, Acharya SK, Jameel S, Panda SK.Etiological role of hepatitis E virus in sporadic fulminant hepatitis.J Med Virol. 1994 Feb;42(2):133-7.". In: J Med Virol. 1994 Feb;42(2):133-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract

Non-A, non-B hepatitis viruses have been implicated as the etiological agent(s) in up to 60% of patients with fulminant hepatitis. These agents are reported to induce a higher mortality than other causes of fulminant hepatitis. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) at present constitute the major identifiable non-A, non-B hepatitis agents. Of these, HEV has been established as the sole cause of epidemic hepatitis in Afro-Asian countries, and fulminant hepatitis has been recorded during such epidemics. However, in sporadic cases, the etiological role of HEV in fulminant hepatitis has remained uncertain. The role of HCV in acute liver disease and fulminant hepatitis remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of HEV and HCV in patients with fulminant hepatitis by direct detection of the viral genome using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serum samples from 50 serologically identified non-A, non-B fulminant hepatitis cases negative for cryptic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection examined via PCR were tested for HEV and HCV RNA using RT-PCR. For HEV primers from the nonstructural region (ORF-1) were used, and for HCV primers from the highly conserved 5' untranslated regions were used. The products were analysed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by hybridisation with radiolabelled internal oligonucleotide probes. HEV was detected in 31 (62%) of the 50 fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis cases. In 18 (36%) cases, HCV RNA was detected. In 11 (22%) of the HCV cases, the HEV genome was also amplified. In 20 (40%) cases, HEV was detected alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Nanguri, D.L., Warui, C.N. and Kamau, G.N. (1998). Spectroscopic studies and physico-chemical properties of Unsaponifiable matter of avocado oil.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Pan-African conference of the federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB) 145-150.; 1998.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleogene sediments of the Crimea-Caucasus region (southern Ukraine and Russia). Paris, France: French Congress on Stratigraphy; 2010.
Waga DD, Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Kochetov RV. "Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleogene sediments of the Odessa Gas Field.". In: International Conference “GEOPETROL 2008”. Krakow, Poland; 2008.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Berezovskiy AA, Waga DD. Nannoplankton and Mollusks from Eocene deposits from Krivoy Rog iron-ore deposit..; 2003.
Mwabora JM. Nanostructured materials: From nanoscience to structure determination. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 13-15 October 2009; 2009.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Nanostructured TiO2 for dye sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells.". In: ICTP-NCNNC . Beijing, China: Elsevier; 2006. Abstract

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Mwabora JM, Simiyu, J. W, S. M, Aduda BO. "Nanostructured TiO2 for Dye Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.". In: Poster presented at the ICTP-NCNNC-ICTS Asian Pacific Regional College . Beijing, P. R. China; 2006. Abstract

Nanostructured materials for dye sensitised solar cells (DSSSC) have gained a lot of interest since the breakthrough of 11% solar cell based on TiO2 [1]. A DSSC typically consists of a monolayer of photoactive dye molecules anchored onto the nanoparticles of a wide band gap semiconductor, an electrolyte and a platinised counter electrode.

The focus in our research group are (1) preparation and characterisation of the photoactive electrode (TiO2), (2) nitrogen/metallic oxide doping of the photoactive electrode, (3) identification of natural anthocyanin dye containing plants, extracting and synthesizing and purifying the dye for use as an alternative to the costly ruthenium based dye, (4) improvement on the charge transfer characteristics from the dye to the semiconductor and hence in the whole system, (5) charactrization and optimization of eta solar cell based on TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT.PSS/Au and (6) tailoring of semiconductor surface using ultra thin Al2O3 thin film.

TiO2 films were prepared by reactive DC sputtering and from TiO2 nanotubes prepared by synthesis method using 10M NaOH and dispersed in alcohol. XRD, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the electrodes. IPCE and I-V characteristics of the solar cells were obtained and compared with the electrode properties and structures. Some results, discussions and conclusions are presented.

Aduda BO. Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Key words: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Research, Policies, Kenya

Padh H, Aduda BO, Alwis ADP. "NANOTECHNOLOGY: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES/NAM S&T CENTRE.". In: Nanotechnology.; 2010. Abstract

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of
matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and
100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable
novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science,
engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves
imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating
matter at this length scale. Increased energy
efficiency, a cleaner environment, more effective
medical treatment and improved manufacturing
production are just some of the potential benefits of
nanotechnology. Biologists, chemists, physicists and
engineers are all involved in the study of substances at
the nanoscale.

MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Nanyingi, M. O., Mbaria, J. M.,Wagate, C. G, Gakuya, D.W. Koros, Ogara, W.O. (2008). Pharmacoepidemiology and Bioprospecting of Herbal Medicines in Three Districts in Kenya.". In: The 5th International congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). E; 2008.
Otieno SPV, Bwire R. Naomi. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
Muleka J. Naomi and the Canibals. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2009.
Muleka J. Naomi in her New School. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2009.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "NAP (Net-Work for people Living with AIDS)-"Maendeleo Halisi" (Translation) 2002.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
Otieno SPV. Napenda Kenya. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2005.
Induli M, Cheloti M, Wasuna A, Wekesa I, Wanjohi JM, Byamukama R, Heydenrich M, Makayoto M, Yenesew A. "Naphthoquinones from the roots of Aloe secundiflora." Phytochemistry Letters . 2012;5:506-509.
Yenesew A. "Naphthoquinones from the roots of Aloe secundiflora (Asphodelaceae)." Phytochemistry Letters . 2012;5:506-509. Abstractpaper_56_induli_et_al_phytol_-2012.pdf

Two new naphthoquinones, 5-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 5,8-dihydroxy-
3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione, were isolated from the roots of Aloe secundiflora together with the known compounds chrysophanol, helminthosporin, isoxanthorin, ancistroquinone C, aloesaponarins I and II, aloesaponols I and II, laccaic acid D methyl ester and asphodelin. The structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic evidence. This appears to be the first report on the occurrence of naphthoquinones in the genus Aloe. Aloesaponarin I and 5-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione showed anti-bacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 21–23 mg/mL in the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and Low Oxygen Recovery Assay (LORA); 5-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione also showed cytotoxicity against the Vero cell line (IC50 = 10.2 mg/mL)

o Robbins, E. And Anyamba TJC. "Narrative and Property in Kibagare." Forum for Development Studies. 2013;40(2, 2013):285-307.
Michira JN. "Narrative Techniques in the Swahili Novel. An Illustrative Analysis.". In: African Languages and Literatures in a Globalized World. Seoul, South Korea: Dahae Publishers; 2018.
Narrative Techniques in Wole Soyinka's The Interpreters. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
obanda BA, Cook A, Fevre E, Wang S, Bebora L, Mwituria JM, Ng'etich R, Okoth W, Nafula C, Ogara W, Thaiyah AG, Kariuki S, Gabreyes WA. "Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in abattoir workers and livestock from western Kenya.". In: ICOPHAI. Thailand; 2015.
W. MK. "Nasal Consonant Processes in Kitharaka." Nordic Journal of African Studies; Vol. 11,No. 2; 2002. Abstract
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M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Nashon K.R. Musimba, Dickson M. Nyakiri, Charles K. Ikutwa and Tegegne Teka; (2004). .". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Nasimolo J, Kiama S, Makanya A , Gathumbi P, Kagira J Trypanosome Migration to the Brain.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference, 2012, Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.   We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Nasio N.A., Saidi H. Perforated peptic ulcer disease at Kenyatta National hospital East & Centr. Afr. J. Surg.;14:13-17.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
DO A, KA W, EAO D, chindia ML, JF O, AK L, JO G. "Nasopalatine duct cyst." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
Kawaguchi N, Nishiura S, Abade OE, Kurosawa T, Jinmei T, Muramoto E. "NAT free open source 3D video conferencing using SAMTK and application layer router.". In: 6th IEEE Conference on Consumer Communications and Networking Conference. Las Vegas, USA; 2009.
W. MK. "Natala(A Play)." Marimba Publications Ltd., Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
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Amiri S. "Natija ya Mapuza.". In: Kopo la Mwisho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP Ltd; 2011.
JAMES PROFODEK. ""National Access Regimes: Capacity Building and Policy Reforms" Co-Author with Dr. John Mugambe, Charles Victor Barber, Gudrun Henne et all (ed)s in Access to Genetic Resources: Strategies for Sharing Benefits, ACTS Press, 1997 at Pg. 95-114.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1997. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'National Child Labour Policy' (Review for Ministry of Labour and Manpower Development, (Kenya).". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Kanyinga K. "National cohesion remains a dream." Daily Nation, January 17, 2015.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development, Ministry of Health,.". In: Central Bureau of Statistics, ORC MACRO-USA; December 2005. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya Civic education handbook.". In: (An article in National Council of Women of Kenya). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
KIMONYE M. "National Council of Women of Kenya HIV facts handbook.". In: Journal of the Marketing Society of Kenya (MSK)). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract

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st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya. Leadership Education Training Manual.". In: (An article in the Journal of the Marketing Students Association - University of Nairobi). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya/USAID Brochures on.". In: (An article in National Council of Women of Kenya). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract

Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "NATIONAL CULTURE AND CONSTITUTION REVIEW PROCESS: BRIDGING THE GAP.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
Lumumba P;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "National Culture And Constitution Review Process: Bridging The Gap.". 1988.Website
Lumumba P;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "National Culture And Constitution Review Process: Bridging The Gap.". 1998.Website
Okumu BM;, Obel JD;, Gachari MK. National Geodetic Network .; 1987.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""National Goals and Aims and Instructional Objectives".". In: Bachelor of Education and External Studies University of Nairobi seminar 1991. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""National Goals and Aims and Instructional Objectives".". In: Bachelor of Education and External Studies University of Nairobi seminar 1991. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract

 

 

N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "National Human Settlements Policies and Progremming in Kenya (Nairobi HABITAT.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""National implementation of international responsibility: some thoughts on human rights in Africa".". In: East African Law Journal (10). Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1975. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Ontita E. "National Leadership." Omosa, M., G. Njeru, E. Ontita and O. Nyarwath (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya: Towards Civic Engagement. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
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Ontita E. "National Leadership." Omosa, M., G. Njeru, E. Ontita and O. Nyarwath (Eds.) Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya: Towards Civic Engagement. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
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OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'National Legal Services Scheme: A Concept Paper on General Legilsative Principles'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1998. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""National legislation for wildlife management in Africa"; paper for the Sixth African Wildlife Conference, July 13-19, 1981, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1981. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Boon, TE; Lund DH; NI. The national park pilot process introducing new forms of governance in Danish nature politics.; 2009. Abstract

The present report constitutes part of the Danish contribution to the European research project New Modes of Governance for Sustainable Forests in Europe (GoFOR). It builds on the conceptual framework developed during the GoFOR project and is structured according to the corresponding Terms of Reference. The National Park Pilot Process (NPP) was to identify options for establishing national parks in Denmark. The expected output was a non-binding input to policy formulation. The Minister of Environment (MoE) enquired counties and municipalities of six areas whether they were interested in hosting a pilot project. The Outdoor Council, an umbrella NGO for outdoor and environmental NGOs, entered the political arena, adding 2 ½ million Euro to the project and entered into an agreement with the Minister of Environment regarding how to implement the pilot projects, and it was decided to support pilot projects in seven areas. In the following phase, the MoE initiated the process by sketching out rough guidelines for the organisation of the pilot projects to the counties and municipalities. The pilot projects were to elaborate a report with recommendations on how to organise a prospective National park. Locally, the pilot projects were led by steering committees headed by (in most cases) mayors from the municipality assisted by the local state forest districts and with representatives from a broad range of organisations. At the national level a national advisory group was set up with members representing different Ministries, NGOs and the chairmen of the seven steering committees. The purpose of this committee was to assist in carrying out relevant investigations and to compile the reports from the seven pilot projects elaborating one final report to be submitted to the MoE. So far the process has resulted in the elaboration of a draft proposal for a National Park Act. From the initiation and onwards, the Government rhetoric was dominated by wanting a voluntary approach, extensive participation by landowners and other local stakeholders, and an intersectoral solution. Along with a participatory approach, expert knowledge was attributed a significant role. Participation The NPP was initiated and framed ‘from above’, and can best be characterised as a governance process induced and embraced by Government. The identification and appointment of the pilot project areas was a bilateral communication between the MoE and the mayors of the municipalities. If a municipality did not want to join, that area was omitted. From a local perspective this may be fair insofar as the mayors are elected representatives of the local population. But it also meant that possible areas of national interests were omitted without national stakeholders having a say in it. Within this government induced process, the pilot projects took a bottom-up approach. In pilot project ‘Kongernes Nordsjælland’ the steering committee initiated the establishing of thematic groups which prepared a number of proposals which were brought up at a citizen summit for (what was intended as a socio-demographically representative) deliberating dialogue and voting procedure. There was a high degree of transparency and information, tending towards information overflow in the pilot projects. The process managed to involve new stakeholders, notably the local mayors, who traditionally have not been involved in nature policy, since nature and agriculture was beyond the jurisdiction of the municipalities, until the Structural Reform in 2007. But the organisers of the process, the Forest and Nature Agency found it difficult to mobilise the ‘ordinary citizens’ despite active efforts. iv Experiences from pilot project ‘Kongernes Nordsjælland’ indicated that the NPP had problems dealing with minority viewpoints: The one main conflict was that Agriculture wanted to restrict the national park area to already publicly owned areas, whereas the proposal that evolved from the steering committee included corridors on privately owned land. The Agricultural organisations played a hesitant role in the process and left at the end, proposing their own suggestion for demarcation. Intersectoral coordination There is tradition for involving interest groups from different sectors in decision-making in Denmark, yet the ISC was more formalised and deliberately emphasised in this process than formerly, and as a new thing, the local level was involved. Prior to the Structural Reform 2007, nature policies related to the national and county level, and agricultural policies entirely to EU and the national level. By establishing a discussion at local level too, the ‘column-like’ character of the nature and agricultural sectors was partly dissolved. Multilevel governance The degree of Multi-level governance varies with the phase we look at. Seen as a whole, the NPP was a top-down governed process. The pilot project phase was bottom-up with active involvement of local levels, but the pilot projects were evaluated by the national advisory group, and the parliamentary statement and draft Act on National parks was prepared by the National Forest and Nature Agency for the Minister of Environment. It appears the decision-making power lies with the MoE, the National Forest and Nature Agency and the Outdoor Council. Expertise There was a focus on the need to investigate specified topics, defined by the MoE/NFNA. Many experts participated from various research institutions, consultancy firms, counties and NFNA. In principle there was rich opportunity for contesting viewpoints. In practice, it was division of work within strictly limited time. The final expert reports were not included in the discussions for time reasons. Still, the new thing was that experts got closer to the public, i.e. experts were asked to report on their methods towards the broad public, possibly strengthening accountability. A report about biodiversity came up in the middle of the process, showing that the chosen pilot projects were not optimal from a (insect) biodiversity perspective. This information was deliberately set aside by most stakeholders, even the Danish Society of Nature Conservation. Adaptive and iterative planning The aim of the process was to decide if and how National parks should be established. In that sense the process was part of and adaptive, iterative planning process, because this question was addressed at national, local and then again national level. There was a great degree of complexity and uncertainty, as during the pilot project phase it was uncertain if pilot projects would ever be implemented.

Oyaas, Gitao, C.G., others. National PPR co-ordination meeting. Naivasha: KARLO; 2017.minutes-_ppr_coordination_meeting__dti.docx
Karimurio. "National Prevention of Blindness Programmes and VISION 2020; Africa programme: Kenya." J Comm Eye Health. 2000;13:53-54. Abstract

The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70
Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "National Soil and Water Conservation Programme, Sida Evaluation 96/25. Department for Natural Resources and the Environment, Sweden.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "National Soil and Water Conservation Programme, Sida Evaluation 96/25. Department for Natural Resources and the Environment, Sweden.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "National Standards and Environmental Pollution.". In: paper presented at a Seminar organized by Kenya Bureau of Standards on National Standards and Technology for Development. Hotel Oceanic, Mombasa , 1982. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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M MRKARANJAJAMES. "National Statistical System Financial Management Manual.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study are consistent with those already documented for Caucasian, Asian and African females
G R, L O. National Study on Adolescent Reproductive Health Issues. Nairobi: Voluntary Agency for Local Initiatives Development ; 1999.
"National Transfer Account for Kenya: The economic lifecycle in 1994.". In: Population aging and generational economy. Elgar Edwards; 2011.
Mwabu G, Soyibo A, Olaniyan, Muriithi M. "National Transfer Accounts for Kenya and Nigeria: Some Estimation ." African Statistical Journal. 2012;15.
Muriithi MK. "National transfer Accounts for Kenya: the economic lifecycle in 1994.". In: Population Aging and the Generational economy: A global perspective.; 2011.
M ENGDROGOLAJULIUS. "National workshop on farm tools and equipment technology, basic needs and employment, Nairobi, Kenya 15.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1985. Abstract

The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "National, Institutional Coordination, Monitoring and Evaluation of Open Learning and Distance Education Policy.". In: National Consultative Forum on Policy for Open Learning and Distance Education held at Windsor Golf and Country Club Nairobi . Thought and Practice; 2004. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Nationalisation of Terrorism: National Responses to Terrorism through National Legislation.". In: Maria Nzomo & M. Mwagiru (eds). University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Peace and Conflict Management in Kenya (Nairobi: CCR, 2003)
Achola MA. "Nationalism and the Struggle for Independence in Kenya.". In: The Contribution of the Luo and Abaluyia. Naivasha; 2006.
R.M O. "Nationalism in Africa." CPK guest house, Nairobi; 1997.
ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "Nationalism in Africa and Other Third World Countries.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
Wanyande P. "Nationalism In Kenya: Weakening the Ties that Bind." Maseno University Journal. 2012;volume 1:pp207-219.
Patel NB. "Natural Amphetamine” Khat: A Cultural Tradition or a Drug of Abuse?.". In: International Review of Neurobiology, Vol. 120. Burlington: Academic Press; 2015.
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU. "Natural and artificial radioactivity levels in sediments along the Kenyan Coast Radiation Physics and Chemistry.". In: 71(2004) 805-806. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Mwangi, J.W., KAAYA, G.P., ESSUMAN S. "Natural and experimental infection of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus with pathogens and their potential for control of ticks." Journal of African Zoology. 1995;109:151-160.
CO A, PM N, LW. I. "Natural and experimental studies on domestic animal infections with visceral and cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:292-297.
N. WRP. "Natural Besnoitiosis in a Rabbit." Veterinary Parasitology. 1993.
Minja EM;, Shanower TG;, Ongaro JM;, Nderitu HJ;, Songa JM. "Natural Enemies Associated With Arthropod Pests Of Pigeon Pea In Easter Africa.".; 1999.
Shanower TG,; Ongaro JM;;, Nderitu JH, Songa J. "Natural enemies associated with arthropod pests of pigeon pea in Easter Africa. International Chickpea and Pigeon pea .". In: Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics . JKUAT; 2001.
Stoof KR, Junginger A, Olaka LA, Tiedemann R, Trauth MH. "Natural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record over the last two centuries." Journal of Paleolimnology. 2011;45:353-367.
Stoof-Leichsenring KR, Junginger A, Olaka LA, Tiedemann R, Trauth MH. "Natural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record over the last two centuries.". 2012. AbstractNatural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record ove

Lake Naivasha, Kenya, is one of a number of freshwater lakes in the East African Rift System. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, it has experienced greater anthropogenic influence as a result of increasingly intensive farming of coffee, tea, flowers, and other horticultural crops within its catchment. The water-level history of Lake Naivasha over the past 200years was derived from a combination of instrumental records and sediment data. In this study, we analysed diatoms in a lake sediment core to infer past lacustrine conductivity and total phosphorus concentrations. We also measured total nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the sediments. Core chronology was established by 210Pb dating and covered a ~186-year history of natural (climatic) and human-induced environmental changes. Three stratigraphic zones in the core were identified using diatom assemblages. There was a change from littoral/epiphytic diatoms such as Gomphonema gracile and Cymbella muelleri, which occurred during a prolonged dry period from ca. 1820 to 1896 AD, through a transition period, to the present planktonic Aulacoseira sp. that favors nutrient-rich waters. This marked change in the diatom assemblage was caused by climate change, and later a strong anthropogenic overprint on the lake system. Increases in sediment accumulation rates since 1928, from 0.01 to 0.08gcm−2year−1 correlate with an increase in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations since the beginning of the twentieth century. The increase in phosphorus accumulation suggests increasing eutrophication of freshwater Lake Naivasha. This study identified two major periods in the lake’s history: (1) the period from 1820 to 1950 AD, during which the lake was affected mainly by natural climate variations, and (2) the period since 1950, during which the effects of anthropogenic activity overprinted those of natural climate variation.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Natural Hazards and the Art of Forecasting.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2009.
Kiboi JG. "Natural History and Outcome of an Aneurysmal SAH." Natural History and Outcome of an Aneurysmal SAH. 2013.
Gasper MA, Kunwar P, Itaya G, Lejarcegui N, Bosire R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Slyker J, Overbaugh J, Horton H, Sodora DL, John-Stewart G, Lohman-Payne B. "Natural killer cell and T-cell subset distributions and activation influence susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 infection." AIDS. 2014;28(8):1115-24. Abstract

To determine neonatal immunologic factors that correlate with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "NATURAL KILLER CELLS AND SELECTED ENZYME/ METABOLITE PROFILES IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS (Mecha, Ezekiel Onyonka. (MSc. Hons), UON.". In: M.Sc. Thesis.; 1989. Abstract

Abstract   Acquired immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. It effects all sectors of the community namely education, military, health, transport and communication. To date, it is estimated that 40 million people are infected with the virus globally of which 28.5 million resides in Sub Saharan Africa   This study sought to evaluate the role of Natural killer cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. It

Wanjiku Ng'ang'a, Anni Laine LC. Natural Language Generation from OpenMath.; 2006. Abstract
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Githiri SM, Kimani PM, Saxena KB. "Natural out-crossing in dwarf pigeonpea."; 1991. Abstract

Natural out-crossing rate in pigeonpea was studied at ICRISAT Center using plant stature (tall plants in dwarf progenies) as the genetic marker. The data indicated natural out-crossing rates of 9.7% to 24.1% with a pooled value of 13.1% in the six populations studied. These data were comparable to earlier studies at the same site using stem colour and growth habit as genetic markers in tall pigeonpea cultivars thus suggesting that foraging of insect pollination vectors is not influenced by plant type. The implications of natural out-crossing on breeding and maintenance of genetic purity of cultivars is discussed.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Natural outcrossing in dwarf pigeonpea. Euphytica: 53: 37 - 39.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

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