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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Bold Fearless Account of Kenya's Recent Political History", A Review of Joseph Karimi and Philip Ochieng, The Kenyatta Succession, Nairobi (Transafrica) 1980, 195 pages, in Nairobi Times.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1980. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""A Case for Improved Housing" Construction Review Journal of the Construction Industry, Vol. 13 No. 10 pp. 53-55 January 2003.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2003.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""A Case for Stylistics in Literary Scholarship: Review of Niyi Osundare, Cautious Paths through the Bramble" The Nairobi Journal of Literature 4 (March 2006): 83-89.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 4 (March 2006): 83-89. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""A Comment on Kenyan Migration Movement", Eastern Africa Economic Review, 3:2, pp. 143-145.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'A Concept Brief on Methodologies of "Mass" Civic Education for Constitutional Review'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""A critical Look at Some Common Methods Used in Urban and Housing Research" paper presented to the International Conference on Housing Policy, Amsterdam, 27th June to 1st July, 1988.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""A Food and Nutrition Policy for Kenya" (with Siegfried Schornherr); paper for the Kenya Delegation to the United Nations Wolrd Food Conference, Rome, November 506, 1974, IDS Working Paper No. 242.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1975. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
MARY MWIANDI. ""A historical Perspective of Indigenous Food Crops in Chuka Division, Tharaka-Nithi District" in the role of indigenous food crops in combating deforestation and land degradation: a case of Tharaka Nithi District.". In: Paper presented at the African Studies Association, Chicago. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1996. Abstract

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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""A History of the Kikuyu to 1904", Ph.D. thesis, University of London.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1969. Abstract
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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Lesson from the Soviet Union", A Review of Chingiz Aitomotov's novel Farewell Gul'Sary in Busara II, 3, 44-49.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1971. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Literary Supplement", Joliso 1, 2:1-10.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""A Market Survey of Commercial Properties in Nairobi", a consultancy project undertaken for Milligan and Company Limited, December, 1992.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1992. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""A Model of Occupational Choice Applied to Rural Kenya," (with Robert E. Evenson), African Development Review, 9:2(1997), pp. 7-14.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""A Nearest Neighbour Analysis of the Mijikenda Kaya Settlements on the Hinterland Kenya Coast", Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C., Social Sciences, of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences Vol. 1.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C., Social Sciences, of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences Vol. 1. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A New simplified and Reliable HEMT Modelling Approach Using Pinched Cold FET S-Paramcters", IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Boston, June 2000 (main author).". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2000. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A New simplified and Reliable HEMT Modelling Approach Using Pinched Cold FET S-Paramcters", IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Boston, June 2000 (main author).". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2000. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Percecuted Poet from the Far East", A Review of Cry the People and Other Poems, by Kim Chi Ha in Maktaba III, 2, 67-72.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1976. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""A Preliminary Comment on th Independence of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights".". In: In Volume 2 Number 2 East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy p. 120-127. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A Spectral Subtraction Method for Noise Reduction in Speech Signals", IEEE African Conference, May 1996 (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1996. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A Spectral Subtraction Method for Noise Reduction in Speech Signals", IEEE African Conference, May 1996 (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1996. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A. A. M. Wasike, W. Ogana: Periodic solutions of a system of delay differential equations for a small delay.". In: Journal of Science Research . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A. A. M. WASIKE: An analytical and numerical study of a system of Linearly Two Coupled Oscillators with a time Lag in the coupling;.". In: Proceedings of the first conference of the Kenya Mathematical Society 1993: 27-28. Ed. Ogana & Mberia. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A. A. M. Wasike: Periodic solutions of systems of delay differential equations.". In: Indian Journal of Mathematics Vol. 44 No. 1 95-117 (2002). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A. A. M. Wasike: Synchronization and Oscillator death in diffusively coupled lattice oscillators.". In: International Journal of Mathematical Sciences Vol. 2 No. 1 (2003), 67-82. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "A. Abate, J.W. Wakhungu and E.R. Mutiga.(1992). Effects of nutrients supplementation on ruminant animal production and reproduction in Sub-Saharan Africa. Page 415.". In: a paper presented at the all africa conference on animal agriculture: achievements,challenges and prospects, November 23-27, 1992, Nairobi, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "A. Blackwell, A.E Stuart, B.A. Estambale (2003). The repellent and antifeedant activity of Myrica Gale oil against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and its enhancement by the addition of salicyluric acid. J.R. Coll. Physicians Edinb. 33: 209 .". In: J.R. Coll. Physicians Edinb. 33: 209 . Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
As part of a larger study on the effects of permethrin-impregnated bednets on the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, subjects from 12 villages in the Coastal province of Kenya, south of Mombasa, were investigated. The aims were to update the epidemiological data and elucidate the spatial distribution of W. bancrofti infection. Samples of night blood from all the villagers aged i 1 year were checked for the parasite, and all the adult villagers (aged >/= 15 years) were clinically examined for elephantiasis and, if male, for hydrocele. Overall, 16.0% of the 6531 villagers checked for microfilariae (mff) were found microfilaraemic, although the prevalence of microfilaraemia in each village varied from 8.1%-27.4%. The geometric mean intensity of infection among the microfilaraemic was 322 mff/ml blood. At village level, intensity of the microfilaraemia was positively correlated with prevalence, indicating that transmission has a major influence on the prevalence of microfilaraemia. Clinical examination of 2481 adults revealed that 2.9% had elephantiasis of the leg and that 19.9% of the adult men (10.8%-30.1% of the men investigated in each village) had hydrocele. Although the overall prevalence of microfilaraemia in the study villages had not changed much since earlier studies in the 1970s, both prevalence and intensity varied distinctly between the study villages. Such geographical variation over relatively short distances appears to be a common but seldom demonstrated feature in the epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis, and the focal nature of the geographical distribution should be carefully considered by those mapping the disease.
"A. K. M. Kuria, S. De Coster, G. Muriuki, W. Maseng o, I.O. Kibwage , J. Hoogmartens, and G.M. Laekeman. Antimalarial activity of Ajuga remota Benth (Labiat ae) and Caesalpina volkensii in-vitro confirmation of e thnopharmacological use ." J. Ethnopharmacology . 2001;74:141-148. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles

O PROFOWINOJOHN. "A. M. Achola, N. J. Muthama & J. O. Owino(2006): Influence of Weather on the Insurance Industry in Kenya:.". In: African J. of Sci. & Technol. Vol. 7, No.,pp 112-120. 1999; 2006. Abstract
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ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, D. O. Orinda: Focal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of Steele .". In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 49: 957- 959, 1986. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, H. J. Rogers, S. A. Amiel, and R. D. Rubens: The effect of acetylator phenotype On the dispostion of aminoglutethimide . British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 18:495-505, 1984.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Oct;18(4):495-505. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, I. D. Bradbrook, H. J. Rogers: The simultaneous assay of aminoglutethimide and Its acetyl metabolite by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology . 15: 176-178, 1985.". In: Journal of Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology . 15: 176-178, 1985. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, J Nganga and C Muthaura: The profile of N-acetylator status in healthy African volunteers. E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Neurological manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in a Large teaching hospital in Africa. Advances in Neurology. J. S. Chopra et al editors, Amsterdam Elsevier science publishers, 1999.". In: J. S. Chopra et al editors, Amsterdam Elsevier science publishers, 1999. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999. Abstract
The prevalence of antibodies against Leishmania donovani in selected domestic and wild animal species in 2 villages in Sudan with active L. donovani transmission in humans was investigated. Screening of domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep, goats, camels and dogs) with the direct agglutination test (DAT) detected reaction rates above the cut-off titres in donkeys (68.7%), cows (21.4%) and goats (8.5%), and which were also found in wild rats (5.5%). Sera of sheep, camels and dogs had a weak agglutination reaction below the cut-off titre. Testing of the same sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), against a lysate of L. donovani promastigotes, showed reaction rates above the cut-off optical density in cows (47.6%), goats (13.6%), and in rats (4.1%). No Leishmania parasite was isolated from spleen, liver, bone-marrow or spleen of Nile rats.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, P. F. Atkinson, S. M.Hall, R. A. C. Hughes, and W. A. Taylor: Chronic Experimental allergic neuritis in Lewis rats. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 15: 249-264, 1989.". In: Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1989 May-Jun;15(3):249-64. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
An experimental chronic relapsing demyelinating neuropathy was produced by immunizing adult Lewis rats with bovine myelin in low (2.5 mg) and high (5 mg) doses, with and without Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the adjuvant. Each regime produced a similar disease course: acute severe hind limb weakness was followed by apparent recovery and then reappearance of mild neurological deficit with occasional spontaneous exacerbations. The partially recovered animals were relatively resistant to reimmunization with myelin. Immunization of four-week-old rats with myelin in complete adjuvant produced disease with a similar course. Subsequent immunization of these juvenile rats with adjuvant alone precipitated exacerbations. In the late stages, the prominent changes in peripheral nerves and nerve roots were axon loss, axonal regeneration and remyelination while inflammatory cell infiltration was confined to occasional foci. Onion bulb formation was extremely common in the dorsal root ganglia and affected in particular the nerve fibres close to the dorsal root ganglion cells. The cells forming the onion bulbs resembled the satellite cells surrounding the axon hillocks. Onion bulb formation also occurred in the portion of the ventral roots adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion but was rare elsewhere. Immunocytochemistry revealed only occasional lymphocyte infiltration but there was increased Class I and Class II MHC antigen expression throughout the peripheral nervous system. The results are relevant to the interpretation of biopsies from patients with chronic demyelinating neuropathy of possible inflammatory or autoimmune origin.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Progressive multi-system degeneration : Report of five cases. Health Line 1: 82 .". In: Report of five cases. Health Line 1: 82 . Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, R. C. Hughes, J. Payan, I. McColl: Peripheral neuropathy and hyperthamia Lancet I : 1270-1271, 1987.". In: Lancet I : 1270-1271, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, S. M. Bhatt. and L. S. Otieno: Behcet.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Aug;64(8):558-60. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, Subacute demyelinating polyneuropathy in twelve Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositive patients in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Neurosciences. 1: 92-92, 1993.". In: African Journal of Neurosciences. 1: 92-92, 1993. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract

Increasing numbers of HIV-infected adults in Africa need hospital care. It remains unclear what impact this has on health care services or on how hospitals respond. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a rising case load of adult HIV-related disease by comparing results from a prospective cross-sectional study of acute adult medical admissions to a government hospital in Nairobi conducted in 1992 with results from a previous study done in 1988 and 1989 in the same hospital, using the same study design and protocol. Data on age, gender, number admitted, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared. In 1992, 374 consecutive patients were admitted in 15 24-hour periods (24.9 patients/period) compared with the 1988 to 1989 study, which enrolled 506 patients in 22 24-hour periods (23.0 patients/period). Patients' age, gender, and length of hospital stay were similar in both studies. In 1992, 39% of patients were HIV-positive compared with 19% in 1988 to 1989 (p < 10(-6)); whereas seropositive admissions rose 123% between the two periods (p < .0001), HIV-negative admissions declined 18% (p < .05). Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified <40% of HIV-positive patients. Irrespective of HIV status, tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys. No change was found in the diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients, but in HIV-negative patients, reductions were significant in the case mix (p < .00001) and range of diagnoses (p < .001) seen in 1992. Outcome remained unchanged for HIV-positive patients with approximately 35% mortality in both surveys. Outcome significantly worsened, in relative and absolute terms, for HIV-negative patients: in 1992, mortality was 23%, compared with 13.9% in 1988 to 1989 (p < .005), with 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period in 1992 compared with 2.6 deaths per 24-hour period in 1988 to 1989 (p < .05, one-tailed). These data suggest that increasing selection for admission is taking place as demand for care increases because of HIV/AIDS. This process appears to favor HIV-positive patients at the expense of HIV-negative patients who seem to be crowded out and, once admitted, experience higher mortality rates. The true social costs of the HIV epidemic are underestimated by not including the effects on HIV-negative people. PIP: The impact of the escalating demand for HIV/AIDS-related care on hospital services in Nairobi, Kenya, was investigated in two prospective cross-sectional studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data on age, gender, number of admissions, length of stay, HIV status, clinical AIDS, final diagnosis, case mix, and outcome were compared in a 1988-89 study that enrolled 506 consecutive patients in a total of 22 24-hour periods and in a 1992 study of 374 patients admitted in 15 24-hour periods. 18.7% of hospital patients in 1988-89 were HIV-positive compared with 38.5% in 1992, with a concomitant decline of 18% in the number of HIV-negative admissions. Clinical surveillance for AIDS consistently identified less than 40% of HIV-positive patients. Tuberculosis and pneumococcal pneumonia were the leading diagnoses in both surveys among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Diagnoses recorded for HIV-positive patients did not change over time; however, among HIV-negative patients, there was a significant narrowing in the range of diagnoses seen. Mortality among HIV-positive patients remained constant at 35% in both surveys. Among HIV-negative patients, mortality increased from 13.9% in 1988-89 to 23% in 1992 (2.6 and 3.5 deaths per 24-hour period, respectively). These findings suggest that increasing demand for hospital care by HIV-positive patients has been accompanied by deteriorating conditions for HIV-negative patients, especially an admissions selection process that favors HIV/AIDS patients. Recommended to address the worsening crisis in health care delivery are general guidelines on admission criteria that neither crowd out HIV-negative patients nor discriminate against those with HIV/AIDS.

ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. And H. J. Rogers: Gas-liquid chromatographic assay of aminoglutethimide And high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of its acetyl metabolite in biological Fluids. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1985;15(2):176-8. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985. Abstract
A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. Co-author in Multi Center trial of azathioprine in Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. I: 179-183, 1988.". In: Lancet. I: 179-183, 1988. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM. Multiple sclerosis and epidemic in Kenya. 12: East Afr Med J. 1989 Aug;66(8):503-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Aug;66(8):503-6. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989. Abstract
Over a period of five years, November, 1983 to October, 1988 six cases of definite multiple sclerosis were identified at Kenyatta National Hospital. Four were females and two were males. Age of onset of disease ranged from 12 years to 30 years. Their mode of presentation, clinical features and prognosis is the same as that of multiple sclerosis seen at higher latitudes. The consequences of misdiagnosis to the patient is discussed. A theory is put forward to explain the increased numbers of MS seen recently as compared to the past decades.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM: Skull radiographic measurements of normals and patients with basilar impression Use of Landzert.". In: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. Vol. 9 issue 3, 1987. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987. Abstract

One hundred normal lateral skull radiographs were studied and those of ten patients with basilar impression attending Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi. The mean shortest distance of the odontoid tip to McGregor's basal line was 1.2 +/- 2.28 mm below the basal line (range 6 mm below to 3 mm above basal line), in normals and 9 +/- 2.7 mm (6-14 mm) above basal line in patients. The mean basal angle was 113 degrees +/- 7 degrees (102 degrees-133 degrees) in normals and 122 degrees +/- 6 degrees (113 degrees-125 degrees) in patients. The mean nasion-basion-opisthion angle was 162 degrees +/- 4 degrees (154 degrees-169 degrees) in normals and 178 degrees +/- 5 degrees (173 degrees-185 degrees) in patients. The mean total length of clivus was 48 +/- 3.7 mm (43-56 mm) in normals and 44 +/- 6.6 (36-48 mm) in patients group. The mean median diameter of the foramen magnum was 39 +/- 5 mm (30-48 mm), atlas 21 +/- 3 mm (18-25 mm) axis 18 +/- 3 mm (14-23 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 2 mm (13-22 mm) in normals and in patients: 39 +/- 4 mm (36-45 mm), atlas 23 +/- 6 (15-30 mm) axis 19 +/- 4 mm (16-25 mm), third cervical vertebra 16 +/- 3 (14-20). There was a significant difference in the position of the odontoid tip and the nasion-basion-opisthion angle between the normal and patient groups. All the other parameters measured in this work did not differ significantly between the two groups.

PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "A. N. Ngari, J. I. Kinyamario, M. J. Ntiba and K. M. Mavuti, 2008, Factors affecting abundance and distribution of submerged and floating macrophytes in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press).". In: African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "A. N. Ngari, J. I. Kinyamario, M. J. Ntiba and K. M. Mavuti, 2008, Factors affecting abundance and distribution of submerged and floating macrophytes in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press).". In: African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "A. OMEGA and P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Suitability of the faecal egg sedimentation (FEST) as a quantitative diagnostic technique for fasciolosis in sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th - 31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "A. R. Pakar, H. S. Adala, K. H. M. Kollmann The prevalence of dry eye syndrome in blacks aged above forty years East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11., No. 1 (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11., No. 1 (2002). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "A. W. Mwang.". In: Plant Pathology Journal 6(2): 141-146 (2007). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2007. Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "A. W. Mwang.". In: . Plant Pathology Journal 6(3): 235-241 (2007). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2007. Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "A. W. Mwang.". In: in . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2002. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings vol. 5: 123-128, 2001 (ISSN 1023-070X). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2001. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "A. W. Mwang.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1998. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "A. W. Mwango.". In: Plant Pathology journal 6 (2): 141-146.2007. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "A.A. Ogacho, B.O. Aduda and F.W. Nyongesa (Dec. ), Thermal Shock Behaviour of a Kaolinite Refractory Prepared Using a Natural Organic Binder,.". In: Journal of Materials Science, 41(24) 8276 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
M. DRWASIKEADUA. "A.A.M. Wasike, N. R.Ndungu., G.P. Pokhariyal: Global asymptotic behaviour of Aquatic Vegetation in a system with periodic Nutrient supply,.". In: African journal of science ant Technology (AJST) Vol. 7 No.4 (2006), 41-50. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo and J. Akong'a - Eds. Family change and human development in Kenya Fertility, Mortality and Culture.". In: Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "A.dynamical model for stage-specific HIV incidences with application to sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computation Vol. 146, page. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "A.G Thaiyah, P.N Nyaga, J.M Maribei, D Nduati, P.G Mbuthia, T.A Ngatia. 2010. Experimental solanum incanum l. poisoning in goats.Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 58: 35-43.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol 58, No 1. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.G. Thaiya, S.M. Ndurumo, J.K. Wabacha. Suspected Nitrate/Nitrite poisoning in stall-fed dairy Cattle resulting from consumption of Amaranthus Plants.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Kenya veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "A.G. Thaiya, S.M. Ndurumo, J.K. Wabacha. Suspected Nitrate/Nitrite poisoning in stall-fed dairy Cattle resulting from consumption of Amaranthus Plants.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "A.K. Chirchir, J.W.Kimenju, F.M. Olubayo and G.K. Mutua 2008. Abundance and distribution of Plant parasitic Nematodes associated with sugarcane in Western Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of plant pathology 2(1) 48-53. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.K. Maina, J.K Muthee, Thaiya, A.G and V.T. Tsuma (1991). An outbreak of progressive cataracts of an undetermined cause in a herd of dairy cows.The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences vol. 61 no. 11.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A.M. ADAM. Unusual form of motor neuron disease in Kenya. 10: East Afr Med J. 1992 Feb;69(2):55-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Feb;69(2):55-7. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992. Abstract
Over the period November 1978 to October 1988, 46 cases of motor neuron disease were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. One case was seen in private practice. A bimodal age distribution of the disease was identified with a peak in the fourth decade of life and another peak in the sixth decade of life. The disease seen in the fourth decade of life was different as seen in other parts of the world in that the majority of patients tended to present with very rapidly progressive disease despite the primary presentation with limb symptoms and signs. Serum cholinesterase activity in five of these patients and five of the classical motor neuron disease revealed no abnormalities. This unusually rapidly progressive disease in young adults has not been described anywhere. The disease seen in older age groups and especially in patients over fifty years of age was not different from the one seen in other parts of the world.
MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "A.M. Kemoli. Prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in six to eight year-olds in two rural divisions in Kenya. E. Afr Med J 2008; 85 (10): 514 .". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. E Afr Med J; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) and any associated causes of MIH in children from two rural divisions in Kenya. Design: Prospective cross-section study. Setting: Seventeen primary schools in Matungulu and Kangundo divisions of Machakos district in Kenya. Participants: All 6 to 8 year-olds in the seventeen primary schools. Results: A total of 3,591 children (55.6% males and 44.4% females) were examined for MIH. All the children were from a low socioeconomic community with little access to proper medical/dental health care. The prevalence of MIH was 13.73%, with a female to male ratio of 3:1. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH is high in the study population and is probably associated with the poor health conditions that the children went through at the most venerable period of between birth and age 3 years.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "A.M. Okeyo and R.A. Aman. 2000. Characterization of indigenous Kenyan fat-tailed and fat-rumped sheep breeds: Levels of diversity in blood proteins. In Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Mediciene, University of Naorobi on A.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Mediciene, University of Naorobi. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2000. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "A.N. Guantai, J.W. Mwangi, Gichuru Muriuki and K.A.M. Kuria (1987). Effects of the active constituents of Catha edulis on the neuromuscular junction. Neuropharmacology 26(5), 401 - 405.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "A.N. Guantai, J.W. Mwangi, Gichuru Muriuki and K.A.M. Kuria (1987). Effects of the active constituents of Catha edulis on the neuromuscular junction. Neuropharmacology 26(5), 401 - 405.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "A.N. Maina, T.A. Ngatia, D.I. Karioki, P.K. Gathumbi, T.A. Abuom, P.N. Gitonga and V.T. Chemis (2006). Ventricular encephalitis associated with Leukemic lymphosarcoma in a bovine calf. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109.". In: Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2006. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
"A.O. MAIMA, G.N. THOITHI, S.N. NDWIGAH, F.N. KAMAUI ,O. KIBWAGE. Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm.". 2008. Abstract

Two sterols, P-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of
Combretum fragrans,__The identity of these .compounds was established by-spectral
analysis.

M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "A.P. Wade*, P.M. Shiundu. and P.D. Wentzell: .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XVII, Cleveland, October 1990. AWC and FES; 1988. Abstract
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MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Aasrum E, Ng'ang'a PM, Dahm S, Ogaard B. Tensile bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a fluoride-releasing light-curing adhesive. An in vitro comparative study.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993 Jul;104(1):48-50. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A light-curing, fluoride-releasing adhesive (VP 862, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) for bonding of brackets has been produced for inhibition of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. The tensile bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months was investigated and compared with two other light-curing adhesives (Transbond, 3M Corp., Monrovia, Calif., and Heliosit-Orthodontic, Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and two chemical-curing adhesives (Concise, 3M, Monrovia Calif., and Saga Bond, Saga Orthodontics, Kongsvinger, Norway). All adhesives produced adequate strength to be recommended for clinical use. The light-curing adhesives produced slightly lower bond strengths after 24 hours and 6 months, except Transbond, which showed an increase in bond strength in this period approaching the two chemical adhesives.
Mwonga PV, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, R. Gateru, Mwabora J. Ab-initio Studies of Point Defects in : A Density Functional Approach. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide has been intensively studied as a wide band gap transition metal oxide due to its n-type semi-conducting property which makes it to have many applications in industry. Some of the observed conductivity arises from its intrinsic point defects. The structural properties and electronic band structures of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) phases, have been investigated using ab-initio methods. The structural properties were obtained using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets. For the two phases of TiO2, the calculated equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli and bond lengths were found to be in good agreement with other recent theoretical calculations and also with experimental data. After introduction of various defects to the perfect super cell, the Ti-O bond lengths were altered greatly. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.959 Å to a range of values (1.718 - 1.861) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.006 Å to a range of values (2.072 - 2.231 ) Å for rutile TiO2. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.956 Å to a range of values (1.782 - 1.830) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.050 Å to a range of values (2.112 - 2.214) Å, for anatase TiO2. Also altered were Ti-O-Ti angles, from the two constants (99.93, 131.04)° to a range of values (88.86 - 95.69 and 132.01 - 143.49)° for rutile TiO2. For anatase TiO2, Ti- O-Ti angles changed from the two constants (103.81, 152.39)° to a range of values (93.59 - 149.91 and 156.74 - 176.05)°. Electronic properties were investigated too. Perfect rutile and anatase super cells gave band gaps of 2.24 eV and 2.44 eV, respectively, underground-state conditions. Valence bandwidths (VB) and conduction bandwidths (CB) were also obtained for both phases. VB of 5.6 eV and CB of 1.654 eV were observed for rutile TiO2, while VB of 4.76 eV and CB of 2.35 eV were observed for anatase TiO2; all in good agreement with experimental values. This study also investigated the defect formation enthalpies of Frenkel and Schottky defects in both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. This study also considered point defect stability in rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. The formation energies for oxygen and titanium atoms, defects were found to be in agreement with the experimental values, especially the case of rutile oxygen atom vacancy. Both Frenkel and Schottky defects were found to induce new energy states in titanium dioxide. Normally band gaps are reduced in defective TiO2 crystals, and in this study, reduced energy band gaps were reported for all the defective super cells. In rutile, the metal oxide gaps were found to almost vanish due to the presence of oxygen atom vacancy, oxygen atom Frenkel and titanium Frenkel defects. These gave direct energy band gaps: 0.35 eV, 0.207 eV and 0.327 eV, respectively. Defects in anatase phase showed a similar trend, with the least energy band gap being reported for the case titanium interstitial (0.041 eV, which is indirect). With such infinitesimal gaps, these otherwise insulating oxides can with ease become conducting metal oxides, by either increasing the temperatures or pressure since these calculations were done at 0 K and 0 pressure. It can thus be said that intrinsic point defects in titanium dioxide do contribute to the improvement of the electrical conductivity of this oxide.

Kivai JM, Guantai AN, Mwanda WO, Maitho TE. "Abandonment of treatment and loss to follow up: a potential cause of treatment failure in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(4):156-160. Abstract2015_-_abandonment_of_treatment_and_ltfu_aids_karposis.pdf

Background: Management of patients with cancer is complex, multi-disciplinary, longitudinal and costly. Abandonment of treatment by patients and loss to follow up is a common scenario, especially in resource poor countries and severely compromises health outcomes.

Objective: To assess the commitment to drug treatment protocol of patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, over a 10 week period .

Methods: The study design was prospective, observational, cross-sectional period prevalence study on patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma were sequentially enrolled into the study as they attended either the Haematology or Radiotherapy clinic or during their admission in the wards. The choice of the treatment protocol was left at the discretion of the attending physician. A pretested data collection form was used to collect demographic and clinical information about the patients, including treatments prescribed and completion of follow up.

Results: A total of 74 patients were enrolled into the study, 42 (56.8%) males and 32 (43.2%) females. The age ranged between 13 years to 55 years. Their treatment protocols included: Vincristine only, Vincristine plus Bleomycin, Vincristine plus Bleomycin plus Doxorubicin, Radiotherapy plus Vincristine and Radiotherapy only. Few of the patients were not assigned any antitumor treatment. Antiemetic and other conventional medicines were also prescribed when necessary. Fifty four (73%) of the patients abandoned treatment, five (6.8%) died, 15(20.3%) continued to attend clinic over the 10 week period. There was no significant association between sex and outcome (p=0.661).

Discussion: The results of this study demonstrate that abandonment of treatment is a major problem among patients on treatment for cancer in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. Abandonment of treatment heavily contributes to poor clinical outcome hence complicating the burden of cancer in the country. It is therefore important to develop and establish follow-up systems to improve adherence to treatment for the cancer patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Key words: Abandonment of treatment, Loss to follow up, AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma

WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Abate, A., Kogi-Makau, W. and Muroki, N.M. Hygiene and Health Seeking Behaviour of Households as Predictors of Nutritional Insecurity among Preschool Children in Urban Slums in Ethiopia- The Case of Addis-Ababa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Abate, A., M.M. Wanyoike, M.S. Badamana and A.N. Abate (1989). Towards improving animal production in the Rangelands. In: proceedings of the 16th Grassland congress, Niece, France. Vol. 2pp. 1613 .". In: In: proceedings of the 16th Grassland congress, Niece, France. Vol. 2pp. 1613 . Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1989.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Abate. A, J.W. Wakhungu, and A.N. Said (1995). Cattle, Goats, Sheep and Camel Production on Range. The Kenya Experience. Bull. Animal Hlth, Prod. Afri. 43: 145-158.". In: Paper presented for APSK symposium 7th-8th March, 2001 Egerton University Njoro, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995.
Nansen P, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO. "An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in Kiambu District, Kenya from August 1992 to July 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. The nematodes were, in order of prevalence: Haemonchus placei (67.0%), Cooperia pectinata (53.0%), Cooperia punctata (41.7%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), Trichostrongylus axei (24.3%), Nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), Trichuris globulosa (9.7%) and Strongyloides papillosus (3.6%). The intensity of the nematode infection was moderate; the mean burden being less than 7000 worms. H. placei accounted, on average, for 52.3% of the total burden. The total burden was least during the dry seasons and increased gradually during the rainy seasons. Adult H. placei persisted in the host throughout the year and there was no indication of hypobiosis. The heaviest gastrointestinal worm burdens were detected in 1.5- to 3-year-old animals. These findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

"An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya.". 1998. Abstract

The gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in Kiambu District, Kenya from August 1992 to July 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. The nematodes were, in order of prevalence: Haemonchus placei (67.0%), Cooperia pectinata (53.0%), Cooperia punctata (41.7%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), Trichostrongylus axei (24.3%), Nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), Trichuris globulosa (9.7%) and Strongyloides papillosus (3.6%). The intensity of the nematode infection was moderate; the mean burden being less than 7000 worms. H. placei accounted, on average, for 52.3% of the total burden. The total burden was least during the dry seasons and increased gradually during the rainy seasons. Adult H. placei persisted in the host throughout the year and there was no indication of hypobiosis. The heaviest gastrointestinal worm burdens were detected in 1.5- to 3-year-old animals. These findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The ABC of Gender Analysis, Ed. Kabira W. Masheti M. FAWE/UNESCO Publication, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1995. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. "Abdallah F K , Mwanda W O, .". In: Africa Sanguine . 2006 ; 9;1;1 1-6. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To document the impact of fixed dose weight adjusted filgastrim (G-CSF) in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric Oncology Unit at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All paediatric oncology patients who had developed cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following were documented for every tissue proven case of malignancy; age, sex, type of malignancy, treatment regimen and schedule, initial blood count at the time of neutropaenia; subsequent blood counts daily for five days from day one of single dose filgastrim, and the calculated neutrophil incremental count. RESULTS: Initially eight patients with solid tumours previously treated with filgastrim revealed that cytotoxic induced neutropaenia could be ameliorated by a single dose of filgastrim. Subsequently, the study listed thirty patients. This cohort consisted of; 37% rhabdomyosarcoma, 30% Burkitts, 27% acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 6% Hodgkin's lymphoma. Increased neutrophil count after 48 hours was documented in 26 (87%) patients, with absolute neutrophil counts range of 0.5 to 31.5 x 10(9)/L. This response was significantly influenced by gender (p>0.0001), malignancy type and chemotherapy regimen (p>0.001). CONCLUSION: The study shows that chemotherapy induced neutropaenia can be alleviated by a single dose of filgastrim without adverse effects on lymphoblastic leukaemia. This study suggests that a single dose of filgastrim should be first tried in cytotoxic induced neutropaenia in the paediatric age group.

KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. "Abdallah FA .". In: EAMJ , Jan 2008 ; 85 ; 16-21. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. "Abdallah FK. Single dose filgastrim in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia in children. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):30-5.". In: ast Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):30-5. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To document the impact of fixed dose weight adjusted filgastrim (G-CSF) in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric Oncology Unit at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All paediatric oncology patients who had developed cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following were documented for every tissue proven case of malignancy; age, sex, type of malignancy, treatment regimen and schedule, initial blood count at the time of neutropaenia; subsequent blood counts daily for five days from day one of single dose filgastrim, and the calculated neutrophil incremental count. RESULTS: Initially eight patients with solid tumours previously treated with filgastrim revealed that cytotoxic induced neutropaenia could be ameliorated by a single dose of filgastrim. Subsequently, the study listed thirty patients. This cohort consisted of; 37% rhabdomyosarcoma, 30% Burkitts, 27% acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 6% Hodgkin's lymphoma. Increased neutrophil count after 48 hours was documented in 26 (87%) patients, with absolute neutrophil counts range of 0.5 to 31.5 x 10(9)/L. This response was significantly influenced by gender (p>0.0001), malignancy type and chemotherapy regimen (p>0.001). CONCLUSION: The study shows that chemotherapy induced neutropaenia can be alleviated by a single dose of filgastrim without adverse effects on lymphoblastic leukaemia. This study suggests that a single dose of filgastrim should be first tried in cytotoxic induced neutropaenia in the paediatric age group.

ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Abdel Malek AK, Ahmed AM et al. 1990. Prediction of stature from hand measurements. Forensic Sc Internat. 64:181-187. Ireland.". In: Forensic Sc Internat. 64:181-187. Ireland. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Abdel Malek AK, Mukherjee D, Roche AF. 1985. A method of constructing an index of obesity. Hum. Biol. 57(3):415-430. USA.". In: Hum. Biol. 57(3):415-430. USA. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Abdel Malek AK, Saleh MN, Aly YA, Ahmed MG, Tohamy A. 1995. Brain changes with age on computed tomography. Age & Nutrition. 6(2):93-98. France.". In: Age & Nutrition. 6(2):93-98. France. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract
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ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Abdel Malek AK. 1987. Skeletal maturation of boys with Down Syndrome. 5th Ann Conf Fac Med Assiut Univ. Egpyt.". In: 5th Ann Conf Fac Med Assiut Univ. Egpyt. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1987. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Abdel Malek AK. 1995. Underfed developing Purkinje cell. Age & Nutrition. 6(2):73-78. France.". In: Age & Nutrition. 6(2):73-78. France. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Abdelnour-Nocera J., Luckin, R., Waema, T. Culture as a bottom up concept to understand diversity in systems production and use.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication (CATAC), 28 June-1 July 2008, Nimes, France. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "Abdi,A.I., Wambua P.P., Githui,E.K. and Bulimo, (2007). Deposited 35 P.falciparum ebl-1 gene variants at Gene Bank. Received provisional accession numbers for each gene: EF205091-EF205127.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2007. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "Abdi,A.I., Wambua P.P., Githui,E.K. and Bulimo, W.D. Nucleotide polymorphism in reqion I of the P.falciparum ebl-1 gene in field isolated obtained form various regions of Kenya (2007) in press.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2007. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
KD O, L O. "Abdominal cocoon: A Case Report." Annals of African Surgery. 2009;4(1):36-38.
Ongeti KW. "Abdominal Tuberculosis Mimicking Annular Pancreas in an Adult .". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is rampant in Africa and can mimic other gastrointestinal diseases. Isolated duodenal involvement is rare. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas, only to be diagnosed at laparotomy. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN. "Abdulreshid A. B, Ndetei D.M, Mburu J.M, Obondo A.A, Kokonya D,.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN. "Abdulreshid A. B, Ndetei D.M, Mburu J.M, Obondo A.A, Kokonya D,.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). CHAK Times; 2006. Abstract
Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Abebaw D., K. Holm-M.". In: Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 45, No. 3: 253-268. Ogutu J.O; 2006. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
D.K O, J.W. G. "An aberrant uterus: A case report." East African Medical Journal. 2015:1-4.
MITEMA PROFSEO. "The ability of phenylbutazone and dexamethasone to modulate postoperative phenomena in cattle. Ken Vet J. 28: 29 32.". In: 4rd YES Summit at KICC, Nairobi - Kenya. BEP Electronic Press; 2005.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "The ability of Phenylbutazone and dexamethazone to modulate postoperative phenomena in cattle. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp. 29-32.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The ability of Phenylbutazone and Dexamethazone to modulate post operative tempetature, limping, joint pain and joint mobility after joint surgery in calves was assessed. Intramuscular injections of 4.4mg/kg Phenylbutazone or 0.2 mg/kg Dexamethazone were given to two groups of calves. Both Dexamethazone and Phenybutazone were effective in reducing pain, limping and fever with a tendency fo Dexamethazone to be more potent than Phenylbutazone. However there was no significant difference between the ability of Dexamethazone and Phenylbitazone to module these controlled use of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the immediate post-operative period in cattle in beneficial.

Ngeranwa JJ. "The ability of Stomoxys calcitrans and mechanical means to transmitTrypanosoma (brucei) evansi from goats to camels in Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Stomoxys calcitrans failed to transmitTrypanosoma (b.) evansi from infected goats to other goats or camels, but the trypanosomal infection was transmitted by needle prick from infected goats to camels.

ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Abinya N.A.O., Nyabola L.O, Abwao, B.O, Ndege P. Postsurgical Management of Patients with Breast Cancer at Kenyatta hospital.EastAfrican Medical Journal, 2002, 79:156 - 162.". In: EastAfrican Medical Journal, 2002, 79:156 - 162. UoN; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess post-surgical management of patients with breast cancer at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of patients treated for breast carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1989 and January 2000. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and seventy-four patients who had surgery or biopsy for breast cancer at the Kenyatta National Hospital. INTERVENTION: Chemo-hormonal therapy and/or radiotherapy for adjuvant, metastatic, or palliative purposes. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 21 patients received chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Forty-six patients received adjuvant radiotherapy and 53 had radiotherapy for palliative purposes. One hundred and twenty-six patients were given tamoxifen for adjuvant and metastatic purposes. The median duration of follow-up was 20 months. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy is grossly underutilized in the treatment of breast cancer at the Kenyatta National Hospital, and radiotherapy is also underutilized. Follow-up durations are dismal and if this is used as a surrogate measure for survival then survival durations for breast cancer patients are also dismal at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Abinya N.A.O., Nyabola L.O. Experience with Vincristine-associated neurotoxicity.East African Medical Journal 2001; 78:376.". In: East African Medical Journal 2001; 78:376. UoN; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency and severity of occurrence of vincristine-associated neurotoxicity. DESIGN: A retrospective case series study. SETTING: Hurlingham Oncology Clinic, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Thirty-eight patients treated for various neoplasms with vincristine containing chemotherapeutic regimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency and degree of neurotoxicity when vincristine was given at the standard dose of 1.4 mg/m2. RESULTS: Five patients (13.2%) developed peripheral neuropathy, one having had it even before vincristine was started. Therefore only four (10.5%) had it attributed to vincristine. Four of the patients who developed neuropathy (80%) were HIV-positive. Neuropathy grade 2 (severe) occurred in only two patients leading to discontinuation of the drug. All the neurotoxicity resolved after discontinuation of vincristine. CONCLUSION: Vincristine induced neuropathy occurred but was rarely severe at a dose of 1.4 mg/m2. It appeared to be more frequent in HIV infected individuals, but controlled studies with bigger sample sizes are required to determine whether this may warrant routine capping of the dose at a maximum of 2 mg.
ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Abinya N.A.O., Nyabola L.O. Nadir Neutrophil counts in patients treated for breast cancer with doxorubicin and cystophosphoride. East Afrina Medical Journal, 2001;78:370.". In: East Afrina Medical Journal, 2001; 78:370. UoN; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact on neutrophils if adriamycin is administered at 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at 600/m2 (AC 60/600); and at 50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2 (50/500) in the treatment of breast cancer. DESIGN: Restrospective analysis of nadir neutrophil counts in female mammary carcinoma patients treated with adriamycin/cyclophosphamide combination. SETTING: Hurlingham Oncology Clinic, Nairobi and The Nairobi Hospital between March 1995 and August 1999. SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients with breast cancer were treated either for adjuvant purposes or for metastatic disease. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide at 60/600 or 50/500. Patients were advised to avoid crowded places and given prophylactic broadspectrum antibiotics whenever grade 4 neutropenia occurred at nadir. RESULTS: Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 75.5% of treatments at 60/600 and in 56.8% of the treatments at 50/500. Febrile neutropenia followed only one treatment and did not result in death. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia is frequent and severe at A/C 60/600 and need to be watched out for. Sepsis on the other hand is prevented if meticulous attention is given and corrective measures taken. A/C 50/500 was associated with less occurrences of neutropenia though still very high. Neutropenia should therefore be checked and steps be taken to prevent sepsis even at this dosage.
ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Abinya N.A.O., Nyabola L.O. The Prognosis of Adult Acute Leukaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital in the 1980s. Discovery and Innovation, 1991, 3:95-100.". In: East Afrina Medical Journal, 2001; 78:370. UoN; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact on neutrophils if adriamycin is administered at 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at 600/m2 (AC 60/600); and at 50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2 (50/500) in the treatment of breast cancer. DESIGN: Restrospective analysis of nadir neutrophil counts in female mammary carcinoma patients treated with adriamycin/cyclophosphamide combination. SETTING: Hurlingham Oncology Clinic, Nairobi and The Nairobi Hospital between March 1995 and August 1999. SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients with breast cancer were treated either for adjuvant purposes or for metastatic disease. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide at 60/600 or 50/500. Patients were advised to avoid crowded places and given prophylactic broadspectrum antibiotics whenever grade 4 neutropenia occurred at nadir. RESULTS: Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 75.5% of treatments at 60/600 and in 56.8% of the treatments at 50/500. Febrile neutropenia followed only one treatment and did not result in death. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia is frequent and severe at A/C 60/600 and need to be watched out for. Sepsis on the other hand is prevented if meticulous attention is given and corrective measures taken. A/C 50/500 was associated with less occurrences of neutropenia though still very high. Neutropenia should therefore be checked and steps be taken to prevent sepsis even at this dosage.
ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Abinya, N.A.O, Nyabola, L.O. Some Clinico- Pathologic data in Malignant Lymphomas seen at Kenyatta National Hospital over a Thirteen Year Period (1973-1986). East African Medical Journal, 1989, 66: 757 - 763.". In: East African Medical Journal, 1989, 66: 757 - 763. UoN; 1989. Abstract

Records were available for 197 patients with malignant lymphomas (MLs) aged 13 years and above seen at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between the years 1973 and 1986. There were 110 cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 87 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). The distribution of the two groups according to sex and histologic sub-types was not significantly different. HD patients were on average significantly younger than NHL patients (28.8 years versus 41.1 years). Over 70% of both HD and NHL cases presented in stages III and IV and the distribution of the groups according to stage of disease was not statistically significant. There was no significant correlation between stage of disease at diagnosis and histologic subtypes for either group. Losses to follow-up were high in both groups. Female sex was associated with longer periods of follow-up in both groups, being statistically significant for HD and not so for NHLs. Age was not correlated with duration of follow-up for NHLS whereas for HD cases, older age (above 53 years) was associated with shortened follow-up periods. The mortality rate was higher in NHLs than in HD cases.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON, Kinyamario JI, Karue CN. "Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract

A two-year study was conducted with an overall objective of characterising the structure and function of an arid rangeland in Kenya. A plot measuring 100 x 100m was used for this study. Data on rainfall and temperature were recorded at the plot site whereas data on evaporation rates and relative humidity were obtained from the meteorological office near the study site. Herbaceous aboveground material was sampled at monthly intervals using a rectangular 0.25m2 quadrat frame. Clipped material was separated by species and classified dead or live by physical examination. A 5cm diameter metal soil corer was used to sample belowground plant material, at monthly intervals. The sampled material was washed with running water over 2mm sieves and classified dead or live using the vital staining technique. All weights and calculations were based on organic weight. Total aboveground standing crop ranged from 84.6g m-2 to 295.4g m-2, with a mean of 162.3 60.6g m-2. Mean monthly aboveground standing crop for 1992 and 1993 was 142.8 53.8 and 178.5 63.3g m-2 respectively. The two values were significantly different (p<0.10). Aboveground biomass yield ranged from 17.7g m-2 to 242.7g m-2, with a mean of 104.3 58g m-2 and a coefficient of variation of 58%. Mean aboveground standing crop was 59 24g m-2. Monthly values ranged from 28.8g m-2 to 120g m-2, with a 38% coefficient of variation. The range for total belowground standing crop was from 83.3g m-2 to 232.7g m-2, and a mean of 155.2 46g m-2. The values had a coefficient of variation of 30%. Mean total monthly belowground plant material yield for 1992 and 1993 was 137.6 41g m-2 and 169.9 46g m-2. The coefficients of variation were 59% and 28% respectively. The mean monthly belowground biomass yield was 51.6 33g m-2 with a coefficient of variation of 64%. Mean monthly yield for belowground dead material was 103.7 32g m-2, with a coefficient of variation of 31%. There was no significant difference (p>0.01) in the mean belowground dead material yield between 1992 and 1993. In 1992, annual NPP was 439.2g m-2, giving a net primary productivity of 1.22g m-2day-1. Monthly NPP ranged from 17.2g m-2 to 90.1g m-2. In 1993, annual NPP was 944.5g m-2, equivalent to a net primary productivity of 2.62g m-2day-1. Monthly NPP was between 27.4g m-2 and 548.6g m-2. Over the 19921993 period, NPP was 1 383.7g m-2, equivalent to a productivity of 1.92g m-2day-1. Trends in monthly NPP closely followed the trend in rainfall. On the whole, herbaceous vegetation production and productivity were episodic in nature and closely linked to rainfall. The high primary productivity puts arid and semi-arid rangelands under sharp focus as CO2 sinks, whose role in the amelioration of greenhouse effect could be more important than is currently appreciated.

Obel OA, d'Avila A, Neuzil P, Saad EB, Ruskin JN, Reddy VY. "Ablation of left ventricular epicardial outflow tract tachycardia from the distal great cardiac vein.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of ablation of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular tachycardia (OTVT) from the distal ramifications of the coronary sinus (CS).
A significant minority of patients presenting with idiopathic OTVT have an epicardial focus, the standard approach to which involves ablation from within one of the aortic valve cusps (AVCs). We describe the successful ablation of idiopathic epicardial OTVT from within the CS in the distal great cardiac vein (GCV).

Ablation from the distal GCV was performed in 5 patients with idiopathic OTVT who had unfavorable mapping, in some cases unsuccessful ablation from various endocardial and epicardial sites including the AVCs, and in 1 patient via the direct epicardial approach. An electroanatomic mapping system (Carto) was used in 3 patients, and conventional mapping was performed in 2 patients, and in 3 patients cryothermal ablation was performed.
In all patients, the first ablation lesion in the GCV successfully eliminated the arrhythmia. All patients have remained free of VT after a mean follow-up of 24 (7 to 44) months. There were no immediate or long-term complications.
Idiopathic epicardial OTVT can be successfully ablated from the distal GCV, and should be seen as an alternative to ablation from the aortic valve cusps.

Kigen B, Omondi-Ogutu J, Machoki M, i Gichang P. "Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006;18:113-118.
B K, Ogutu O, JM M, P G. "Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2005;88:113-118.abnormal_cytology.docx
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net). University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net). Kisipan, M.L.; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
G.O A, M.W O. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net).; 2009. Abstract

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GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84.; 2009. Abstract
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Odula" "C, J" "N, J.G" "K, S" "M, Anne.B." "K. "Abortion is legal yet women are still dying in Kenya.". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
Mutungi AK, Wango EO, Rogo KO, Kimani VN, Karanja JG. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates.
To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion.
A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996.
Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya.
Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period.
The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented.
Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.
The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01).
Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. Mutungi AK, Wango EO, Rogo KO, Kimani VN, Karanja JG. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

Mutungi AK, Karanja JG, Kimani VN, Rogo KO, Wango EO. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion.
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996.
SETTING:
An urban and a rural district in Kenya.
PARTICIPANTS:
Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues.
DATA COLLECTION:
One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder.
RESULTS:
One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers.
CONCLUSION:
Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996. SETTING: An urban and a rural district in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues. DATA COLLECTION: One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers. CONCLUSION: Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. Mutungi AK, Karanja JG, Kimani VN, Rogo KO, Wango EO. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996. SETTING: An urban and a rural district in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues. DATA COLLECTION: One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers. CONCLUSION: Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures.

O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Aboud, A. A., K. O. Farah, and W. N. Ekaya 2000.Towards sustainable pastoral productions in Eastern Africa: Approaches, Constraints, and prospects.". In: Proceedings of a regional workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at the Kenya College of Communications Technology, Mbagathi, Nairobi, Kenya, 4th . Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
Kinuthia RK, Mureithi SM, Young TP, Njoka TJ, Otieno SG. "Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Grazed and Ungrazed pastures: Grazing Optimisation Hypothesis or Local Extinction of Vegetation Species.". 2009. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studi es in the last few decades prompted our investigati on to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisatio n hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is rea l. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional g roups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savan na. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbi vores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also wit h and without mega herbivores. The findings reveale d that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed con trol and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth po lynomial degree between monthly productivity and gr azing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control th an in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass spe cies level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conc lude against presence of herbivore optimisation hyp othesis at herbage, functional group and species level beca use of lack of attributable grazing effect in graze d treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungr azed treatment.

MWANGI MUREITHISTEPHEN. "Aboveground net primary productivity in grazed and ungrazed pastures: Grazing optimisation hypothesis or local extinction of vegetation species. Otieno, S.G., T.J. Njoka, T.P. Young, S.M. Mureithi and Ngugi, R.K. .". In: Nature Proceedings. Afr. J. Range For. Sci.; Submitted. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbivores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also with and without mega herbivores. The findings revealed that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed control and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth polynomial degree between monthly productivity and grazing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control than in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass species level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conclude against presence of herbivore optimisation hypothesis at herbage, functional group and species level because of lack of attributable grazing effect in grazed treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungrazed treatment.

Waweru SE, Meme JS, Kinuthia DM, Kitonyi GW. "Absence of HIV seropositivity in children with sickle cell anaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 1987. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To find out whether frequent blood transfusions increase the risk of transfusion-related HIV infection in children with Sickle cell anaemia. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-eight children with Sickle cell anaemia were transfused 1-13 times (mean 2,4) between 1982 and 1987. In Kenya routine screening of blood banks for HIV infection began in 1987. The HIV status of these children was compared with 231 non-transfused children: 106 with Sickle cell anaemia and 125 children with haemoglobin AA. In both transfused and non-transfused children age ranges were similar and were 1-12 years. All children were tested with Wellcozyme Elisa test in duplicate. All tests were performed at least 6 months after the last transfusion. Sixty five transfused sicklers were rechecked one year later. RESULTS: All 429 children were HIV negative. CONCLUSIONS: Out findings suggest that HIV seropositivity is low in Kenyan children. Furthermore, even though blood was unscreened in 1982 - 1987 transfusion did not increase the risk of HIV infection in our study children

Juma FD, Nganga JN, Mathenge SG, Kato A, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Nishiyama Y. "Absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis.". 1999. Abstract

The absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids 1 and 2, previously isolated from the bark of Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae) have been determined by the modified Mosher's method.

M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Absorber Thickness Dependence on CuInSe2 Solar Cells Performance using CuIn Precursors Selenized using H2Se gas.". In: World Renewable Energy Congress-VI (WREC2000), Brighton, UK, 2049-2052. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Abstract of papers and posters. First International Conference on Geomorphology Manchester, 15-21 December.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Abstract volume.". In: (Editor). IGCP Project 236 Conference of Gondwana Fragments. Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. UNESCO/IUGS. Wiley Interscience; 1989. Abstract
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UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Abubakar L. U., Zimba G., Wells C., Mulaa F., Osir E. O. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. Abubakar L.U; 2003. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
"Abuga K. O., Chepkwony H.K., Roets E., Hoogmartens J. A Stability-indicating HPLC method for the separation of clarithromycin and its related substances in bulk Samples." J. Sep. Sci.. 2001;24:849-855. AbstractWebsite

Clarithromycin is a 6-O-methylated semi-synthetic derivative of erythromycin A,
which is more resistant towards acid decomposition. Commercial clarithromycin
samples contain several potential impurities arising from the manufacturing process
and degradation. A simple, selective, and sensitive isocratic liquid chromatographic
method has been developed for the impurity profiling of clarithromycin bulk samples.
The method employs a XTerra RP18, 5 lm, 25064.6 mm column thermostated at
568C. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile ± 0.2 M potassium phosphate buffer
pH 6.80 ± water (40 : 3.5 :56.5). Several peaks are of unknown identity. The method
is stability indicating.

OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Abuga K.O., Bosire K.O., Kokwaro G.O.: Concomitant administration of Theophylline and Oxamniquine in rats: Effects on Theophylline clearance. E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
"Abuga K.O., Kokwaro G.O., Bosire K.O. Concomitant administration of theophylline and oxamniquine in rats: Effect on theophylline clearance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 1998;1(1):22-23. AbstractWebsite

This report describes an investigation into the effect of oxamniquine on systemic clearance of theophylline in rat. Male Wister rats (N=12, 5 weeks old) were divide into 3 groups (N=4 per group) and administered buffer plus theophylline (10 mg/kg), controls, oxamniquine( 5 mg/kg), and theophylline (10 mg/kg) oxamniquine (20 mg/kg) intravenously. Theophylline clearance was estimated from a single plasma sample obtained 6 hours post drug administration. Oxamniquine had no effect on theophylline clearance compared to controls. It was concluded that clinically important interaction between oxamniquine and theophylline is unlikely to occur.

"Abuga K.O., Mwagiru P.M., Thoithi G.N., Nguyo J.M., Ngugi J.K., King'ondu O.K., Mugo H.M. and Kibwage I.O. Quality of antiretroviral drugs analyzed in the Drug Analysis Research Unit during 2000-2003." East cent. Afr.J. Pharm. Sci.. 2003;6(1):20-23. AbstractWebsite

During the period 2000-2003, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit received and analyzed 33 samples of antiretroviral drugs. Locally manufactured products accounted for 57.6% of the samples, while the imported drugs constituted 42.4%. The drugs consisted of single, double and triple component preparations. They were subjected to identity, assay and dissolution tests. 30 samples (90.9%) complied with compendial specifications for these tests, while 3 failed. The results obtained show that the manufacture of quality generic antiretroviral drugs is achievable.

Chirchir AK, Olubayo FM, Mutua GK. "Abundance and Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Sugarcane in Western Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

A study was conducted to determine the factors influencing plant-parasitic nematode occurrence, abundance and distribution in the sugarcane fields. Four sugarcane growing zones; Nzoia, Mumias, West Kenya and Busia of Kenya were selected from which 81 fields randomly selected and sampled. Soil samples were taken from sugarcane rhizospheres and nematodes extracted from 200 cm3 soil using the modified Baermann funnel technique. Nematodes were then fixed and mounted on slides and identified to genera level using identification keys. Nematodes of the genera Pratylenchus, Scutellonema and Meloidogyne were predominant in the sugarcane belt of western Kenya with mean densities of 61, 54 and 39, respectively. Nzoia, which falls in a marginal sugarcane zone harboured the highest proportion of these plant parasitic nematodes (55%), while West Kenya zone had the least proportion (4%). Soil texture influenced nematodes with more than 50% occurring in sandy soils compared to other soil types. Build-up of plant parasitic nematodes occurred with subsequent ratoon crops up to the second ratoon before declining in the third ratoon. Anthropogenic effects were significant with 70% higher numbers of plant parasitic nematodes in the out-grower farms compared to the factory-managed farms. This study has revealed the influence of soil texture, crop cycle and anthropogenic factors on abundance and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in western Kenya sugarcane zones. It has also set the justification of further work to determine the economic importance of the nematodes

Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Majaliwa MGJ. "Abundance and diversity of native forage species in pastoral Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2015. Abstract
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C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo NLPNJ & M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;Vol. 13,:pp 11 to 27.
C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Abundance and Population Structure of the Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera L. 1758 (Bivalvia: Pteriidae).". In: Coastal Kenya Volume 1, Issue 2, 169-179. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Ndiema G. "The abundance, efficacy, and diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in southern Manitoba soils.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Innoculation of field pea is necessary in the absence of compatible rhizobial strains, when the rhizobial populations are low or symbiotically ineffective. The prevalence and efficacy of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (the pea microsymbiont) in southern Manitoba soils is not known. Field experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 in multiple sites in southern Manitoba to characterize the abundance, efficacy, and diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. Uninoculated and inoculated (with and without N fertilizer) treatments of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates in five sites (1999/2000). Pea was established in 21 sites in 1998 to trap indigenous rhizobia. Uninoculated and inoculated plants were evaluated for relative nodulation and growth. Pea and Lathyrus sp. isolates and commercial strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae were characterized by plasmid profile and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic space analyses. Uninoculated plants were were nodulated in cultivated soils, but not in virgin soils. Inoculation had no effect on nodulation in all sites but one. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more biomass than uninoculated plants in 1998 and in four of five sites in 2000. Out of 230 strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae typed, 77 distinct plasmid profiles were established. Plasmid profile diversity index (number of distinct profiles/number of isolates typed) varied from 0.2 to 0.83 in sites with 10 or more isolates. Few pea isolates from previously inoculated sites had profiles that matches those of the inoculants. Each site shared at least one profile with 3 to 18 other sites, but the number of profiles shared was independent of proximity... This research has shown that R. leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in southern Manitoba are abundant, diverse and competitive in nodulation, but may be less effective nitrogen fixers than commercial strains.

Tsigadi SA;, Abuom TO;, Mbugua S. "Abuom."; 2006.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O, Mbuthia P.G., Sura A.S., Ndurumo S.M., Gitonga P.N.,Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and exhibition. September 2006. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O., Kirui G., Tsigadi S.A., Gitonga P.N., Ndurumo S.M., Sura A.,Kitaa J.M.A. (2006) A preliminary retrospective study on tumors affecting dogs in Kenya.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O., Mande J.D., (2006) Transmissible Venereal Tumor with Subcutaneous and Bone Metastasis in a Dog.". In: KVA conference 2005 Nairobi. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom T.O., Ngatia T.A., Mogoa E.G., Maina A.N., Ndurumo S.M. and Tsigadi S.A.. Trichoepithelioma in a cow.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and exhibition. September 2006. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Kirui G, Kitaa JMA, Kyallo V, Mande JD, Ndurumo S and Tsigadi S. Radiographic findings of fractures and their outcomes at the Small Animal Clinic of University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: KVA conference 2005 Nairobi. ELSEVIER; 2005. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Abuom TO, Wabacha JK, Karanja DN and Kuria JN. (2004). Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to Klebsiella mastitis in a bovine.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference November 2004, Nairobi. ELSEVIER; 2004. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Abuye, C., K. Urga, H. Kinapp, D. Selmar, A. M. Omwega, J. K. Imungi and P. Winterhalter. 2003. A composition study of Moringa stenopetala leaves. East African Medical Journal 80: 247.". In: Prepared for FAO, Rome. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Abuye, C., Omwega, A.M. and Imungi, J.K. 1999. Familial tendency and dietary association of goitre in Gamo-gofa, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal 76: 447.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Abwao, S.M., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua W.K. (1985): the economic effect of Trypanosomiasis in a herd of boran cattle. Kenya Veterinarian 9 (1): 14-17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Abwao, S.M., Wilson, A.J. and Munyua W.K. (1985): the economic effect of Trypanosomiasis in a herd of boran cattle. Kenya Veterinarian 9 (1): 14-17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1985. Abstract
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K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Academia .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vo. 19 No. 2 pp 30-34. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
G WG. "Academic Partnerships In Research For Development: The Case Of PROSOWO.‘Kenyan – Austrian University Cooperation: Experiences and Opportunities’.". In: Austrian Agency for International Cooperation in Education and Research (OeAD) . Kenyatta University Conference Center, Nairobi – Kenya; 2013.
1. Gitonga ER, Akpata. "Academic performance of Kenyan Secondary School athletes." African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. 1999;5(1):1-11.
HM M. "Academic Processes of postgraduate studies; from admission to graduation." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
Matula P, Kyalo N, Mulwa S, Gichui WL. Academic Research Proposal Writing. Principles, Concepts and Structure.. Nairobi: ARTS press; 2018.
Imonje RK, Nyagah G. "Academic Staff effectiveness in mainstreaming disability interventions for students with special needs in public universities in Kenya.". In: 2nd Africe International Conference. University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
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DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Acantholaimus (Chromadoridae: nematoda) from the Indian Ocean:.". In: description of seven species. Hydrobiologia 346: 59-76. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1997.
KAAYA, G.P., MWANGI EN, Malonza MM. "Acaricidal activity of Margaritaria discoidea plant extracts against the ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma varigatum." International journal of Acarology. 1995;21:123-129.
Chege F, Ruigu G. "Accelerating the Inflow of New Ideas to Rural People.". In: Social Sciences Conference.; 1971.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Omosa-Manyonyi, G. PMFBLLCBFHGBP, and Anzala GJO. "Acceptability and Feasibility of Repeated Mucosal Specimen Collection in Clinical Trial Participants in Kenya." PLoS One. 2014;9, no. 10:e110228.
Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Ouma OW, Birungi H, Askew I, Warren C, Liambila W, Meme M. "Acceptability and Sustainability of Focused ANC in Kenya.". 2004.Website

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