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1993
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Symptomatic treatment of nephrotic syndrome. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):1-2. No abstract available.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
1992
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Initial experience with continuous Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Viru infection in a developing country. Peritoneal dialysis International 12(2): 267-268, 1992.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno, L.S. and Kanja, C. Bacteriuria in patients with glomerular disease. East African Medical Journal 69(11): 603-605, 1992.". In: East African Medical Journal 69(11): 603-605, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Use of intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis in patients with refractory heart failure. Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Swao JO, Wairagu SG, Luta M, Mwongera FK, Otieno LS.Pregnancy in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD): a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):294-5. Review.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
We present what we believe is the first case of pregnancy occurring in a patient on CAPD, and indeed end stage renal disease (ESRD), in Kenya. Pregnancy progressed very well until the thirtieth week when foetal movements and heart sounds were noted to be absent and this was confirmed by sonography. A macerated still birth was delivered per vagina following induction of labour. We review the literature on this rare occurrence and discuss the possible causes of the unpleasant outcome in our patient.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Gouldesbrough DR, McLigeyo SO, Anderton JL.Renal transplant aspiration cytology. Role for simple morphological criteria. Cytopathology. 1992;3(2):119-28.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-recognized technique for sampling solid organs. It is used in renal transplantation to clarify the cause of a poorly functioning graft. Differential scoring techniques with respect to peripheral blood cell populations, and immunocytochemistry have been employed in this context. We describe the use of simple morphological criteria alone in renal transplant FNA. We compare these with needle biopsy and clinical parameters and show their value in the detection of active cellular rejection. Their limitations are discussed within the framework of other patterns of transplant pathology.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo SO.Initial experience with CAPD in patients with HIV infection in a developing country. Perit Dial Int. 1992;12(2):267-8. No abstract available.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-recognized technique for sampling solid organs. It is used in renal transplantation to clarify the cause of a poorly functioning graft. Differential scoring techniques with respect to peripheral blood cell populations, and immunocytochemistry have been employed in this context. We describe the use of simple morphological criteria alone in renal transplant FNA. We compare these with needle biopsy and clinical parameters and show their value in the detection of active cellular rejection. Their limitations are discussed within the framework of other patterns of transplant pathology.
1991
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi P.N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., Mogere R. Vascular access for Haemodialysis. East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo, S.O. and Otieno, L.S. Diabetes ulcers - A clinical and bacteriological study. East African Medical Journal. 68(3) 204-209, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(3) 204-209, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ogutu, E.O. and McLigeyo, S.O.: Adult Polycystic liver disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal. 68(3): 204-352-358, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(3): 204-352-358, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S., Kinuthia, D.M.W., McLigeyo, S.O., Orinda, D.A.O. and Mwongera, F.K.: Conversation from cyclosporin A to COnventional therapy with azethioprine in renal transplant recepients. East African Medical Journal. 68(9): 720-726, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(9): 720-726, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Wachira, M.W., McLigeyo, S.O., Otieno L.S: Nutritional requirements in chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease. East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno, L.S., Kinuthia, D.M.W., Mwongera F.K. and Wairagu, S.G.: Pregnancy in patients with nephrotic syndrome. East African Medical Journal. 68(6): 447-483, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(6): 447-483, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otineo, L.S., and McLigeyo, S.O.: Renal failure diagnosis and management. East African Medical Journal 68(3):216-224, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(3):216-224, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection. East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno LS, McLigeyo SO, Luta M.Acute renal failure following the use of herbal remedies. East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):993-8.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Acute renal failure (ARF) complicated the use of traditional herbal remedies in six adult patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in a 2-year period (August 1984 to August 1986). This comprised 10.9% of all the cases of ARF and 24% of the cases of ARF due to medical causes. All the patients were oliguric and the period of oliguria in the four patients who survived ranged between 19-57 days (mean 26.3 days). Five of the patients had evidence of fluid overload. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were elevated in all the patients. The serum sodium was normal in all, while the serum potassium was elevated in 2 cases. Identity of the herbal medication was unknown in all the cases. The indication was abdominal pain in 4 cases, infertility and abdominal pain in one and prophylaxis against witchcraft in the other. All the patients were started on haemodialysis, two of them having had periods of peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 16 days. Two patients died. Of the four surviving patients, follow up has been carried out for 8, 6, 5 and 4 months. At four months follow up the creatinine clearance in the 4 surviving patients have been 54, 63, 51 and 43 ml/min.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Treatment of urinary infections. East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov;68(11):841-3. No abstract available.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Acute renal failure (ARF) complicated the use of traditional herbal remedies in six adult patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in a 2-year period (August 1984 to August 1986). This comprised 10.9% of all the cases of ARF and 24% of the cases of ARF due to medical causes. All the patients were oliguric and the period of oliguria in the four patients who survived ranged between 19-57 days (mean 26.3 days). Five of the patients had evidence of fluid overload. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were elevated in all the patients. The serum sodium was normal in all, while the serum potassium was elevated in 2 cases. Identity of the herbal medication was unknown in all the cases. The indication was abdominal pain in 4 cases, infertility and abdominal pain in one and prophylaxis against witchcraft in the other. All the patients were started on haemodialysis, two of them having had periods of peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 16 days. Two patients died. Of the four surviving patients, follow up has been carried out for 8, 6, 5 and 4 months. At four months follow up the creatinine clearance in the 4 surviving patients have been 54, 63, 51 and 43 ml/min.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Ongeri SK.Ascites in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1991 Oct;68(10):789-94.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a two-year-period (August 1984 to August 1986), 77 patients were admitted into the maintenance haemodialysis programme at Kenyatta National Hospital. 24 (31.5%) of these had ascites during haemodialysis. Nine (37.5%) of the patients who had ascites had prior peritoneal dialysis, while 15 (62.5%) had congestive cardiac failure at the time of development of the ascites. In 21 (87.5%), the ascites responded to therapy with diuretics, salt and fluid restriction, antibiotics when indicated and to ultrafiltration during dialysis. In 3 (12.5%) of the patients, the ascites developed in the absence of any predisposing cause. The ascites progressively increased in amount and was associated with marked wasting. These patients were considered to have refractory ascites of haemodialysis.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, McLigeyo SO, Orinda DA, Mwongera FK.Conversion from cyclosporin to azathioprine in renal allograft recipients. East Afr Med J. 1991 Sep;68(9):720-6.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Renal function in five patients who were on a combination of Cyclosporin A (CyA) and Prednisone for 2-6 years following renal transplantation, were evaluated, in order to consider change from CyA-prednisone combination to conventional therapy. (Azathioprine-prednisone combination). This was necessitated by CyA nephrotoxicity, its high cost and unreliable monitoring. The maintenance dose of CyA ranged between 200 and 400 mg per day. The BUN levels during CyA treatment ranged from 6 to 15 mmol/l (normal 3.7-6.7 mmol/l), and plasma creatinine from 200 to 300 Umol/l (normal 67-107 Umol/l). The serum electrolytes were normal. The urine outputs were normal. Rejections were treated by pulses of one gram of methyl-prednisolone daily for 3 days. Maintenance prednisolone ranged from 10-15 mg per day. After tapering off the CyA and eventually stopping it, Azathioprine 100-150 mg daily with prednisolone 10-15 mg per day were instituted. There were significant drops in creatinine and BUN levels after the change over, with general well being and good urinary outputs. The patients refused consent for renal biopsy to prove CyA histologic toxicity.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Wairagu SG.Outcome of pregnancy in nephrotic syndrome: a report on five cases. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jun;68(6):477-83.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a 6 year period (1984-1989) we have had the opportunity to take care of five patients who had nephrotic syndrome and became pregnant. Four of them had mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis while one had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Four of the pregnancies went to term while one was terminated at 34 weeks gestation because of deteriorating renal function in the mother. All the pregnancies ended in delivery of normal babies. However, two patients have since died of end stage renal disease, while the remaining three continue to be nephrotic with reduced levels of renal function following the deliveries.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, Otieno LS.Diabetic ulcers–a clinical and bacteriological study. East Afr Med J. 1991 Mar;68(3):204-10.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
One hundred consecutive patients with diabetic ulcers were studied in an 8-month-period. There were 58 females. The mean age was 59.9 years. Eighty three patients had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 11.6 years. The mean duration of the ulcer was 8.5 months. Sixty nine of the ulcers were gangrenous. Over 50% of the ulcers involved the big toes. Neuropathic ulcers were found mainly in the sole of the feet. Roentgenograms showed evidence of osteomyelitis in 44 patients. There were 356 bacterial isolates (340 aerobes and 16 anaerobes) from the ulcers. There were 3.6 infecting organisms per ulcer in gangrenous ulcers, while in neuropathic ulcers, there were 3.4 infecting organisms per ulcer. In both types of ulcer Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the commonest infecting organisms each being isolated in 88 of the 100 ulcers studied. In repeat bacterial cultures at 4 weeks there were 116 bacterial isolates. Staphylococcus aureus persisted in 63 ulcers despite therapy, while Escherichia coli persisted in 35. There were no new organisms isolated at repeat cultures and no ulcer was completely sterile. The Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Augmentin (Amoxicillin plus clavulinic acid), Clindamycin, Novobiocin, and Amikacin while the gram negative bacilli were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Piperacillin, Amikacin and augmentin, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol and Lincomycin inhibited the growth of anaerobes to a varying degree.
1990
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O., and Kyobe J. Platelet function in the nephrotic syndrome at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 67(2): 109-112; 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(2): 109-112; 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
One hundred consecutive patients with diabetic ulcers were studied in an 8-month-period. There were 58 females. The mean age was 59.9 years. Eighty three patients had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 11.6 years. The mean duration of the ulcer was 8.5 months. Sixty nine of the ulcers were gangrenous. Over 50% of the ulcers involved the big toes. Neuropathic ulcers were found mainly in the sole of the feet. Roentgenograms showed evidence of osteomyelitis in 44 patients. There were 356 bacterial isolates (340 aerobes and 16 anaerobes) from the ulcers. There were 3.6 infecting organisms per ulcer in gangrenous ulcers, while in neuropathic ulcers, there were 3.4 infecting organisms per ulcer. In both types of ulcer Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the commonest infecting organisms each being isolated in 88 of the 100 ulcers studied. In repeat bacterial cultures at 4 weeks there were 116 bacterial isolates. Staphylococcus aureus persisted in 63 ulcers despite therapy, while Escherichia coli persisted in 35. There were no new organisms isolated at repeat cultures and no ulcer was completely sterile. The Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Augmentin (Amoxicillin plus clavulinic acid), Clindamycin, Novobiocin, and Amikacin while the gram negative bacilli were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Piperacillin, Amikacin and augmentin, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol and Lincomycin inhibited the growth of anaerobes to a varying degree.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., and Sitati S. Management of lupus nephritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O. and Kyobe J.: Platelet function in nephrotic syndrome patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 67(2): 109-112, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal 67(2): 109-112, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Nephrotic syndrome in the tropics. East African Medical Journal, 67 (6): 377-380, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67 (6): 377-380, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.,Notghi, A., Anderton, J.L., Dick, J.: The use of mnoclonal antibodies in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection - A Review article and a summary of our experience. East African Medical Journal, 67(9): 667-673, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(9): 667-673, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Nephrotic syndrome associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: A case report with a review of literature. Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990.". In: Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Notghi A, Anderton JL, Dick J.Acute renal allograft rejection: the role of monoclonal antibodies in treatment: experience with orthoclonal anti-T3 cell antibody. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):667-73. Review.". In: Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
1989
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ondari C.O., Kibwage I.O., Ndemo F.O. and McLigeyo S.O.: Comparative bioavailability of two brands of chlorpropamide in Kenyans East African Medical Journal 66(10): 663-668, 1989.". In: East African Medical Journal 66(10): 663-668, 1989. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
1988
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and Mcligeyo, S.O.: Immunenephritis due to malaria - a review article. East African Medical Journal, 65(6): 402-405, 1988.". In: East African Medical Journal, 65(6): 402-405, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo, S.O. and Otieno, L.S.: Complication seen in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital in the period 1984 - 1986. East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988.". In: East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S., Mcligeyo S.O. and Kimani, F.M.: Cancer of the Urinary Bladder at Kenyatta National Hospital as seen by Physicians - A Retrospective study (1979 - 1984). East African Medical Journal 65(4): 224-229, 1988.". In: East African Medical Journal 65(4): 224-229, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Cyclical Oedema. Nairobi Journal of Medicine 13(2): 62-63, 1988.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine 13(2): 62-63, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno L.S., Kinuthia D.M.W. Ongeri S.K., Mwongera F.K., Wairagu S.G.: Problems with a Renal Replacement Programme in a Developing Country. Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988.". In: Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno L.S., Kinuthia D.M.W. and Kungu A.: Rapidly progressive Glomerulonephritis at Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi Journal of Medicine 14(11): 10-14, 1988.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine 14(11): 10-14, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Individual behaviour for health. The African Journal of Medicine 10(4): 35, 1988.". In: The African Journal of Medicine 10(4): 35, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
1987
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kinuthia, D.M.W., Yamanaka, T., Otieno, L.S. Ongeri, S.K., Mwongera, F.K., Wairagu, S.G. and McLigeyo S.O.: Hepatitis B Viral Status of staff and patients in a Renal Unit. Proceedings of the Internatioal Society of Nephrology Sponsored African Kidney and .". In: Proceedings of the Internatioal Society of Nephrology Sponsored African Kidney and Electrocytes Conference in Cairo, Egypt, February 1987 page 166. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "T.J.: Acute Renal Failure of Obstetric origin as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa 6(2): 102-104,1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Acute Tubular Necrosis due to Acute Plasmodium Faciparum Infestation -review article and a summary of our experience. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987.". In: The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Pulmonary Oedema between Dialysis as seen in Intermittent Haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 64(11): 726-729, 1987.". In: East African Medical Journal 64(11): 726-729, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
1985
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O: Haemodialysis - The experience at Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective and Prospective Study. (A dessertation for the Master of Medicine Degreee in Internal Medicine, 1985, University of Nairobi).". In: (A dessertation for the Master of Medicine Degreee in Internal Medicine, 1985, University of Nairobi). University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
1984
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
2008
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.G., Boman J., Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer: A tool for Environmental Research in Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, 1st National Conference and Exhibition for Dissemination of Research Results and Review of Innovations and Exhibition, Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Nairobi, Kenya, 28-30 April 2008: Poster presentation, European. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis is a special analytical technique for trace elements in that it is economical and easy to use. Its analytical capacity has the advantage of having multi-elemental characteristics and satisfactory speed. Convectional EDXRF analysis is used in identifying toxic trace elements in the general environment, trace elements in airborne particles for source apportionment, investigation of micronutrients in different ecosystems and agriculture practices among other areas of scientific investigations. A new EDXRF Spectrometer has been built and installed at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi. It is a new research tool that has improved local analytical detection limits of heavy metals in environmental and air pollution samples. A Siemens type D x-ray tube-stand was modified to facilitate x-ray irradiation of a Mo-secondary target. The target is a glued disk that was cut from a 1 mm thick Mo plate of 99.99 % purity. The fluoresced secondary x-rays propagate through three Ag collimators giving a near monochromatic Mo characteristic x-rays for sample excitation. The disk holder was designed to be easily removable, from the Al-measuring head, thus allowing the flexibility of carrying out experiments using different secondary targets. Air samples on Teflon filters and water samples on Cellulose filters were analyzed. The results were better than those obtained in previous spectrometer setups. The detection limits of trace elements improved by a factor of 10. The spectrometer is an extra facility for direct analysis of trace elements in air and other environmental samples.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Wagner A., Boman J., Gatari M. J., (2007). The elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter using TXRF.". In: Corrected and re-Submitted to Spectrochimica Acta Part B. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Bartilol S., Gaita S.M., Determination of trace metals in bottled Commercial Drinking water using TXRF in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2008), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Naziriwo B.B., Wandiga S.O., Gatari M.J.G., Madadi O.V., Ssebuwufu P.J., Determination of trace metal concentrations in waters of Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2007), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
In an effort to understand the pollution levels in waters of Nakivubo channel in Kampala, Uganda and Lake Victoria (Fig 1) concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using convectional EDXRF and TXRF analysis. Water samples were collected with a 1-litre Van Don sampler (code, 1077) and transferred into polyethylene containers that were stored in an ice cooled box. Five samples were obtained at each sampling site and were all stored at -21 0C until analysis. Filtration on cellulose filter gave a particulate deposit that was analyzed for trace metals on a convectional EDXRF spectrometer. Pre-concentration and evaporation at 50 0C were used for extraction of dissolved metal content that was analyzed on TXRF. Samples of the unfiltered water were treated with HNO3 and H202 in a process for extracting total trace metal content that was subsequently prepared and analyzed on TXRF. Spectra from the spectrometers were analyzed for the trace elements of interest and elemental quantification was achieved using Quantitative X-ray Analysis software from International Atomic Energy Agency. The results showed high concentrations of particulate Fe and Mn, and relatively low Zn upstream the Nakivubo Channel. These were lower in the Lake Victoria waters. At the shores of Lake Victoria the dissolved Fe and Zn were higher than in the channel. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn in Lake Victoria were below the USEPA maximum contamination limits of 0.3, 0.05 and 5 mg/L respectively. However, Fe at the mouth of Nakivubo Channel was high and in general the quantified total elemental concentrations increased upstream along the channel. This meant increased water pollution input upstream and along the channel.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.G., Strengthening National Facilities for the Maintenance and Repair of Medical and Scientific Instruments.". In: Oral presentation, First Project coordination meeting, AFRA IV, RAF/4/021. Arusha, Tanzania, 3-7 March 2008: Oral presentation, Workshop for Project Coordinators of National and AFRA/IAEA funded projects, Nairobi, Kenya, 4-5 August 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
The project is hosted at the Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (INST), University of Nairobi. One of the core mandates of the Institute is provision of scientific instrumentation maintenance and repair services to Educational and Research Institutions besides income generation through the wide scope of services. Nuclear instrumentation is part of the scientific instruments; consequently, the project enjoys the professional services of a strong technical team. INST is strongly founded on peaceful utilization of nuclear techniques in research and teaching and its management interest in this project is well demonstrated by the achievements, that is documented in this report. This report describes the achievement and impact of the just ended project, AFRA IV RAF/4/017 over the period 2002 to 2007. It also includes the available human resources to drive the new project, beneficiary institutions, expected needs and support as well as priorities. A brief on SWOT is included that highlights those that are perceived unique for Kenya otherwise most of it is the same as described in the last evaluation meeting of RAF/4/017 in Libya.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M. J., Janh.". In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss; 8, 7703-7724. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Wagner A., (2008). Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry; DOI 10.1002/xrs. 1097. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Air pollutants from industrial sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black carbon (BC) and particulate mass (PM) concentrations in the perspective of identifying their sources. Aerosol particles were collected on Teflon filters in two size fractions, a fine fraction of particles having an aerodynamic diameter (da) < 2.5 m and a coarse fraction with particles between 2.5 m and 10 m. A photometer and an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer were used to analyze BC and trace elements (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb), respectively. The sampled mass of the particulate matter was determined gravimetrically. The measured concentrations of the analysable species were dominated by BC, K, and S in the fine fraction and Si, Ca, and Fe in the coarse fraction. Principal component analysis and correlation evaluation of the fine fraction concentrations implicated industrial, vehicular, and biomass burning emissions as the main sources of the measured elements. The average Pb concentration of 105 ng m-3 in the PM10 sample at the background industrial site is approximately 20% of the Air Quality Guideline (AQG) recommended by World Health Organisation (WHO). Most of the measured elements exhibited higher concentrations than those measured in Francistown in Botswana, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and Edinburgh in United Kingdom but less than those measured in Barcelona in Spain and from previous studies in Nairobi.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M. J., Pettersson J. B. C., Kimani W., Boman J., (2008). Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mt Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry; DOI 10.1002/xrs.1094. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
2007
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Hays D.M., Lavrich R.J., Gaita S.M., Determination of particulate carbonaceous species in an urban background aerosol in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, The 5th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC2007). Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC), 26-29 August 2007: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2007), Salzburg, Austria, 9-14 September 2007. University of Nairobi.; 2007.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Gaita S.M., Hays M.D., Bond T. C., Boman J., Assessment of criteria pollutants and NO in a typical urban aerosol in Africa.". In: Oral presentation, The 5th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC2007), Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC), 26-29 August 2007. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Criteria pollutants have health implications that are not only of concern to the urban population but also to governments in formulating their policies. These pollutants are also important to climate change investigations and any sustainable development programs require a properly informed population on their effects, concentration levels and sources. However, without the knowledge of the characteristic aerosol and information on the levels of pollutant concentrations, implementation of controls and enforcement of regulation remains difficult. NO and five species in the group of the criteria pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at an urban background site in Nairobi, Kenya. The site is approximately 20 m above the ground, on top of a building at the main campus, University of Nairobi. Eight hour measurements at intervals of 10 s were obtained using pollutant gas monitors and 24 h samples of PM2.5 and PM10 particles were collected on glass fiber filters by a size segregating impactor. Figure 1 and 2 shows preliminary typical hourly average concentrations trends on a day in a weekend. The results imply a different daytime chemistry of NOX (= NO + NO2) from that reported in the literature. Typical measurements in urban boundary layer shows peaking of NO in early morning hours followed by NO2 and O3 in the afternoon. O3 oxidizes NO in a fast reaction to NO2 and O2. The recorded trend showed high rate of NO concentration replenishment, throughout the measurement period, in competition to its conversion to NO2. Similar trends of NO and NO2 were observed from about 1200 h until the end of the 8 h daytime measurement. This implied a near constant rate of NO oxidation that may have been the indicator of O3 production after 1130 at a concentration which was not capable of decreasing NO substantially. Normally, in urban aerosol, CO concentration is far much higher than the other gaseous pollutants but it was comparable to NO from midday. There was daytime SO2 which persisted at constant concentration of 0.1 ppm, the instrument indicator resolution value. High levels of CO were recorded in the early hours of the night and NO2 that persisted at 0.1 ppm. Considering that NO was high during the mid afternoon the nighttime NO2 concentrations portrayed a nighttime chemistry that converted NO to NO2. This conversion may have been driven by the peroxy radicals that are produced by reactions between NO3 radicals and reactive organic gases in the absence of sunlight. Since NO3 is a product of NO and O3 it followed that concentrations of the latter continued into nighttime.
2006
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, International Aerosol Conference, St Paul Minnesota, USA,10 -15 September 2006: Poster presentation, Joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Afric, 17 -23 September 2006. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Criteria pollutants have health implications that are not only of concern to the urban population but also to governments in formulating their policies. These pollutants are also important to climate change investigations and any sustainable development programs require a properly informed population on their effects, concentration levels and sources. However, without the knowledge of the characteristic aerosol and information on the levels of pollutant concentrations, implementation of controls and enforcement of regulation remains difficult. NO and five species in the group of the criteria pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at an urban background site in Nairobi, Kenya. The site is approximately 20 m above the ground, on top of a building at the main campus, University of Nairobi. Eight hour measurements at intervals of 10 s were obtained using pollutant gas monitors and 24 h samples of PM2.5 and PM10 particles were collected on glass fiber filters by a size segregating impactor. Figure 1 and 2 shows preliminary typical hourly average concentrations trends on a day in a weekend. The results imply a different daytime chemistry of NOX (= NO + NO2) from that reported in the literature. Typical measurements in urban boundary layer shows peaking of NO in early morning hours followed by NO2 and O3 in the afternoon. O3 oxidizes NO in a fast reaction to NO2 and O2. The recorded trend showed high rate of NO concentration replenishment, throughout the measurement period, in competition to its conversion to NO2. Similar trends of NO and NO2 were observed from about 1200 h until the end of the 8 h daytime measurement. This implied a near constant rate of NO oxidation that may have been the indicator of O3 production after 1130 at a concentration which was not capable of decreasing NO substantially. Normally, in urban aerosol, CO concentration is far much higher than the other gaseous pollutants but it was comparable to NO from midday. There was daytime SO2 which persisted at constant concentration of 0.1 ppm, the instrument indicator resolution value. High levels of CO were recorded in the early hours of the night and NO2 that persisted at 0.1 ppm. Considering that NO was high during the mid afternoon the nighttime NO2 concentrations portrayed a nighttime chemistry that converted NO to NO2. This conversion may have been driven by the peroxy radicals that are produced by reactions between NO3 radicals and reactive organic gases in the absence of sunlight. Since NO3 is a product of NO and O3 it followed that concentrations of the latter continued into nighttime.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Michael James Gatari, (2006). PhD Thesis:- Studies of atmospheric aerosols and development of an EDXRF spectrometer in Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden, ISBN 91-628-6755-5.". In: Publicly Defended , PhD Thesis: ISBN 91-628-6755-5. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Wagner A., Janhall S., Isakson J., (2006). Assessment of inorganic content of PM2.5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam. Sc. of Total Environ. 368: 675-685.". In: Sc. of Total Environ. 368: 675-685. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. Contribution by the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Oral presentation, invited presentation, Copenhagen Centre for Atmospheric Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 15th March 2006. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
2005
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.,Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C, Space Measurements of near surface aerosols in the central district of Nairobi City, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, abstrct in the preceedings, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2000), Ghent, Belgium, 28 August . University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., Oral presentation "Study of inorganic and black carbon aerosols at a high altitude site on Mount Kenya, East Africa".". In: Oral presentation, The 6th informal conference on atmospheric and molecular science at Helsingor, Denmark, 3 - 5 June 2005. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., "Trace Element categorization of pollution sources in the Equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya".". In: X-ray Spectometry, 34:118-123. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M.J., wagner A., Hossain M.I., (2005). Elemental characterization of aerosols in urban and rural locations in Bangladesh.". In: X-ray Spetrometry; DOI: 10, 1002/xrs.864, 460-467. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Air pollution over East Africa.". In: Oral presentation, First International Workshop on Climate Variability over Africa. Alexandria, Egypt, 15-26 May 2005. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
2004
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C., Application of Cd109 Source in evaluation of background industrial aerosols in Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. - 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Conference on X-ray Spectrometry (XRS2004), Alghero, Italy, 6 - 11 June 2004. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Air pollution problems in the perspective of the Kenyan situation, regulation and awareness.". In: Oral Presentation, International workshop on Environmental Health education in the Eastern African region: challenges and the way forward at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. 24 - 26 March 2004. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., "study of trace metals in PM10 at Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station on Mount Kenya, Kenya, east Africa". European Aerosol Conference at Budapest, Hungary, 6 - 10 September 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2004), Budapest, Hungary, 6 . University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M., Wagner A., Boman J., Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Sc. of Total Environ, 341: 241-249. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
2003
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J. (2003). Black Carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa.". In: Atmospheric environ., 37: 1149-1154. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
2002
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Trace Element Categorization of Pollution Sources in the Equator Town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, European Conference on Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry(XRS2002), Berlin, Germany: 16 - 21 June 2002. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., (2002). Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols at selected sites in Kenya.". In: Publicly Defended, Licentiate Thesis, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, G. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
2001
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ, ODHIAMBO MRMATINIA. "Training of Equipment Maintenance Personnel Matini A.O., Gatari M.J.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Inorganic elemental concentrations in near surface aerosols sampled on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya.". In: Atmospheric Environ., 35: 6015-6019. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
1998
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Stikans M.,. Gatari M.J., Lindgren E.S., .". In: J. Aerosol Sci. 29, suppl. 1: 747-748: 5th International Aerosol Conference, Scotland: 14-18 September 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
1996
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Kinyua, A.M., Maina D.M., Maina C., Mangala M.J., Jumba I.O., Gatebe C. K., Gatari M.J., Non-destructive analysis of Mercury (Hg) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique in Beauty Creams sold in Kenya.". In: Presented at International Symposium on harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques, Hyderabad, India, 4-7 November 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
1994
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kinyua A.M., Projects implementation in Africa.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
2004
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 2004Conservation Tillage and Food production in Semiarid Tropics of Africa: Kenyan case study. Paper presetted in the annual meeting, of American Society of Agronomy, SEATTLE U.S.A.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 2004. Conservation tillage Equipment productivity quantified. A case study in semiarid smallholder Agriculture in Eastern Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted for examination. University of Nairobi.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
1994
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Ministry of Agriculture. 1994. National Agricultural Mechanisation Strategy Formulation for Kenya. Project Coordinator and author of the summary document.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri et al. 1994. Methodological Guidelines for Agricultural mechanisation strategy formulation , AGROTEC and FAO.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
1985
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri et al. 1985. Animal Drawn Equipment Development in Kenya. In Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing lixcess capacity in Kenya by IFTIK-HAR AHMED and Bill Kinsey, International Labour Office, Geneve.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1985.
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1985. Chapter three of the book: Farm equipment Deveiopment for Small Holders in Semiarid Areas of Southeastern and Central Africa. Edited by Iftikhar Ahmed and Bill Kinsey. Gower Publishers.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1985.
1981
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1981 . Farm Machinery Manufacture and use in Kenya. United Nations Industrial Development Organization , Kenya Position paper.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1981.
1969
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1969. Resistance to airflow through shelled corn. Unpublished MSc Theses. Iowa State University.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1969.
2012
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Development, Acceptability and Nutritional Characteristics of Low-cost, Shelf-stable Supplementary Food Product for Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Total phenolic content, antioxidant ant antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients.". In: LWT - Food Science and Technology. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Review on Health Benefits of Nut Consumption with Special Reference to Body Weight Control.". In: Nutrition Journal.; 2012. Abstract
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2011
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Diversity and Characteristics of Supplementary Foods Sold and Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences. Kunyanga CN; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant and Type II Diabetes Related Functional Properties of Phytic Acid Extract from Kenyan Indigenous Food Ingredients: Effects of Traditional Processing Methods.". In: Ecology of Food Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract

Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive ef fects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition pr operties of phytic acid extract prepar ed from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81–3.01 and 0.29–3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw s amples revealed 59%–89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27–3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g e xtract of reducing power, 20%–72% ofα-amylase inhibition activity and 8%–91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting impr oved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant Potential and type II Diabetes Related Enzyme Inhibition of Cassia obtusifolia L.: Effect of Indigenous Processing Methods.". In: Food Bioprocess Technology. Vadivel, V., Kunyanga C.N., and Biesalski, H.K.; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant and Antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of raw and processed food ingredients from Kenya.". In: Journal of Food Science.; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Flavonoid content of Ethanolic Extract of Indigenous Foods Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities.". In: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.". In: II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
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2010
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Quality Characteristics and Acceptability of Bread Produced with Supplementation of Dolichos lab lab Beans.". In: Food Science and Technology.; 2010. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant activity of phenolics in indigenous foods.". In: International Conference on .; 2010. Abstract
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2009
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Kirario, an Indigenous Kenyan fermented Porridge Based on Green Maize and Millet.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology.; 2009. Abstract
                                    Abstract
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Microbiological and Acidity Changes Occurring during The Traditional Production of Kirario: An Indigenous Kenyan Fermented Porridge Produced from Green Maize and Millet.". In: African Journal of Food, Agriculture and Development.; 2009. Abstract
                                    Abstract
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Physico-chemical methods for preservation of opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of Maasai women in Laikipia, Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference, Cape Town, South Africa 2009: Science and Technology Supporting Food Security in Africa 28 September to 1 October 2009.; 2009. Abstract
                                    Abstract
2008
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C and Siboe G., 2008. Ethnobotanical data in the search and identification of drug plants. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 11: 43-48.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract
Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno-botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants Key words: Ocimum, Plectranthus, ethnobotany, medicinal plants.
Jeruto P, Lukhoba CW, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Herbal treatments in Aldai Division in Nandi District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 5(1)103-105. 2008;5(5):103-105.Website
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Jeruto, P.,Lukhoba, C., Ouma, G., Otieno, D. and Mutai. C., 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.; 2008. Abstract

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance

The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests.

Aims of the study

This study therefore sought to collect information from local populations concerning the use of Nandi Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used and determine the relative importance of the species surveyed.

Materials and methods

Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. A total of 40 medicinal plants used locally for the treatment and/or control of human ailments were collected through interviews conducted with selected traditional doctors and professional healers.

Results

This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants use and that leaf material form the major component of plant parts exploited. The other harvested materials consist of stem bark, the roots and the whole plant, though at a lower intensity for making liquid concoctions from different plants. Majority of the remedies were prepared from a single species. In most cases, the mode of administration was oral. In the forest, some of the plants collected were scarce. This scarcity was attributed to indiscriminate logging, overexploitation, poor harvesting methods and current agricultural trends.

Conclusion

Conservation procedures and creation of awareness were identified as the main remedies to the current situation.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Kenya medicinal plants; Nandi people

Jeruto P, Lukhoba C, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Propagation of some endangered indigenous trees from the South Nandi District of Kenya using cheap, non-mist technology. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 3 (3):1-6." ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science,3(3):1-6.. 2008;3((3)):1-6. AbstractWebsite

Vegetative propagation studies were carried out at Maseno University, Kenya in the year 2004 and 2005 using stem cuttings on three endangered indigenous tree species namely Asystasia schimperi, Carissa edulis and Toddalia asiatica to test the effect of IBA on rooting of the stem cuttings of these plant species. Juvenile stem cuttings of these plant species were dipped in different concentrations of auxin (indole Butyric Acid (IBA) of 0, 100 ppm, 200ppm, 400ppm and 500ppm. Completely, randomized design (C.R.D) was used and the treatments replicated three times in a non mist polypropagator. The treated cuttings were planted in polythene pots. The duration of the experiment was four months. Data taken were plant height, number of leaves and number of rooted cuttings every 2 weeks. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means separated by L.S.D at 5% significance level. The results showed that hormone concentration, species and date of sampling affected the number of rooted plants, plant height and number of leaves Asystasia schimperi had the best rooting and subsequent plant growth followed by Carissa edulis and lastly Toddalia asiatica, .
It can be concluded that Asystasia schimperi and Toddalia asiatica can be propagated by stem cuttings easily hence farmers can cultivate them.

Keywords:
Non mist polypropagator, propagation, stem cuttings, auxin, concentration, species, endangered.

2006
Phylogeny, Morphology and uses of Plectranthus (Lamiaceae).. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: In Ghazanfar,S.A. & Beentje, H. (Eds.) Taxonomy and ecology of African plants, their conservation and sustainable use. ; 2006.
2001
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. 2001. Taxonomic revision of the genera Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L.". In: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L'Hér. are cosmopolitan genera in the tribe Nepeteoideae in the family Labiatae Juss. The accumulation of essential oils in their flower and foliage has contributed to their prominence and popularity in traditional and conventional medicine, in cosmetology and perfumery, in the food industry as preservatives and spices, and more recently in the manufacturing industry as ingredients for pesticides, plastics, paints, etc.

The taxonomic aspect of the group has lagged well behind the economic one. The latest world- wide account of the two genera was by Briquet (1895-7), more than 100 years ago. In both these taxa, the taxonomic delimitation has been inadequate, the major problem being the continuous nature of the variation of characters particularly the morphological ones, which results in difficulties in circumscription of species. To further complicate the situation, Ocimum species tend to hybridize readily and undergo polymorphism. Morphological characters have proved to be inadequate in delimitation of the genera. It is therefore imminent that other criteria be investigated to substitute or corroborate the morphological ones in the delimitation of these two genera.
The major aim of this project was therefore to find novel morphological characters or novel combinations of already known characters and the value of new criteria from phytochemical data and anatomy to augment the morphological data in the delimitation of Ocimum and Plectranthus. Field and herbarium collections were used in this study. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GLC/MS) on the essential oils from field samples were conducted in the chemotaxonomic study while the surface anatomical characters of Plectranthus were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the revision of Ocimum, new morphological characters have been identified that can differentiate between sections and even between species, for instance, in the dendrite-haired species of subsection Gratissima, O. cufodontii and O. jamesii have n-shaped while O. spicatum have bowl-shaped anthers. Morphological features separating O. basilicum and O. americanum were established. In Plectranthus, three new species namely, P. agnewii C. Lukhoba & A. Paton, P. xylopodus C. Lukhoba & A. Paton sp. nov. and P. kwalensis C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro as well as the varieties P. barbatus var. glabricalyx C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro and P. edulis var. longiflora C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro have been described. One name change, P. igniarius var. verdcourtii C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro formerly P. igniarius var. grandicalyx) has been made. The chemical analysis conducted on four Ocimum and eleven Plectranthus species revealed the presence of numerous essential oil constituents. Some compounds were species-specific, some genera-specific while others were common to both genera thus can be of taxonomic value. The species O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. kenyense clustered together in the cluster analysis. These three species have traditionally been grouped together in the section Ocimum. O. gratissimum showed greater affinity to Plectranthus than to Ocimum. The Plectranthus species came out as one homogenous group with two subgroups. The anatomical analysis of Plectranthus showed the indumentum to have a large number of sessile glands (peltate, gland dots), some capitate glands and numerous multi-cellular eglandular hairs. The viscid species P. kamerunensis and P. agnewii had the highest number of capitate glands. The presence, structure and nature of the stomata and glands were of taxonomic importance. Seven species had amphistomatic stomata and another seven species had stomata on the stems. The stratification of the leaf and stem surfaces was also found to be taxonomically significant. Cluster analysis showed that members of subgenus Calceolanthus clustered together into one group. They were also distinct from subgenus Plectranthus. A key based on these anatomical characters was drawn up to identify species in Plectranthus. Ethnomedicinal data revealed that Ocimum and Plectranthus species are popularly used to cure or alleviate gastro-intestinal, febrile, respiratory and skin conditions. Four species namely, O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum, O. gratissimum and P. barbatus showed high potential for further pharmacological evaluation, and for incorporation into local health care systems. This data also revealed that the medicinal species in the two genera are greatly affected by the current degradation of the environment. Thus propagation of the potentially medicinal ones was recommended. It is recommended that future taxonomic revisions of the two genera should include chemotaxonomic and anatomical data as they have proved to be promising criteria. Members of the two genera that have substantial amounts of essential oils can be commercially utilized in industry. The promising medicinal Ocimum and Plectranthus species can be incorporated into the primary health care systems. It is hoped that the new criteria used in this study will be relevant for the on-going revision of the family Labiatae for the Flora of Tropical East Africa.

DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. and Midiwo, J.O. 2001. Kenyan aromatic plants with a potential for economic utilization. First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.". In: First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.; 2001.
Lukhoba CW, Siboe GM. "The value of ethnobotanical data in the preliminary search and identification of potential drug plants. The 9th symposium of the Natural Products Research network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA).". In: The 9th symposium of the Natural Products Research network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA).; 2001. Abstract

Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and
animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno - botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants.

2000
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C. & Paton, A.J., 2000. Two new species of Plectranthus L.". In: Kew Bulletin, 55 (4): 957-964.; 2000.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C., 2000. Medicinal plants: Their role and future. First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.". In: First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.; 2000.
1998
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Siboe, G.M. and Lukhoba, C.W., 1998. Plant disease data in planning for sustainable use of African mountain forest resources: Problems and opportunities. In: Francis G. Ojany (ed.), African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustainable Use of Mountain.". In: In: Francis G. Ojany (Ed.),African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustainable Use of Mountain Resources, The United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.; 1998.
1993
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Githinji, C.W and Kokwaro, J.O., 1993. Ethnomedicinal study of major species in the family Labiatae from Kenya, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 39:197-203.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 39:197-203.; 1993. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
1990
1992
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Orthodoxy, Nature and Economic Change.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Biotechnology Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Multinational Corporations and Biotechnology in Developing Countries in Biotechnology for Food Production and Process in Developing countries.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Intellectual Property Rights: Perspectices on Traditional Medicine and Biodiversity Conservation"Paper presented at the symposium on Tropical Forest Medical Resources and Conservation of Biodiversity, 24th -25th September, New york.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Medicinal Plants in a New Technological World" Paper prepared for KIBORD, Nigeria.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Development Policies and Ecological Change in Kenya: A Review Paper presented at the Biodiversity Support Program Meeting, 14th Sept - 17th Sept Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Epistemology, Biodiversity and Economic Growth: Some Historical Perspectives", paper prepared for the Biodiversity Suport Program, Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Perspectives in Transition: Medicinal Plants and the Emerging Technologies (Forthcoming).". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Government Policy and Environment: The Case of the Waste-oil Recycling Industry in Kenya", (Forthcoming).". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Economic Policy Reforms and Environmental Education, a Paper presented at he Regional Workshop on Environmental Education, Nyeri, Kenya, 5th - 10th.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Medicine in a New Technological Order.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Science-Technology Interaction in Development: A Review on Policy.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Market and the State in Economic Change: Some Kenyan Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Acquisitions of Technological Capabilities: Some Third Woirld Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Struggle for Power: Kenya's Faultering Steps in Energy Investments.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Power Investments and Global Influences: Developing Countries in Perspectives.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Search for Power: Technological Change in the World Geothermal Industry.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Structural Adjustment and Environment: Experiences from Developing Countriesdd.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Science-Technology Balance: Policy Concerns for Developing Countries.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
1991
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Technology Acquisition for Sustainable Development in the South" paper presented at the Sumposium on Transfer of Technology for the sustainable Development of South, Mach 6th - 9th, Bad Ball, Stuttart, Germany.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1991.
2011
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Karsenti, Collins, Harper, Gakuu, Barry, Hafkins (2011). Pedagogical Integration of ICT: Successes and Challeges from 87 African Countries. Ottawa, ON: IDRC.". In: Text Book.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M. & KIDOMBO H.J. (2011), Research Methods In Distance Education, Masters Distance Education; Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU , C.M. & OMONDI, B. (2011), Learner Support Services, Master in Distance Education, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
2010
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU, C.M. AND KIDOMBO H.J.(2010) Pedagogical Integration of ICT in Kenyan Secondary Schools: Application of Bennett.". In: Referred Journal.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. GAKUU C.M. (2010), Distance Learning in Higher Education: An African Perspective. VDM Verlag Dr. M.; 2010. Abstractphd_book-_4.pdfWebsite

ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.

MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU, C. M., KIDOMBO H.J. & OMONDI, B. (2010), Research Project, Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU,C.M.& KIDOMBO H.J.(2010) Fundamentals of Management Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU,C.M.& KIDOMBO H.J.(2010) Fundamentals of Management Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU, C.M., NYOJE & KYALO , D. (2010) Project Design and Implimentation. Master in Project Planning and management, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu C. M.(2010) .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
2008
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M and KIDOMBO H.J. (2008), .". In: Application of Bennett.; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M, LIBOTTON A., OMWENGA E., KIDOMBO H.J. (2008) .". In: The Fountain, School of Education Journal, (Accepted for publication in December 2008).; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu C. M. (2008) .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2008.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M and KIDOMBO H.J. (2008), .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2008.
2007
2004
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Gakuu. C. M. (2004). .". In: Conference Proceedings.; 2004.
2003
2000
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Bii, C., G.M. Siboe & R.K. Mibey. Plant essential oils with promising antifungal activity. E. Afric. Med. J. 77(6):319-322.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
1999
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & P.F. Cannon. Biotrophic fungi from Kenya. Ten new species and some new records of Meliolaceae. Cryptogamie, Mycol. 20(4): 249-282.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & J.O. Kokwaro. Two new species of Meliola from Kenya. Fungal Diversity 2:153-157.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
1998
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & J.O. Kokwaro. Meliola icacinacearum and M. kerichoensis, spp. Nov. from Kenya. Mycol. Res. 102(11):1418-1420.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
1997
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & D.L. Hawksworth. Meliolaceae and Asterinaceae of the Shimba Hills, Kenya. Mycol. Papers 174: 1-108.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. Sooty mould fungi. In Soft scale Insects: Their biology, Natural enemies and Control.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
1996
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & D.L. Hawksworth. Glifford Gerald Hansford. Trop. Pl. Path. 7(2): 20-23.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Harharan, G.N.; R.K Mibey & D.L. Hawksworth. A new species of Lichenopelthella on Porina in India. Lichenologist 28: 294-296.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey,R.K.; J.O. Kokwaro & D.M. Mukunya. A new species and four new records of Asterina from Kenya. Nova Hedwigia 62: 147-150.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey,R.K.; J.O. Kokwaro & D.M. Mukunya. Four new species and some new records of Meliolaceous fungi from Kenya. Mycotaxon 57: 87-95.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey,R.K. African Mycological Association. Mycologist 9: 31-32.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Hawksworth, D.L. & R.K. Mibey. Information Needs of Inventory Programmes. Imperial College of Science & Technology, University of London. International Workshop on Biodiversity Information, July 15 and 16.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
1995
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & D.L. Hawksworth. Diporothecaceae, a new family of ascomycetes and the Term .". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1995.
1994
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Karanja, T.W.; A.W. Mwang.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Isanda, G.O.; A.W. Mwang.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
1988
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & N.C. Otieno. .". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. Entomosporium fruit and leaf spot disease of loquat in Kenya K. J. Sc. & Tech. (B). 9:73-78.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Otieno, N.C. & R.K. Mibey. Leaf blight disease of strawberries in Kenya caused by Dendrophoma obscurans. K.J. Sc. & Tech. (B). 9:111-114.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. A new observation of the fungus Physarum cinereaum on the lawn grass Pennisetum clandestinum in Kenya. K.J. .sc. & Tech. (B), 7:47-48.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
1981
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Gough, F.J.; L.L. Singleton; T.S. Lee, and R.K. Mibey. Tan spot development in wheat cultivar Triumph 64 grown under three tillage systems. Phytopathology 71: 220.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1981.
2007
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU,(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Wabacha J K, C.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M. J., Njenga, A.G. Thaiyah A.G, and J. Nduhiu (2007). Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya.". In: J, S. Afr. vet. Ass. 78(3):178-181.; 2007.
2006
2005
2004
2002
2001
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Ngatia, T.A., Mulei, C.M., Gathumbi, P.K. and Wabacha, J.K. (2001). Oedema disease of Swine. A toxaemia or an infection?". In: Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Afr. 49:292-298.; 2001.

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