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1998
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Teachers Guide for Lower Primary (P1-P3). Published by Curriculum Steering Committee for Primary Schools in South Sudan, Nairobi, 1998. Co-authored with V. Odula and Kizito Achoka. Nairobi, Pp. 118.". In: Published by Curriculum Steering Committee for Primary Schools in South Sudan, Nairobi, 1998. Co-authored with V. Odula and Kizito Achoka. Nairobi, Pp. 118. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education and Development in the Riparian Districts of Nyanza Province: The Need for Intervention, Elderkin (editor). Proceedings of Leadership Symposium on HIV/AIDS and Development in Nyanza Province held at Ukweli Pastoral Centre, Kisumu .". In: Proceedings of Leadership Symposium on HIV/AIDS and Development in Nyanza Province held at Ukweli Pastoral Centre, Kisumu . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
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1997
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Institutional Capacity for Developing Human Resource for Educational Research. A chapter contributed to a book entitled .". In: A chapter contributed to a book entitled . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract
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1996
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education, Training and Population. Population Studies and Research Institute. Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, Pp. 143 .". In: Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, 1996. Pp. 143 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
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1995
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Creativity and Educational Research. A chapter contributed to a book entitled .". In: A chapter contributed to a book entitled . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Impact of Educational Technology on Teacher Education. Proceedings of the Third Teacher Education Conference. The Concern of Kenya, the Quality Teacher for the 21st Century and Beyond. Ministry of Education, Republic of Kenya, Published by Jomo Kenyatta F.". In: Proceedings of the Third Teacher Education Conference. The Concern of Kenya, the Quality Teacher for the 21st Century and Beyond. Ministry of Education, Republic of Kenya, Published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, 1995. Pp. 73-78. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Pupils.". In: Proceedings of the Third Teacher Education Conference. The Concern of Kenya, the Quality Teacher for the 21st Century and Beyond. Ministry of Education, Republic of Kenya, Published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, 1995. Pp. 73-78. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
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1993
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education Through The Third Channel; Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30.". In: Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Problems of Rapid Expansion of Enrolment at University Level. Proceedings of the Government of Kenya/ILO/UNESCO: Case Study Workshop on the Status of Teachers in Kenya. Kenya Education Staff Institute Publication, 1993. Pp. 116 .". In: Proceedings of the Government of Kenya/ILO/UNESCO: Case Study Workshop on the Status of Teachers in Kenya. Kenya Education Staff Institute Publication, 1993. Pp. 116 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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1991
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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1990
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Students Handbook. University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139.". In: University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Design for Forms 3 and 4. Heinemann Kenya Ltd. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui, 1990. Pp. 123.". In: Heinemann Kenya Ltd. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui, 1990. Pp. 123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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1989
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Craft Education. A Teachers Handbook for Primary Schools and Colleges. Series on Provision of Leadership Training in Teacher Education. Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education Publication, 1989. Pp. 142.". In: Series on Provision of Leadership Training in Teacher Education. Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education Publication, 1989. Pp. 142. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Gateway Primary Revision. Longman Kenya Ltd., Nairobi, 1989 pp. 82 Co-authored with V. O. Odula.". In: Longman Kenya Ltd., Nairobi, 1989 pp. 82 Co-authored with V. O. Odula. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
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1988
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Creative Arts Education. A Series of Provision of Leadership Training in Primary Education, Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education, Publication, 1988. Pp. 163.". In: A Series of Provision of Leadership Training in Primary Education, Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education, Publication, 1988. Pp. 163. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "The Role of Jua Kali Workshops in the Training of Artisans in Kenya. Editor, H. O. Othieno. Application of Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reviewed Proceedings of UNESCO Sponsored Training Workshop on Application of Appropriate Technologies, hel.". In: Reviewed Proceedings of UNESCO Sponsored Training Workshop on Application of Appropriate Technologies, held in Nairobi, 29th August . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Design for Forms 1 and 2. Heinemann Kenya Ltd., Nairobi 1988. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui. Pp. 164.". In: University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract
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1987
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO, OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Current Status of Creative Arts in Kenyan Primary Teachers Colleges. Proceedings of Instructional Material Development Seminar for B.Ed. (Primary), held at Shanzu Teachers College. Pp. 13-17; Editors H. O. Ayot and D. M. Kiminyo.". In: Proceedings of Instructional Material Development Seminar for B.Ed. (Primary), held at Shanzu Teachers College. Pp. 13-17; Editors H. O. Ayot and D. M. Kiminyo. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
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1986
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "A Study of the Suggested Needs of Learners in the 8th and 9th Year of Primary Education in Kenya. Kenya Educational Research Awards (KERA) Research Report Number 1.1., Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, 1986. Monograph Publication. Pp. 6.". In: Kenya Educational Research Awards (KERA) Research Report Number 1.1., Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, 1986. Monograph Publication. Pp. 63. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
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1983
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO, OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "A Correlational Analysis of the Relationship between Performance in Theory Courses and Teaching Practice in the Kenyan Primary Teachers Colleges. Paper Presented at Graduate/Staff Seminar Bureau of Educational Research; Kenyatta University College; 25th O.". In: Paper Presented at Graduate/Staff Seminar Bureau of Educational Research; Kenyatta University College; 25th October 1983. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1983. Abstract
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Submitted
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Misingi Ya Hisabati1,2,3.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
1998
CAROLE MRSATIENOMIRIAM. "Wagoro (1998), Community Mental Health Nursing;.". In: in Ndetei et al Clinical psychiatry in African context Nairobi. AMREF. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.
2010
ONYAMBU DRKWAMBOKACALLEN, MATHENGE DRMURIITHIIAN. "Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Ngare SM. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Report of Two Cases. EAMJ.2010;87:220-224." EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 2010;87(5):220-224. AbstractWebsite

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.

R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

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BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

2008
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "AN M.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
2007
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
2006
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Prevalence of trachoma in six districts of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Karimurio J,Gichangi M,Ilako DR,Adala HS,Kilima P.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
2002
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "C. Cofie, D. Ilako, K. H. M. Kollmann Ocular effects of methanol poisoning as seen in patients involved in the .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
1999
R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, W. Mathenge, P.V. Choksey Ocular Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis, E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999.". In: E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
1996
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Kakembo, F. Ngounou, D. Ilako, H. S. Adala Eye injuries in developing countries. Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996).". In: Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
1991
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
2005
DIN DRMUJAHIDFEROZE. "Editorial on .". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
2010
Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
2008
2007
2008
Muthomi JW, Riungu GM, Ndungú JK, Narla RD, Gathumbi JK, Wagacha JM. "Head blight of wheat in Kenya and contamination of grain with mycotoxin producing Fusarium species." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;3:52-60.Website
2006
CAROLINE MSMUTAI. "RESEARCH OF FRENCH TEACHING IN EASTERN AFRICA "Opportunities and Challenges".". In: Published by United States International University. EAMJ; 2006.
2000
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani M., Tole Mwakio P., Ogallo Laban J. 2000. Concentrations of Hydrogen in Air around the Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant, Kenya. Discovery and Innovation 12(3):169-178.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Kituyi Evans & Marani Martin (2000). Cleaner Production in Kenyan Small and Medium Enterprises: Prerequisites for Successful Technology Adoption. A Paper presented at the EXPO 2000 Conference, held in Hannover, Germany.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
2002
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2002).Stimulating and Encouraging Clean Production in Africa. A Paper presented at Skillshare and Workshop on Ratifying the Stockholm Convention on the Eimination of Persistent Organic Pollutants, Arusha, Tanzania.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
2008
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Martin Marani and Oscar Kambona Ouma (2008). The Role of Watershed Research in Policy Change for Increased Uptake of Millennium Development Goals in Developing Countries.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin and Ouma Oscar Kambona (2008). The Role of Watershed Research in Policy Change for Increased Uptake of Millennium Development Goals in Developing Countries. A Paper presentec at the First National Conference on Environment, held in Nairobi, .". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Water management dynamics and pastoral livelihoods in the lower Ewaso Ng." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

2006
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin & Gottsmann Frank (2006). Presenting Geography: from complexity to simplicity? A Paper presented at a PhD Conference on "From GIS to GIScience", University of Salzburg.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
2004
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2004). The Role of Participation in Planning Processes with an Emphasis on the Role of Geoinformation. A Paper presented at a PhD Conference on "Public Participation and Collaborative Decision Support Systems within a Geoinformation Framewo.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
2002
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2002). Stimulating and Encouraging Clean Production in Africa. A Paper presented at a Skillshare and Workshop on "Ratifying and Implementing the Stockholm Convention" on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Arusha, Tanzania. UNIDO/IPEN.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
2000
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani, M., Tole, M. P., and Ogallo, L. J. (2000). Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulphide in the air around the Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress, Japan. CD ROM Proceedings.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
2010
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2010). Pastoral Regimes for Scarce Water Management in Drylands - the Boran of Kenya. A paper presented at a Workshop on ``Land Grab." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

2012
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. (2012):. Muenster: Waxmann ; 2012.
2005
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. "Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. :.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
2002
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. "Agoya C.N. .". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2002.
2004
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M. and Masake, R.A. (2004): Skin reactions in horses infected with Trypanosoma congolense.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
Eight horses exposed to both Trypanosoma congolense- infected and non-infected tsetse flies ( Glossina pallidipes) were examined daily for a period of 12 weeks. Three types of skin reactions were observed. These included local inflammatory skin reactions, which developed 1-2 days after the tsetse bites, and were evident in 5 infected horses and one uninfected. As these initial swellings regressed, further skin reactions (chancres) developed in the 6 horses bitten by T. congolense infected tsetse. The chancres were observed 6-12 days post-infection. In addition, 3 infected horses developed a third type of skin reaction, namely urticaria, on days 51, 67 and 71 post-infection. Histological examination was done of skin biopsies taken from all three types of skin reactions and they revealed different cell types. These were predominantly neutrophils in the initial skin reactions, lymphocytes in the chancres, and eosinophils in the urticaria. The skin lesions observed in the T. congolense infected horse have not been well documented elsewhere, particularly with regard to the histological picture. The first two lesions also occur early in the course of infection, while all three are of brief duration, hence are often missed.
2001
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001): The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72 (2): 64-67.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Mogoa, E.G.M., Mbithi, P.M.F., Nguhiu, J.M. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001):Alpha-2-Adrenoceptor agonists in Veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian, 22: 82-90.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (2001): Economics of early diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis using Suratex.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. and Schusser, G. (2001): The use of Ultrasound in distinguishing complications of the Jugular vein arising from intravenous catheters and injections in horses. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21; 16-19.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
The ultrasound technique was used to provide both structural and functional information concerning the integrity of the jugular vein, following intravenous infusions and injections. These were performed in the routine administration of antibiotics and fluids for the treatment of horses, mainly suffering from colic. The complications noted during examination included peri-phlebitis, thrombo-phlebitis and peri-venous abscesses of varying sizes at the injection site, and sometimes affecting most of the jugular vein. The different lesions, which often could not be differentiated clinically, were clearly evident using ultrasonography. In addition, the integrity of the venous blood flow could be determined, particularly in cases of thrombo-phlebitis where partial or complete occlusion of the vein occurred. When noted early, using ultrasonography, exacerbation of the thrombus could be prevented by avoiding repeated intravenous injections or by the removal of indwelling catheters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (2001): Computer tomography: a novel diagnostic technique used in horses. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21; 32-33.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
In Veterinary Medicine, Computer Tomography (CT scan) is used more often in dogs and cats than in large animals due to their small size and ease of manipulation. This paper, however, illustrates the use of the technique in horses. CT scan was used in the diagnosis of two conditions of the head and limbs, namely Alveolar periostitis and Navicular disease. The advantages of the technique are evident in the clarity with which the lesions are seen, as well as the precise identification of the affected tooth or bone.
2000
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R.A., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (2000): Characterization of trypanosome isolates from naturally infected horses on a farm in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology, 89: 173-185.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (2000): Suratex.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2000): The evaluation of 4-Aminopyridine for the reversal of Xylazine sedation in goats. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 55 (1): 23-26.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
1994
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1994): Characterization of Trypanosoma congolense, parasites isolated from horses on the Del Monte Farm in Thika. ILRAD 1993: Annual Scientific Report of the International Laboratory for Researc.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M., Mbiuki, S.M., Mogoa, E., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1994): Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 26 (2); 95-101.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
1993
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1993):Epidemiology and diagnosis of Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei infections in horses on the Del Monte farm in Thika. ILRAD 1992: Annual Scientific Report of .". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M., Mbiuki, S.M. and Masake, R. (1993): Diagnosis and treatment of Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
1991
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. Mbiuki, S.M. and Mogoa,E.G.M. (1991): Factors used to predict prognosis and economic outcome of surgery for advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Mbithi, P.M.F., Mbiuki, S.M., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., and Kihurani, D.O. (1991):Non fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39;307-309.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
1990
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (1990): Surgical conditions of the urinary tract in cattle. The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:5-6.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1990): Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery, The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:23-25.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
1989
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Mbiuki, S.M. and Ngatia, T.A. (1989): Healing of dehorning wounds. British Veterinary Journal, 145;580-585.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Ngatia, T.A. and Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. (1989): Anorectal squamous cell carcinoma in a cow and incidence of bovine intestinal tumours in Kabete, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Special issue. p. 103-105. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Gathumbi, P.K., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1989): Atypical (cutaneous) Actinobacillosis in cattle: Clinical observations, diagnosis and treatment in eighteen cases. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afr.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
1996
1995
1994
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Quality Improvement in Service Marketing. In Marketing Review, University of Nariobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1994.
1992
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Promotion of Entreprenuership in Africa.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1992.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Promotion of Entrepreneurship in Africa. In HRDA Update No.12 Arlington, Virgina, USA.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1992.
1991
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Marketing Research Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Personnel Management Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Societal Marketing: Concept, Problems and Opportunities. In Marketing Review. University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Personal Management Teaching Mannual and Audio Cassets. Developed for the Faculty of External Studies and Adult Education Univesity of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
1990
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Strategies for Effective Time Management.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1990.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Strategies for Effective Time Management. In Psychological Digest.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1990.
2005
AYAKO MSANANGWECATHLEEN. "Christian Religious Education Secondary School pupils'course books- Form 1 to 4: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
2012
Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Shibairo SI. "Influence of organic and mineral fertilization on germination, leaf nitrogen, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth.". In: Journal of Plant Nutrition. Taylor & Francis; 2012.
Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Onwonga RN. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012.
Onyango CM, Kahiu EN. "Analysis of the Molecular Diversity of Kenyan Sorghum Germplasm Using Microsatellites.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2012. Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of the genetic diversity present in sorghum germplasm grown in Kenya using simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 139 accessions were genotyped using 11 microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and the genetic diversity was estimated. The markers showed a wide range of differences in quality index from 0.005 to 0.39. The average Polymorphic Information Content value observed was 0.6241 indicating a high level of diversity. The gene diversity index ranged between 0.2419 and 0.9313 with a mean of 0.6627 per locus. A total of 105 alleles were observed with an average of 10.4 alleles per locus. The average heterozygosity level per locus was low at 0.1717. The variability within accessions among the populations was 74.85% and within individual accessions was 18.67%. The results showed that genetic diversity within Kenyan sorghum germplasm accessions is higher than that between the different populations. It is implied that such genetic diversity can be exploited as such or in hybridization programs to improve sorghum varieties currently grown by subsistence farmers in Kenya.

Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012.
2008
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA. "THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SOME NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF VEGETABLE AMARANTH SOLD IN NAIROBI-KENYA.". In: Journal of Ecology of Food and Nutrition. Onyango, M.C., Shibairo, I.S., Imungi, J.K.and Harbinson, J.; 2008. Abstract
Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs) namely, Cleome gynandra, Solanum nigrum and Vigna unguiculata was obtained. All the vegetables were sold in bundles of average weight 0.45kg. The edible fraction per bundle averaged 38.9%. Chemical analyses showed that vegetable amaranth had a moisture content of 85.5%, therefore a dry matter content of 14.5%. Expressed on dry matter basis, the mean total ash content was 19.2%, crude protein content 26.1% and the crude fiber content 14.7%. The mean ascorbic acid content was 627mg/100g, zinc content 5.5mg/100g and iron content 18mg/100g. The men nitrate content was 732.5mg/100g, total oxalates 5830mg/100g and soluble oxalates 3650mg/100g, while the lead content averaged 1.03mg/100g. The study concludes that vegetable amaranth has potential as popular vegetable in the diets of Kenyans to significantly contribute to provision of micronutrients, particularly iron and zinc.
2007
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA. "Postharvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: 8th African Crop Science Conference, Al - Minia, Egypt. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for the types of fresh-cut traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs) sold. Cleome gynandra, Solanum nigrum, Vigna unguiculata, Amarathus spp. and Cucurbita spp were found to be the most common TLVs selling. Amaranthus spp. and Solanum nigrum were selling in all the sales outlets surveyed, while the rest were selling in only a few of the sales outlets. For vending, the vegetables were not afforded any formal packaging; instead the vegetables within each type were tied in bundles of similar average size and displayed in troughs or shelves. The average weight of the bundles ranged between 250g for Cucurbita spp. to 650g for Vigna unguiculata. The mean price per bundle was KSh 14.00. The edible portion per bundle averaged between 34.2% for Vigna unguiculata and 84% for Cucurbita spp. Most of the sales outlets sold proportions ranging between 94% and 97% of the total delivery of the vegetables. The major cause of deterioration of the vegetables during vending was wilting. However, it was indicated that significant losses also occurred through spillage. The study concludes that TLVs are becoming important as commercial crops and as items of diets for Kenyans of all levels. Studies on simple postharvest handling to minimize the losses are however, required.
2001
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA. "Onyango, M.C. and Silim, S.N. Effect of genotype, storage temperature, Shelling and duration of storage on quality of vegetable pigeonpea. In: Silim, S.N., Mergeai, G., and Kimani, P.M. (eds) 2001.". In: Status and Potential of pigeonpea in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a regional workshop, 12-15 Sep. 2000, Nairobi, Kenya. African Crop Science Society; 2001. Abstract
Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for the types of fresh-cut traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs) sold. Cleome gynandra, Solanum nigrum, Vigna unguiculata, Amarathus spp. and Cucurbita spp were found to be the most common TLVs selling. Amaranthus spp. and Solanum nigrum were selling in all the sales outlets surveyed, while the rest were selling in only a few of the sales outlets. For vending, the vegetables were not afforded any formal packaging; instead the vegetables within each type were tied in bundles of similar average size and displayed in troughs or shelves. The average weight of the bundles ranged between 250g for Cucurbita spp. to 650g for Vigna unguiculata. The mean price per bundle was KSh 14.00. The edible portion per bundle averaged between 34.2% for Vigna unguiculata and 84% for Cucurbita spp. Most of the sales outlets sold proportions ranging between 94% and 97% of the total delivery of the vegetables. The major cause of deterioration of the vegetables during vending was wilting. However, it was indicated that significant losses also occurred through spillage. The study concludes that TLVs are becoming important as commercial crops and as items of diets for Kenyans of all levels. Studies on simple postharvest handling to minimize the losses are however, required.
2009
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "8-Methoxyneorautenol and Radical Scavenging flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006.; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACT. A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavengingactivity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3- dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.
2007
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Conversion of Vernonia galamensis oil to pyridinyl-vernolamides and their biological activities,.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110.; 2007. Abstract
ABSTRACT. Vernonia oil extracted by Soxhlet extraction from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2- (aminoethyl)pyridine using a 1:3 mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine at varied temperatures to give the corresponding vernolamides. The expected vernolamide from the reaction of 2-aminopyridine and the oil was not formed. N-(2-pyridinylmethyl)vernolamide and N-(2-pyridinylethyl)vernolamide exhibited antibacterial activity that was shown to be higher against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis and binding studies of ring constrained glucagon analogues.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110. Ph.D thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2007.
2006
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis of aminoalkyl vernolamides from vernonia oil at varied conditions.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. JJournal of Kenya Chemical Society, 3 (1), 1-8.; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Abstract. The oil extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,8-diaminooctane using a 1:3 molar ratio of vernonia oil to amine to give the corresponding vernolamides. Varied temperatures and solvents were applied. The vernolamides exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and on gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.
Submitted
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Extraction of vernonia oil from Vernonia galamensis seeds and it.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; Submitted.
2003
Forthcoming
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Kamau, Paul Kuria (forthcoming), 'Production and Trade Systems.". In: Hemisphere. University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
2005
2004
2003
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2003, "A Gender Analysis of Small Scale Garment Producers.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, Dorothy McCormick, and Mitullah, Winnie. How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, with Dorothy McCormick, 2003, 'Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalized Global Regime.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
2002
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2002, "Peasant Organisations in the Development Process: Opportunities and Constraints", in Romdhame, Mahmoud Ben and Moyo, Sam.(editors) Peasant Organisations and the Democratisation Process in Africa, Dakar: CODESRIA. Pp 293-313.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Munguti, Kaendi, 2002 'Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
2001
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2001, and Dorothy McCormick and Kimuyu, P., 'Kenya.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
2000
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2000 and Munguti, Kaendi, "Gender Equity in Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya" in Mullei, A. and Bokea, C (editors). Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre f.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2000, Tapping Opportunities in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini, IDS Working Paper No 525, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
1999
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1999, 'The Search for a Gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., Institutions and Industrialisation Process: A Proposal for a Study of the Textile and Textile Products Industry in Kenya, IDS Working Paper No 527, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with Mitullah, Winnie V., 'Inter-Firm Dynamics in the Construction Sector.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
1998
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1998, "Ziwani and Kigandaini Jua Kali Enterprises Cluster: Do Small Business Gain by Being in Close Proximity to Each Other", in Journal of African Research and Development, vol. 27&28, 1997/98 pp 270-298.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
1997
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1997, with McCormick, Dorothy and Ongile, Grace, "Growth and Barriers to Growth Between Nairobi's Small and Medium Sized Garment Producers" in World Development, Vol.25 No.7 pp 1095-1111.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
1996
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1996, "Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Formation and Development in Central Kenya: Entrepreneurship or Plodding Along?" in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (editors.), Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in Africa.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
1994
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, 'Finance, Markets, and Business Environment: A Review of Literature on Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, Barriers to Small Enterprise Growth in Nairobi: Markets and Networks.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
1992
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1992, "Finance And Availability of Capital for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Central Kenya", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 23. Pp. 63-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
1988
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1988 "'The Intra-Urban Location Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 18 pp. 67-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
1987
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1987, "The Spatial Linkages Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika." in Journal of East Africa Development and Research, Vol. 17 pp. 147-167.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui " From Home to Micro and Small Enterprises: Entrepreneurship and Female Gender Identities".". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 'Knowledge, Technology and Growth: The case study of Kamukunji Jua Kali Enterprise Cluster, World bank Institute, Washington.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, and Dorothy, McCormick, 'Industrializing Kenya: Building the Productive Capacity of Micro and Small Enterprise Clusters.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Kinyanjui and Felix Kiruthu " Globalization Experience in East Africa Region: A Search for theory in Cornelissen,s (eds) What is globalization critical regional perspectives.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and McCormick, Dorothy. and Kimuyu, Peter , 'Textiles and Clothing: Global Players and Local Struggles.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Munguti, Kaendi, 'Unlocking Women.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui "Governance and its Implications for Gender Inequalities in the Jua Kali economy" IDS working Paper No. 543, Nairobi IDS university of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Institutions Affecting Creativity in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini Clusters in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "After Graduation What Next? A Tracer Study of Polytechnic Graduates in Kitui, Makueni, Kwale and Taita Taveta Districts in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Mittulah, W., 'Enhancing Institutional Capacity for Policy Development, Dialogue and Advocacy: Strengthening Capacity of Associations and Other Community Based Organizations, Unpublished Consultancy Report Submitted to UNDP and Mini.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., 'Firm Level Institutions in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
2009
2008
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2008). Supply and Demand for Major Agricultural Commodities in the COMESA Region. COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2008.
2007
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2007). FAO-Kenya Government National Medium Term Priority Framework(NMTPF). FAO/Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2007.
2005
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2005). Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Afework Aklilu, L. Eturu; and C. Ackello-Ogutu, (2005). Evaluation of AfDB Bank Group Assistance Strategy for the Agriculture and Rural Development Sector of Kenya. August, AfDB/Tunis. July.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
2004
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2004). Markets to raise incomes for Poor Farmers in Africa, Abstracts of Workshop Papers. Rockefeller Foundation, Food Security Division.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2004). Review of Research on Agriculture and Rural Development in Kenya over the past five years. World Bank/Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
2003
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and Echessah, P. (2003). Changing Comparative Advantage and Regional Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Implications for Food Security. REMPAI Technical Paper.". In: Implications for Food Security. REMPAI Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2003.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2003). Policy Influence by Selected Natural Resource Management Projects of the East and Central Africa Program for Agricultural Policy Analysis (ECAPAPA). Project Evaluation Case Study of IDRC funded projects in East Africa. Report to .". In: Project Evaluation Case Study of IDRC funded projects in East Africa. Report to IDRC/Ottawa. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2003.
2002
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Freeman, H. A.; D. D. Rohrbach and C. Ackello-Ogutu .". In: Proceedings of a Workshop, 1-3 July 2002, ICRISAT Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah, N Mwania and T. Oketch, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held in Zanzibar December 6-8 2001. RTAA/Technoserve, USAID RED.". In: Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held in Zanzibar December 6-8 2001. RTAA/Technoserve, USAID REDSO/ESA, Nairobi. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2002). Targeting Agricultural Research for Development in Semi-Arid Tropics of Sub-Sahara Africa. Report by Workshop Facilitator for ICRISAT/Nairobi.". In: Report by Workshop Facilitator for ICRISAT/Nairobi. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah, N Mwania and T. Oketch, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on Agribusiness Development and regional integration in Malawi held at Capi.". In: Proceedings of a forum on Agribusiness Development and regional integration in Malawi held at Capital Hotel Lilongwe, Malawi 16th April 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwania, N. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Echessah P. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
1999
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1999). Constraints and Future Prospects in Marketing of Agricultural Commodities within the East African Community. Paper presented at a Ministerial Seminar on the East African Cooperation; Arusha, March 25 - 26, 1999.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1999.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1999). Trade in agricultural Commodities in eastern and Southern Africa: Policy Options for Malawi. Paper presented at a Seminar on Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in southern Africa; Rural Policy Research Center/Malawi In.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1999.
1998
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1998) Informal Cross-border Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa: Methodological Approaches and Preliminary Results. In Asiwaju, A. I. and M. de Leeuw (Editors): Border Region Development in Africa: Focus on eastern and southern Sub-Reg.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1998). Unrecorded Trade between Tanzania and her Neighbors: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper No. 89.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper No. 89. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Macamo, J. L.; Ackello-Ogutu, C.; and P. Echessah - Editors (1998). Unrecorded Trade between Mozambique and her Neighbors: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
1997
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1997). Informal Cross-border Trade in east Africa: Implications for Food Security in Ackello-Ogutu, C. (Editor) - - Regional Cooperation and Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Keny.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1997). Unrecorded Trade between Kenya and Uganda: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1997). Regional Cooperation and Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Kenya Commercial Bank Institute, Nairobi, February 18-19 1997. Publication of the Technical Advisory Committee of the African Rur.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
1996
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Wachira, K., C. Ackello-Ogutu and S. Stall (1996). Economic Analysis of Technology Adoption in Dairy Production in Kenya; in Proceedings of the Scientific Conference held in Nairobi, 1997.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1996). Methodologies for estimating Informal Cross-Border trade in Eastern and Southern Africa. USAID SD Publication Series, Technical Paper # 29.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1996). Informal Cross-border Trade between Kenya and Uganda: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
1994
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Nyikal, R. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). An Evaluation of Institutional Credit and its Role in Agricultural Production in Kenya, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a Syposium h.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwambazi, E. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). Women's Access to Land, Security of Tenure and Agricultural Productivity: A Case Study of Monze District, Zambia, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa:.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and W. Mwangi (1994). Training of Agricultural Economists in Eastern and Southern Africa, in Peters, G. H. and Douglas D. Hedley (Editors), Agricultural Competitiveness: Market Forces and Policy Choice, Proceedings of XXII International .". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mukhebi, A.W., C. Ackello-Ogutu, W. Nguyo, R. Hassan and W. Oluoch-Kosura (Editors) 1996. Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 19.". In: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 1994. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
1993
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Otieno, L, C. Ackello-Ogutu, G. Mullins and L. Reynolds (1993). Evaluation of Small Ruminant Marketing in Coastal Kenya. Paper Presented at XI SR CRSP Workshop 3 - 4 March, Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Kenya Commercial Bank, Nairobi, Kenya, May 18 - 20, 1994. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Seckler, D. (Editor) 1993. Agricultural Transformation in Africa: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993.
1992
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and NATURA/NECTAR (1992). Diffusion and Adoption of Technology, in Agricultural Research and Development Towards Sustainable Production Systems. University of Reading. NATURA/NECTAR Teaching Modules.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1992.
1991
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and S. G. Mbogoh (1991). Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930-90. ODI Working Paper No 55, Edited by M. Tiffen.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1991). Livestock Production Profile in Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930 - 1990, M. Tiffen (Editor), ODI/University of Nairobi.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991.
1990
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A.C., J. M. Bahemuka and E. N. Mwaura (1990). Reducing Post-Harvest Losses: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Workers in Kenya. Discovery and Innovation Journal of the African Academy of Sciences (Volume 2 Number 1 pp.36-39.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (1990). The Farming Systems Approach to Research and Extension (FSA/RE): Model and Training Requirements. National Workshop on Farming Systems Approach to Research, Extension and Training, March 5-7 1990.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Tiffen, M., Mortimore and A. C. Ackello-Ogutu (1993). From Agro-Pastoralism to Mixed Farming: The Evolution of Farming Systems in Machakos, Kenya, 1930 - 1990. ODI Network Paper No 45.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and John J. Waelti (1990). Basic Concepts of Microeconomics with Special Reference to Kenya. University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
1989
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (1989). Extension Services and Appropriate Farming Technologies for Women in the Dryland Areas of Kenya. European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) Conference, Montpellier, France May 29 - June 2, 1989.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989.
1988
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Chabari, F.N., A. C. Ackello-Ogutu and M.O. Odhiambo (1988). Factors Determining Market Prices of Small Ruminants from a Pastoral Production System in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol 52, No.4.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (Editor),Kenya's Rural Research Priorities: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53.". In: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha 28-30 April, 1988. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
1986
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Kere, P. A., W. M. Mwangi and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1986). The Supply Responsiveness of Wheat Farmers in Kenya. Eastern Africa Economic Review Vol.2 No.2.". In: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha 28-30 April, 1988. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1986.
1985
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris and W. A. Williams (1985). "Nutrient Non-Substitution in Crop Response. A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis.". In: A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. The need for a new approach to fertilizer use and Food Production in the Less Developed Countries. Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th Sept.". In: Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th September,1985. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris, William A. Williams (1985). Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4.". In: Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
1982
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1982). "A Test of the Nutrient Non-Substitution Hypothesis in Crop Response and Fertilizer Carry-over Analysis". University of California, Davis. Ph.D. Dissertation that received the award for being one of the top ten dissertations prod.". In: Ph.D. Dissertation that received the award for being one of the top ten dissertations produced in Canada and USA for the year 1982. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1982.
1976
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1976). "The Marketing of Poultry Meat and Eggs in Nairobi". Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1976.
2005
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Presenting chief complaints and clinical characteristics among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. (accepted December 2005, EAMJ).". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):652-5. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the chief complaints and clinical presentation among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UONDH). DESIGN: A retrospective survey of hospital records. SETTING: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients who attended the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic during a three year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Chief complaint, dental caries, gingivitis, traumatic injuries, treatment at first visit. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, including 391 male and 400 female. The average age of the patients was 9.0 years. The presenting complaint for most patients was dental pain (31.5%), orthodontic related complaints (25.4%) and dental decay (19.7%). Very few children attended for dental check-up (3.9%). Five hundred ninety (73.8%) children suffered from dental caries, while 275 (34.4%) children manifested gingivitis. The average number of teeth decay was 3.71 (SD+/-3.76). Only 51 (6.4%) children attended with traumatic injuries to the dentition. Treatment performed at the first visit mainly consisted of dental extractions (21.8%), oral prophylaxis and dental health education (20.5%) and restorative treatment (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The presenting complaint for most patients was pain. However, there was an almost equal demand for orthodontic treatment. Dental caries was the most prevalent dental disease. Oral prophylaxis and dental health education (DHE) constituted a significant component of treatment offered at first visit.

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