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Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

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R.K. K. " Economic Issues of Women of Africa for the Africa and Global Beijing Platform." - UN 1995 Decade for Women a UNWomen publication. 1995.
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Branthomme A, Bunning C, Kamerlaczyk S, Rodas R., Anyango SO, Situma C. Integrated Natural Resources Assessment Kenya: field manual . Rome: FAO; 2009.
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R NYONJE, KYALO DN, MULWA ANELINE. ). Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes: A Hand Book for Students and Practioners. Nairobi: Aura Books-ISBN 9966-123-456-7 ; 2012.
Cherotich, M.G., Kalai, J.M., Kebenei PJ, Rose A. "). Prospects of Deputy Principals’ professional preparation on administrative tasks in boarding public secondary schools inBomet County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2):109-117.
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Ojwang J. D, R.O. Nyankanga, and J. Imungi, Olanya MO. ". Growth Parameters of vegetable pigeon pea varieties in Kenya." Horttechnology spotlight 5. 2016.nyankangaojwanghortechnology_spotlight_vol_97_pg_5_2016pdf.pdf
Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
Ed. A.Vassiliev RO, B.Petruk, Rakito O. ". The Kenyan Novel in the End of the Century: New Outfits or Unveiled Masks - in: Africa at the Threshold of the New Millenium." Moscow, Institute for African Studies, RAS. 1999:204-205.
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D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
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Redfern PH, Sinei KA. "24-Hr variation in synaptosomal tryptophan-5- hydroxylase activity in the rat brain.". In: Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System. London: MacMillan Press; 1985.
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Mwonga PV, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, R. Gateru, Mwabora J. Ab-initio Studies of Point Defects in : A Density Functional Approach. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide has been intensively studied as a wide band gap transition metal oxide due to its n-type semi-conducting property which makes it to have many applications in industry. Some of the observed conductivity arises from its intrinsic point defects. The structural properties and electronic band structures of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) phases, have been investigated using ab-initio methods. The structural properties were obtained using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets. For the two phases of TiO2, the calculated equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli and bond lengths were found to be in good agreement with other recent theoretical calculations and also with experimental data. After introduction of various defects to the perfect super cell, the Ti-O bond lengths were altered greatly. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.959 Å to a range of values (1.718 - 1.861) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.006 Å to a range of values (2.072 - 2.231 ) Å for rutile TiO2. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.956 Å to a range of values (1.782 - 1.830) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.050 Å to a range of values (2.112 - 2.214) Å, for anatase TiO2. Also altered were Ti-O-Ti angles, from the two constants (99.93, 131.04)° to a range of values (88.86 - 95.69 and 132.01 - 143.49)° for rutile TiO2. For anatase TiO2, Ti- O-Ti angles changed from the two constants (103.81, 152.39)° to a range of values (93.59 - 149.91 and 156.74 - 176.05)°. Electronic properties were investigated too. Perfect rutile and anatase super cells gave band gaps of 2.24 eV and 2.44 eV, respectively, underground-state conditions. Valence bandwidths (VB) and conduction bandwidths (CB) were also obtained for both phases. VB of 5.6 eV and CB of 1.654 eV were observed for rutile TiO2, while VB of 4.76 eV and CB of 2.35 eV were observed for anatase TiO2; all in good agreement with experimental values. This study also investigated the defect formation enthalpies of Frenkel and Schottky defects in both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. This study also considered point defect stability in rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. The formation energies for oxygen and titanium atoms, defects were found to be in agreement with the experimental values, especially the case of rutile oxygen atom vacancy. Both Frenkel and Schottky defects were found to induce new energy states in titanium dioxide. Normally band gaps are reduced in defective TiO2 crystals, and in this study, reduced energy band gaps were reported for all the defective super cells. In rutile, the metal oxide gaps were found to almost vanish due to the presence of oxygen atom vacancy, oxygen atom Frenkel and titanium Frenkel defects. These gave direct energy band gaps: 0.35 eV, 0.207 eV and 0.327 eV, respectively. Defects in anatase phase showed a similar trend, with the least energy band gap being reported for the case titanium interstitial (0.041 eV, which is indirect). With such infinitesimal gaps, these otherwise insulating oxides can with ease become conducting metal oxides, by either increasing the temperatures or pressure since these calculations were done at 0 K and 0 pressure. It can thus be said that intrinsic point defects in titanium dioxide do contribute to the improvement of the electrical conductivity of this oxide.

Obel OA, d'Avila A, Neuzil P, Saad EB, Ruskin JN, Reddy VY. "Ablation of left ventricular epicardial outflow tract tachycardia from the distal great cardiac vein.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of ablation of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular tachycardia (OTVT) from the distal ramifications of the coronary sinus (CS).
A significant minority of patients presenting with idiopathic OTVT have an epicardial focus, the standard approach to which involves ablation from within one of the aortic valve cusps (AVCs). We describe the successful ablation of idiopathic epicardial OTVT from within the CS in the distal great cardiac vein (GCV).

Ablation from the distal GCV was performed in 5 patients with idiopathic OTVT who had unfavorable mapping, in some cases unsuccessful ablation from various endocardial and epicardial sites including the AVCs, and in 1 patient via the direct epicardial approach. An electroanatomic mapping system (Carto) was used in 3 patients, and conventional mapping was performed in 2 patients, and in 3 patients cryothermal ablation was performed.
In all patients, the first ablation lesion in the GCV successfully eliminated the arrhythmia. All patients have remained free of VT after a mean follow-up of 24 (7 to 44) months. There were no immediate or long-term complications.
Idiopathic epicardial OTVT can be successfully ablated from the distal GCV, and should be seen as an alternative to ablation from the aortic valve cusps.

Mutungi AK, Wango EO, Rogo KO, Kimani VN, Karanja JG. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates.
To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion.
A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996.
Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya.
Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period.
The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented.
Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.
The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01).
Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks

Mutungi AK, Karanja JG, Kimani VN, Rogo KO, Wango EO. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion.
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996.
SETTING:
An urban and a rural district in Kenya.
PARTICIPANTS:
Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues.
DATA COLLECTION:
One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder.
RESULTS:
One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers.
CONCLUSION:
Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures.

Chege F, Ruigu G. "Accelerating the Inflow of New Ideas to Rural People.". In: Social Sciences Conference.; 1971.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Konyole SO, Kinyuru JN, Owuor BO, Kenji GM, Onyango CA, Estambale BB, Friis H, Roos N, Owino VO. "Acceptability of Amaranth Grain-based Nutritious Complementary Foods with Dagaa Fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and Edible Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) Compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus among Young Children/Mothers Dyads in Western Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2006;16(2):681-5. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Otieno A, Karuku G, Raude J, Koech O. "Accumulation Of Nitrogen And Phosphorous By Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) In A Model Constructed Wetland Treatment System For Polishing Municipal Wastewater." International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies . 2018;22(4):291-298 .
Reichard GA, Skutches CL, Hoeldtke RD, Owen OE. "Acetone metabolism in humans during diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1986;35:668-674. Abstract

Plasma acetone turnover rates were measured with the primed continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone in patients with moderate to severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Plasma acetone turnover rates ranged from 1.52 to 15.9 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (108-1038 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1) and were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations that ranged from 0.47 to 7.61 mM. The average acetone turnover rate was 6.45 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (533 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1), a value twice that obtained in a similar group of diabetic ketoacidotic patients via the single-injection technique of 2-[14C]acetone administration. Degradation of urine glucose revealed that 14C from administered 2-[14C )acetone was principally located in carbons 1, 2, 5, and 6 of the glucose molecule in five of six patients. This distribution is similar to that expected from 2-[14C]pyruvate, suggesting that acetone was converted to glucose through pyruvate. In one patient, label was located predominantly in glucose carbons 3 and 4, indicating that acetone metabolism may be different in some patients. Acetol (1-hydroxyacetone) and 1,2-propanediol (PPD), two possible metabolites of acetone, were detected in plasma of the patients. The concentrations of Acetol ranged from 0 to 0.48 mM and of PPD ranged from 0 to 0.53 mM. The concentrations of each metabolite were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations. During the continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone, the specific activities of plasma glucose and PPD rose continuously but did not reach constant values. Estimates of the minimal percent plasma glucose and PPD derived from plasma acetone averaged 2.1 and 74%, respectively.

ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Achievements and Constraints of Structural Adjustments on the Micro-Economy in Africa: "Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Rodenburg, J; Diagne OFKPM; SKSOA; S; K;. Achievements and impact of NERICA on sustainable rice production in sub - Saharan Africa..; 2006. Abstract

In terms of production, rice is the fourth most important cereal (after sorghum, maize and millet) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It occupies 10 percent of the total land under cereal production and accounts for 15 percent of total cereal production (FAOSTAT, 2006). Approximately 20 million farmers in SSA grow rice and about 100 million people depend on it for their livelihoods (Nwanze et al., 2006). Rice is the staple food of a growing number of people in SSA: from 1961 to 2003 consumption increased at a rate of 4.4 percent per year (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). Among the major cereals cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food source in Africa: between 1985 and 2003, the annual increase in rice production was 4 percent, while production growth for maize and sorghum was only about 2.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). The most widely grown rice species, Oryza sativa, is originally from Asia and was introduced into Africa only about 450 years ago. Another less well-known rice species, O. glaberrima (Steud), is originally from Africa and was domesticated in the Niger River Delta over 3 500 years ago (Viguier, 1939; Carpenter, 1978). As a result of their evolution, domestication and breeding history, both species have distinct and complementary advantages and disadvantages for use in African farming systems. The Asian rice (O. sativa) is characterized by good yields, absence of lodging and grain shattering, and high fertilizer returns – unlike its African counterpart (O. glaberrima). However, in contrast to Asian rice types, landraces of O. glaberrima often have good weed competitiveness and resilience against major African biotic and abiotic stresses (Koffi, 1980; Jones et al., 1997a). Dalton and Guei (2003) concluded that research into genetic enhancement of rice generated approximately US$360 million in 1998, compared with a total investment of just US$5.6 million. This is evidence that rice variety improvement has a potentially enormous impact on the economic development of SSA. Numerous conventional breeding efforts have been made to improve the performance of upland rice (O. sativa) for use in African farming systems. These efforts have had only limited success, partly because the Asian rice, O. sativa, lacks resistance or tolerance to many of the typical African stresses (Jones et al., 1997a).

O E, Robert SJ. Acknowledgments.; 1995.
Harrison, L.J.S, Obiero, G.O, Gumede, SP, Highes, A, McMahon, A.R, Rawatlal, R, MS S. Activation of Linear Alkanes to Oxygenated Intermediates and Products using Genetically Engineered Yeast streams. Richards Bay, South Africa; 2007.
Karimurio J, Rono H, Barasa E, Mukiri M, Gichangi M. "Active trachoma is an infectious disease, stop treating it administratively." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. 2013;17(1):26-30.active_trachoma.pdf
Slyker JA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Maleche-Obimbo E, Emery S, Richardson B, Dong T, Iversena AKN, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection in Kenyan HIV-infected infants.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression
during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection
and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected
infants.
Methods: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIVexposed
uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers.
HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed
uninfected infants were studied for 1 year.
Results: CMVDNAwas detected frequently during the firstmonths of life; by 3months of
age,CMVDNAwasdetectedin90%ofHIV-exposeduninfectedinfantsand93%of infants
whohadacquiredHIV-1inutero.CMVviral loadswerehighest inthe1–3monthsfollowing
the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were
significantlyhigher in theHIV-infectedinfantscomparedwith theHIV-exposeduninfected
infants (mean3.2versus2.7 log10CMVDNAcopies/ml, respectively,P¼0.03).Thedetection
of CMV DNA persisted to 7–9 months post-CMV infection in both the HIV-exposed
uninfected (8/17, 47%) and HIV-infected (13/18, 72%, P¼0.2) children. Among HIVinfected
children, CMV DNA was detected in three of the seven (43%) surviving infants
tested between 19 and 21 months post-CMV infection. Finally, a strong correlation was
found between peak CMV and HIV-1 viral loads (r¼0.40, P¼0.008).
Conclusion: Acute CMV coinfection is common in HIV-infected Kenyan infants. HIV-1
infection was associated with impaired containment of CMV replication.

Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Richardson BA, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Acute HIV infection among Kenyan infants.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Clinical signs and symptoms of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants are not well characterized.
METHODS:
Serial clinical assessments and HIV PCR assays were conducted in a cohort of children born to HIV-seropositive mothers from birth to 2 years of age. Acute HIV infection visits were defined as those up to 3 months prior to and including the visit at which HIV DNA was first detected. Noninfection visits included all visits at which the child had test results negative for HIV, including the last visit at which a test result negative for HIV DNA was obtained in children who later acquired HIV infection. Differences in the prevalence of symptoms at acute infection versus noninfection visits were determined overall and were stratified by age at infection (<2 months vs. >or=2 months). HIV RNA was measured serially in infected infants and was compared between infants with and infants without symptoms of acute HIV infection.
RESULTS:
There were 125 acute infection visits (among 56 infants) and 3491 noninfection visits (among 306 infants). Acute HIV infection was associated with rash (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8), failure to thrive (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8). Acute HIV infection was associated with lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0) in infants <2 months of age and with pneumonia (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.3) and dehydration (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.9-18.5) in infants >or=2 months of age. Infant peak viral load and mortality were not associated with symptoms of acute HIV infection. However, infants with symptoms had higher viral levels later in the course of infection than did those without symptoms (P=.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Infants may manifest symptoms early during the course of HIV infection, and symptoms of acute HIV infection may correlate with poor viral control. Rash, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, and dehydration may signify acute HIV infection in infants.

R W Nduati. Acute Septic Arthritis As It Is Seen In Children At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1987. Abstract

A nine-month study was done on children with acute septic arthritis admitted to the Paediatric Orthopaedic and general paediatric wards. The aims of the study were to elucidate the clinical characteristics and aetiological agents of septic arthritis in children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. Thirty one children were recruited into the study and of these 58% were infants and 32.3% were school age children. There was a striking male predominance in the school age children - 9:1 while male/female ratio was 1.2:1 in the
younger children. Knees and shoulders were the most frequently affected by septic arthritis and together were responsible for
71% of the septic joints. It is of interest that all the septic

shoulder joints occurred in infancy. Non-typhoidal salmonella species especially Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria.

The rate of bacterial isolation was as high as 72.2% when both blood cultures and joint aspirate cultures were done. Salmonella species had 75% sensitivity to the aminoglycosides (Gentamicin,Kanamycin) and Chloramphenicol while only two thirds of the Klebsiella species were sensitive to the same antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in this study were sensitive to Erythromycin and uniformly resistant to
Ampicillin,.Cloxacillin and Cotrimoxazole. There was full

recovery in 63.7% of the patients while 23% went home without appropriate follow-up.

The author recommends that blood and joint aspirate cultures should be done in all patients suspected to have septic arthritis. Antibiotic sensitivity testing should be done r~gularly to facilitate appropriate drug therapy. Clinicians should ensure adequate follow-up of patients following discharge from hospital.

Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Nthakanio NP, Ireri KJ, Munji. KJ, Raphael W. Adaptability of PGMS and TGMS rice lines for hybrid rice seed production in Kenya..; 2012.
Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "ADAPTING A STIGMA SCALE FOR ASSESSMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS-RELATED STIGMA AMONG ENGLISH/SWAHILI-SPEAKING PATIENTS IN AN AFRICAN SETTING." Stigma Health. 2017;2(4):326. Abstract

To adapt a validated instrument that quantitatively measures stigma among English/Swahili speaking TB (tuberculosis) patients in Kenya, a high burden TB country.

Mindila A, Rodrigues A, McCormick D, Mwangi RW. "An Adaptive ICT-Enabled Model for Knowledge Identification and Management for Enterprise Development." International Journal of International Journal of System Dynamics Applications. 2014;3(3):19 pp.
Ahuya CO;, Cartwright TC;, Ruvuna F;, Okeyo AM. "Additive and heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya."; 1987.
A. S. Azi, Riechi A. R., Khatete I. W. "Adequacy Assessment of Government’s Budgetary Allocations for the Provision of Lecture Halls in Nigeria’s Federal Universities." International Journal of Social Sciences and Information Technology. 2017;II(XI):1455-1467.abstract_5.doc
Migowa AN, Gatinu B, RW. N. "Adherence to oral rehydration therapy among in-patient children aged 1-59 months with some or no dehydration. ." J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Apr;56(2):103-7. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp059. Epub 2009 Jul 14.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine adherence to oral rehydration solution (ORS) among in-patients aged 1-59 months suffering from gastroenteritis and having some dehydration (SD) or no dehydration (ND) in two rural hospitals in Kenya.
METHODS:

Children aged 1-59 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis with (SD) or (ND) were enrolled into the study, examined and medical records reviewed. On the second and third day of follow up, children were re-examined to ascertain hydration status and care-takers interviewed.
RESULTS:

Ninety-nine children were enrolled. Forty-five (75%) of the 60 children with SD received a correct prescription for ORS but only 12 (20%) received the correct amount. Among the 39 children with ND, 23 (59%) received a correct prescription for ORS, however only 16 (41%) received the correct amount. On the 3rd day, 9 (15%) of the 60 children with SD at baseline and 2 (5%) of the 39 with ND were classified as having SD.
CONCLUSION:

Four in five children with SD and 6 in 10 children with ND fail to receive the correct amounts of ORS.

Masese JO, Rashid JR, Nyamu GD, Ombega JN, Mwangangi EM. "Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults receiving anti-tuberculous therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and HIV uninfected adult patients on anti-TB therapy.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.
Subjects: HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-TB therapy between January 2006 to December 2007
Main Outcome Measures:Documented adverse drug reactions.
Results: Three hundred and fourteen records were reviewed, 157 for both HIV infected and HIV uninfected. Of the 314 patient files, 96 (30.5%) had ADRs; 70 (44.6%) verses 26 (16.6%) for HIV infected and HIV uninfected respectively. Overall, the most frequent ADR among the two groups was gastrointestinal disturbances (21.7%) verses (10.2%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=2.44 [1.28-4.63], P=0.006). This was followed by peripheral neuropathy (16.6%) verses (4.5%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=4.25 [1.79-10.12], P=0.005). 73(46.49%) of the HIV infected patients were also receiving anti-retroviral therapy, of
which 36(49.31 %) of them had ADRs documented. Twenty five (29.8%) of the HIV infected who were not taking anti-retroviral therapy, had ADRs documented.
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disturbances and peripheral neuropathy were the most common ADRs in both groups. Surveillance systems should be established in hospitals for ADRs monitoring and control.

Masese JO, Rashid JR, Nyamu GD, Ombega JN, Mwangangi EM. "Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults receiving anti-tuberculous therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and HIV uninfected adult patients on anti-TB therapy.
Design: A retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.
Subjects: HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-TB therapy between January 2006 to December 2007
Main Outcome Measures:Documented adverse drug reactions.
Results: Three hundred and fourteen records were reviewed, 157 for both HIV infected and HIV uninfected. Of the 314 patient files, 96 (30.5%) had ADRs; 70 (44.6%) verses 26 (16.6%) for HIV infected and HIV uninfected respectively. Overall, the most frequent ADR among the two groups was gastrointestinal disturbances (21.7%) verses (10.2%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=2.44 [1.28-4.63], P=0.006). This was followed by peripheral neuropathy (16.6%) verses (4.5%) for HIV infected and uninfected respectively, (RR=4.25 [1.79-10.12], P=0.005). 73(46.49%) of the HIV infected patients were also receiving anti-retroviral therapy, of
which 36(49.31 %) of them had ADRs documented. Twenty five (29.8%) of the HIV infected who were not taking anti-retroviral therapy, had ADRs documented.
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disturbances and peripheral neuropathy were the most common ADRs in both groups. Surveillance systems should be established in hospitals for ADRs monitoring and control.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79(9):344-348.Website
R.S. O. "Africa."; 2011. Abstract
n/a
E.Odada, H.A.Bootsma, R.Hecky. "African lake management initiatives: The global connection." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2006;Volume 11(Issues 4):203-213. AbstractWebsite

There is a global dimension to lake management in Africa and elsewhere that will require a concerted action not only from individual riparian states, but also from regional, continental and global communities. The current global lake threats arise from climate change, regional land degradation and semivolatile contaminants, and share the common feature that the atmosphere is the vector that spreads their impacts over large areas and to many lakes. The Great Lakes of Africa (Malawi, Victoria and Tanganyika) are particularly sensitive to these problems because of their enormous surface areas, slow water flushing rates, and the importance of direct rainfall in their water budgets. Their response times might be slow to yield a detectable change and, unfortunately, their recovery times might also be slow. It is possible for atmospheric effects to act antagonistically to the impacts of catchment change, but antagonistic effects could become synergistic in the future. Improved understanding of the physical dynamics of these lakes, and development of models linking their physical and biogeochemical behaviour to regional, mesoscale climate models, will be necessary to guide lake managers.

Hanotte O, Bradley DG, Ochieng JW, Verjee Y, Hill EW, Rege EJO. "African pastoralism: genetic imprints of origins and migrations." Science. 2002;296(5566):336-9. Abstract

The genetic history of African cattle pastoralism is controversial and poorly understood. We reveal the genetic signatures of its origins, secondary movements, and differentiation through the study of 15 microsatellite loci in 50 indigenous cattle breeds spanning the present cattle distribution in Africa. The earliest cattle originated within the African continent, but Near East and European genetic influences are also identified. The initial expansion of African Bos taurus was likely from a single region of origin. It reached the southern part of the continent by following an eastern route rather than a western one. The B. indicus genetic influence shows a major entry point through the Horn and the East Coast of Africa and two modes of introgression into the continent.

Musumba GW, R.O. O, E.T.O. O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Musumba GW, R.Oboko GW, E.T.Omulo O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Middleton P, Kelly A-M, Brown J, Robertson M. "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for {pH}, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate." Emergency medicine journal: EMJ. 2006;23:622-624. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of agreement with the respective arterial values, with narrow 95% limits of agreement. These results suggest that venous values may be an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement in this clinical setting.

Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Muraguri, J.M. 1983. Coliform mastitis in the Nairobi area of Kenya: Bacteriological Types, Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and clinical problems of treatment. Kenya Vet. 7(1) : 20-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1983. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
Redher H, Beck E, Kokwaro JO. "The alpine plant communities of Mount Kenya." Phytocoenologia. 1988;16 (4):433-463.
Garcia-Knight MA, Nduati E, Hassan AS, Gambo F, Odera D, Etyang TJ, Hajj NJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC, Rowland-Jones SL. "Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0143043. Abstract

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Alternatives to Imprisonment in Kenya, 6(1) Criminal Law Forum, Rutgers University School of Law, U.S.A., 73-102.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1995. Abstract
n/a
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An Anatomy of Third world Literature: Northrop Frye's Theory of Modes in a post-colonial context to bothJAmes Curry (London) Making suggested revion.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An excrept from a long poem titled "TheVillage Bride" Published inMusings a Massey Univeristy literary journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Lissens G, Rabay K, Waweru M, Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S. "Anaerobic Digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.". 2004.Website
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013;2(6):41-45.the_journal_of_phytopharamacology-onzago_paper.pdf
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Richu SW. "Analysis of Challenges in the Implementation of Operations Research Techniques for Value Addition in the Logistics Industry in Kenya: A Survey of selected Nakuru County-Based Logistics Firms.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractanalysis_of_challenges_in_the_implementation_of_operations_r.pdf

In National and International Supply Chain Management Systems, developing ideas that add value and solve logistics problems successfully when implemented is an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness of business organizations. The development and the deployment of scientific yet business techniques in the field of Management Science that simplify processes will enhance the expansion of markets through the efficiency and effectiveness realized in the costs involved. This study sought to analyze challenges in the implementation of Operations Research techniques on value addition in the logistics industry in Kenya; A survey of Nakuru County-Based logistics Service providers. The study covered 92 respondents drawn from a population of 100 (staff and customers). Questionnaire was used to collect data after which descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data.. The study concluded that the use of Operations Research techniques have been used but yet to be fully utilized by business firms involved in the logistics service provision in order to bring about value addition in their course of delivery of goods works and services. Inadequate Human Capital in Operations Research, absence of qualified Human Capital in Operations Research, lack of professional input, insufficient platform to develop and train professionals in the field of Operations Research and absence of motivation and recognition were some of the key challenges that deterred the implementation of operations research techniques as well as the absence of integration between the use of Operations Research techniques and organization's in value addition. The study recommends that organizations engaged in the logistics service provision should invest in the qualified and competent human capital in the area of management science (operations research) in order to attain optimization and meet customer requirements by way of value addition.
Keywords: Operations Research, Supply Chain Network, Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Value Addition, Human Capital, Organization Policy, Information Technology.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
Mbuya TO, Sinclair I, Moffat AJ, Reed PAS. "Analysis of fatigue crack initiation and S–N response of model cast aluminium piston alloys.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Fatigue crack initiation and S–N fatigue behaviour of hipped model Al7Si–Sr and Al0.7Si piston alloys have been investigated after overaging at 260 °C for 100 h to provide a practical simulation of in-service conditions. The results show that hipping did not affect the S–N behaviour of Al7Si–Sr. This is attributed to the lack of significant change in porosity distribution in this alloy because of its low porosity levels even in the unhipped state. However, hipping profoundly improved the fatigue performance of alloy Al0.7Si due to the significant reduction in porosity. In this investigation, it was observed that porosity was rendered impotent as a fatigue crack initiator in both hipped alloys. Instead, fatigue cracks were observed to originate mainly from intermetallic particles (particularly the Al9FeNi phase) in both alloys and sometimes from oxide particles in Al0.7Si alloy. Fatigue cracking was also frequently observed at intermetallic clusters in hipped Al0.7Si. The observed scatter in fatigue life is discussed in terms of the size of fatigue crack initiating particles and the overall particle size distribution which follows a power law distribution function.

R.Birithia, S.Subramanian, H.R.Pappu, Muthomi J, R.D.NARLA. "Analysis of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) replication in vector and non-vector thrips species." Plant Pathology . 2013;(12057).
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO, Rading GO. "Analysis of natural degradation of high-density polyethylene lining using time-dependent properties.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this study was to determine the service life of high-density polyethylene lining when exposed to natural degradation in tropical climates using time-dependant properties. The changes in material density, strength, and strain at fracture over the degradation period were determined. Optical micrographs were obtained to track the changes in the material during aging. An exponential decay equation was developed that estimates of the service life of the high-density polyethylene lining. It was concluded that most of the degradation of the material takes place in the first few months of installation and that both the density and mechanical strength of the material increased in the course of degradation, whereas the fracture strain reduced over time. It was concluded that the most important factor that determines the lifespan of the liner is the ability to maintain high strains. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2011. © 2011 Society of Plastics Engineers

Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Kariuki DK;, Ritho CN;, Munei K. "Analysis of the Effect of Land Tenure on Technical Efficiency in Smallholder Crop Production in Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

Agriculture is the backbone of the Kenyan economy contributing 26% to GDP and 70% to employment. Majority of the farmers in Kenya are smallholder farmers possessing less than 3 acres of land. The agricultural sector in Kenya has been facing several challenges among them declining yields. While the decline in yields could be associated with several other factors, it could also be as a result of the effect of insecure land tenure systems which are little understood. This study examines the technical efficiency of alternative land tenure systems among smallholder farmers and identifying the determinants of inefficiency with the objective of exploring land tenure policies that would enhance efficiency in production. The study is based on the understanding that land tenure alone will not be enough to indicate the levels of efficiency of individual farms, other socio economic factors such as gender, education and farm size would also be expected to be important determinants of efficiency. A stochastic frontier was used to estimate technical efficiency and relate it to land tenure and socio economic factors using data from 22 districts from the main agro–ecological zones. The study found that parcels with land titles have a higher efficiency level. Other factors such as education status of head, access to fertilizers, and group participation were also found to significantly influence technical efficiency. The study recommends that the process of land registration should be extended to other regions of the country but at the same time other factors such as access to inputs and improvement of education status should also be addressed.

Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
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Ogeng’o J, Amuti T, Rwegasira E, Ouko I, Ongeti K. "THE ANATOMICAL PATTERN OF THE DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2019;8(1):1444-1451. Abstract

Knowledge of the anatomical pattern of dorsalis pedis artery is important during evaluation of peripheral
circulation, peripheral vascular disease, microvascular flap, ankle and foot surgery. Reports from other
populations on the pattern show wide disparity suggesting ethnic and geographical differences. Data
from black African populations is scanty. This study therefore examined the anatomical pattern of dorsalis
pedis artery among adult black Kenyans. The cadaveric dissection study on 30 formalin fixed specimens
evaluated the origin, position, course and branching pattern of the dorsalis pedis artery. The data were
analysed using SPSS for means, frequency and standard deviation. Student t – test was used to determine
side differences at 95% confidence interval where P – Value of <5% was taken as statistically significant.
The artery was consistently present, as a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It ran 4.6 mm ± 2.1
mm from the medial malleolus, and about 2.5 ± 0.3mm from the medial border of the base of the first
metatarsal bone. The mean was 4.76 mm on the right, and 4.56 mm on the left. The difference was
statistically significant (P<0.05). Three branching patterns were observed. The conventional pattern was
observed in only 47% of cases. The extensor hallucis longus tendon most frequently crossed the artery
above the ankle joint. There were no cases of crossing below the ankle. These observations reveal that
the dorsalis pedis artery is consistently present, high, relatively medialised, and displays an atypical
branching pattern. Due care should be taken during surgery. Preoperative ultrasound evaluation is
recommended.

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Losovyj YB, Ruihua Cheng, J Carvell, E Ayieta. "Angle resolved photoemission study of surface states on the Pt (997) vicinal surface." Physics Letters A. 2010;374(30):3080-3083. Abstract

One-dimensional atomic chains can be synthesized on stepped surfaces and the electronic
structure of the high vicinal surface plays an essential role in determining the physical
properties of atomic chains grown on top of it. We have applied surface analysis techniques
to study the surface of a Pt (997) single crystal. The STM image of the surface showed that
the surface was uniform with a well defined distance between the terraces. Angle resolved
photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to characterize the electronic states of …

Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Anti-Competitive Trade Practices and the Law Relating to Contracts in Restraint of Trade.". In: The Kenya Perspective, The University of Nairobi Law Journal, 118-130, Vol.1.; 2003. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Anti-Competitive Trade Practices and the Law Relating to Contracts in Restraint of Trade.". In: The Kenya Perspective", The University of Nairobi Law Journal, 118-130, Vol. 1. 2003.; 2003. Abstract
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Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao X-D, Henrick BM, Jain S, Ball BT, Plummer FA, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Rosenthal KL. "Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ~130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Anti-Monopoly Policy and the Structure - Conduct - Performance Paradigm: The Kenyan Approach, 10 (1) Eastern Africa Economic Review.". In: Journal of the Kenyan Economic Assocation, Nairobi, 11-38.; 1994. Abstract
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VM M, O MJ, J Z, BM G, R M, LK O, FT W, MR J, LA W, I M. "Anti-Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis activities of (-)-gossypol and derivatives from Thespesia garckeana." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):613-616.masila_et_al.pdf
Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, A.N.Guantai, Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Masengo W. "The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(1):18.
Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, Guantai AN, C.K. M, Kibwage IO, J.W. M, Masengo W. "The antimalarial and antimicrobial and Brine shrimp toxicity of Clematis brachiata extract. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5:15-18.
Mwangi JW, Mensah IA, G.Muriuki, R.Munavu, L.W L. Antimicrobial activity of lippie grandifolia and lippa javancia. Biology and chemistry of active natural substances. Bonn: Thieme George, Thieme Verlag Strutgart, New York ; 1990.
Endale M, Alao JP, Akala HM, Rono NK, Eyase FL, Solomon D, Ndakala A, Mbugua M, Walsh DS, Erdelyl M, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica . 2012;78(1):31-35.
Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23, 28 (February).". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23,28.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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Richard M Mariita, Callistus KPO Ogol NOO, Okemo PO. "Antitubercular and Phytochemical Investigation of Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants Used by the Samburu Community in Kenya." Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(4): 379-385; 2010. Abstract
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Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
Pittman-Waller VA, Myers JG, Stewart RM, Dent DL, Page CP, Gray GA, Pruitt, Jr BA, Root HD. "Appendicitis: why so complicated? {Analysis} of 5755 consecutive appendectomies." The American surgeon. 2000;66:548-554. Abstract

A perceived high rate of complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis, despite advances in laboratory and radiographic diagnostic modalities, prompted a review of our experience with appendicitis followed by a prospective analysis that examined the time course from presentation to definitive treatment in 218 consecutive patients. In 5755 appendectomies, our overall rate of complicated appendicitis was 32 per cent; higher in males, in the young, and in the elderly; and relatively stable over each year reviewed. Prospectively, we determined that of the various time intervals, the time from the onset of symptoms to first seeking medical attention is the only significant predictor of complicated appendicitis (39.8 vs 16.5 hours for acute appendicitis). On the other hand, the time from surgical evaluation to operative intervention was significantly shorter for complicated appendicitis (3.8 vs 4.7 hours for acute appendicitis). The high rate of complicated appendicitis with its subsequent sequelae of increased morbidity and resource expenditure is primarily the direct result of patient delay in seeking medical attention and not the result of diagnostic dilemma or surgical delay. Public education, specifically targeting those groups at risk, may provide a substantial and significant solution to the complicated appendix.

Ruugia SK, Moturi CA. Application of GIS Spatial Interpolation Methods in Auto Insurance Risk Territory Segmentation and Rating. School of Business, University of Nairobi: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa; 2014. Abstract

Evolution in the field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has given rise to sophisticated scientific techniques for collection, analysis and visualization of location based data. These GIS analysis processes are used to reveal some critical patterns of occurrences. Due to inaccurate analysis and covering of insurance risks in Kenya, several companies have closed down prompting the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) and Association of Kenyan Insurers (AKI) set up maximum and minimum premium rates on insurance risks. The set premiums discounts are given to the insured based on records of their annual claims. The main problem here is that the rates cover the entire nation without considering the distribution of risk in various regions. The objective of the paper is to show that GIS can be used to analyse and generate auto insurance risk territories for insurance companies from which an insurance rating model can be developed. We used GIS analysis methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, data smoothing and clustering techniques and data on auto insurance accidents and crime, geo-coded police stations, roads, socio-economic, aerial and satellite imagery for Nairobi County. A risk territory map showing the distribution of auto insurance risk and other related maps were generated. A prescriptive insurance rating model was then developed that uses generated risk territories to calculate varying rates for auto insurance premiums rates for the respective regions. This research shows that GIS techniques can be used for better visualization of risk at a given location for accurate risk analysis and uptake.

Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, J NM, Wairire G.G, Maingi N, R.G W. "Appraisal of Peste des petits ruminants disease by Turkana pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. ." American Journal of Research Communication . 2014;2(10):186.abstract.pdf
R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya, MR Ngugi, RK, Musimba, NKR and Nyariki, DM (2003). Feeding value of Acacia tortilis pods in goats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 73(7), 826-828.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya,MR Ngugi,RK Musimba NKR and Nyariki DM(2003). Effect of acacia. Acacia tortilis pods on intake, digestibility and nutritive quality of goat diets in south-western Eritrea. African Journal of Range forage science 20 (i), 59-62.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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Rukwaro RW, Mukono KM. "Architecture of societies in transition—the case of the Maasai of Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Historically, it has been observed that people's settlements tend to change with their changing cultural values. Societies in early and rapid transition offer rich laboratories for the testing of this observation. The Maasai of Kenya are such a group that in a relatively short period have undergone revolutionary transformation as a casual observation may reveal. This paper investigates whether there is any relationship between their new built forms and their current cultural values. Using a number of identified culture – change variables including land tenure, education, religion, occupation, and rite of passage, the paper analyses what impact changes in these variables has on the Maasai settlements. It clearly reveals that as these variables change due to contacts with western-based modernity, the settlements have undergone noticeable transformation. For example, change of land tenure from communal to individual leads to permanent settlements. While exposure through education, religion and occupation leads to a change in the spatial organisation of the dwelling and the use of new building materials. These insights are a useful background to any policy matters regarding housing that respects the cultures of the people. They are indications of what can be considered as a transitional architecture as communities struggle to modernise.

Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Baltenweck I;, Ouma R;, Anunda F;, Mwai O;A, Romney D. "Artificial or natural insemination: the demand for breeding services by smallholders.".; 2004. Abstract

Different types of breeding services are available to the Kenyan smallholder farmers. An important question is whether farmers choose the service, or they are constrained in their choice. Assessing the demand for breeding services is crucial for planning purposes since it will help in identifying the constraints faced by smallholders in the aftermath of agricultural liberalisation policies of the 1990’s. Household and community surveys were conducted in March and April 2004 in three different farming systems of the Kenyan Highlands. The study of 300 smallholder cattlekeepers found that while 54% prefer artificial insemination (AI) to natural (bull) service, 81% actually use natural service, suggesting a sharp contrast between actual use and expressed preferences. Even in intensive dairy systems (represented by Ndia division in Kirinyaga district), the majority of smallholders use natural service. Farmers prefer AI service in view of its ability to maintain and/or upgrade their dairy herd but main constraints to use of AI services are low availability and perceived high costs. This study shows that the observed high use of natural service over AI recorded in previous studies may not reflect farmers’ choice but the unavailability of the Demand for breeding services by smallholders alternative service types, cost considerations, information gaps and misinformation amongst farmers, historical reasons among other constraining factors. Some recommendations for breeding policy reform are made.

ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "As-cast and heat-treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner." The Journal of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Assessing Progress with the Implementation of the Public Transport Policy in Kenya.". In: 31st Southern African Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO. "Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

Mustapha AO, Patel JP, Rathore IVS. "Assessment of human exposures to natural sources of radiation in Kenya." Radiation protection dosimetry. 1999;82:285-292. Abstract
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Bailasha NK, Njororai WW, Rintaugu EG, Andanje M. "Assessment of injuries in physical education lessons in Kenya science teachers college, Kenya:." West Africa journal of Physical education (WAJOPHE). 2004;8:153-189.
Rosenthal NR, Barrett EJ. "An assessment of insulin action in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic diabetic patients." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1985;60:607-610. Abstract

The effect of insulin treatment on the rate of decline of plasma glucose concentration was determined in nine patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis [HHNK; mean plasma glucose, 999 +/- 59 (+/- SEM) mg/dl] and in six normal subjects rendered hyperglycemic by a combined infusion of somatostatin and glucose (mean plasma glucose, 653 +/- 28 mg/dl). Both the fractional glucose turnover and the half-time of the fall in plasma glucose during low dose (5-10 U/h) insulin treatment were reduced 10-fold (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the hyperglycemic normal subjects. In the hyperosmolar patients, the mean glucose clearance during insulin treatment was only 7% that in the normal subjects (P less than 0.001). The rate of plasma glucose decline in our hyperosmolar patients after hydration and insulin administration was 80 +/- 7 mg/dl X h. This decline is comparable to the results reported in other series, although in striking contrast to the 508 +/- 32 mg/dl X h decline in normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Our findings do not support the clinical impression that HHNK patients are insulin sensitive. We conclude that marked resistance to infused insulin delays the correction of hyperglycemia during treatment of HHNK and suggest that resistance to the normal basal insulin levels encountered in some HHNK patients may contribute in part to the development of the hyperosmolar state.

Murila F, Obimbo MM, R. M. "Assessment of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst health care providers in Kenya." Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11:78. Epub 2012 Apr 24.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Competence in neonatal resuscitation, which represents the most urgent pediatric clinical situation, is critical in delivery rooms to ensure safety and health of newly born infants. The challenges experienced by health care providers during this procedure are unique due to different causes of cardio respiratory arrest. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge of health providers on neonatal resuscitation.
METHODS:
Data were gathered among 192 health providers drawn from all counties of Kenya. The clinicians were asked to complete questionnaires which were in two parts as; demographic information and assessment of their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for windows. The results are presented using tables.
RESULTS:
All the participants were aged 23 years and above with at least a certificate training. Most medical providers had heard of neonatal resuscitation (85.4%) with only 23 receiving formal training. The average duration of neonatal training was 3 hours with 50% having missed out on practical exposure. When asked on steps of resuscitation, only 68 (35.4%) of the participants scored above 85%. More than 70% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal resuscitation inadequate and blamed it on inadequate medical training programs.
CONCLUSION:
Health providers, as the key personnel in the management of neonatal resuscitation, in this survey seem to have inadequate training and knowledge on this subject. Increasing the duration and quality of formal training should be considered during the pre-service medical education to ensure acceptable neonatal outcome.

Alemayehu F, Richard O, James KM, Wasonga OV. "Assessment of mangrove covers change and biomass in mida creek, Kenya." Open Journal of Forestry. 2014;2014. Abstract
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Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Assessment of physical fitness components as prediction factors of long jump performance." International Journal of Current Research. 2013;5(1):17-21.
Rwigi S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate." J. Meteorol. 2016;9:2-12. AbstractJ. Meteorol

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.

Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Rwigi S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate." J. Meteorol. 2016. AbstractMetoffice.gov.uk

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5 over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month.

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "An assessment of Soil Fertility Management strategies in Agroecosystems (biomass transfer technology) on Belowground Biodiversity-Soil macrofauna biomass.". In: proceedings of the 8th Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility and Programme African Network meeting. Arusha, Tanzania; 2001. Abstract

During 1997 short rains (Oct 1997-Feb 1998), a study was undertaken to assess how biomass transfer within
agroecosystem influence soil biodiversity (soil macrofauna biomass). This was part of a larger experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna are related to the quality of organic residues used. Leaf biomass of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia [Hemseley) A. Grey) biomass and senna (Senna spectabilis D.C. & H.S. Irwin) biomass at 5 t ha -1 dry weight were incorporated into the soil and these were compared with the control without any input and fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha-1 from urea and triple super phosphate (TSP). Macrofauna biomass (fresh weight), was monitored in soil monoliths (25cm x 25cm x 30cm) at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. Addition of organic residues increased faunal biomass substantially over the fertilized and unfertilized controls. Whereas senna increased total biomass by 45% and tithonia by 49%, the two organic residues did not differ significantly between them. Addition of either senna or tithonia significantly increased earthworm biomass by 390% over no input control. Even though termite biomass increased by 160% in senna and 120% in tithonia over no input control, F test was not significant because of high variability between replications of the same treatment. Fertilizer use did not change biomass of termites and earthworms. This study shows that: (1) addition of organic residues significantly increase faunal biomass indicating a likelihood that soil invertebrate functions can be manipulated by external inputs of organic residues (2) under arable land use system characterized by low amount, range and diversity of food resources, quality of organic residues do not play a significant role in influencing foraging behaviour of soil invertebrates. It therefore remains to be demonstrated whether mixing litter of organic residues of different quality may change this foraging behaviour and consequently the invertebrate functions in agroecosystem.

Key words: Biomass transfer, macrofauna, biomass, earthworms, termites

Ng’ang’a, J.C., Ritho, N C, Nzuma, M.J., Moyo, S., Herrero, M. "An Assessment of the Factors Influencing Household Willingness to Pay for Non-marketed Benefit of Cattle in the Agro-pastoral Systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18):1949-1957.
Hassan S, RA Skilton, R Pelle OD, RP Bishop, J Ahmed SBSMHAMEHUM. "Assessment of the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from the Sudan using serological and molecular methods." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2019;169:104697.
Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Wanje GH, Graham SM, Mutunga E, Peshu N, Kiarie JN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W. "Association between participant self-report and biological outcomes used to measure sexual risk behavior in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(5):429-33. Abstract

Few studies have examined the association between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and biologic outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seropositive African adults.

Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Wichtel J. "Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2015;8(1):88-96.
Mallika V, Goswami B, Rajappa M. "Atherosclerosis pathophysiology and the role of novel risk factors: a clinicobiochemical perspective." Angiology. 2007;58:513-522. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the root cause of the biggest killer of the 21st century. Mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. A number of theories-including the role of dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation and infection by certain pathogens-have been propounded from time to time explain this complex phenomenon. Recently it has been suggested that atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, multistep disease that involves chronic inflammation at every step, from initiation to progression, and that all the risk factors contribute to pathogenesis by aggravating the underlying inflammatory process. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis will aid in devising pharmaceutical and lifestyle modifications for reducing mortality resulting from coronary artery disease (CAD).A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Web sites of the National Library of Medicine (http:// www.ncbl.nlm.nih.gov/) and PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's digital archive of life sciences literature (http:// www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/). The data were accessed from books and journals in which relevant articles in this field were published. The whole spectrum of coronary artery disease evolves through various events that lead to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque and finally its complications. Atherosclerosis is the culprit behind coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The pathogenic mechanisms are varied and complex. Of late, the role of lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, and inflammation and infection as prime culprits in pathogenesis of CAD is the subject of intense research and debate. The appreciation of the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis provides a mechanistic framework to understand the clinical benefits of newer therapeutic strategies, and a better understanding of pathogenesis aids in formulating preventive and therapeutic strategies in reducing mortality resulting from CAD.An in-depth knowledge of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis can help in substantiating the current existing knowledge about the CAD epidemic. This knowledge will help clinicians to better manage the disease, which affects Indians in its most severe form.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
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KYALO DN, RUTERE JW. "The attitude of Inmates and Adult Education Custodians Towards Post Literacy Programs in Government Prisons, Nairobi, Kenya’ .". In: ODL conference on Utilization of Open And Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges in Kenya Towards Fulfillment of the Vision 2030. Kikuyu Campus, UoN; 2013.
Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Availability and adequacy of sport facilities and equipment in selected secondary schools in Kenya." The Fountain,Journal of Education. 2011;5(1):84-96.
Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Awareness and concerns about malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:92-97.
B
Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Bariagabre, S.A. R.K, Ngugi, N.R. Musimba and D.M Nyakiri (2004). Chemical composition and feed value of spiny and spineless Cacti (opuntia) to livestock. Bull Anim. Health production in Africa, 198-202.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
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Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

R.M O. "Basic Human Psychology in Community Organization.". In: t the African Network for the prevention and protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, Community Organization Training Program. Nairobi, Kenya; 2000.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Ongarora DSB, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Masimirembwa CM. "Benzoheterocyclic amodiaquine analogues with potent antiplasmodial activity: Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. . 2012;22(15):5046-5050.
Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Bosshard A, Reinhard BR, Taylor S, Gichuki NN, Kinuthia WW. "Biodiversity in tropical small scale farms in central Kenya.". In: IFOAM Guide to Biodiversity and Lanscape Quality in Organic Agriculturend. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) ; 2009.
Thenya T, Rego AB. "Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies." Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies. 2006.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Sigana DOA. The biology of the mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Kilifi, a tropical mangrove creek on the Kenya coast. Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Book entitled Essays in Conflict and Peace Studies (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming.". In: (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
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Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

Mwang'ombe N.J, R.B O. "Brain tumours at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2000;77(8):444-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency, mode of presentation and outcome following treatment of gliomas in patients treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, between January 1984 and December 1993. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients with intracranial tumours who underwent brain surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Two hundred and fourteen histologically confirmed intracranial tumours were seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1984 and 1993. Ninety seven (45.8%) of these were gliomas of which eighty one were astrocytomas, ten ependymomas and six oligodendrogliomas. Meningiomas were the next common tumours (34.4%). Gliomas affected the young age group most, with the peak in the first decade of life. Males were most affected with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Features of increased intracranial pressure were the commonest mode of clinical presentation. The parietal region was the commonest site of intracranial gliomas (37.5%). Surgery and radiotherapy were the main forms of definitive/palliative treatment given. The two year survival rate was 25%, for patients who had undergone total tumour excision with or without radiotherapy. Tumour debulking only without post-operative radiotherapy was associated with a seven per cent two year survival rate. CONCLUSION: Gliomas were the commonest intracranial tumours (45.8%) seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a ten year period (1983-1994). Radical surgery with or without radiotherapy was associated with a 25% two year survival rate, debulking and radiotherapy with 20% two year survival, biopsy and radiotherapy with 20% two year survival and debulking only with a seven per cent two-year survival. Gliomas are less commonly seen in the Kenyan African in comparison with rates of occurrence in the Caucasian race.
East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):444-7.

Kihara AB, Kiarie G, Cheserem EJ, Amin M, Issak B, Rogena E, Kosgei RJ. "Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management- A case report ." Case reports in clinical medicine. 2013;2:119-122.breast_cancer_in_pregnancy_routine_examination_diagnosis_and_managemen_a_case_report.pdf
Kihara" "A-B, Gladwell" "K, Eunice" "CJ, Medhat" "A, Issak" "B, Emily" "R, Rose" "KJ. Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management: A case report.; 2013.crcm_acceptance_of_breast_manuscript.doc

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