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R.S. O. "Africa."; 2011. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Resource Management Issues Relevant to Planning and management of Hydro-Power Resources in the Greater Horn of Africa.". Paper presented at the IGAD Workshop on the Socio-Economic Aspects of Resources Management; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "The Challenges of Climate Change on the Tourist Industry in Kenya.". Paper prepared for the Ministry of Tourism-Tourism Week; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change 2001: Impacts and Adaptation-ReviewEditor,." Cambridge University Press; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Kenya; Response to Climate Change and Opportunities for Sustainable Development." COP 12/COP/MOP Book edited by J.Nganga and R.S. Odingo; 2003. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Importance of Adaptation studies for Climate Change and Vulnerability." Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment; 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Human health in the 21st Century.". Commencement address delivered at Stony Brook University; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Post-Kyoto Negotiations-African Priorities.". Invited Paper prepared for Meeting with African Ministers for Environment, UNEP Governing Council; 2005. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Quantifying Socio-economic benefits of Weather and Climate-." Presented at the IGAD-COF meeting; 2008. Abstract
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R.W M, T.K.Mukiama. "Irrigation Scheme or mosquito hazard ?A case study in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." Hydrobiologia. 1992;232:19-22.
R.W. M, T.K.Mukiama. "Evaluation of Melia volkensii extract fractions as mosquito larvicides." J.Amer.Mosq.Control Assoc. 1988;4:442-447.
R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki & L.W. Njenga. "Comparison of two microdiffusion methods used to measure ionizable fluoride in cow's milk." Analyst. 1995;(2245 ):120.
R.W. Kahama KNDN & LW. "Effect of interfering ions on hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method." Talanta. 1997;44(10):1729-33. Abstract

Acid diffusion in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) enables complete recovery of ionic fluoride from standards containing varying concentrations of aluminium as one of the main interfering ions. Acid diffusion without HMDS shows a decrease in fluoride recovery as aluminium ion concentration increases. The fluoride concentration in the trapping solution is determined directly on the diffusion cover with a combination fluoride electrode after neutralising and buffering. The same procedure was used for the analysis of fluoride in soil and plant materials containing high concentrations of aluminium ions. For the same samples, the concentrations of aluminium, iron and silicon were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

RA Powell, R Harding NKMBGRMEL-ALIOAJBEELL. Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda..; 2013. Abstract

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Palliative care research in Africa is in its relative infancy, with dedicated financial support extremely limited. Therefore, setting research priorities to optimize use of limited resources is imperative.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a prioritized research agenda for palliative care in Africa.

METHODS:

We used a two-stage process involving palliative care professionals and researchers: 1) generation of an initial topic list at a consultative workshop of experts and 2) prioritization of that list using a consensus development process, the nominal group technique.

RESULTS:

Phase 1: 41 topics were generated across five groups, with several topics nominated in more than one group. Phase 2: 16 topics and three broad thematic areas were identified. The two most prioritized topics within each of the three themes were the following: Theme 1: patient, family, and volunteers-1) care outcomes and the impact of palliative care as perceived by patients and caregivers and 2) palliative care needs of children; Theme 2: health providers-1) impact of palliative care training on care and practice and 2) integration of palliative care and antiretroviral therapy services; and Theme 3: health systems-1) palliative care needs assessments at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels and 2) integration of palliative care into health systems and educational curricula.

CONCLUSION:

Consensus-based palliative care topics determined by the study can assist researchers in optimizing limited research capacities by focusing on these prioritized areas. Subsequent to the identification and publication of the research agenda, concrete steps will be undertaken by the African Palliative Care Research Network and other partners to help implement it.

Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Africa, palliative care, participatory, priorities, research agenda

Rabah VOK, and Mito CO. "Pre-design guidelines for Passive solar architectural buildings in Kenya." International Journal of Sustainable Energy. 2003;23(3):83-119.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Rutenberg N, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Kalibala S, Involving men in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 303. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "R.W. Nduati1, D. Mbori-Ngacha, S. Kalibala, S. Ogola, J. Oyieke, G. Nyamongo, G. Scott, L. Muthami, N. Rutenberg. Efficacy of PMTCT services in a routine care setting.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [B12044]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Mwai C, Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Nganda B, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Provider time for women seeking MCH care in the kenyan Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV project: Baseline findings.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 403. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, Maina K, Kamenga C . High antenatal HIV testing does not translate into increased NVP uptake. In international Conference on AIDS and STDs in Africa (ICASA) Nairobi , Kenya 2003N. Rutenberg1, M. Siwale, C. Kankasa, R. N.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [WePeE6837]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Kalibala S, Rutenberg N, Mwai C, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Emotional needs of mothers seeking MCH and how these needs are being met by existing counseling services at two Kenyan Hospitals prior to interventions to prevent mother-to.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 234. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "R.W. Nduati , D. Mbori-Ngacha, J. Oyieke, M. Mwangi, I. Inwani, S. Yonga, G. Nyamongo, J. Kariuki. Challenges of up-scaling PMTCT into routine public health services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [ThPeB7092]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
Raburu P, Mavuti KM, Harper DM, Clark FL. "Population structure and secondary productivity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparede) and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard in the profundal zone of Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". 2002. AbstractPopulation structure and secondary productivity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparede) and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard in the p

Lake Naivasha has been well studied since the 1930s but attempts to understand its ecological functioning have had to wait until enough was known about its structure. The energetics of the lake has only been studied to date at primary producer level. Following the identification of the invertebrate components of the littoral and profundal benthos, this study was initiated. The absence of native fish species in Lake Naivasha, combined with a fishery based only on three, introduced species, added an applied dimension to the work. The introduction of additional fish species which will utilize unexploited ecological niches has been suggested. The benthic invertebrates form one such niche. Two oligochaetes dominated the community, Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparade. The former had a productivity of 7.4 g m−2 ann−1 (as dry weight), the latter 0.6. These figures are not particularly high and do not support the introduction of a new fish species on their own

Rachel Sarguta, Ottieno JAM. "Recursive Route to Mixed Poisson Distributions using Integration by parts." " Mathematics Theory and Modeling,. 2014;4(14):144-152. AbstractFull text link

Abstract

Mixed Poisson distributions are very significant in modeling non-homogeneous populations; for instance in Actuarial applications for modeling total claims in insurance. However, the setback is in their use since the probability mass functions are difficult to evaluate, except for a few mixing distributions. One way of dealing with this problem is to express Mixed Poisson distributions in terms of recursive relations.

In this paper, recursive relations of some mixed Poisson distributions are obtained by use of integration by parts technique.

Keywords: mixtures; recursive relation; generating functions; moments

Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Universal SCFs and Optimal Chamfering in Cross Bored Cylinders." International Journal of Pressure Vessels & Piping. 2007;84:396-404.
Rading, G O; Gumbe ML; DO. "Service Life Of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining.". 2012.
Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria BC: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Rading GO. D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Overstrain in Flush Optimum Chamfered Cross Bored Cylinders." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2006;220:15-25.
Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Rading, G O; Gumbe ML; DO. "Service Life Of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining.". 2012.
Rading GO. "A Parametric Investigation of Steel Fibres from Waste Tyres as Concrete Reinforcement." Icastor Journal of Engineering. 2010;3(3):283-299.
Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Rahbar N, Aduda BO, Zimba J, Obwoya SK, Nyongesa FW, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimental Mechanics. 2010. Abstract

Abstract This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of microstructure and thermal shock resistance of an aluminosilicate ceramic. Shock-induced crack growth is studied in sintered structures produced from powders with different particle size ranges. The underlying crack/microstructure interactions and toughening mechanisms are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting crack-tip shielding levels (due to viscoelastic crack bridging) are estimated using fracture mechanics concepts. The implications of the work are discussed for the design of high refractory ceramics against thermal shock.

Keywords Viscoelastic crack bridging . Crack-tip shielding . Thermal shock . Refractory ceramics

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Executive Liability for Company Offenses",.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26 (June 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Criminal Liability of Corporations in Malaysia, Current L.J., Kuala Lumpur, 225-31.". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Anti-Monopoly Policy and the Structure - Conduct - Performance Paradigm: The Kenyan Approach, 10 (1) Eastern Africa Economic Review.". In: Journal of the Kenyan Economic Assocation, Nairobi, 11-38.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23,28.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Company as Criminal" (Executive, Nairobi, 6-8).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20 (February 1991).; 1991. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur (November 16.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1982. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp.614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi,.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Free Enterprise System and The Anti-Monopoly Law, Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1989. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Relationship between Crime and Socio-Economic Factors, 4(1) Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime" (November).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Competition Law of Kenya: Imperfections and Weaknesses" 13(1-2).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198.; 2000. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Limits of Contractual Restraint".". In: Executive Nairobi, 20-21, 26 (July 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Criminal Liability of Company Directors under the Companies Act in Kenya, 2(5).". In: The Advocate, Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Anti-Competitive Trade Practices and the Law Relating to Contracts in Restraint of Trade.". In: The Kenya Perspective, The University of Nairobi Law Journal, 118-130, Vol.1.; 2003. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Criminal Liability of Company Directors under the Companies Act I Kenya, 2(5).". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1993. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23, 28 (February).". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials For earthen Dams and Embankments.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; Submitted. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Freedom of the Press and the Anti-Monopoly Law: Problems of Striking a Proper Balance. 10(1).". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Honourable Company Esq".". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1991. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Limits of Contractual Restraint".". In: Executive Nairobi, 20-21, 26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Free Enterprise System and The Anti-Monopoly Law.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1989. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Law of Torts, a Booklet for paralegal trainees (Claripress Ltd, Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Competition Law of Kenya: Imperfections and Weaknesses" 12 (1-2).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198 (2000).; 2000. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Regulation of Monopolies, Restrictive Trade Practices and Prices in Ancient India, 14 Delhi L. Rev., Journal of the Faculty of Law, University of Delhi, 104-115.". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract",.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22 (August1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Honourable Company Esq.".". In: Executive,Nairobi 29-30, 32.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Anti-Competitive Trade Practices and the Law Relating to Contracts in Restraint of Trade.". In: The Kenya Perspective", The University of Nairobi Law Journal, 118-130, Vol. 1. 2003.; 2003. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Independence of the Judiciary: A Third World Perspective, The Third World Legal Studies, School of Law, Valparaiso University, U.S.A., 127-177.". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Company as Criminal".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 6-8 (May 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Prosecution of Corporations: Procedure in Malaysia and Singapore, Malayan L.J., Singapore, xcii-ci.". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp. 614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Suggested Reading, Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 387.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Executive Liability for Company Offenses".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Regulation of Monopolies, Restrictive Trade Practices and Prices in Ancient India, 14 Delhi L. Rev., Journal of the Faculty of Law, University fo Delhi, 104-115 (1992).". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Alternatives to Imprisonment in Kenya, 6(1) Criminal Law Forum, Rutgers University School of Law, U.S.A., 73-102.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1995. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Independence of the Judiciary: A Third World Perspective, The Third World Legal Studies, School of Law, Valparaiso University, U.S.A., 127-177 (1992).". In: The Advocate Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26 (October 1993).; 1992. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Law of Torts, a Booklet for paralegal trainees (Claripress Ltd, Nairobi,).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198 (2000).; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22 (October 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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Rainey RL, Estes PW, Neely CL, Amick LD. "Myoglobinuria following diabetic acidosis with electromyographic evaluation." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1963;111:564-571. Abstract
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Rainey JJ, Mwanda WO WMAMWMLRPR. "Spartial distribution of Burkitt’s." Trop Med Int Health. 2007;8(12):936-43.spatial_distribution_of_burkitts_lymphoma_in_kenya_and.pdf
Raja, R; Adamali GN; J. "Heel pad thickness in Kenyan Africans.". 1980.
Rajab JA. The role of trephine needle bone marrow biopsy in the evaluation of various haematological and non-haematological diseases At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a descriptive retrospective and prospective
study of 101 patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH) between 1st October, 1985 and 30th January, 1990 and
had bone marrow examination done by aspiration and trephine
needle biopsy. At KNH trephine needle bone marrow (TNBM)
biopsy has been performed over the years when aspiration
results in 'dry tap'. It is only available for the use by a
few specialists (haematologists) and it is rarely performed
in staging malignant lymphomas or as a routine diagnostic
technique in various other diseases. The study was done to
evaluate the role of the technique in patient care at this
hospital. The relevant data and the diagnostic outcome of
50 patients admitted to the hospital between 1st October,
1985 and 30th June, 1989 were collected retrospectively.
Trephine needle biopsies were performed by the investigator
on 51 patients during the last 7 months of the study. Data
collected included: the age and sex, the indications for
bone biopsy, the quality of the specimen, the reporting
format and the final diagnosis on the trephine biopsies.
The 101 patients studied were between 2 and 75 years of
age. The mean age was 23.9 years. There were 62 males and
39 females. A 'dry tap' aspirate, the commonest indication
for TNBM biopsy was reported in 37 (36.6%) cases. In twelve
cases, the aspirate and needle biopsy were performed at the
same time using the same needle. Ten of these were in the
staging of malignant lymphomas. Good or satisfactory
specimens were obtained in at least 86% of the biopsies

performed. Aplastic anaemia, the commonest abnormality
detected was found in 28 (27.7%) of the patients studied. A
review of the reporting format showed that in only 20% cases
in the retrospective study was a full report of the biopsy
given by the haematologist.
This study shows that TNBM biopsy is a simple and safe
procedure yielding a good or satisfactory specimen in most

instances. The biopsy will most likely provide a diagnosis
when bone marrow aspirate fails due to 'dry tap' or scanty
yield. The procedure may be of value in routine
investigation of various diseases such as aplastic anaemia
and in staging of malignant lymphomas although larger
studies need to be done in this area (only ten cases in this
study). A standard format should be formulated and adhered
to by haematologists and pathologists reporting on the TNBM
biopsies in this hospital.

Rajab JA, Ngoma T, Adde M, Durosinmi M, Githang'a J, Aken'Ova Y, Kaijage J, Adeodou O, Brown BJ, Leoncini L, Naresh K, Raphael M, Hurwitz N, Scanlan P, Rohatiner A, Venzon D, Magrath I. "Treatment of Burkitt lymphoma in equatorial Africa using a simple three-drug combination followed by a salvage regimen for patients with persistent or recurrent disease.". 2012. Abstract

Prior to the introduction of the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR) protocol INCTR 03-06, survival of patients with Burkitt lymphoma at four tertiary care centres in equatorial Africa was probably no more than 10-20%. The results reported here for 356 patients have demonstrated marked improvement in survival through the use of a uniform treatment protocol consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, and intrathecal therapy, and the introduction of non-cross resistant second-line (salvage) therapy, consisting of ifosfamide, mesna, etoposide and cytarabine, when patients failed to achieve a complete response to first-line therapy or relapsed early. Overall survival rates of 67% and 62% were observed at 1 and 2 years (relapse is rare after 1 year of remission). Of interest was the small impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow involvement on outcome. However, the presence or absence of abdominal involvement clearly defined two prognostic groups. An additional finding was the association between CSF pleocytosis and orbital tumours, suggesting that spread of tumour cells to the central nervous system may sometimes occur via direct involvement of cranial nerves in the orbit. Survival rates may be increased in patients with abdominal involvement by combining first- and second-line therapy, but verification will require a further clinical study.

Rajar SAD. • A Case for Human Rights for women in Africa . 2006: University of London; 2006.
Rajar SAD. "• Commercial Litigation; A case for expeditious dispute disposal .". In: • Commercial Litigation.; 2008.
Rajcáni J, Krobová J, Málková D. "Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus in the chick embryo." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):467-72. Abstract

Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus antigen (LVA) was followed by immunofluorescene (IF) in chick embryos inoculated into the yolk sacs. Positive fluorescence of LVA was observed in neurons and neuroblasts of the developing brain, spinal cord and spinal ganglia as well as in skeletal muscles, heart muscle, vascular endothelium and lung mesenchyma. In the yolk sac, foci of specific fluorescence were occasionally seen in endothelium cells of vessels and in islands of extraembryonic haematopoesis. At sites corresponding to the occurrence of LVA, extensive oedema was accompanied by extravazation of erythrocytes and accumulation of white blood cells. The nature of tissues in which the virus replicates was discussed from the point of view of LVA distribution and the morphological lesions observed.

Rajula CM. The Survival After The Cardiac Arrest At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1980. Abstract

The records of 450 patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the period 1974-1980 are reviewed. All suffered cardio-pulmonary arrest, and the results of treatment are expressed in terms of length of survival. One hundred fifty nine patients (35.6%) responded to the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation initially. Out of this, 115 patients (72.33%) died in the hospital later; 44 (8.9%) who were hospitalised for another one month, after cardio-pulmonary arrest, and then discharged, were considered long survivors.
The chances of successful resuscitation were greater in patients with ischaemic heart disease (20% survived); undergoing anaesthesia (20% survived); and those with drug
overdose (15.5% survived). Patients with ventricular fibrilation as the primary electro-cardiographic finding had better prog~osis as compared to those with asystole.
Resuscitation in patients with progressive metabolic and respiratcry failure, and multiple episodes of cardiac arrests, was associated with poor prognosis. Low survival rates were
also found in children under ten years of age.
About eleven percent of all the survivors developed residual brain damage with marked intelectual impairment, including 2 patients with psychiatric problems.

Rakotoarisoa, M; Massawe MOFBKS; A; R;. Investment Opportunities for Livestock in the North Eastern Province of Kenya: A Synthesis of Existing Knowledge.; 2008. Abstract

Pastoralism is the dominant livelihood activity in the North Eastern Province (NEP) of Kenya. It is supplemented only by a limited amount of agriculture along the rivers. The province faces various developmental challenges including chronic poverty and food insecurity, low human capital and poor health standards, high vulnerability to climate change, poor infrastructure, insecurity and low crop and livestock productivity. This study synthesises existing knowledge and provides recommendations on livestock investments to increase incomes, create employment and reduce food insecurity in the province. It examines investment opportunities in livestock and presents scenarios that meet the objectives of Kenya’s 2030 vision. Four scenarios are analysed. The first scenario consists of the business-as-usual case: a vision of the state of the livestock sector, and its contribution to NEP and national economy, if the current trajectory is maintained. The second scenario outlines a strategy that focuses on catering to domestic demand for livestock products. The third scenario focuses on feeding foreign demand for live animals, while the fourth scenario investigates the possibilities of a livestock sector driven by exports of processed livestock products. Also in these investment scenarios, the broad-based growth contribution to the economy is discussed. The analysis indicates that all three alternative scenarios have far better impacts on pastoralists’ income and employment than the ‘business-as-usual’ scenario. The second scenario is found to have the largest favourable impact. Besides creating jobs and income opportunities, it provides alternatives to meet the growing livestock product consumption spurred by population increase, rising incomes and urbanization in Kenya. However, there are several requirements for this scenario to work and yield the desired impact. The need for creating a favourable investment climate is discussed and specific roles of the public and private sectors are explained.

Rakuomi V, Okalebo F, Ndwigah S, Mbugua L. "Cost effectiveness of pre-referral antimalarial treatment in severe malaria among children in sub-Saharan Africa." Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2017;15:14.
Ramadan HAI, El-Banhawy EM, Afia SI. "On the identification of a taxa collected from Egypt in the species sub- group andersoni: Morphological relationships with related species and molecular analysis of inter- and intra- specific variations ( Acari: Phytoseiidae).". 2009. AbstractOn the identification of a taxa collected from Egypt in the species sub- group andersoni: Morphological relationships with relat

Morphological studies of the diagnostic characters of Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (original description) and A. enab El Badry (several new collections including the type locality) indicated close affinity between the two species. Among the Egyptian collections, little morphological variations have been observed except for setae Z1, S2, S4 and S5. Sequencing of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of different samples from Egypt showed almost complete identity with Neoseiulus swirskii (= A. swirskii Accession number EU 310505). Other related species i.e. A. cucumeris (Oud.), N. andersoni (Chant) and N. fallacis (Garman) showed distant identity. The intraspecific variationswere great between the six samples of Egypt and mainly because of mutations (which could be due to error during replication or as a result of mutagens).

Rambo CM. "Strategic Alliances and the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 1:56-76.
Rambo CM, Matseshe L. "Project Financing.". In: Project Financing. Nairobi: UoN ; 2010.
Rambo CM. "Time Required to Break-Even for Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Management and Marketing Research. ISSN: 1933 – 3153 [Print], 2157 – 0205 [Online].. 2013.
Rambo CM. "Effects of Procurement reforms on Expenditure Management in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya,." DBA Africa Management Review Journal. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 3 :150-168.
Rambo CM, Atisa E. "Material Production and Control Strategies.". In: Material Production and Control Strategies. Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
and Rambo POCAM. "Influence of Access to Training on the Effectiveness of Secondary School Board of Governors in Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction.. 2012;Volume 4, 2, November 2012. ISSN: 1992-2744.
Rambo CM. "Risk Factors Influencing the Survival of Strategic Alliances: Evidence From Kenya." International Journal of Management and Marketing Research. ISSN: 1933-3153 (print) and 2157-0205 (online) . 2012.
Rambo CM, Paul A. Odundo. "Socio - E co nomic Empowerment of Women through Micro - Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and U nfunded W omen in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster M anagement and Risk Reduction. 2010;2(2):92-107.
Rambo CM, Otieno M. "Principles and Procedures in Project Planning and Management." Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
Rambo CM. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/9784.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The Education Act and the Secondary School Heads’ Manual recognize school heads as
the financial controllers and accounting officers, responsible for all school revenue and
expenditure management. Prior to reforms, procurement and tendering activities in
public institutions, including secondary schools, was carried out under unclear legal
frameworks, which failed to check irregularities arising from the process. Studies
commissioned by the government and the World Bank in 1986 and 1997 revealed
serious shortcomings in the procurement system, leading to loss of public funds.
Procurement reforms were initiated to enhance efficiency and minimize loss of public
resources. Even though the reforms process was initiated about a decade earlier, little
had been documented about the extent to which the regulations had been implemented
in public secondary schools and its effect on expenditure management. To achieve the
objective of this study, a cross-sectional survey design, with quantitative and qualitative
approaches was applied to guide data sourcing, processing and analysis. Primary data
was sourced from 117, which were sampled from a national population of 3,868 schools
that have been in existence for at least ten years as at the time of this study. The sample
included 6 national, 42 provincial and 69 district schools. In terms of gender, 23 were
pure girls’ schools, 19 were boys’ schools, while 75 were mixed schools. The schools
were selected through a stratified random procedure, based on the category of schools;
viz. national, provincial or district. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were
applied to process and analyze the data. The study found that advertising tenders,
number of committee members trained in procurement had strong positive effects on
expenditure efficiency. Besides, the frequency of tender-splitting had the strongest
negative effect on expenditure efficiency. The adjusted regression models explained 45.1
percent of variance in expenditure management. The study recommends the need for:
procurement regulations to be reviewed for tender committees to include BoG, PTA
and ministry representatives; regular supervision of tender committees by the ministry
officials; training of tender committee members; technical and financial evaluation
committees to be created to enhance efficiency.

Ramisch J;, Nyikal RA;, Kimenye LN;, Kimani SK;, Macharia JM. "Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Resources for Recapitalizing Soil Fertility in Smallholder Maize-based Cropping Systems of Central Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Structural adjustments programs (SAPs) in the last two decades have eliminated all farm-support programs leading to low usage of fertilizers by Kenyan smallholders. One way of addressing this problem is use of organic nutrient resources. This paper examines their cost-effectiveness as capital investments in replenishment of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and soil organic matter (SOM) in smallholder, Maize-based cropping systems. On-farm trials were established in Maragwa and Kirinyaga Districts in 2003/04. Maize was planted in 3 replicates in randomised complete block design (RCBD) using different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer resources. A blanket rate of 40kg P/ha was applied in all treatment except the control to increase organic N-utilization efficiency. The test crop was harvested, oven-dried and weighed. Net Present Values (NPV) were computed using Partial Budgeting Analysis Model. Increasing levels of inorganic N increased maize yields significantly (P<0.05). However, higher yields were necessary but not sufficient criteria to determine profitability of different treatments. Manure + 60 kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 564), Manure + 40kg N/ha gave second highest NPV (USD 511) in Maragwa District while Manure + 60kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 633) and Manure + 40kg N/ha second highest NPV (USD 618) in Kirinyaga District. These results suggested that higher N-levels were not necessarily the most economical. Use of organic resources with modest amounts of mineral fertilizers seemed more profitable and held the key to enhancement of nutrient budgets, food security and rural livelihoods.

Ramsden WH, Mannion RA, Simpkins KC, deDombal FT. "Is the appendix where you think it is–and if not does it matter?" Clinical radiology. 1993;47:100-103. Abstract

For over 100 years the recognized surface marking for the appendix has been McBurney's point (the junction of the lateral and middle thirds of a line joining the umbilicus with the right anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)). In order to test its validity, the relationship between McBurney's point and the appendix was determined on 275 double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). A wide spread of distribution of the site of the appendix base was seen. Only 35% of appendix bases were found to lie within 5 cm of McBurney's point, and 15% were more than 10 cm distant. Seventy-five per cent of appendix bases were below and medial to a line joining the umbilicus with the right ASIS. These findings are in agreement with world-wide studies conducted by the World Organisation of Gastroenterology which showed that less than half of all patients with appendicitis have tenderness maximal over McBurney's point. A record was also made in 93 cases of the position of the appendix in relation to the caecum. The importance of these results in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected appendicitis is discussed.

Randall DJ, CM W, Perry SF, Bergman H, Maloiy GMO, Mommsen TP, Wright PA. "Urea excretion as a strategy for survival in a fish living in a very alkaline environment.". 1989.
Randolph TF, M'Ibui GM, Kang'ethe EK, Lang'at AK. "Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in milk and animal feeds from urban smallholder dairy production in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 and Total Aflatoxin B1 in milk and animal feeds. Cross sectional household study. Urban and peri-urban area of Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred fifty seven dairy farming households and 134 non-dairy neighbouring households. The prevalence of AFM1 in milk was found to be 45.5% (178/391). The farmer prevalence was 43.5% (112/257), while that of non-farmer was 49.2% (66/ 134). There was however no statistical significant difference between the two categories. Of the 178 positive milk samples, 49% had aflatoxin levels exceeding 0.05 microg Kg(-1). The prevalence of AFB1 in the feed was found to be 98.6% (69/70) with 83% of the samples having aflatoxin B1 levels exceeding 10 microg Kg(-1). Only one feed sample had no traces of AFB1. This study points to an underlying problem that requires the action by policy makers, considering the number of samples with aflatoxin M1 [49%] and aflatoxin B1 [83%] exceeding the WHO/FAO tolerance limits for milk and feeds destined for dairy animals.

Rao KP, Maitho T, Kamamia EK, Patil AB, Sagre P. "Design and Pre-clinical Studies of Miconazole Soap Strips for Dermal Infections." International Journal of INST Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2011;1(1):68-76.
Rao, K.P.C., Sridhar, G., Mulwa, J.K, Kilavi, M.N., Esilaba, A., Athanasiadis, I. N., Valdivia RO. "Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Agricultural Systems in East Africa.". In: Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: pp. 75-124. World Scientific Publishing; 2015.
Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris. M. "Impacts and Challenges of a Growing Relationship Between China and Sub Saharan Africa.". In: The Political Economy of Africa, pp. 389-409. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41; 2010.
Raphael Lotira Arasio, Brigitte Kaufmann DJOOVW. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

Raturi AK, Waita S, Aduda B, Nyangonda T. "Photoactive Iron Pyrite Films for Photoelectrochemical Cells (PEC)." Renewable Energy. 2000;20:37-43.
Rawden HC, Kokwaro GO, Ward SA, Edwards G. "Relative contribution of cytochromes P-450 and flavin-containing monoxygenases to the metabolism of albendazole by human liver microsomes.". 2004. Abstract

Albendazole (ABZ; methyl 5-propylthio-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate) is a broad spectrum anthelmintic whose activity resides both in the parent compound and its sulphoxide metabolite (ABS). There are numerous reports of ABZ metabolism in animals but relatively few in humans. We have investigated the sulphoxidation of ABZ in human liver microsomes and recombinant systems. METHODS: The specific enzymes involved in the sulphoxidation of ABZ were determined by a combination of approaches; inhibition with an antiserum directed against cytochrome P450 reductase, the effect of selective chemical inhibitors on ABZ sulphoxidation in human liver microsomes, the capability of expressed CYP and FMO to mediate the formation of ABS, regression analysis of the rate of metabolism of ABZ to ABS in human liver microsomes against selective P450 substrates and regression analysis of the rate of ABS sulphoxidation against CYP expression measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: Comparison of Vmax values obtained following heat inactivation (3min at 45 degrees C) of flavin monoxygenases (FMO), chemical inhibition of FMO with methimazole and addition of an antiserum directed against cytochrome P450 reductase indicate that FMO and CYP contribute approximately 30% and 70%, respectively, to ABS production in vitro. Comparison of CLint values suggests CYP is a major contributor in vivo. A significant reduction in ABZ sulphoxidation (n = 3) was seen with ketoconazole (CYP3 A4; 32-37%), ritonavir (CYP3 A4: 34-42%), methimazole (FMO: 28-49%) and thioacetamide (FMO; 32-35%). Additive inhibition with ketoconazole and methimazole was 69 +/- 8% (n = 3). ABS production in heat - treated microsomes (3 min at 45 degrees C) correlated significantly with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A4; P < 0.05) and band intensities on Western blots probed with an antibody selective for 3A4 (P < 0.05). Recombinant human CYP3 A4, CYP1A2 and FMO3 produced ABS in greater quantities than control microsomes, with those expressing CYP3A4 producing threefold more ABS than those expressing CYP1A2. Kinetic studies showed the Km values obtained with both CYP3A4 and FMO3 were similar. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the production of ABS in human liver is mediated via both FMO and CYP, principally CYP3A4, with the CYP component being the major contributor.

Rayya. "Mama Mkwe.". In: Kopo la Uji na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani"- Hadithi za watoto.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
Rayya. "Kikojozi.". In: Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Kitabu Cha Kumwezesha Mwanamke Mwenye Virusi vya UKIMWI Kuishi, (Translation).". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
Rayya. "Kuwa Mume.". In: Mwavyaji wa Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2012.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Pendo la hebana Hadithi Nyingine".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
Rayya. "Mifereji ya Machozi.". In: Wali wa Ndevu na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide Mua; 2010.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "NAP (Net-Work for people Living with AIDS)-"Maendeleo Halisi" (Translation) 2002.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Siri ya mama" .". In: Mimba ingali Mimba na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2006.
Rayya. "Haki Yangu Naidai.". In: Takrima Nono na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Longman; 2012.
Rayya T. Mama Mkwe.; 2012.Website
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Obstacles to Muslim Female Education in Kenya, Islam In Kenya. Published by Oxford University Press.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
Rayya. "Picha ya Hadaa.". In: Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers; 2011.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
Rayya. Mombasa Swahili Women’s Wedding Songs – A Stylistic Analysis. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co.Germany 2010; 2010.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Uteuzi wa Moyoni" in "Maya-Waziri wa Maradhi na hadithi Nyingine" Wamitila K. W.(mh) Longhorn Publishers.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
Rayya Timammy MAA. "Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa in Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini Moja.". In: Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa in Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini Moja. Eldoret : Mosol Kandagor/Nathan Ogechi/ Clarissa Vierke (wh) Moi University Press; 2017.
Rayya Timammy MAA. "Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa.". In: Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini na Moja. Eldoret: Moi University Press, Moi University ; 2017.
Razafindraibe H, Mobegi VA, Ommeh SC, Rakotondravao ML, Bjørnstad G, Hanotte O, Jianlin H. "Mitochondrial DNA origin of indigenous malagasy chicken." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.. 2008;1149:77-9. Abstract

We report the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) characterization of 77 indigenous chickens (fighting and meat birds) from Madagascar, using DNA sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the D-loop. Comparison with reference samples from the African continent and Asia revealed two mtDNA haplogroups, suggesting a dual geographic and genetic origin for the indigenous Malagasy chickens. The most common haplogroup was present in 65 individuals of the two types; it is likely of Indonesian origin. The second haplogroup was observed in 12 fighting birds and meat chickens; it could be of African continental origin and/or the result of recent introgression with commercial lines. We further studied a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism at nucleotide position 1892 bp of the coding sequence of the Mx gene that is reported to be one of the candidate susceptible/resistant genes to viral infection in chicken. Our results indicate the "susceptible" allele G is the most common with frequencies of 65% and 70% in Malagasy fighting and meat chickens, respectively. However, the allelic frequency difference between the two types of chickens is not significant (P > 0.05). These results are discussed in light of our current linguistic and archaeological knowledge on the origin of indigenous Malagasy chickens.

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