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Forthcoming
Kahiga RM, Gatumu JC, Nteere JS. "Sustainability of the implementation of the Preschool physical education curriculum in Nairobi and Nyeri counties.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education Society. Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Gichuki N. Banking Law: Cases and Materials.; Forthcoming.
Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
and Goodluck Charles, Søren Jeppesen PKPK. "Firm-Level Perspectives on State-Business Relations in Africa: The Food processing Sector in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia." Forum for Development Studies Journal. Forthcoming.
Gona, George, Wambui Kiai, Muiru Ngugi (Eds.). Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Submitted
Olsvik O, Mitema ES, Gathuma J, Mirza N. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

Jani PG, Gill H, Kotecha V. "Difficult Gallbladder Surgery, Improving Patient Outcomes Through Appropriate Surgical Decisions." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Submitted;17(1).
Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Gathigi GW. "FM Radio Broadcasting in Local Languages Triggering Rural Empowerment in Kenya." Jahazi Arts and Culture Journal. Submitted.
Mungai NN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Guantai AN, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "Isolation, Characterization and Antiplasmodial Activity of Phytochemical Constituents from Monanthotaxis parvifolia (Oliv.) Verdc ssp. kenyensis Verdc." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Submitted;17:87-93.abstract__mungai_et_al._2014.pdf
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, Gilmanov TG, Scholes RJ, Schimel DS, Kinyamario JI. "Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide.". Submitted. AbstractObservations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within ±25% of the observed values (100 and 75% of the time, respectively) for a diverse set of soils. Peak live biomass and plant production can be simulated within ± 25% of the observed values (57 and 60% of the time, respectively) for burned, fertilized, and irrigated grassland sites where precipitation ranged from 22 to over 150 cm. Live biomass can be generally predicted to within ±50% of the observed values (57% of the time). The model underestimated the live biomass in extremely high plant production years at two of the Russian sites. A comparison of Century model results with statistical models showed that the Century model had slightly higher r2 values than the statistical models. Data and calibrated model results from this study are useful for analysis and description of grassland carbon dynamics, and as a reference point for testing more physiologically based models prediction's of net primary production and biomass. Results indicate that prediction of plant and soil organic matter (C and N) dynamics requires knowledge of climate, soil texture, and N inputs.

Mutinda, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya. ." Trop Anim Health Prod.. Submitted.
Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Gitao CG, Bebora L. "Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstractsubclinical_mastitis_affecting_hygienic_quality_of.pdfWebsite

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

Okeng'o GO, Malo JO, Awuor JB, Genga RO. "Testing Structure Formation in the Universe via Coupled Matter Fluids.". Submitted.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Githiga R, Ambuko J, Hutchnison M, Owino W. "Effect of Activebag® modified atmosphere packaging on the postharvest characteristics of mango fruits, Mangifera indica L, cultivar Tommy Atkins." Journal of Applied Biosciences. Submitted;83:7535-7544. Abstract
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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement in South Nyanza.". In: Procedings of a Conference sponsored by the Swedish agency for Research co-operation with Development Countries (SAREC) and organised by the Centre for Archaelogy and Antiquties, University of Tananarive Madagascar, SAREC, Sweden.; Submitted. Abstract

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G PROFGATEIDAVID. "J E Sanderson, E G Olsen, and D Gatei.Peripartum heart disease: an endomyocardial biopsy study.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 11 African women in Nairobi who presented with the clinical features of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The samples were studied by light and electron microscopy. In five patients there was evidence of a "healing myocarditis", that is the presence of a mild inflammatory cell infiltration within the myocardium with foci of necrosis and variable amounts of hypertrophy and fibrosis. Of the nine patients who were followed up, three out of four with myocarditis had persistent heart failure and four out of five without myocarditis improved. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte cell subsets were measured in nine patients by means of monoclonal antibodies. A high helper:suppressor T cell ratio was found in three patients. Almost half of this group of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy had myocarditis in their biopsy specimens. The myocarditis may have been due to an inappropriate immunological reaction in some patients.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K.; Submitted. Abstract

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G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NJOROGE W, NDAVI PM, KARANJA JG, MATI JKG. The incidence of cervical extropion among women on contraceptive methods in two periurban areas in Nairobi. J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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In Press
2020
GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

S D, GO O, V O-H. "Depression and its association with disease activity and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Ho." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):15-21. Abstractdepression_and_its_association_with_disease_activity.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis
is a systemic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane,
resulting in the structural damage of cartilage, bone and ligaments. The
course of RA differs between patients, and its severity can range from selflimiting
disease to severe destruction and systemic complications. RA affects
patients physically, psychologically and socially. Patients experience pain,
joint swelling, stiffness, functional limitations and fatigue and overall poor
quality of life. In addition, they report anxiety and depressive symptoms
and concerns about increased physical limitations. Experiencing
psychological distress may inflate the subjective severity of patient-reported
symptoms such as pain and tenderness. Furthermore, patients experience a
loss of independence and restrictions in participation, i.e. a decrease in
socializing which may in turn propagate symptoms of depression. An accurate
description of the relationship between depression, disease severity and quality
of life is necessary for our setting. If an interaction exists, then there is a
group of vulnerable patients who could benefit from earlier identification
of depression and the impact their disease has on HRQoL and appropriate
management provided. Objective: To determine the prevalence
of depression and the relationship between depression, disease activity
and quality of life in ambulatory patients with rheumatoid arthritis at
the Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: A descriptive-cross sectional

J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Atsango EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L. "Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses." Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2020;Vol. 7,( No. 1 January).use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf
A N, GO O, C O. "The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist and hand in the assessment of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):3-7. Abstract

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is a
debilitating disease with accrual of joint damage during each flare of the disease that progresses to considerable functional disability. Early treatment is
thus aimed to achieve remission status so as to reduce the progression of joint
damage. Currently the disease activity parameter DAS28 (amongst others)
is used to define a remission status and thus demonstrate the efficacy
of a treatment regimen, however musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is
proving to be superior at determining the amount of inflammation within joints by grading synovial hypertrophy and neo-vascularization of the
inflamed synovium. This article is thus intended to shed light on the usefulness of musculoskeletal ultrasound
both greyscale and Doppler in the determination of treatment response
in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Design: This article will elaborate
the importance and effectiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound. Thus it will involve a discussion on the need for an effective tool to detect inflammatory activity, the ability of ultrasound to detect and grade the disease activity i.e.
being sensitive to change, the various scoring systems currently used, and
lastly a comparison of musculoskeletal ultrasound to other modalities and
clinical and serological evaluation. Data source and extraction:
Published studies, reviews and guidelines regarding the use of
musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist/hand in assessing treatment
response in rheumatoid arthritis patients were sourced through the
internet and library searches and the relevant data extracted. Conclusion:
status of the patient or a high initial ESR with significant serological and clinical
improvement, which will again not be portrayed in the DAS28 results. There may also be variability when assessing joints that are swollen or tender in between different examiners4. Moreover, there is a subset of
patients who still have disease progression despite achieving clinical remission status5.
  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiographic evaluation have also been used as adjuncts to clinical exam but both have their drawb

2019
Gichuyia LN. "INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK ANALYSIS OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN NAI- ROBI IN A CHANGING CLIMATE.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Gichuyia LN. "THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK LANDSCAPE OF NAIROB.". In: In Proceedings of the Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference - Business opportunities in Energy, Manufacturing, Infrastructural and Environmental Research. School of Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton M. "Peek Community Eye Health - mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial." Trials. 2019;20(1):502. AbstractWebsite

Globally, eye care provision is currently insufficient to meet the requirement for eye care services. Lack of access and awareness are key barriers to specialist services; in addition, specialist services are over-utilised by people with conditions that could be managed in the community or primary care. In combination, these lead to a large unmet need for eye health provision. We have developed a validated smartphone-based screening algorithm (Peek Community Screening App). The application (App) is part of the Peek Community Eye Health system (Peek CEH) that enables Community Volunteers (CV) to make referral decisions about patients with eye problems. It generates referrals, automated short messages service (SMS) notifications to patients or guardians and has a program dashboard for visualising service delivery. We hypothesise that a greater proportion of people with eye problems will be identified using the Peek CEH system and that there will be increased uptake of referrals, compared to those identified and referred using the current community screening approaches.

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99. AbstractJournal article

Description
Introduction: Plants of the genus Garcinia are traditionally used treat a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Garcinia species are reported to have been shown to have a range of biological activities including cytotoxicity antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antimalarial and HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity among others. Methods: Solvent extraction was done using CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1). Isolation was done using column chromatography with silica gel as the stationery phase and ethyl acetate and n-hexane used as mobile phase in increasing polarity. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the isolation. Structure elucidation was done using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. Chloroquine resistant (W2) and chloroquine sensitive (D6) P. falciparum strains were used for antiplasmodial assay. Results: Further bioassay guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1) extract of Garcinia buchananii led to the isolation of two already reported biflavanones, isogarcinol (1) and guttiferone (2) with promising antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum strain with an IC50 of 2.8
±0.90 µg/mL for compound 1 and IC50 of 3.94±0.38 µg/mL for compound 2. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited moderate activity against the chloroquine sensitive (D6) Plasmodium falciparum strain with IC50 of 7.03±0.60 and 10.64±4.50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results provide proof to support the use of G. buchananii by the indigenous community for antimalarial therapy.
Scholar articles
Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl.
RA Omole, MJ Moshi, M Heydenreich, HM Malebo… - Pharmacognosy Communications, 2019
All 4 versions

Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

Gichuyia LN. BOOSTING INTERCON- TINENTAL RELATIONS _ LESSONS FROM BUILDING PHYSICS. Wilhelm Kempff house- Casa Orfeo, Positano -Italy,; 2019.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
M.W. W, Hansted L, Gikungu M, G K, AS B. "Characterization of Kenyan Honeys Based on Their Physicochemical Properties, Botanical and Geographical Origin." International Journal of Food Science . 2019;2019(2932509):10.
Mary Wanjiru Warui 1, Lise Hansted 2, Mary Gikungu 3, John Mburu 4, Geoffrey Kironchi 1, Bosselmann5 AS. "Characterization of Kenyan honeys based on their physicochemical properties, botanical and geographical origin." International journal of food science. 2019.
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang’ombe AW. "Current Status of Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya." Current Agriculture Research Journal. 2019;Vol. 7,( No.(3) 2019, ):pg. 318-331.current_status_of_guava_psidium_guajava_l._production_utilization_processing_and_preservation_in_kenya.pdf
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

Johnson MA, Garland CR, Jagoe K, Edwards R, Ndemere J, Weyant C, Patel A, Kithinji J, Wasirwa E, Nguyen T, Khoi DD, Kay E, Scott P, Nguyen R, Yagnaraman M, Mitchell J, Derby E, Chiang RA, Pennise D. "In-Home Emissions Performance of Cookstoves in Asia and Africa." Atmosphere. 2019;10(5):290. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper presents results from eight field studies in Asia and Africa on the emissions performance of 16 stove/fuel combinations measured during normal cooking events in homes. Characterizing real-world emissions performance is important for understanding the climate and health implications of technologies being promoted as alternatives to displace baseline cooking stoves and fuels. Almost all of the stove interventions were measured to have substantial reductions in PM2.5 and CO emissions compared to their respective baseline technologies (reductions of 24–87% and 25–80%, for PM2.5 and CO emission rates, respectively), though comparison with performance guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests that further improvement for biomass stoves would help realize more health benefits. The emissions of LPG stoves were generally below the WHO interim PM2.5 emissions target (1.75 mg/min) though it was not clear how close they were to the most aspirational ISO (0.2 mg/min) or WHO (0.23 mg/min) targets as our limit of detection was 1.1 mg/min. Elemental and organic carbon emission factors and elemental-to-total carbon ratios (medians ranging from 0.11 to 0.42) were in line with previously reported field-based estimates for similar stove/fuel combinations. Two of the better performing forced draft stoves used with pellets—the Oorja (median ET/TC = 0.12) and Eco-Chula (median ET/TC = 0.42)—were at opposite ends of the range, indicating that important differences in combustion conditions can arise even between similar stove/fuel combinations. Field-based tests of stove performance also provide important feedback for laboratory test protocols. Comparison of these results to previously published water boiling test data from the laboratory reinforce the trend that stove performance is generally better during controlled laboratory conditions, with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) being consistently lower in the field for respective stove/fuel categories. New testing approaches, which operate stoves through a broader range of conditions, indicate potential for better MCE agreement than previous versions of water boiling tests. This improved agreement suggests that stove performance estimates from a new ISO laboratory testing protocol, including testing stoves across low, medium, and high firepower, may provide more representative estimates of real-world performance than previously used tests. More representative results from standardized laboratory testing should help push stove designs toward better real-world performance as well as provide a better indication of how the tested technologies will perform for the user. View Full-Text
Keywords: household energy; solid fuel; biomass; stove performance; emission factors; black carbon

M M, LZ M, J F, GM E, E R, R N, J T, DH M, Nyagol J, F W, AK B, M B, JG O. "Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H Is Indispensable for Infection of Epithelial, Endothelial, and Fibroblast Cell Types." J Virol.. 2019;93(16).
Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Lockwood NM, Lypen K, Shalabi F, Kumar M, Ngugi E, Diener L, GW. H. "'Know that You are not Alone.' Influences of Social Support on Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Kibera, Kenya: A Qualitative Study Informing Intervention Development." Int J Environ Res Public Health.. 2019; 4;(16(5):. pii: E775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050775.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019:doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.
Gichuyia LN. "NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE.". In: NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press ; 2019.
Gichuyia LN, Madette E. "OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS.". In: OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS. Rotterdam, Netherlands: OMA/AMO Press; 2019.
Omondi F, Mostarda L, Shah P, Ever E, Gemikonakli O. "On the performance, availability and energy consumption modelling of clustered IoT systems." Springer Link Computing. 2019;101(12):1935-1970. Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form a large part of the ecosystem of the Internet of Things (IoT), hence they have numerous application domains with varying performance and availability requirements. Limited resources that include processing capability, queue capacity, and available energy in addition to frequent node and link failures degrade the performance and availability of these networks. In an attempt to efficiently utilise the limited resources and to maintain the reliable network with efficient data transmission; it is common to select a clustering approach, where a cluster head is selected among the diverse IoT devices. This study presents the stochastic performance as well as the energy evaluation model for WSNs that have both node and link failures. The model developed considers an integrated performance and availability approach. Various duty cycling schemes within the medium-access control of the WSNs are also considered to incorporate the impact of sleeping/idle states that are presented using analytical modeling. The results presented using the proposed analytical models show the effects of factors such as failures, various queue capacities and system scalability. The analytical results presented are in very good agreement with simulation results and also present an important fact that the proposed models are very useful for identification of thresholds between WSN system characteristics.

XuEmail Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Preface: Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. Abstractxu2019_article_prefacegroundwaterinsub-sahara1.pdfWebsite

Introduction
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezen VO. "Regeneration-Competent and -Incompetent Murids Differ in Neutrophil Quantity and Function.". 2019.
Gikunju M, Nyamato-Kwenda R, Kwanya T. "A review of citizen librarianship in academic libraries in Kenya.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Gweyi-Onyango JP, Kimenju JW. "Socio-economic and Institutional Factors Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2019:1-11.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Gweyi-Onyango JP, Kimenju JW. "Socioeconomic and Institutional Factors Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2019;2(1):DOI: 10.1080/00128325.2019.1597568.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Ochieng SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from the whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (LF) Sol. Ex roem. & schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200. Abstract

Bioassay-guided screening of Hypoestes verticillaris whole plant CH2Cl2:MeOH (1:1) extract for anti-plasmodial activity yielded four new compounds: two lignans 2, 6-dimethoxysavinin (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-(7E)-7,8-dehydroheliobuphthalmin (2); and two fusicoccane diterpenoids: 11(12)-epoxyhypoestenone (3) and 3(11)-epoxyhypoestenone (4). The chemical structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques: UV–vis, IR, CD, 1D, 2D and MS. Two fractions (RAO-43B and RAO-43D) and the isolated compounds were tested for activity against CQ susceptible (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum parasite strains, in vitro and the IC50 values determined. While the whole extract and some resultant fractions displayed moderate activity, the isolated compounds exhibited mild anti-plasmodial activity against the both strains ranging from IC50 value of 328 μM in 1 to 93 μM in 3 against W2 strain.

Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Njaku M, Assefa Y, Chipabika G, George Ong’Amo, Jérôme Barbut GKJ. "Updated phylogenetic and systematics of the Acrapex albivena Hampson, 1910 and A. stygiata (Hampson, 1910) species groups (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with the description of nine new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2019;55(3):219-248.
Ogeng’o JA, Mpekethu N, Gichangi P, Olabu B, Odula P, Munguti J, Misiani M. "VARIANT ANATOMY OF THE TESTICULAR ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(1):1358-1367. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_testicular_artery_among.pdf

Variant anatomy of the testicular artery is important for safe surgery in the retroperioneal area, and
accurate diagnosis of testicular and renal disease. The pattern of origin, number, course and branching
display ethnic and geographical variations. Data from black African populations and especially Eastern
Africa is scarce. The objective of this study was, therefore, to describe the topography of the intraabdominal
part of testicular artery in a sample of the Kenyan population. This was a descriptive crosssectional
study on one hundred (100) testicular arteries at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi. The samples were obtained from autopsy cases and cadaveric specimens. Standard midline
abdominal incisions were made, flaps of the anterior abdominal wall reflected and the intestines,
mesentery and pariental peritoneum retracted systematically to expose the testicular arteries. Their site
and level of origin, number, course and branching were examined. Macrographs of representative
variations were taken using a high resolution digital camera. The results were analysed using SPSS
version 21, and are presented using macrographs and frequency tables. Thirty three (33%) of the arteries
displayed a variant anatomy, with regard to their site of origin (8%), number (4%), course (14%) and
branching pattern (7%). Among the 14 cases of aberrant course, five (5%) arched over the left renal
vein, eight (8%) were retrocaval and one (1%) had a retroureteric course. Seven (7%) bifurcated within
the abdomen. The level of origin along the aorta varied from 1 centimetre above the renal arteries to 5.5
centimetres below them while the vertebral level of origin ranged from T12 to L4. This shows that the
testicular artery among Kenyans displays a high prevalence of variant anatomy characterized by origin
from the accessory renal artery, high level of aortic origin, duplication, retrocaval course and
intraabdominal; division. Preopertaive evaluation of renal and gonadal vasculature is recommended to
minimize misdiagnosis and inadvertent injury retroperitoneal surgery.

JK Omari, Mworia JK, Gichuki N, Mligo C. "Woody Species Composition in Upper Tana River Floodplain of Kenya: Potential Effects of Change in Flood Regimes." Journal of sustainability, environment and peace . 2019;1:91-97.
2018
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
BIRIR J, Gatari MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, Mwea SK, MUIA ML. "Interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects.". In: NDE2018. Mumbai, India; 2018.
Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
Subramanian S, Gakunga R, Kibachio J, Gathecha G, Edwards P, Ogola E, Yonga G, Busakhala N, Munyoro E, Chakaya J, Ngugi N, Mwangi N, Von Rege D, Wangari L-M, Wata D, Makori R, Mwangi J, Mwanda W. "Cost and affordability of non-communicable disease screening, diagnosis and treatment in Kenya: Patient payments in the private and public sectors." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(1):e0190113. Abstract

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, disproportionately to the rest of the world. Our objective was to quantify patient payments to obtain NCD screening, diagnosis, and treatment services in the public and private sector in Kenya and evaluate patients' ability to pay for the services.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Kelder EM. "Electrospray synthesis of porous cathode material for lithium ion batteries.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
Uwizeyimana, D., SM M, Karuku G, G K. " Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research.. 2018;6(3):21.
Gathungu JKJ&. "). Employee Trust of Top Management and Performance of Saccos in Nairobi City County, Kenya." American Research Journal of Humanities Social Sciences. 2018;01(02):10-190.
Matula P, Kyalo N, Mulwa S, Gichui WL. Academic Research Proposal Writing. Principles, Concepts and Structure.. Nairobi: ARTS press; 2018.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implementation Science. 2018;13(1):81.
Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Kasangaki P, Gideon Nyamasyo, Paul Ndegwa RK. "Assessment of Honeybee Colony Performance in the Agro-Ecological Zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):122-127.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of the trends and presence of Water Related Conflicts in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):22-40.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of Water resources Access, Use and Management, in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):1-21.
Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
Geoffrey Kipkoech Kirui, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji NOA. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(5):1522-1534.
Yaouba S, Valkonen A, Coghi P, Gao J, Guantai EM, Derese S, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules. 2018;23(12):31-99. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
MM M, Opanga S, Oluka M, Godman B. "'Dispensing of antimicrobials in Kenya: a cross sectional pilot study and its implications' ." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2018:1-8.
Omondi F, Tasiran AC, Ever E, Doddapaneni K, Shah P, Mostarda L, Gemikonakli O. "Does the assumption of exponential arrival distributions in wireless sensor networks hold?" mdx.ac.uk. 2018;26(2):81-100. Abstractauthor_version_inderscience.pdf

Wireless Sensor Networks have seen a tremendous growth in various application areas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. One of the
common configurations to prolong the lifetime and deal with the path loss phenomena
is having a multi-hop set-up with clusters and cluster heads to relay the information.
Although researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributions
for arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interesting
area of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empirical exponential arrival distribution of wireless sensor networks with a theoretical
exponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisons based on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrect
conclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the Maximum Likelihood parameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributions
based on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistics for each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible to
represent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empirical
exponential arrival distribution assumption of wireless sensor networks holds only
for a few cases. There are both theoretically known such as Gamma, Log-normal
and Mixed Log-Normal of arrival distributions and theoretically unknown such as
non-Exponential and Mixed cases of arrival in wireless sensor networks. The work is
further extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributions
based on the type of medium access control used in wireless sensor networks

Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The dynamics of culture on environmental sustainability: A case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 2018;12(3)(ISSN 2329-1559):1-15.
Onjala J, Awiti J, Gideon M. "Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics. 2018;6(2).
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru. RM. "Effects of Anticoccidial Drugs on Gross and Histopathological Lesions Caused by Experimental Rabbit Coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences. 2018;4(3): 1-10.symbiosis.pdf
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The effects of sociocultural determinants on cultural dimensions: A case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4)(ISSN 2324-7584):19-37.
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala PM, Chebet J. "Efficacy of Sulphachloropyrazine, Amprolium Hydrochloride, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, and Diclazuril against Experimental and Natural Rabbit Coccidiosis." Journal of veterinary medicine. 2018;1:11.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Factors affecting Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women attending Public Antenatal Clinics in Migori County, Kenya." Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research. 2018.
LT E, J O, GO O. "Fever of unknown origin: A rheumatologic perspective." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):26-28.fever_of_unknown_origin.pdf
Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Olago D, Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. AbstractFull Text

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Joag V, Obila O, Gajer P, Scott M, Dizzell S, Humphrys M, Shahabi K, Huibner S, Shannon B, Tharao W, MW MUREITHI, Julius Oyugi,, J.N Kiiru, et al. Impact of bacterial vaginosis treatment on ex vivo HIV susceptibility in the female genital tract.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.; 2018.
Gachara HN, Munjuri MG. "INNOVATION CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(6):717-738.innovation_challenges.pdf
Gitahi N, Gicheru MM, Gathura PB, Karanja NK, Githinji WT, Nordin A. "Internalization of enteropathogenic human bacteria in lettuce and coriander plant tissue." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences. 2018;Vol. 5(3): 28-32.
Gachoka, J.M., Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Intervening Effect of Internal Controls on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):53-79.
Gecaga W, Mwango G MT. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital – Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Gecaga W, Mwango G, Mutala T. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital- Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
S P, Simiyu BN, JY S, K T, FI W, KG DL, GES D, LV I. "Management of Mandibular Lateral Incisors with Vertucci Type II Canal Configuration." Journal of the Endodontic Society of the Philippines . 2018;11:19-23.
JA A, GO O'amo, DO O, SO O, IK N, BBA E. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2018;1(1):417-426. AbstractWebsite

Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes. A negative binomial regression was used to model the association between remotely sensed climate (rainfall and temperature) and environmental (vegetation cover, vegetation health, topographic wetness and slope) factors and An. gambiae s.l. for December 2015. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was significantly more frequent in the riverine zone (P < 0.05, r = 0.59) compared with the lowland zone. Rainfall (b = 6.22, P < 0.001), slope (b = - 4.81, P = 0.012) and vegetation health (b = - 5.60, P = 0.038) significantly influenced the distribution of An. gambiae s.l. larvae. High An. gambiae s.l. abundance was associated with cropland and wetland environments. Effective malaria control will require zone-specific interventions such as a focused dry season vector control strategy in the riverine zone.

Gachoka N, Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Moderating Effect of Organizational Characteristics on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):81-102.
Gitahi JN, M.M G, P.B. G, T.W. G, A N. "Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic school going children in kibera slum, Kenya." African Journal of Bacteriology Research. 2018;10(5):70-77.
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
Mwangi M, Njoroge P, Chira R, Gichuki N. "Nest food provisioning in the Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea does not vary with parental sex differences and time of day." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2018;38(2):7-15.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/01/403.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

Gathungu JM. "Organization Development Interventions on Communication Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Bank Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Review. 2018;4(5).
vii. James Gathungu M. "Organization Development Interventions on Teamwork and Teambuilding Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies . 2018;2(10).
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Okoth C, Opanga S, Okalebo F, Oluka M, Kurdi AB, Godman B. "Point prevalence survey of antibiotic use and resistance at a referral hospital in Kenya: findings and implications. ." Hospital Practice. 2018.
Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Ogola KO, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Wanyoike M, Aboge GO. "Prevalence, control and risk factors associated with rabbit mange in Kiambu and Nyeri counties, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2018;30(6).rmwa301081_2.pdf
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Square wave Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin V in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate containing Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;40(1):220-233.
Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Bosire E. "Trends of Intraseasonal Descriptors of Wet and Dry Spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2018;38(3):1189-1200. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Many African countries whose economies are largely based on weather/climate sensitive sectors are vulnerable to long‐term changes in weather and climate. This study is aimed at assessing whether the recent decades have observed any significant trend in the intraseasonal descriptors (ISDs) of wet and dry spells at local and sub‐regional levels at seasonal and monthly timescales over equatorial eastern Africa (EEA). Daily rainfall observations over 36 stations and spanning a period of 51 years (1962–2012) were used.

The study has expanded on previous results that showed contrasting trends on seasonal totals between the two rainfall seasons by demonstrating that this also affects the ISDs. At the local level, it was observed that during the long rainfall season, a given ISD would have a significant trend over several neighbouring locations, which was not the case during the short rainfall season. Secondly, for the short rainfall season, a given location would have significant trend in several ISDs. Finally, when a given ISD had a significant trend at seasonal timescale during the long rainfall season, the same ISD would have significant trends in the second and third months of the season and rarely in the first month. Such a feature was not observed for the short rainfall season. Binomial probability distribution assessment confirmed that the significant trends in the various ISDs during the long rainfall season did not occur by mere chance.

Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Ooko JO, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM. "Use of Accelerated Tests to Estimate Rate of Corrosion of Roofing Sheets." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2018;37(3):1-8.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "肯尼亚地区对玉米中霉菌毒素引起的健康风险的管理和降低." Food Quality and Safety. 2018;1(4):268-274.
2017
Gureya D, Barreto J. "Profiling for Asymmetric NUMA Systems.". In: 11th EuroSys Doctoral Workshop (EuroDW'17). Belgrade, Serbia; 2017. Abstract

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Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Kelder EM, Marijnissen JCM. "Solid-state electrolytes for lithium ion batteries: Application of Electrospray technique.". In: European Aerosol Conference. Zurich, Switzerland; 2017.
Kirui G, Gakuya DW, Abuom TO. "Challenges in food animal practice in the urban areas- Nairobi City and its environs.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association, Commonwealth Veterinary Association and university Nairobi, Faculty of Veterianry Medicine Joint Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Gazzard B, Karita E, Bergin P, Hayes P, Kopycinski J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Jackson A, Bizimana J, Farah B, Sayeed E, Parks CL, Inoue M, Hironaka T, Hara H, Shu T, Matano T, Dally L, Barin B, Park H, Gilmour J, Lombardo A, Excler J-L, Fast P, Laufer DS, Cox JH. "First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(1):95-104. Abstract

 We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.

Newman LP, Njoroge A, Magaret A, Chohan BH, Gitomea VW, Wald A, Gorstein J, Overbaugh J, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017. Abstract

There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Ronen K, Dingens AS, Graham SM, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, McClelland SR, Overbaugh J. "Comprehensive Characterization of Humoral Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Superinfection Acquisition in High-risk Kenyan Women." EBioMedicine. 2017;18:216-224. Abstract

HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design. We evaluated a panel of humoral immune responses in the largest published group of superinfected individuals (n=21), compared to a set of 3:1 matched singly infected controls from the same cohort. The immune functions studied included plasma neutralization, plasma and cervical antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and plasma IgG and IgA binding to a panel of 18 envelope antigens, including correlates of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG binding to V1V2 and IgA binding to gp140. Association between each immune function and HIV superinfection was evaluated using conditional logistic regression. No significant associations were detected between any of the immune functions and superinfection acquisition. This study constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed characterization of multiple immune correlates of superinfection to date. The results suggest that immune responses not commonly measured in current HIV studies may be important in protection from HIV infection, and these or a more robust humoral response than that seen in naturally infected women may be needed for a protective vaccine.

Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
disorders.
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
a.o.adebajo@sheffield.ac.uk
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
USA
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
References
1. Worldometers (2017) (www.Worldometers.info)
2. Horton R (2000a) Development aid: manna or myth? Lancet 356:
1044–1045
3. Espinoza LR (2014) Welcoming an African asset: African Journal
of Rheumatology. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):47–48
4. Otieno FO, Moots RJ, Oyoo GO (2017) Rheumatoid arthritis in
Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):1–2
5. Akintayo RO, Aworinde OO, Olawumi HO, Yusuf IA (2016)
Antiphospholipid syndrome in Africa: a review. Afr J Rheumatol
3(1):3–8
6. Genga EK, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO (2015) Clinical profiles of patients
SLE in Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 3(2):62–66
7. Adelowo F (2013) Systemic lupus erythematosus: not a rare disease
among black Africans. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):46–47
8. Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno FO, Omondi EA (2016) Clinical
patterns of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a single tertiary centre experience
in Kenya Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 4(2):66–71
9. Venkat R, Jawad ASM, Chikanza IC (2014) Spontaneous resolution
of a case of anti-retroviral treatment-naïve HIV-associated
polymyositis. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):78–84
10. Ilovi S, Oyoo G (2013) Characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients
in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective study. Afr J Rheumatol 1(1):8–12
11. Malombe NM, Oyoo GO, Maritim MC, Kwasa J (2013) Prevalence
of fibromyalgia in ambulatory HIV positive patients with musculoskeletal
pain at Comprehensive Care Clinic, Kenyatta National
Hospital. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):70–75
12. Ouédraogo DD, Ouédraogo T, Kaboré F et al (2013) Prevalence of
HIV infection among the patients with an avascular necrosis of the
femoral head in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Ouédraogo. Afr J
Rheumatol 1(2):57–60
13. Oyoo GO, Otieno FO, Mbuthia B, Omondi EA, Genga EK (2015)
Experience with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in
Nairobi, Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 3(1):17–21
14. Elhabbash B, Tarsin R (2017) Certolizumab effect in a cohort of 60
Libyan patients with rheumatic diseases. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):19–
23
15. Muula AS (2008) Medical journals and authorship in low-income
countries. Croat Med J 49:681–683

Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
and Gakuubi MWAWJM 4. "Antifungal activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against selected Fusarium spp.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with
maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-
type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition
characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was
used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory …

Waithaka PN, Mwaura FB, Wagacha JM, Gathuru EM, Githaiga BM. "Antimicrobial Properties of Actinomycetes Isolated from Menengai Crater in Kenya." CellBio. 2017;06(2):13.

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