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ODHIAMBO DRALFRED, BYAKIKA DRBESSIE, GACHIE DRANDREW, OLIECH PROFJOSEPH. "Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as the initial presentation for colorectal malignancy.". Abstractluts_presentation.pdf

The presenting features of colorectal carcinoma in the African patient are not different from reports worldwide although the majority present late with features of advanced disease (1). Increasing frequency of diagnosis may be attributed the twin effects of changing diets and easier access particularly by the elite population to modern diagnostic imaging tools.
A 72 year old African male presented to a private practitioner with a 2 week history hematuria, frequency, nocturia and subsequently a 2 day history of retention of urine (AUR). Imaging studies demonstrated a tumour mass invading the roof of the urinary bladder. Following surgical extirpation the mass was subjected to histopathological evaluation.

200
Mwabu GM;, Masai WS;, Gesami R;, Kirimi JB;, Ndenge G;, Kiriti T;, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Poverty in Kenya: Profiles and Determinants.". 200.Website
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1924
1945
Garvie JM, Kemp FH. "The diagnosis of chronic intussusception in children." Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1945;20:73-80. AbstractWebsite

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1960
1963
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Elijah Masinde: A Biography Series : Makers of Kenya's History.". In: Series Editor Prof. Simiyu Wandibba East African Educational Publications, Nairobi, Kenya. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1963. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Elijah Masinde: A Biography Series : Makers of Kenya's History.". In: Series Editor Prof. Simiyu Wandibba East African Educational Publications, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1963. Abstract

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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Family Life Among the Kikuyu People of Nyandarua District, in Nyandarua District Socio-Cultural Profile, Nairobi.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1963. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Family Life Among the Kikuyu People of Nyandarua District, in Nyandarua District Socio-Cultural Profile, Nairobi.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1963. Abstract

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1965
Gyllensten L, Malmfors T, Norrlin M-L. "Effect of visual deprivation on the optic centers of growing and adult mice." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1965;124:149-160. AbstractWebsite

The thickness of the visual cortex, the diameter of cell nuclei and the mean volume of internuclear material per nucleus in the visual cortex, geniculate bodies and superior colliculi were determined in growing and adult mice. The influence of prolonged stay in complete darkness was investigated.In the visual cortex of normal mice, a peak in nuclear size occurred 20–30 days after birth, followed by a peak in relative volume of internuclear material.In growing mice, reared in darkness from birth, a highly significant decrease in relative volume of internuclear material occurred in all visual centers. The decrease was greatest in the geniculate bodies and greater in the granular and supragranular layers of the cortex than in the infragranular. In the cortex, the decrease was most pronounced after two months and became less pronounced during prolonged stay in darkness. No similar normalization was observed in subcortical visual centers. In the same mice, visual deprivation caused a highly significant decrease in the thickness of the visual cortex and in the diameter of its cell nuclei. The decrease in nuclear diameter was greater in the granular and supragranular than in the infragranular layers of the cortex and exhibited a similar normalization during prolonged stay in darkness as the decrease in relative volume of internuclear material.In adult mice, visual deprivation caused decrease in internuclear material.

GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Fruits of Uhuru", in African Today.". In: August/September, New York, U.S.A.; 1965. Abstract
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Singh CB, Dervin KE, Gray SJ. "Effect of adrenalectomy on serum and tissue amylase.". 1965.Website
1968
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Kikuyu Reaction to Traders and British Administration".". In: In Hadith 1, E.A. Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1968. Abstract
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Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "The Red Deer As An Experimental Animal.".; 1968.
Maloiy GMO;, Kay RNB;, Goodall ED;, Topps JH. "Some Effects Of Nitrogen And Water Intake In Sheep And Red Deer."; 1968.
Topps JH;, Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "Urinary Excretion Of Nitrogenous Compounds By Sheep And Red Deer."; 1968.
Mani RL, Newton TH, Glickman MG. "The superior cerebellar artery: an anatomic-roentgenographic correlation." Radiology. 1968;91:1102-1108. Abstract
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1969
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""A History of the Kikuyu to 1904", Ph.D. thesis, University of London.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1969. Abstract
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GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1969. Resistance to airflow through shelled corn. Unpublished MSc Theses. Iowa State University.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1969.
1970
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Chronology of the Kikuyu".". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "Traditional Social and Political Institutions of the Mount Kenya Peoples" in Hadith IV, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.
1971
Sosula L, Glow PH. "Increase in number of synapses in the inner plexiform layer of light deprived rat retinae: {Quantitative} electron microscopy." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1971;141:427-451. AbstractWebsite

One eye in each of five adult Wistar hooded rats was covered with opaque contact occluders for three or nine months. The rat retinae were studied with light and electron microscopy. No changes in retinal thickness or in gross structure were seen. However, quantitative differences in synaptic organisation were found.(1) First comparison. A montage of a normal retina was compared with a similar montage of a three month lighted-deprived retina. Taking equal areas of inner plexiform layer, the number of amacrine (conventional) synapses in the light-deprived montage was larger by a factor of about 2.4 relative to the normal one. No significant difference in the number of bipolar (ribbon) synapses was found.(2) Second comparison. Samples were compared from five normal and five light-deprived retinae. The light-deprived retinae showed a significantly larger number of amacrine synapses compared with the normal mean (p{\textless}0.02).It was not possible to determine if the changes in synaptic number are related to changes in vesicle dimensions reported herein.The increased number of conventional synapses seems evidence that central nervous tissue is capable of forming new synapses without changing the organisation of neural processes.

Buxton BF, Wasunna AE, Gutierrez LV, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. "Role of inhibition by fat in the production of gastric hypersecretion following small-bowel resection.". 1971.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections Relationship with Repetititions of Wheel Loads for Typical Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". In: East African Institution of Engineers. Nairobi.; 1971.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". Nairobi; 1971.
1972
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Hillman DA, Roy AD, Gatei DG. A virilizing tumour derived from cells of the foetal cortex in a year-old African child. East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. ].". In: East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1972. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Patel JP, Gacii P. "Palaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya.". 1972. AbstractPalaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya

Specimens of Kapiti phonolite from sixteen sites were treated in an alternating field up to 900 Oe peak. Four sites were discarded on the basis of Watson's Criterion for randomness. Variations in various magnetic parameters along a vertical section of the rock indicate that a hard secondary component of magnetization of high coercive force is present in the surface samples of the rock — a possible cause for the poor grouping of directions of the remaining sites. Weathering may have introduced this component in the surface samples. The Kapiti phonolite possesses both normal and reverse polarities. The Pole position for the Upper Miocene is calculated at 81°N, 118°E with a circle of confidence of 17°.

Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. "Role of the jejunum and the ileum in the acid response of dogs to a meal.". 1972.
Gichaga FJ. "The Quality of Training for Civil Engineering graduates in Kenya.". In: 12th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam. ; 1972.
1973
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1973. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1973. Abstract

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Parnavelas JG, Globus A, Kaups P. "Changes in {Lateral} {Geniculate} {Neurones} of {Rats} as a {Result} of {Continuous} {Exposure} to {Light}." Nature. 1973;245:287-288. AbstractWebsite

THE results of several investigators demonstrate that environmental manipulations can affect the structure of the brain. Environmental conditions studied most often have been deprivation and enrichment. In the visual system different forms of light deprivation have been found to induce a decrease in spine density1–3, dendritic branching4,5 and in cell areas6. A number of studies have described changes resulting from enriched environmental conditions, including an increase in cortical weight and depth7,8, ratio of glial cells to neurones9, spine density10, and dendritic branching11. The effects of excess light stimulation in the visual system have also been studied. Continuous exposure to light has been found to cause irreversible damage to photoreceptors12,13 and an increase in spine density in the visual cortex of albino rats14. Under these conditions, investigators have reported a decrease or absence of evoked potentials in adult albino rats15. Black-white discrimination and two pattern discrimination tests did not indicate any difference between these animals and control rats16. We have been able to show significant quantitative morphological changes in the dendritic field of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate of rats reared under continuous illumination from birth to 35 d.

1974
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
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Page MM, Alberti KG, Greenwood R, Gumaa KA, Hockaday TD, Lowy C, Nabarro JD, Pyke DA, Sönksen PH, Watkins PJ, West TE. "Treatment of diabetic coma with continuous low-dose infusion of insulin." British Medical Journal. 1974;2:687-690. Abstract

Thirty-eight patients in diabetic coma from four different centres were treated with a continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin at an average dose of 7.2 IU/hr. All patients recovered rapidly except for one profoundly shocked patient who died. The mean fall in plasma glucose was 58% four hours after the start of insulin. Blood ketone bodies and plasma free fatty acids showed a similar response. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose response according to severity of acidosis or previous treatment with insulin. Hypokalaemia was uncommon. In the treatment of diabetic coma this technique has proved simple, safe, and effective.

Maitai CK, Gondwe AT, Kamau JA. "Toxicity of Adenia volkensii (Kiliambiti)." Bull Epizoot Dis Afr. 1974;22(2):157-60.
1975
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
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G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Jeshrani MK, Gatei DG. Unusual presentation of hepatoma. East Afr Med J. 1975 Nov;52(11):605-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1975 Nov;52(11):605-10. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1975. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1975. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1975. Abstract

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Gatumu HN. "Problem Solving among standard four children.". 1975;vol. 2 No. 1:68-73.
Wegener J;, Gathuma JM. "The role of the marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Lesson)) in Kenya in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.".; 1975. Abstract

In experiments, adult marabou storks were fed with hydatid fluid of viable Echinococcus cysts obtained from sheep and goats. On microscopic examination of the birds' faeces no scolices were found, the only remaining undigested parts of the parasites fed being the chitinous hooks of the rostellum. The feeding trials have shown that the marabou does not play a role in the spread of echinococcosis from the abattoir.

Gluecksohn-Waelsch S, Schiffman MB. "Glutamine synthetase in newborn mice homozygous for lethal albino alleles." Dev. Biol.. 1975;45(2):369-71.
Hudson JI, Giacalone JJ. "Current issues in primary care education: review and commentary." J Med Educ. 1975;50(12 pt 2):211-33.
Mitchell B, Haigis E, Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R. "Reversal of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase deficiency of human leukocytes in culture." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1975;72(12):5026-30. Abstract

Stimulation with phytohemagglutinin of the leukocytes from six of the seven known individuals with UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (= UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; EC 5.1.3.2) deficiency consistently resulted in the appearance of epimerase activity in the cultured cells. A long-term lymphoblast culture derived from one proband also contained an active epimerase enzyme. A comparison of the properties of this enzyme with those of epimerase produced by control lymphoblast lines revealed comparable Km values for UDP-galactose and NAD and identical behavior on polyacrylamide electrophoresis. However, a difference in the NAD requirement for heat stability at 40 degree provided some evidence for a structural defect in this enzyme. Possible explanations for the appearance of UDP-galactose 4-epimerase activity in stimulated lymphocytes include an increased rate of synthesis of a mutant enzyme and a derepression of an epimerase locus during lymphocyte transformation.

Peterson DL, Gleisner JM, Blakley RL. "Bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase: purification and properties of the enzyme." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5261-7. Abstract

A purification procedure is reported for obtaining bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase in high yield and amounts of 100-200 mg. A key step in the procedure is the use of an affinity gel prepared by coupling pteroyl-L-lysine to Sepharose. The purified reductase has a specific activity of about 100 units/mg and is homogeneous as judged by analytical ultracentrifugation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and titration with methotrexate. The products of the first step of Edman degradation indicated a minimum purity of 79%. The reductase has a molecular weight of about 21500 on the basis of amino acid composition and 22100 +/- 300 from equilibrium sedimentation. It is not inhibited by antiserum to the Streptococcus faecium reductase (isoenzyme 2). Unlike the reductase of many other vertebrate tissues, the bovine enzyme is inhibited by mercurials rather than activated and it has a single pH optimum at both low and high ionic strength. However, the position of the pH optimum is shifted and the activity increased by increasing ionic strength. Automatic Edman degradation has been used to determine 34 of the amino-terminal 37 amino acid residues. Considerable homology exists between this region and the corresponding regions of the reductase from S. faecium and from Escherichia coli. This strengthens the idea that this region contributes to the structure of the binding site for dihydrofolate.

Maitai CK, Kamau JA, Gacuhi DM, Njoroge S. "An outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle." Vet. Rec.. 1975;96(7):151-2. Abstract

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

Greenwood RD. "Digitalis as treatment for pulmonary comsumption, 1799." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):531.
Gilbert HF, O'Leary MH. "Modification of arginine and lysine in proteins with 2,4-pentanedione." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5194-9. Abstract

Primary amines react with 2,4-pentanedione at pH 6-9 to form enamines, N-alkyl-4-amino-3-penten-2-ones. The latter compounds readily regenerate the primary amine at low pH or on treatment with hydroxylamine. Guanidine and substituted guanidines react with 2,4-pentanedione to form N-substituted 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidines at a rate which is lower by at least a factor of 20 than the rate of reaction of 2,4-pentanedione with primary amines. Selective modification of lysine and arginine side chains in proteins can readily be achieved with 2,4-pentanedione. Modification of lysine is favored by reaction at pH 7 or for short reaction times at pH 9. Selective modification of arginine is achieved by reaction with 2,4-pentanedione for long times at pH 9, followed by treatment of the protein with hydroxylamine. The extent of modification of lysine and arginine side chains can readily be measured spectrophotometrically. Modification of lysozyme with 2,4-pentanedione at pH 7 results in modification of 3.8 lysine residues and less than 0.4 arginine residue in 24 hr. Modification of lysozyme with 2,4-pentanedione at pH 9 results in modification of 4 lysine residues and 4.5 arginine residues in 100 hr. Treatment of this modified protein with hydroxylamine regenerated the modified lysine residues but caused no change in the modified arginine residues. One arginine residue seems to be essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme.

Giangrande M, Kim YW, Mizukami H. "N-terminal spin label studies of hemoglobin, Ligand and pH dependence." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):187-93. Abstract

Human hemoglobin was spin labeled with 4-isothiocanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperdinooxyl, which is known to bind specifically to the N-terminal alpha-amino groups of proteins and slightly to the reactive sulfhydryl groups. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated a partially resolved five-line spectrum, suggesting that the label was attached to at least two different binding sites. Using specific blocking reagents prior to spin labeling, the two binding sites were attributed to the sulfhydryl group of beta-93 (immobile) and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal valines (mobile). The relative motion of the spin at one set of binding sites was restricted regardless of the state of ligation and pH, while the motion at the other site showed dependence on those parameters, e.g. the spin-labeled N-terminal ends of deoxyhemoglobin have restricted motion at all pH ranges studied, while those of oxyhemoglobin are relatively free to move at the basic pH range, but become more restricted in the acidic pH range.

Elgart ES, Gusovsky T, Rosenberg MD. "Preparation and characterization of an enzymatically active immobilized derivative of myosin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):178-92. Abstract

Purified skeletal muscle myosin (EC 3.6.1.3) has been covalently bound to Sepharose 4B by the cyanogen bromide procedure. The resulting complex, Sepharose-Myosin, possesses adenosine triphosphatase activity and is relatively stable for long periods of time. Under optimal binding conditions, approximately 33% of the specific ATPase activity of the bound myosin is retained. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of polypeptides released from denatured Sepharose-Myosin indicates that 85% of the myosin is attached to the agarose beads through the heavy chains and the remainder through the light chains, in agreement with predictions of binding and release based upon either the lysine contents or molecular weights of themyosin subunits. The adenosine triphosphatase of the immobilized myosin has been investigated under conditions of varying pH, ionic strength, and cation concentration. The ATPase profiles of immobilized myosin are quite similar to those for free myosin, however subtle differences are found. The Sepharose-Myosin ATPase is not as sensitive as myosin to alterations in salt concentration and the apparent KM is approximately two-fold higher than that of myosin. These differences are probably due to chemical modification in the region of the attachment site(s) to the agarose beads and hydration and diffusion limitations imposed by the polymeric agarose matrix.

Galliard T, Phillips DR, Matthew JA. "Enzymic reactions of fatty acid hydroperoxides in extracts of potato tuber. II. Conversion of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acids to monohydroxydienoic acid, epoxyhydroxy- and trihydroxymonoenoic acid derivatives." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;409(2):157-71. Abstract

1. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations from potato tubers catalyse, at pH 5-7, the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxides to a range of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. 2. 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxide isomers are converted at similar rates to equivalent (isomeric) products. 3. The major products from the 13-hydroperoxide isomer were identified as the corresponding monohydroxydienoic acid derivative, threo-11-hydroxy-trans12,13-epoxy-octadec-cis9-enoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-octadec-trans10-enoic acid. The corresponding products from the 9-hydroperoxide were the monohydroxydienoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoic acid. 4. No separation of activities forming the different products was achieved by partial purification of enzyme extracts. 5. Product formation was unaffected by EDTA, CN-, sulphydryl reagents or glutathione but was reduced by boiling the extracts. 6. This system is compared with the 9-hydroperoxide-specific enzymic formation of divinyl ether derivatives by potato extracts.

Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development for Highway and Transportation Engineering. .". In: Subject Meeting in Civil Engineering. University of Nairobi; 1975.
Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

Gichaga FJ. "Integrated Engineering Training for Civil Engineers in Kenya.". In: 13th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Nairobi; 1975.
Gichaga FJ. "The Trans-African highway – Mombasa/Lagos,." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1975:16-21.
1976
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Is Bronchial Carcinoma Increasing in Kenya?". In: East African Medical Journal. 53 (7): 383 - 388. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1976. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Is Bronchial Carcinoma Increasing in Kenya?". In: East African Medical Journal. 53 (7): 383 - 388. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1976. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Kikuyu in the Pre-Colonial Period" in Kenya Before 1900.". In: Edited by B.A. Ogot, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
n/a
Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

Kitabchi AE, Ayyagari V, Guerra SM. "The efficacy of low-dose versus conventional therapy of insulin for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1976;84:633-638. Abstract

The effect of low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy was compared with that of high-dose insulin therapy by intravenous and subcutaneous routes in 48 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. A simplified protocol was devised to compare efficacy of the two methods of therapy in a randomized manner. Plasma glucose dropped to less than 250 mg/dl in the low-dose group in 6.7 +/- 0.8 h and in the high-dose group in 4.5 +/- 0.8 h (P = not significant). The amount of insulin necessary to lower plasma glucose to 250 mg/dl was 263 +/- 45 U in the high-dose group and 46 +/- 5 U in the low-dose group. Twenty five percent in the high-dose group and none in the low-dose group developed hypoglycemia. Other biochemical and clinical variables in the two groups were comparable. No treatment complications were noted in the low-dose group. Our studies suggest that low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy is simple and as effective as high-dose therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis without the risk of hypoglycemia and with a diminished incidence of hypokalemia. Furthermore, the favorable response of these patients to low-dose insulin therapy suggests the absence of insulin resistance in diabetic ketoacidosis.

1977
G PROFGATEIDAVID, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Jeshrani MK, Gatei DG, Onyango JN. A case of multifocal eosinophilic granuloma. East Afr Med J. 1977 Aug;54(8):455-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Aug;54(8):455-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Kikuyu, People of Kenya Series.". In: A Evan Brothers, London. "Central Kenya in the Nyayo Era", Africa Today, Vol 26, New York, U.S.; 1977. Abstract
n/a
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans. East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans. East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Orinda DA, Okech M, Gatei DG. Beta-glucuronidase in human mammary carcinomas. East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dossaji SF, Kairu MG, Gondwe AT, Ouma JH. "On the evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Polygonum senegalense." Lloydia (J. of Nat. Prod.). 1977;40(3):290-293.
Gatuma AK. A Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigation Of The Poisonous Principle(s) Of Elaeodendron Buchananii (Loes.) Loes.; 1977. Abstract

A pharmacognostical investigation of Elaeodendron buchananii
(Loes.) Loes. has been undertaken. Phytochemical and pharmacological
properties of the active (poisonous) principles of the plant
have also been studied.
The pharmacognostical investigation of the plant involved identifying
features of the different parts of the plant using photographic
and macroscopic methods .
Results of the screening tests of the different parts of the
plant for the active constituents indicated the presence of chemical
compounds with a, b-unsaturated 6- lactone ring, possibly cardiac
glycosides. Investigation of a suitable solvent system for the extraction
of these compounds was undertaken. Of the different parts
of the plant examined for active principles , the leaves were found
to contain the highest percentage of the chemical compounds with <,
(3- unsaturated 0-- lactone ring. Isolation and purification of the
active principle(s) from the original crude plant extracts involving
the removal of pigments, tannins! resins and excess lead has been
described. Crystellisat ion of the isolated gycoside from a suitable
solvent system and the subsequent study of some of the physical l and
chemical properties of the isolated compound has been described.
From the elemental analysis and the molecular weight of the
isolated compound the molecular formula of t he compound has been
determined as C32H47011. Using the infra-red, ultraviolet, nuclear
magnetic resonance and mass spectra$ a partial molecular structure
has been suggested.
The isolated compound has been reacted with Kedde reagent and
the resulting coloured complex has been examined to see whether it
obeys Beer - Lambert law. The calibration curve obtained has been
used to determine the percentage recovery of the isolated compound
in the leaves of the plant.
The pharmacological study of the isolated compound has also
been undertaken. This study involved the investigation of the
effects of the isolated compound on the blood pressure of anaesthetised
rat and the effect of the compound on the isolated perfused
rabbi t heart.
Suggestions for further work as regards pharmacognostical investigation
of the plant together with ascertaining the exact structural
formula of the compound has been proposed.

Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans.". 1977.
Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans." East Afr Med J. 1977;54(11):615-20.
1978
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The effect of Processing parameters on the final quality of food dried by a single Drum Drier (MSc thesis). University of Nairobi & Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1978. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.". In: Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.". In: Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Kaminsky RG, Gatei DG, Zimmermann RR. Human coenurosis from Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1978 Aug;55(8):355-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Aug;55(8):355-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development in Civil Engineering in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1978.
Gichaga FJ. "Research on Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. . 1978:3-5.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(8):373-9.
Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. "Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1978;38(2):303-7. Abstract

A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.

Simanovskaia VK, Kadishaite DL, Lisok TP, Siminina AA, Goluveb DB. "[Characterization of biological properties and glycopeptide composition of influenza virus type A grown in different cell systems]." Virologie. 1978;29(4):275-81.
Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Goldstein DA, Fein IA. "Hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1978;89:925-927. Abstract

We have studied 35 patients to find the occurrence of hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. At admission the patients had typical normochloremic acidosis, with increased anion gap exactly balancing decreased serum bicarbonate. In contrast, in 18 patients with phenformin-induced lactic acidosis, the increase in anion gap at admission was much greater than the decrease in bicarbonate. The difference between lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis may be explained by a slower rate of excretion of lactate than of ketone anions. After the patients with ketoacidosis were treated, the acidosis became predominantly hyperchloremic with normal anion gap. Failure to normalize serum bicarbonate is attributed to excretion of ketone anions in the urine.

Gichaga FJ. "Training of Engineers in a Developing country.". In: UNESCO International Group Meeting. Cairo.; 1978.
1979
Mendelow AD, Karmi MZ, Paul KS, Fuller GA, Gillingham FJ. "Extradural haematoma: effect of delayed treatment." BMJ. 1979;1:1240-1242. AbstractWebsite
n/a
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Recruitment and training of pathologists in Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Nov;56(11):537-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1979. Abstract
No abstract available.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Historiography of East Africa, In to the 80's.". In: Edited by D.I. Ray, P. Shinnite and D. Williams, Tantalus Research Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.; 1979. Abstract
n/a
Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Crushed Stone Embankment." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1979:14-16.
Gichaga FJ. Structural Behaviour of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1979.
Katzarski M, Gopal Rao UK, Brady K. "Blood supply and position of the vermiform appendix in {Zambians}." Medical journal of Zambia. 1979;13:32-34. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position, and length of the appendix were studied 103 Zambian cadavers. In 39.8%, more than one appendicular artery was found. In position, 43.6% were pelvic, and 20.3% retro-cecal. The average length of the appendix was 12.0 cm in males, and 11.4 cm in females. The prevalence of the dual blood supply and pelvic position, may partly explain the recorded rarity of appendicitis among Africans.

Winter RJ, Harris CJ, Phillips LS, Green OC. "Diabetic ketoacidosis. {Induction} of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia by phosphate therapy." The American Journal of Medicine. 1979;67:897-900. Abstract
n/a
1980
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China.; 1980. Abstract

n/a

Dossaji SF, Gitonga J, Bell EA. "Distribution and significance of amino acids in the leaves of Acacia and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)." Kenya J. of Science and Technology, 1, 19.. 1980;1:19-22. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 13 species of Acacia and 9 species of Crotalaria which are native to or estabhshed in Kenya were analysed by 2D paper chromatography and high voltage ionophoresis for their free protein and nonprotein amino acids. In addition to the presence of protein amino acids, both the genera contained nonprotein amino acids. Acacia species contained pipecolic acid, 4-OH pipecolic acid, 5-OH pipecolic
acid and homoarginine. They did not contain N-acetyldjenkolic which is found in the seeds of all but one of the species analysed. The leaf extracts of three species of Crotalaria contained the toxic amino acids, a-amino-p-oxalylaminopropionic acid and a-amino-y-oxalylaminobutyric acid.

Kimani V;, Lawry JM;, Good CM. "The Initiation of a Kikuyu Medicine Man.". 1980. Abstract

The field research for this paper was part of a broader project on urban and rural traditional medicine conducted in Kenya in ,1977-1978, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C. We wish to thank Professor F. J. BENNETT of the Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, for providing us with office space and valuable advice. We also wish to express our appreciation to RICHARD MUTHEE and PENINAH MAKOBU for their good work as research assistants. Pronounciation: u as 0 in English word who; i as English a

Kokwaro JO, Gillett JB. "Notes on Anacardiaceae of Eastern Africa." Kew Bulletin. 1980;34(4):745-760.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Gathumbi PK, Kihurani DO, Mbithi PMF, Mbiuki SM. "A typical (cutaneousl actinobacillosis in cattle: clinical observation, diagnosis and Treatment in eighteen cases.". 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design Considerations Under Tropical Climate.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi ; 1980.
Gichaga FJ, Kipkore SK. "Violation of Traffic Laws in Selected Roads in Nairobi.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "The role of Engineering in the Promotion of Health Care.". In: 9th Council Meeting of the Commonwealth Medical Association and 9th Annual Scientific Conference of Kenya Medical Association. Nairobi; 1980.
Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

1981
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "De Cock KM, Gatei DG, Shah MV. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of liver cancer. East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1981 . Farm Machinery Manufacture and use in Kenya. United Nations Industrial Development Organization , Kenya Position paper.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1981.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Kaposi's sarcoma in Kenya: a retrospective clinicopathological study. Antibiot Chemother. 1981;29:38-58.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
No abstract available.
Gachene CKK, Gicheru PT. "Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Bondo Area.". 1981.
Maitai CK, Guantai A, Mwangi JM. "Self medication in management of minor health problems in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used in self-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self•medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.

Gichaga FJ. "Study of Structural Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements with Thin Bituminous Surfacing in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1981;Series A(No. 2):105-115.
Gichaga FJ. "Industrial Training for Engineering Undergraduates.". In: Engineers Seminar. Nairobi; 1981.
1982
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycles in healthy black Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study are consistent with those already documented for Caucasian, Asian and African females
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, GWAYI-CHORE MO, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, LEQUIN RM and MATI JKG: Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycle in Healthy Black Kenyan women. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, GWAYI-CHORE MO, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, LEQUIN RM and MATI JKG: Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycle in Healthy Black Kenyan women. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, MATI JKG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB: The value of FSH LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhea. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, MATI JKG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB: The value of FSH LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhea. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, MATI JKG, LEQUIN RM: Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, MATI JKG, LEQUIN RM: Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Review of Caesarean Section deliveries at Kenyatta National Hospital 1980. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Review of Caesarean Section deliveries at Kenyatta National Hospital 1980. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: The value of FSH, LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhoea. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: The value of FSH, LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhoea. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Rees PH, Gatei DG, de Cock KM, Tosswill J. Some preliminary observations on the investigation of splenomegaly in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Oct;59(10):658-64. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Oct;59(10):658-64. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1982. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
Ojwang PJ, Gitau W, Shah MV. "Adolescent hypophosphataemic rickets.". 1982.Website
Gichaga FJ. "Laboratory Study of Deformation Modulus/Time Relationship for Various Subgrade Soils Under Road Pavement Structure." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1982;3(No. 2):63-74.
Gachene CKK, Michieka DO, Rachilo JR. "Soils of Busia area.". 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Distress Features of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Seminar on Maintenance and Drainage aspects of Road Pavements.Indian Road Congress. Bangalore - India; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Evaluation of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Conference on Criteria for Planning Highway Investment in Developing Countries. Institution of Civil Engineers.London; 1982.
G.W. K. "Haemophilia and Allied Disorders in Kenya.". In: International Haemophilia congress 1980. Bonn, Germany ; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Strength of Flexible Road pavements in Kenya.". In: International Symposium on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. The Norwegian Institute of Technology-Trondheim, Norway; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements under Tropical Climate.". In: Fifth International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. Arnhem, Netherlands.; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Maintenance of Roads in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Red Clay Soils and Black Clays.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi,; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Storm Water Drainage Design for Roads.". In: TRRL/MOTC UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Urban Transportation in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
1983
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "3 Chapters in Official Handbook.". In: Kenya Government, Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
n/a
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Muigai R, Gatei DG, Shaunak S, Wozniak A, Bryceson AD. Jejunal function and pathology in visceral Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 1983 Aug 27;2(8348):476-9.". In: Lancet. 1983 Aug 27;2(8348):476-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1983. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Historiography of East Africa, In to the 80's.". In: Edited by D.I. Ray, P. Shinnite and D. Williams, Tantalus Research Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.; 1983. Abstract
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Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

Gachene CKK;, Barber RG. "Kenya Soil Survey and Department of Soil Science."; 1983.
Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Gakuru O. "The Rural Youth in Africa."; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "Conducting Technical Research.". In: CIDA/Kenya Polytechnic/Mombasa Polytechnic Staff Development Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "Slow Sand Filtration Pilot plant Construction.". In: IRC/MOH/MOWD/UON Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
1984
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The application of direct solar radiation to the dehydration of foods . Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy, Food Production and Post Harvest Technology in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, 16-18 April 1986. ANSTI/RAIST. Pp. 53-70.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Application of Radiant Energy to the Dehydration of Foods (PhD. Thesis). University of Reading, UK.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Wilmshurst PT, Al-Hasani SF, Semple MJ, Hamblin AS, Kioy PG, Lucas GF, Savidge GF, Webb-Peploe MM. The effects of amrinone on platelet count, survival and function in patients with congestive cardiac failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Mar;17(3):317-24.PMI.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice.    PMID: 6712864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". 1984.Website
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
OCHILO, GATELY. The Football Sub-Culture "The Case of Sydney Swan Team in Syney Australia". London: Mitchel University College; 1984.
Gichaga FJ. "Road/Railway Embankment Slide at Mikindani in Mombasa." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1984:35-39.

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