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Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW. " Elearning for institutional managers: Best option for effective ICT integration in teaching and learning.". In: eLearning Africa. Kampala, Uganda; 2014.
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Origa JO, Muchemi, L., Muthoni DM, Mutahi IW, Gunga SO. "The Implications of Collaborative Industrial Attachments for Kenya Vision 2030 Development Programmes." African Journal of Education and Technology Volume . 2013;3(1):57-67.Website
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Oyoo GO, Muia B, Otino FO, Ganda B, Otieno CF, Moots CF. " Occurrence of crystal arthropathy in patients presenting with synovitis in Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):75-77. Abstract

Background: Crystal arthropathies represent a heterogeneous group of skeletal (musculo-skeletal) diseases associated with the deposition of mineralized material within joints and periarticular soft tissues. Gout is the most common and pathogenetically best understood crystal arthropathy, followed by basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition diseases, and, in very rare cases, calcium oxalate crystal arthropathy. In Kenya there are no studies to demonstrate the prevalence of these diseases. This study endeavored to describe the different types of crystals seen in patients with synovitis in Nairobi from 1st January 2012 to 31st January 2014.
Objective: To describe different types of crystals seen in patients with synovitis in Nairobi.
Design: Descriptive prospective cross sectional study.
Results: There were 260 samples received from patients with synovitis. Of them, 61 (23.5%) were from males while 199 (76.5%) were from females. The age range of the patients was from 14 – 110 years. The mean, median and mode were 59.6, 60 and 55 years respectively. Majority of the patients were in the 51-60 years age category. Most of the patients recruited had no crystals (n=211; 81.2%)
diagnosed, with 14.2%(n=37) having uric acid crystals and 4.6 % (n=12) having CPPD crystals. For the patients who had uric acid crystals (n=37), when gender was cross tabulated against microscopy, males (n=32; 86.5%) were noted to have more uric acid crystals than females (n=5;
13.5%). Among patients diagnosed with CPPD (n=12), there were more females (n=9; 75%) patients compared to males (n=3; 25%). From the total population recruited (n=260), when age range categories were cross tabulated against microscopy, the age ranges 41-50 (n=9; 3.5%) 51-60 (n=12; 4.6%), and 61-70 (n=6; 2.3%) were noted to have more uric acid crystals than any other age category recruited. Patients in the age category 61-70 (n=6; 50 %) had more CPPD crystal detections than any other age category from the patients recruited.
Conclusion: Crystal arthropathy is a major cause of synovitis in patients seen in Nairobi.

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Akinkunle O, Stefan J, Ndetei D, Musau A, Mutiso V, Mudenge C, Ngirababyeyi A, Gasovia A, Mamah D. " A comparative study of psychotic and effective symptoms in Rwandan and Kenyan students.". 2016.
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Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. " Arimi, S.M; Koroti, E; Kang'ethe, E.K; Omore, A.O; McDermott, J.J; Macharia, J.K; Nduhiu, J.G; Githua, A.M ."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common

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Gathigi G, Waititu E. " Coding for Development in the Silicon Savannah: The Emerging Role of Digital Technology in Kenya.". In: Re-Imagining Development Communication. Lexington : Lexington Books; 2012.
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MUNYAO ML, S.Nyamwange, G. Wayoike. " Design for Environment: A survey of Mobile Phone handsets Disposal in Kenya.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract

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The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures.
Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya

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Ngugi RW, Murinde V, Green C. " How emerging market respond to the revitalization process: Evidence on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, in Africa Finance Journal." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002.
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Bwihangane A, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Tareken G, Nicholas S, Bacigale S, Svitek N. " Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goat populations from Peste-des-petits-ruminants outbreak in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo." Livestock research for rural Development. 2018;30(1).
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 Mbau JS, Nyangito MM, Gachene CKK, Kathumo VM, Worden J. " Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: The Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Southern Kenya. .". In: Sustainable Land Management in Dry Lands of Kenya. Nairobi: UNDP, ISBN No. 978-9966-1805-51. Chapter 3, pp. 35-53.; 2015.
Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, G J-S, Farquhar C. " Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

H. MWIZERWA, GO A, K. MS, MW O, P. GACHERU, M. MUIRU, B. OBURA, B VILJOEN. " Profiling of microbial content and growth in fermented maize-based products from western Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2018;6(2):509-519.
Ogeng'o J, Gakuu LN, Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Pulei A. " Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc In An African Population: Kenyan Experience." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstractprolapsed_intrevertebral_disk_in_an_african_population__kenyan_experience.pdf

Background: Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in Africa, reports are scanty and
often disparate.
Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among
African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases (267 males, 336 females) of prolapsed intervertebral
disc over 11 years between January 1997 and December 2007 were analyzed for location, number of
prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions.
Results: Of the determined locations L4/5 was the commonest (42.3%), followed by L5/S1 (25.5%).
Seventy seven (20.9%) of the patients had multiple prolapsed disks. 1.4% were in the cervical region,
and only one in the thoracic. PID was commonest in the 31 – 50 year age group females (M: F is 1:1.26,
p=0.00), with mean age 40.90+13.80 years, (range between 11- 85 years).
Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females
and is associated with trauma.

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G GC, Nyaga P N. " Some biological properties of camelpox virus isolated from camels (camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. ." Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 1997;52(4):141-148. Abstractpub_25_gitao_and_nyaga_1997.pdfWebsite

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

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Carles, A.B.;, Gachuiri CK;, Schwartz HJ. "''A Comparison Of Goat Mortality In Two Pastoral Herds In Northern Kenya''."; 1988.
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Getuno PM, Awino ZB, Ngugi PK, Mwaura F. ") Implementation of The Public Procurement And Disposal Act, (2005)." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015;5(1):75-93.
Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta. KP. "). Antifeedant activities of Erythrinaline alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Sporodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96-103.
GK G, JW A, Mbuthia P G, CM M. "). Causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod.. 2010;42:1643-1647 .
Gathungu JKJ&. "). Employee Trust of Top Management and Performance of Saccos in Nairobi City County, Kenya." American Research Journal of Humanities Social Sciences. 2018;01(02):10-190.
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Gitao CG, Maina SM, Kihu SM. . Enhanced Diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) using experimental infection models. Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU; 2015.
S EDWARDS, G GC. ". Highly sensitive antigen detection Procedures for the diagnosis of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: Amplified Elisa and Reverse passive Haemaglutination. ." Veterinary Microbiology. 1987;13:135-141. Abstractpub_40_edwards_and_gitao_1987.pdfWebsite

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. ".1995. Adsorbed water in dry vegetables. KIFST Preceedings.Proceedings of the second KIFST Conference. 8th .". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
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Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamide protecting group for asparagines and application to N-alpha-t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase peptide synthesis of oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as Carboxamide-Protecting Group for Asparagine and Application to N-α-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) Solid-phase Peptide Synthesis of Oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2). Abstractchemistry and materials research

Description
Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in 56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Journal of chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11. Abstractscan0013.pdf

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014. Abstract

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
Muriithi EM, Gunga SO, Ngesu LM, K’Odhiambo AK, Wachira LN. "1. School Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(8):196-203. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate how school characteristics affect the usage of the PM and the consequent impact on learner achievement in physics (LAP). Data was collected using Students Achievement Tests (SAT) and questionnaire for physics teachers. Stratified Sampling was applied to select 84 schools comprising boys, girls and mixed schools from seven provinces of Kenya. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. ANOVA, chi-square and multiple-regression were used to test the hypothesis. The key findings of the study were that PM enhances the learning of physics; Single sex schools performed better than mixed schools; the type of schools in terms of gender, whether day or boarding were not factors in the usage of project method. In view of these research findings, the researchers recommend that the government come up with a policy that enhances the establishment of more single sex schools, enhance resource mobilization for the teaching of physics, review the teacher training component so as to encompass the PM as an alternative teaching strategy, and in-service physics teachers on the role of school characteristics in the study of physics.

Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "1. Sero-epidemiology of Peste Des Petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya ." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Berson DM. "1.25 - {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cell} {Types} and {Their} {Central} {Projections}." In: Gardner RMTATARMPDDOSFGBMCHDDHK, ed. The {Senses}: {A} {Comprehensive} {Reference}. New York: Academic Press; 2008:. Abstract

Ganglion cells are the only retinal neurons communicating directly with the brain. It is well known that mammalian ganglion cells comprise more than a dozen types, clearly distinguishable from one another in structure and function. Each type also appears to send axons to a distinctive subset of the many central visual nuclei receiving direct retinal input. The implication is that each ganglion cell type forms a specialized channel sculpted by evolutionary pressures to fulfill specific visual functions. Though the outlines of this perspective have been clear for decades, many essential details are lacking. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the state of knowledge about where retinal axons are distributed in the brain and which types of ganglion cells contribute to these pathways. The primary focus is on ganglion cell types that appear to be conserved across mammalian phylogeny.

Gor SO. "10. Government Spending and Economic Growth in Kenya: Which Way for Vision 2030.". In: University of Nairobi, School of Economics’ Seminar on Policy Options for Achieving Vision 2030. Nairobi; 2007.
Gor SO. "11. Labour Market Dialogue: Perspectives from the Healthcare Sector in Kenya.". In: Entrepreneurship and Business Support, Organized by FKE/COTU and Labour Market Dialogue, Sweden. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa.; 2006.
Gor SO. "12. An Assessment of the Implementation of the National Development Plans in Kenya: The Case of Education Sector Programmes .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
Franceschi L, Gachenga E, Lutz D, Akech M. "14) GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONS AND THE HUMAN CONDITION ." Strathmore University & Law Africa. 2009.
Gor SO. "14. Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Groupings - a Transactions Cost Perspective.". In: First International Nilotic Studies Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2004.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "1996.Study of sugar cane and sugar production costs in Kenya :implications under a liberalized marketing systemm.REPORT.Kenya Sugar Authority.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
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Gor SO. "2. An Assessment of the Trade Potential from the East African Community Integration.". In: TRAPCA’s Trade Policy Research Forum . Arusha, Tanzania; 2011.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "2. Mbuthia, P.G. 2004. PhD Thesis: Entitled, .". In: Thesis. University of Nairobi; 2004.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "2001. Nutrient and anti-nutrient content of raw and cooked Amaranthus hybridus. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, vol. 39,459- 469.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Judith Mbau, Nyangito M, Gachene C. 2013. Land use and land cover changes analysis: Linking local communities to land use and land cover changes using participatory geographic information systems (PGIS).. Lambert Academic Publishers.; 2013. Abstract

Land use and land cover changes are important processes that influence the dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. Effective management of human-wildlife conflicts requires the participation of local communities and other stakeholders. However, local communities need to identify and understand resource use change and their role in the process, so as to facilitate uptake of appropriate land resource management strategies aimed at counteracting human-wildlife conflicts. Approaches aimed at changing local community behavior towards natural resource use require appropriate technologies that bridge the technology and knowledge gaps between policy makers and local communities. PGIS was used to assess and educate local communities on land use and land cover changes as well as visualize the problems associated with resource changes. Local communities were found to be significantly knowledgeable about resource changes and their causes. PGIS compared well to conventional GIS analysis and therefore an appropriate technology for analysing and monitoring landuse and land cover changes.

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Gor SO. "5. Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub-Sector in Kenya: What Role for Public-Private Partnership.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
Amenya HZ, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN, Gathumbi PK. "A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in Ratsb." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;Volume 2016(Article ID 7403087, 10 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7403087).
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Gor SO. "7. Industrial Structure, the Nature of Informal Enterprise and Inequality in Kenya: A Dominance Analysis.". In: AIM-IARIW Special Conference on Measuring the Informal Economy in Developing Countries. Kathmandu, Nepal; 2009.
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Gor SO. "8. A New Approach to the Measurement of Wellbeing: A Technical Note.". In: General Conference of The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. Portoroz, Slovenia; 2008.
Chohan BH, Froggett S, Emery S WD, G J-S, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, J. O. "8.Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting." BMC Pediatr. 2011 Feb 18;11:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-18.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to develop an economical 'in-house' single round polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using filter paper-dried blood spots (FP-DBS) for early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and to evaluate its performance in an African setting.
METHODS:
An 'in-house' single round PCR assay that targets conserved regions in the HIV-1 polymerase (pol) gene was validated for use with FP-DBS; first we validated this assay using FP-DBS spiked with cell standards of known HIV-1 copy numbers. Next, we validated the assay by testing the archived FP-DBS (N=115) from infants of known HIV-1 infection status. Subsequently this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay was then established in Nairobi, Kenya for further evaluation on freshly collected FP-DBS (N=186) from infants, and compared with findings from a reference laboratory using the Roche Amplicor® HIV-1 DNA Test, version 1.5 assay.
RESULTS:
The HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay could detect one HIV-1 proviral copy in 38.7% of tests, 2 copies in 46.9% of tests, 5 copies in 72.5% of tests and 10 copies in 98.1% of tests performed with spiked samples. Using the archived FP-DBS samples from infants of known infection status, this assay was 92.8% sensitive and 98.3% specific for HIV-1 infant diagnosis. Using 186 FP-DBS collected from infants recently defined as HIV-1 positive using the commercially available Roche Amplicor v1.5 assay, 178 FP-DBS tested positive by this 'in-house' single-round HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS PCR assay. Upon subsequent retesting, the 8 infant FP-DBS samples that were discordant were confirmed as HIV-1 negative by both assays using a second blood sample.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1 was detected with high sensitivity and specificity using both archived and more recently collected samples. This suggests that this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol FP-DBS PCR assay can provide an alternative cost-effective, reliable and rapid method for early detection of HIV-1 infection in infants.

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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""A History of the Kikuyu to 1904", Ph.D. thesis, University of London.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1969. Abstract
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GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "A.G Thaiyah, P.N Nyaga, J.M Maribei, D Nduati, P.G Mbuthia, T.A Ngatia. 2010. Experimental solanum incanum l. poisoning in goats.Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 58: 35-43.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol 58, No 1. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.G. Thaiya, S.M. Ndurumo, J.K. Wabacha. Suspected Nitrate/Nitrite poisoning in stall-fed dairy Cattle resulting from consumption of Amaranthus Plants.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Kenya veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.K. Maina, J.K Muthee, Thaiya, A.G and V.T. Tsuma (1991). An outbreak of progressive cataracts of an undetermined cause in a herd of dairy cows.The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences vol. 61 no. 11.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Kivai JM, Guantai AN, Mwanda WO, Maitho TE. "Abandonment of treatment and loss to follow up: a potential cause of treatment failure in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(4):156-160. Abstract2015_-_abandonment_of_treatment_and_ltfu_aids_karposis.pdf

Background: Management of patients with cancer is complex, multi-disciplinary, longitudinal and costly. Abandonment of treatment by patients and loss to follow up is a common scenario, especially in resource poor countries and severely compromises health outcomes.

Objective: To assess the commitment to drug treatment protocol of patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, over a 10 week period .

Methods: The study design was prospective, observational, cross-sectional period prevalence study on patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma were sequentially enrolled into the study as they attended either the Haematology or Radiotherapy clinic or during their admission in the wards. The choice of the treatment protocol was left at the discretion of the attending physician. A pretested data collection form was used to collect demographic and clinical information about the patients, including treatments prescribed and completion of follow up.

Results: A total of 74 patients were enrolled into the study, 42 (56.8%) males and 32 (43.2%) females. The age ranged between 13 years to 55 years. Their treatment protocols included: Vincristine only, Vincristine plus Bleomycin, Vincristine plus Bleomycin plus Doxorubicin, Radiotherapy plus Vincristine and Radiotherapy only. Few of the patients were not assigned any antitumor treatment. Antiemetic and other conventional medicines were also prescribed when necessary. Fifty four (73%) of the patients abandoned treatment, five (6.8%) died, 15(20.3%) continued to attend clinic over the 10 week period. There was no significant association between sex and outcome (p=0.661).

Discussion: The results of this study demonstrate that abandonment of treatment is a major problem among patients on treatment for cancer in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. Abandonment of treatment heavily contributes to poor clinical outcome hence complicating the burden of cancer in the country. It is therefore important to develop and establish follow-up systems to improve adherence to treatment for the cancer patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Key words: Abandonment of treatment, Loss to follow up, AIDS-Related Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Nansen P, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO. "An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in Kiambu District, Kenya from August 1992 to July 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. The nematodes were, in order of prevalence: Haemonchus placei (67.0%), Cooperia pectinata (53.0%), Cooperia punctata (41.7%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), Trichostrongylus axei (24.3%), Nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), Trichuris globulosa (9.7%) and Strongyloides papillosus (3.6%). The intensity of the nematode infection was moderate; the mean burden being less than 7000 worms. H. placei accounted, on average, for 52.3% of the total burden. The total burden was least during the dry seasons and increased gradually during the rainy seasons. Adult H. placei persisted in the host throughout the year and there was no indication of hypobiosis. The heaviest gastrointestinal worm burdens were detected in 1.5- to 3-year-old animals. These findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

Kigen B, Omondi-Ogutu J, Machoki M, i Gichang P. "Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006;18:113-118.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net). University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net). Kisipan, M.L.; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
G.O A, M.W O. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net).; 2009. Abstract

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GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84.; 2009. Abstract
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G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996. SETTING: An urban and a rural district in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues. DATA COLLECTION: One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers. CONCLUSION: Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures

C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
G WG. "Academic Partnerships In Research For Development: The Case Of PROSOWO.‘Kenyan – Austrian University Cooperation: Experiences and Opportunities’.". In: Austrian Agency for International Cooperation in Education and Research (OeAD) . Kenyatta University Conference Center, Nairobi – Kenya; 2013.
Matula P, Kyalo N, Mulwa S, Gichui WL. Academic Research Proposal Writing. Principles, Concepts and Structure.. Nairobi: ARTS press; 2018.
Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Akweya BA, Gitao CG. "The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2006;16(2):681-5. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Mayanja Y, Mukose AD, Nakubulwa S, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Kamali A, Guwatudde D. "Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(5):e0155383. Abstract

The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance.

Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Nduati Ruth, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M. Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstractabstract_accesssources_and_value_of_new_medical_information.pdf

Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi.
Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Irimu G, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information.
METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires.
RESULTS: Questionnaires were distributed to 85% of a possible 343 students and returned by 44% (152). Half reported having accessed some form of new medical information within the previous 12 months, most commonly from books and the internet. Few students reported regular access; and specific, new journal articles were rarely accessed. Absence of internet facilities, slow internet speed and cost impeded access to literature; and current training seems rarely to encourage students to seek new information.
CONCLUSION: Almost half the students had not accessed any new medical information in their final year in medical school. This means they are ill prepared for a career that may increasingly demand life-long, self-learning.

Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Jan;14(1):118-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02209.x.

Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M. "Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2009;14(1):118-22. Abstract

To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information.

Ejlertsen M, Thamsborg SM, Githigia SM. "Accuracy of an anaemia scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart

Gravenir P, Obae DM. "Achieving full enrolment in Kenya." Maseno Journal of Education,Arts and Science. 1992:47-57.
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". 1984.Website
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
Olsvik O, Mitema ES, Gathuma J, Mirza N. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

Mbiuki SM, Mbai K, Gathumbi PK. "Actinobacillus seminis as a cause of ram infertility in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

An outbreak of epididymitis and orchitis associated with Actinobacillus seminis infection is reported. In the outbreak, both young unmated rams and mature breeding rams were affected. Infected rams were found to have abscessed testes and epididymi and semen of poor quality when compared with uninfected rams. Testicular and epididymal lesions in affected rams were similar to those observed in cases of brucellosis. While no other body systems were observed to be affected by the disease, severe losses may be incurred by farmers through the loss of breeding rams. Infection by A. seminis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of epididymitis and orchitis in Kenya.

Harrison, L.J.S, Obiero, G.O, Gumede, SP, Highes, A, McMahon, A.R, Rawatlal, R, MS S. Activation of Linear Alkanes to Oxygenated Intermediates and Products using Genetically Engineered Yeast streams. Richards Bay, South Africa; 2007.
Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

Karimurio J, Rono H, Barasa E, Mukiri M, Gichangi M. "Active trachoma is an infectious disease, stop treating it administratively." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. 2013;17(1):26-30.active_trachoma.pdf
Gatumu JC. "Activities of three to six year old children not in preschool: the case fo Mbeere District, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2009;VII, No. 2 & 3, 2008(ISSN 1021 - 1128):252-265.
Gatumu JC. "Activities of three to six year old children not in preschool: the case of Mbeere Disctrict, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2008;7(2 & 3):252-265.
Wong ROL, Ghosh A. "Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic growth and patterning." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2002;3:803-812. AbstractWebsite

One of the most remarkable features of the developing brain is its ability to undergo structural change in response to experience. Among the cellular elements that show this kind of plasticity are dendrites, which are the components that receive and process synaptic information. Recent observations indicate that calcium signalling in neurons can regulate dendritic growth and remodelling by several mechanisms, and these mechanisms are likely to be key mediators of structural plasticity in the developing brain.

Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Sharma SB, Gupta V. "Acute appendicitis presenting as acute hemiscrotum in a boy." Indian journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. 2004;23:150. Abstract

A 6-year-old boy presented with diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting followed by features of acute scrotum. Laboratory and radiological evaluation suggested presence of infective pathology in the inguinoscrotal region. Surgical exploration revealed patent right processus vaginalis with purulent collection resulting from the presence of perforated tip of appendix in the hernial sac. Appendectomy with drainage of scrotal collection and ligation of hernial sac resulted in satisfactory recovery.

G.W. K. "The Acute Leukaemias (Review article) ." EAMJ. 1986;(63):756.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Acute toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in cattle and mice. Muthee, J.K., Mbaria, J.M., Thaiya, A.G. and Gakuya, D.W.". In: kenya veterinarian 33: 1-6. kenya veterinarian 33: 1-6; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Ochola FO, Okumu PO. "Acute toxicity of the aqueous methanolic Moringa oleifera(Lam) leaf extract on female Wistar Albino rats." International Journal of Basic Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;5(5):1-6.acute_toxicity_of_the_aqueous_methanolic_moringa_oleiferalam_leaf_extract_on_female_wistar_albino_rats.pdf
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity Study of Nicandra physaloides(L) Gaertn in mice and cattle." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33:1-6.
Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implementation Science. 2018;13(1):81.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

S. Z, G. C, I. V, G. B, D.M. H, K.M. M, J.R. B. "Adaptive radiation of the endemic Alcolapia cichlids of the East African soda lakes: genetic and morphological perspectives." Journal of Evolutionary Biology. In Press.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Adding value to root and root tuber crops. International Center for Tropical Agriculture.ISBN 958 9439 14 4. Contributed to the development of the manual.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Gathumbi JK, Kimani, J.M., Mutisya P, Kombe, Yeri, Wamunyokoli, Fred W, Mbakaya, Charles FL. "The Additive Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 to Liver Disease Burden: A Case Study in Kitui, Makueni and Machakos Counties, Kenya." Journal of Health and Medical Sciences. 2019;2(3):312-331.
Gatuguta AW, Muchunga EK. "Adherence to Antiretroviral treatment among adolescents at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

All over the world and specifically sub-Saharan Africa, there is massive scaling up of availability and accessibility to highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) which resulted in improved survival and reduced incidence of opportunistic infections among people living with HIV & AIDS. Nonetheless, whereas efforts to increase access to HIV & AIDS treatment have achieved the desired effects with respect to improvement in the quality of life, other issues such as adherence, sustainability and effectiveness of treatment have emerged.
The goal to sustain a near optimal adherence for successful antiretroviral treatment is undoubtedly a major concern in the management of HIV & AIDS. Among adolescents, the challenge assumes greater proportions given the unique circumstances the group is exposed to. For instance, emotional, neurocognitive and physical development changes are some of the challenges. The transition from paediatric to adult state coupled with the knowledge about their HIV status that prompts them to initiate treatment on their own is to say the least, monumental challenges for adolescents. Moreover, adolescents are generally in school where they are subjected to stigma, discrimination and unfavourable school schedules that do not permit them time to access treatment and medication. Several studies have concluded that a high level of adherence to HAART at 95% or higher is necessary in order to avoid treatment failure and emergence of resistant strains.
Consequently, patients with 95% or higher adherence are known to have a superior virological outcome, an increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, and a lower rate of hospitalization compared with patients with lower levels of adherence.
As cited earlier, a near optimal adherence is a challenge for all patients, and non-adherent behavior is a big problem during adolescent period.
The aim of the study was therefore to determine adherence levels to antiretroviral drugs among adolescents and also establish levels of appointment keeping to clinic visits and pharmacy drug refi 11.

Musalia AW, Mutungi A, Gachuno O, Kiarie J. "Adherence to national guidelines in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contributes to over 90% of the paediatric HIV infections. The national PMTCT guidelines make recommendations for specific interventions to reduce perinatal transmission. Data on adherence to the guidelines by caregivers and quality of PMTCT care is however limited.
OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the extent to which PMTCT care offered to HIV positive women admitted for delivery at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) adheres to National Guidelines in order to reduce vertical transmission of HIV during labour and delivery.
DESIGN:

A cross-sectional study.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital from January to April 2009.
SUBJECTS:

All consenting HIV positive women admitted to the labour wards at the two facilities and planned for delivery.
RESULTS:

A total of 370 women were enrolled, 266 at Pumwani Maternity Hospital and 104 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Among the enrolled women 357 (96.4%) had been counselled on vertical transmission and 205 (55.4%) had HIV disease staging by CD4 cell count. There were no significant differences between the two study sites in the proportion of women counselled on MTCT (p = 0.398) and receiving HIV disease staging by CD4 testing (p = 0.28). Three hundred and forty nine (94.3%) women were offered varied ARV regimens for PMTCT. 101(27.3%) received HAART, 94 (26.9%) were given single dose nevirapine and 130 (37%) received AZT+NVP combination prophylaxis. Twenty one women received no ARV prophylaxis. Overall, 268 women (72.5%) had spontaneous vertex delivery. An episiotomy rate of 7% was observed and no vacuum delivery was recorded. A Caesarean section rate of 27.5% was recorded with PMTCT as an indication in almost half of the cases. Women delivered at KNH were more likely to receive HAART (p < 0.001) and to be delivered by elective caesarean (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION:

A great majority of HIV positive women admitted for delivery received counseling on vertical transmission and were offered ARVs for PMTCT. Many women did not get CD4 measurement and clinical staging as recommended in the National guidelines.

Musalia AW, Mutungi A, Gachuno O, Kiarie J. "Adherence to national guidelines in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(12):488-94. Abstract

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contributes to over 90% of the paediatric HIV infections. The national PMTCT guidelines make recommendations for specific interventions to reduce perinatal transmission. Data on adherence to the guidelines by caregivers and quality of PMTCT care is however limited.

Migowa AN, Gatinu B, RW. N. "Adherence to oral rehydration therapy among in-patient children aged 1-59 months with some or no dehydration. ." J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Apr;56(2):103-7. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp059. Epub 2009 Jul 14.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine adherence to oral rehydration solution (ORS) among in-patients aged 1-59 months suffering from gastroenteritis and having some dehydration (SD) or no dehydration (ND) in two rural hospitals in Kenya.
METHODS:

Children aged 1-59 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis with (SD) or (ND) were enrolled into the study, examined and medical records reviewed. On the second and third day of follow up, children were re-examined to ascertain hydration status and care-takers interviewed.
RESULTS:

Ninety-nine children were enrolled. Forty-five (75%) of the 60 children with SD received a correct prescription for ORS but only 12 (20%) received the correct amount. Among the 39 children with ND, 23 (59%) received a correct prescription for ORS, however only 16 (41%) received the correct amount. On the 3rd day, 9 (15%) of the 60 children with SD at baseline and 2 (5%) of the 39 with ND were classified as having SD.
CONCLUSION:

Four in five children with SD and 6 in 10 children with ND fail to receive the correct amounts of ORS.

Ojwang PJ, Gitau W, Shah MV. "Adolescent hypophosphataemic rickets.". 1982.Website
Gichira CM, Kahonge MA, Miriti EK. "Adoption of Open Source Software by Organizations – A Framework for Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(7):25-32.
English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting.". 2014;10(2013-305561):452-456. Abstractadoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent. Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). Main outcome measures Basic resource availability,use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines. Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions.

English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting.". 2013;(99):452-456. Abstract

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent.
Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross-sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11 years (2002–2012).
Main outcome measures Basic resource availability, use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines.
Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low-income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions.

English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, Kihuba E, Mwaniki P, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Mogoa W, Nyamai R. "Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting." Arch Dis Child. 2014;(99):452-456.adoption_of_recommended_practices_and_basic_technologies_in_a_low-income_setting.pdf
Gichohi KE. "Adsorbed water in dry vegetables.".; 1995.
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
Kemboi AK, Mbugua JK, Madadi VO, Guto PM, Kamau GN. "Adsorption Characteristics of Captafol Pesticide by Sediment and Soil Samples: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties Using Spectroscopic Methods." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:61-68.
K. MJ, Mbui DN, G.N. K. "Adsorption of Dursban (Chlorpyrifos) Pesticide by Loam soil fro Limuru, Kenya: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):1-9.
Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
n/a
G.M. N, J.M O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. 2015;Volume: 04 (Issue: 10 ):357-369.ijret20150410059.pdf
G.M.N, P.K.O. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya. Istanbul, Turkey: International science index; 2015.
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Size as Determinants of Organizational Structure." Researchjournali’s Journal of Technology Management . 2015;Vol. 2(issue. 4 ):1-26.2223.pdf
G.M.N, P.K.O. "Advanved Manufacturing Technology and Technical Labour in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovational Week. Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Okoth FA, Bowry TR, Shah MV, Gatei DG. "Aetiology of liver cirrhosis in Kenya.". 1986.Website
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Aetiology of liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1986 Nov;63(11):724-30.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. 
Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
disorders.
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
a.o.adebajo@sheffield.ac.uk
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
USA
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
References
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1044–1045
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of Rheumatology. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):47–48
4. Otieno FO, Moots RJ, Oyoo GO (2017) Rheumatoid arthritis in
Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):1–2
5. Akintayo RO, Aworinde OO, Olawumi HO, Yusuf IA (2016)
Antiphospholipid syndrome in Africa: a review. Afr J Rheumatol
3(1):3–8
6. Genga EK, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO (2015) Clinical profiles of patients
SLE in Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 3(2):62–66
7. Adelowo F (2013) Systemic lupus erythematosus: not a rare disease
among black Africans. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):46–47
8. Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno FO, Omondi EA (2016) Clinical
patterns of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a single tertiary centre experience
in Kenya Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 4(2):66–71
9. Venkat R, Jawad ASM, Chikanza IC (2014) Spontaneous resolution
of a case of anti-retroviral treatment-naïve HIV-associated
polymyositis. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):78–84
10. Ilovi S, Oyoo G (2013) Characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients
in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective study. Afr J Rheumatol 1(1):8–12
11. Malombe NM, Oyoo GO, Maritim MC, Kwasa J (2013) Prevalence
of fibromyalgia in ambulatory HIV positive patients with musculoskeletal
pain at Comprehensive Care Clinic, Kenyatta National
Hospital. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):70–75
12. Ouédraogo DD, Ouédraogo T, Kaboré F et al (2013) Prevalence of
HIV infection among the patients with an avascular necrosis of the
femoral head in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Ouédraogo. Afr J
Rheumatol 1(2):57–60
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Experience with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in
Nairobi, Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 3(1):17–21
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Libyan patients with rheumatic diseases. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):19–
23
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countries. Croat Med J 49:681–683

Gudu SO, Woomer PL, Karanja NK, Okalebo R, Othieno CO, Serem C, Maritim HK, Sanginga N, Bationo A, Muasya RM. "The African Green Revolution and the Role of Partnerships in East Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region continues to experience perennial hunger, poverty and poor health of its people. Agricultural production has remained low over decades and is declining to extremely low staple maize yields below 0.5 t ha–1 season–1 at the smallholder farm scale, against the potential of 4–5 t ha–1 season–1 given modest levels of inputs and good crop husbandry. Constraints contributing to low productivity are numerous, but the planting of poor-quality seed, declining soil fertility, poor markets and value addition to products significantly contribute to poor productivity. Partnerships for development are weak even though there are numerous technologies to improve and sustain agricultural production arising from extensive research and extension in SSA. But, technology adoption rates have been extremely slow, and in some cases we find no adoption. In this chapter we highlight constraints which are bottlenecks for achievement of a green revolution in Africa. Success efforts are reported, but we moot a focus on efficient utilization of abundant and affordable African natural resources, such as phosphate rocks to replenish depleted phosphorus in soils. We argue that to achieve an African green revolution, partnerships with concerned global communities and national institutions, including universities, NGOs, CBOs and farming communities, need to be strengthened. Specifically, human capacity at all levels should be built through training. Without private sector’s strong participation on acquisition of inputs and marketing proven products, it will be difficult to achieve a green revolution

Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Githiri M, Njeri T, Muthoni FK, Yego R, Muchane M, Njoroge P, Giani A. "African wild dogs from south-eastern Kenya: recent records and conservation issues." Canid News. 2008;11. Abstract
n/a
G.O.Oyoo, F.Adelowo. "AfricanJournal ofRheumatology Systemic.". In: ISSN. Vol. 1.; 2013:. Abstractafrica_journal_rheumatology.pdf

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
infection is a worldwide burden whose
seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the
third most aff ected country in Africa.
HCV both a hepatotropic and lympho-
tropic infection is responsible for a great
number of hepatic and extra hepatic
disorders some of which are rheumatic
in nature. These rheumatologic mani-
festations though extensively studied
in western countries; there is little or no
data in sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: The study was conducted
with the aim to describe the musculo-
skeletal manifestations associated to
HCV infection in a hospital setting in
Cameroon.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Three hospitals in Cameroon:
the Douala General Hospital, a tertiary
referral hospital with a capacity of 320
beds in Douala, the largest city and
economic capital of Cameroon; the
University Teaching Hospital of the
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences of the university of Yaoundé
1, a 240 beds hospital in Yaoundé the
political capital of Cameroon and the
“Centre Médical de la Cathédrale”,
a private acceptable standard
Gastroenterology clinic also found in
Yaoundé.
Patients and methods: From February
to June 2009, we did a multicentric
cross-sectional study of patients from
the Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
and Internal medicine outpatient clinics
of three hospitals in Cameroon. Patients
with HIV or HBV infection and those on
antiviral treatment were excluded.
Results: Among 148 patients with HCV
infection identifi ed during the study
period, only 62 fulfi lled eligibility, 15
(24.2%) of whom had musculoskeletal
manifestations related to HCV, the
commonest of which were myalgia
9/62 (14.5%) , arthritis 6/62 (9.7%), bone
pain 6.4% (4/62), sicca syndrome 3/62
(4.8%), and Raynaud’s phenomenon
6/62 (9.7%). Among patients with
rheumatologic manifestations, 9/15
(60%), had rheumatologic symptoms at
HCV diagnosis and in 6/15 (40%). HCV
infection was discovered during routine
medical check-up. Musculoskeletal
manifestations were neither associat ed
with the genotype (p=0.17) nor with the
viral load (p>0.98).
Conclusion: Arthralgia is the most
common presenting feature of the
symptomatic disease. Musculoskeletal
manifestations may be confused with symptoms of common tropical infections, leading to delayed diagnosis
and treatment of HCV infection.
Key words: Hepatitis C Virus, Arthralgia,
Extra hepatic manifestations; Africa
Introduction
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection
which occurs worldwide has a higher
seroprevalence in Africa, estimated
at 5.3% compared to about 1.03%
in Europe1,2. Cameroon, the third
most affected country in Africa, has a
seroprevalence which varies from as low
as 0.6% to 4.8% in Pygmy groups and
blood donors, to as high as 13% in hospital
based studies4,5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
which is a single-stranded, spherical RNA enveloped fl avivirus, measuring 38 to 50
nm in diameter has multiple genotypes
and quasispecies classifi ed in six major
clades. This genetic diversity confers to
this virus a difference in pathogenicity,
disease severity, and response to treatment
with interferon3. Though considered a
hepatotropic virus, HCV’s lymphotropic
nature is responsible for a great number of
extra hepatic immune system disorders1.
About 40 to 70% of affected patients will
develop an extra hepatic manifestation
that can have a rheumatic nature

Winnie Mitullah, Bratton M, Gyimah-Boadi E, Mattes R. "Afrobarometer 3: The quality of democracy and governance in Kenya, 2005.". 2005.Website
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Greenfield C, Wankya BM, Musoke R, Osidiana V, Nyangao J, Tukei PM, Owino N. "An Age Related Point Prevalence Study Of Markers Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Kenya.". 1986.Website
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.". In: 2nd Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC06. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2006.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.; 2006.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;1(5):45-51.extension_approaches_enhancing_improved_sorghum_uptake.pdf
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM, Vanlauwe B, de Goede RGM, Six J, Csuzdi C, Brussaard L. "Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2011;148:148-154. Abstract

Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the subhumid
to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic richness decreased in the direction fallow > high-C soil > low-C soil and earthworm abundance was higher in fallow than under continuous crop production. Termite abundance was not significantly different between fallow and high and low-C treatments and termite taxonomic richness was higher in fallow soil than in the two cropping systems. We concluded that fewer species of earthworms and termites were favored under agricultural management that led to lower soil C. Results indicated that the soil disturbance induced by continuous crop production was more detrimental to earthworms than to termites, when compared to the fallow.
Keywords: Soil biodiversity, Earthworms, Termites, Agriculture, Crop management, Soil carbon, Climate

Gitu, K.W. W;, Nyangito H, Oluoch-Kosura. W;. "Agriculture, Food and Environment. Kenya’s Situation."; 1998.
Gebrekidan B, Wafula BM, Njoroge K. "Agro-ecological zoning in relation to maize research priorities in Kenya." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. . 1992:1-4.
Mutero C;, Githure J;, Kabutha C;, Kimani V;, Kabuage L;, Gitau G;, Ssennyonga J;, Muthami L. "Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control.".; 2001.
Gitau T;, McDermott JJ;, Waltner-Toews D;, Gathuma JM;, Kang EK;, Kimani VW;, Kilungo, J K;, Muni RK;, Mwangi JM;, Otieno GO. "Agro-ecosystems, natural resources management and human health related research in East Africa."; 1989. Abstract

The paper briefly describes the application of agro-ecosystem health framework for characterization of an agro-ecosystem in central Kenya, and identification of the indications of its health. The lessons learnt from the application are briefly discussed.

Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant: Experience in East Africa." Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009;16(3):157-161. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: To describe short term outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve [AGV] implantation in East African patients.Materials and Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series we reviewed eyes of Black African patients with refractory glaucoma, treated consecutively with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation, in two centers in Kenya between January 2006 and October 2007.Results: About 25 cases including 18 [72%] pediatric eyes and seven [28%] adult eyes were identified. Results have been presented with a median follow-up of two months with inter-quartile range [IQR] of one to 12 months. intraocular pressure [IOP] was reduced from a mean of 36.4 mmHg preoperatively to 16.7 mmHg and glaucoma medications were lowered from a mean of 1.32 before surgery to 0.2 after surgery. The success rate during short term follow-up was 79%. The mean visual acuity dropped slightly from 6/18 pre-operatively to 6/24. There was only one major complication of an extruded, infected valve in a child.Conclusions: The Ahmed Valve Implant is safe and effective in lowering IOP for the short term in pediatric and adult East African patients with refractory glaucoma. Further studies with more patients and longer term follow-up are needed in this population.Key words: Aqueous Rainage Devices, Glaucoma Surgery, Intraocular Pressure

Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: experience in East Africa.". In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).; 2008.agv_poster_arvo.pdf
FH W, GN K, PM S, A WG, CM M. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." J. Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9(5):340-344. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Blake R, Pope F, Gatari M. "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors." EGU General Assembly …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study investigated the use of low cost optical particle counters (OPCs) to measure particulate matter (PM) pollution in Nairobi, Kenya, between February and March 2017. Measurements were performed in three locations, an urban background and urban roadside …

Basangwa D, Ndetei DM, Kuria M, Ongecha-Owuor F, Abdullahi A, Mburu J, Gakinya B. "Alcohol and Other Substance Related Disorders."; 2006.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

and Gitau AN, Gumbe LO. "Alleviating hard pan formation in the semi-arid Kenya soils for conservation farming. .". In: Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture and Rainwater Harvesting. Adidas Ababa, Ethiopia.; 2004.

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