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Gyllensten L, Malmfors T, Norrlin M-L. "Effect of visual deprivation on the optic centers of growing and adult mice." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1965;124:149-160. AbstractWebsite

The thickness of the visual cortex, the diameter of cell nuclei and the mean volume of internuclear material per nucleus in the visual cortex, geniculate bodies and superior colliculi were determined in growing and adult mice. The influence of prolonged stay in complete darkness was investigated.In the visual cortex of normal mice, a peak in nuclear size occurred 20–30 days after birth, followed by a peak in relative volume of internuclear material.In growing mice, reared in darkness from birth, a highly significant decrease in relative volume of internuclear material occurred in all visual centers. The decrease was greatest in the geniculate bodies and greater in the granular and supragranular layers of the cortex than in the infragranular. In the cortex, the decrease was most pronounced after two months and became less pronounced during prolonged stay in darkness. No similar normalization was observed in subcortical visual centers. In the same mice, visual deprivation caused a highly significant decrease in the thickness of the visual cortex and in the diameter of its cell nuclei. The decrease in nuclear diameter was greater in the granular and supragranular than in the infragranular layers of the cortex and exhibited a similar normalization during prolonged stay in darkness as the decrease in relative volume of internuclear material.In adult mice, visual deprivation caused decrease in internuclear material.

Gwendo JO, Muchemi L. "A Knowledge-based System for Selection of Trees for Urban Environments." Journal of Artificial Intelligence. 2012;5(1):37-46.gwedo_muchemi_jai_2012_37-46.pdf
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(2374-8850 (Print) 2374-8869 (online)):200-215 .
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili: Siraji na Adili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(4):200-215 .
Gwako G, Qureshi Z, Kudoyi W, Were F. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr. 2013;25(1):3-9 .
Gwaki DL, N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M. "STOCHASTIC RESONANCE IN BISTABLE SYSTEMS.". 2007. Abstract

The stochastic Resonance (also known as SR) a phenomenon in which the signal and the signal to noise ratio of a non linear device is maximized for a moderate value of noise intensity.It often occurs in bistable and excitable systems with subthreshold inputs.For lower noise intensities,the signal does not cause the device to cross threshold so little signal is passed through it.For large noise intensities,the output is domonated by the noise,also leading ,also leading to a low signal to noise ratio.
For moderate intensities,the noise allows the signal to reach threshold ,but the noise intensity is not so large as to swamp it.Thus,a plot of signal to noise ratio as a function of noise intensity shows an upside down 'U" shape.Theoretical ideas explaining and describing SR are discussed.Some revealing experimental data that places SR within the wider context of statistical physics has been reviewed and established.

GW DRJALDESA, ZP DRQURESHI, SMH DRWANJALA, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Factors Enhancing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Somalis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998. 1998;14(2):110-114. AbstractWebsite

This is a descriptive cross sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 300 respondents who had infibulation as a form of female genital circumcision.The interviews were conducted at Garissa General Hosptial Gynaecology out-patient clinic. The objective of this study was to establish the factors that enhance the practice of female circumcision.
Female circumcision was performed between 3 to 14 years of age with the peak age of 7 years. In 83% of the respondents the event was arranged by the mother of the respondents. The three leading reasons why the practice was carried out in the community were, religious demand(66.3%), prevention of enlargement of clitoris(51%), and protection of virginity (48.3%).
In conclusion FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is traditionally justified but has no medical support.

Guyton A, Hall J. Guyton {Textbook} {Of} {Medical} {Physiology} 11th {Edition}. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Inc.; 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Guyenet PG. "The sympathetic control of blood pressure." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7:335-346. AbstractWebsite

Hypertension — the chronic elevation of blood pressure — is a major human health problem. In most cases, the root cause of the disease remains unknown, but there is mounting evidence that many forms of hypertension are initiated and maintained by an elevated sympathetic tone. This review examines how the sympathetic tone to cardiovascular organs is generated, and discusses how elevated sympathetic tone can contribute to hypertension.

GUTO DRPETERSONMOMANYI. "Peterson M. Guto. Authored "Theory of Spectroscopy." The University of Nairobi Council; 2010.
Guto PM. "Electrokinetic Behavior of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Poly‐l‐lysine Modified Electrodes in Sodium Dodecylsulfate Bicontinuous Microemulsions." International Journal of Chemical Kinetics. 2017;49(8):596-601. AbstractInternational Journal of Chemical Kinetics

Description
This work demonstrates for the first time the application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/poly‐l‐lysine modified pyrolytic graphite electrodes (MWCNTs/PLL/PGE) in sodium dodecylsulfate bicontinuous (SDS BC) microemulsions. Cyclic voltammetric studies of ruthenium(III)hexaamine electroactive probe in these media on both plain and modified pyrolytic graphite electrodes (PGE) mainly gave one peak for each of the cathodic and anodic scans. These reduction–oxidation responses were attributed to [Ru(NH3)6]2+/[Ru(NH3)6]3+ redox couple. In SDS BC microemulsions, the midpoint potentials were found to be −0.22 V for PGE plain and −0.24 V for MWCNTs/PLL/PGE versus saturated calomel electrode. The average peak separations for PGE plain and MWCNTs/PLL/PGE were found to be ∼0.05 and ∼0.04 V between the scan rates of 0.01 and 0.1 V/s, whereas their diffusion coefficients were 1.0 × 10−6 and 7.0 …

Guthua SW, Kamau MW, NGANGA P. "Maxillary Alveolar cleft grafting in cleft lip and palate: Options of bone graft and soft tissue coverage." Kenya Dental Association Journal. 2019.
Guthua SW, F.G. M, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
Guthua SW, F.G. M, Mwaniki DL, Okallo G. "Occupational exposure of health personnel to disinfectants .". 1996.
Guthua SW, Kamau M, ABINYA N. "Management of Maxillofacial of Osteosarcomas in Kenya: A case Series." The Annals of African Surgery. 2020;17 (1).
Guthua SW, MW KAMAU. "Debilitating Lymphangiomatous Macroglossia –a case report:." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2016;7 (3):425-429.
Guthua SW. "protection against AIDS." (1985).
Guthua SW, Odhiambo WA. "Gunshot Injuries in Maxillofacial Region.". 2008.
Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL, Chindia ML. "Reliability of clinical crieteria in diagnosing HIV.". 1993.
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, ABINYA N, Khainga S. "Management of Maxillofacial Osteosarcomas: A Kenyan experience (case series)." Annuals of African Surgery Journal. 2019.
Guthua SW, Kamau MW, F.G MACIGO. "Severe Cranio-Maxillofacial injuries caused by wild animals in Kenya (case series)." African Journal of OralHealth Sciences (2016). 2016;vol. 2 (3):11-14.
Guthua SW, Odhiambo WA. "Non-War Related Gunshot Injuries.". 2008.
Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Whittington WLH, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(12):e8276. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, Kinuthia J, Whittington WL, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.". 2011. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire R, Kiarie JN, Mackelprang RD, Gatuguta A, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "Predicting pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples."; 2010. Abstract

This study examines the incidence and predictors of pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples from Nairobi, Kenya. Women from 454 discordant couples were followed for up to 2 years. One-year cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 9.7%. Pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between HIV-1-infected and uninfected women (HR = 1.46). The majority of pregnancies occurred among women < 30 years old reporting a desire for future children (1-year incidence 22.2%). Pregnancy rates may be high among discordant couples, indicating desire for children may override concerns of HIV-1 transmission and increase unprotected sex, and highlighting the need to make conception safer.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire R, Kiarie JN, Mackelprang RD, Gatuguta A, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "Predicting pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS Behav. 2010;14(5):1066-71. Abstract

This study examines the incidence and predictors of pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples from Nairobi, Kenya. Women from 454 discordant couples were followed for up to 2 years. One-year cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 9.7%. Pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between HIV-1-infected and uninfected women (HR = 1.46). The majority of pregnancies occurred among women < 30 years old reporting a desire for future children (1-year incidence 22.2%). Pregnancy rates may be high among discordant couples, indicating desire for children may override concerns of HIV-1 transmission and increase unprotected sex, and highlighting the need to make conception safer.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthiga P;, Mburu J. "Local Communities Incentives for Forest Conservation: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

"The study is based on a biodiversity-rich remnant of a tropical rainforest located in western Kenya under immense threat of survival. The forest is located in a densely populated area inhabited by poor farming communities. Currently the forest is managed by three management regimes each carrying out its function in a different manner. The study identifies, describes and where possible quantifies the various conservation incentives (both economic and non-economic) offered by the three management regimes. Further, the study analyses local people's perception of management regimes by generating management satisfaction rankings; both overall and for specific management aspects. The findings of the study indicate that extraction of direct forest products is the main incentive offered by two of the regimes. The local people obtain substantial financial benefits in the form of products they extract from the forest. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall for it performance. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results."

Guthiga P;, Mburu J;, Holm-Muller K. "Local Communities’ Perceptions Towards Forest Management Regimes: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Kakamega Forest is located in western Kenya and covers approximately 240 Km2. The forest is the only lowland tropical rainforest in Kenya and it is world famous for its diversity of unique and numerous flora and fauna. However its survival is under immense threat since it is located in a densely populated area where local communities depend heavily on agriculture and forest extraction for their livelihoods. Currently, the forest is divided into three different parts that are managed through three distinct management approaches: an incentive-based approach of the Forest department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and a quasi private- approach of a local church mission, the Quakers. A review of literature clearly indicates that forest management regimes of public forests are important in assigning property rights to the various stakeholders and guiding use and consequently the outcomes. On the same footing research has pointed out the centrality of the local communities in the process of natural resource management. The persistence of resource degradation problems and failure of technical simple technical or economic prescription clearly indicates that there is need to consider the more complex aspects of natural resource management. The perception of the local people towards management regimes and the factors that condition their perception is important in designing policies for sustainable use of natural resources. This study considers how the local communities perceive the management regimes in terms of meeting the goal of utilising and conserving forest biodiversity. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results.

Gureya D, Barreto J. "Profiling for Asymmetric NUMA Systems.". In: 11th EuroSys Doctoral Workshop (EuroDW'17). Belgrade, Serbia; 2017. Abstract

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Gupta H, Davidoff AM, Pui C-H, Shochat SJ, Sandlund JT. "Clinical implications and surgical management of intussusception in pediatric patients with {Burkitt} lymphoma." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2007;42:998-1001. AbstractWebsite
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GUNVANTRAY PROFJANIPANKAJ, M MRMUSAUPETER, A DROWILLAHFRANCIS. "Musau P, Jani PG, Owillah FA.Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43. 1999; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. DESIGN: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from November 2004 to February 2005 in the adult general surgical wards. PATIENTS: Eighty consecutive admissions of adult patients with either blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and cause of injury, demographic data, temporal parameters, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The 80 patients had a male to female ratio of 12.3:1, the majority were in the third decade of life with a range 15-56 years and mean of 28.2 years. Penetrating to blunt abdominal injuries had 2:1 ratio with the leading causes of injury being stab wounds, gunshot wounds and road traffic accidents. Blunt abdominal injuries had a higher tendency to extra-abdominal injuries. Duration prior to presentation to hospital and surgery depended on severity of injury. Modes of management varied between attending surgical firms. There was a 20% change in the mode of management and a 16.1% rate of negative laparotomy. Penetrating injuries had a better interventional outcome. Penetrating abdominal injuries had higher rates of complications while the blunt injuries had higher rates of mortality. Overall, both the complication and mortality rates were 12.5%. Correlates of mortality included delay before surgery, associated injuries, need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care unit and duration prior to admission. Abdominal injury patients stayed an average of 6.4 days with the blunt injuries with complications staying close to twice as much as their penetrating counterparts. CONCLUSION: Abdominal injuries are a predominantly male disease with the majority in the third decade of life. As opposed to previous studies, gunshot wounds are now a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The outcome of management depends on the severity and type, of injury sustained.
GUNVANTRAY PROFJANIPANKAJ, M MRMUSAUPETER, A DROWILLAHFRANCIS. "Musau P, Jani PG, Owillah FA.Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. DESIGN: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from November 2004 to February 2005 in the adult general surgical wards. PATIENTS: Eighty consecutive admissions of adult patients with either blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and cause of injury, demographic data, temporal parameters, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The 80 patients had a male to female ratio of 12.3:1, the majority were in the third decade of life with a range 15-56 years and mean of 28.2 years. Penetrating to blunt abdominal injuries had 2:1 ratio with the leading causes of injury being stab wounds, gunshot wounds and road traffic accidents. Blunt abdominal injuries had a higher tendency to extra-abdominal injuries. Duration prior to presentation to hospital and surgery depended on severity of injury. Modes of management varied between attending surgical firms. There was a 20% change in the mode of management and a 16.1% rate of negative laparotomy. Penetrating injuries had a better interventional outcome. Penetrating abdominal injuries had higher rates of complications while the blunt injuries had higher rates of mortality. Overall, both the complication and mortality rates were 12.5%. Correlates of mortality included delay before surgery, associated injuries, need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care unit and duration prior to admission. Abdominal injury patients stayed an average of 6.4 days with the blunt injuries with complications staying close to twice as much as their penetrating counterparts. CONCLUSION: Abdominal injuries are a predominantly male disease with the majority in the third decade of life. As opposed to previous studies, gunshot wounds are now a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The outcome of management depends on the severity and type, of injury sustained.
Gunga PS. Use of Social Media in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Nairobi, College of Education and External Studies, School of Continuing and Distance Education; 2013.
Gunga S. EDU 1103: Philosophy of Education. African Virtual University; 2009.
Gunga S, Ngesu L. The Phenomenology of Rioting. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Gunga S, Odundo P. "Effects Of Application Of Instructional Methods On Learner Achievement In Business Studies In Secondary Schools In Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(5).
Gunga S. Prototyping in Systems Development Life Cycle: Students Database. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Gunga S. A Philosophy of Mathematics Education. Berlin, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Gunga S. "Philosophy of Education."; 2010.
Gunga SO, Muriithi EM, Kodhiambo A K, Ngesu LM. "Women’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Education: Hermeneutics of Proverbs.". 2013.
Gumbe LO, Agullo JO, Brugger MF. "Environmental simulation of a greenhouse system in Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2009;10(2):108-121.
Gumbe LO. Drying Of Seed Maize.; 1989.
Gumbe LO;, Okoth MW. "Co - generation in the Sugar Industry.".; 2004.
Gumbe LO;, Okoth MW. "Co - products in the Sugar Industry.".; 2004.
Guillory B, Sakwe AM, Saria M, Thompson P, Adhiambo C, Koumangoye R, Ballard B, Binhazim A, Cone C, Jahanen-Dechent W, Ochieng J. "Lack of fetuin-A (alpha2-HS-glycoprotein) reduces mammary tumor incidence and prolongs tumor latency via the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in a mouse model of breast cancer." Am. J. Pathol.. 2010;177(5):2635-44. Abstract

The present analyses were done to define the role of fetuin-A (Fet) in mammary tumorigenesis using the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic mouse model. We crossed Fet-null mice in the C57BL/6 background with PyMT mice in the same background and after a controlled breeding protocol obtained PyMT/Fet+/+, PyMT/Fet+/-, and PyMT/Fet-/- mice that were placed in control and experimental groups. Whereas the control group (PyMT/Fet+/+) formed mammary tumors 90 days after birth, tumor latency was prolonged in the PyMT/Fet-/- and PyMT/Fet+/- mice. The majority of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice were tumor-free at the end of the study, at approximately 40 weeks. The pathology of the mammary tumors in the Fet-null mice showed extensive fibrosis, necrosis, and squamous metaplasia. The preneoplastic mammary tissues of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice showed intense phopho-Smad2/3 staining relative to control tissues, indicating that transforming growth factor-β signaling is enhanced in these tissues in the absence of Fet. Likewise, p19ARF and p53 were highly expressed in tumor tissues of PyMT/Fet-/- mice relative to the controls in the absence of Fet. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway that we previously showed to be activated by Fet, on the other hand, was unaffected by the absence of Fet. The data indicate that Fet is a powerful modulator of breast tumorigenesis in this model system and has the potential to modulate breast cancer progression in humans.

Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago MS;, Pieter Deschaght MS;, Nabil El Aila MS;, Teresa N. Kiama MS;, Hans Verstraelen, MD PD;, Kimberly K. Jefferson PD;, Marleen Temmerman, MD PD;, Mario Vaneechoutte PD. "Gardnerella vaginalis comprises three distinct genotypes of which only two produce sialidase. ." Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(5):450-457.
Gudu SO, Woomer PL, Karanja NK, Okalebo R, Othieno CO, Serem C, Maritim HK, Sanginga N, Bationo A, Muasya RM. "The African Green Revolution and the Role of Partnerships in East Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region continues to experience perennial hunger, poverty and poor health of its people. Agricultural production has remained low over decades and is declining to extremely low staple maize yields below 0.5 t ha–1 season–1 at the smallholder farm scale, against the potential of 4–5 t ha–1 season–1 given modest levels of inputs and good crop husbandry. Constraints contributing to low productivity are numerous, but the planting of poor-quality seed, declining soil fertility, poor markets and value addition to products significantly contribute to poor productivity. Partnerships for development are weak even though there are numerous technologies to improve and sustain agricultural production arising from extensive research and extension in SSA. But, technology adoption rates have been extremely slow, and in some cases we find no adoption. In this chapter we highlight constraints which are bottlenecks for achievement of a green revolution in Africa. Success efforts are reported, but we moot a focus on efficient utilization of abundant and affordable African natural resources, such as phosphate rocks to replenish depleted phosphorus in soils. We argue that to achieve an African green revolution, partnerships with concerned global communities and national institutions, including universities, NGOs, CBOs and farming communities, need to be strengthened. Specifically, human capacity at all levels should be built through training. Without private sector’s strong participation on acquisition of inputs and marketing proven products, it will be difficult to achieve a green revolution

GT AROTIBA, J HILLE, Guthua SW, H ADEOLA, W ODHIAMBO. "Ameloblastoma in Black Africans the Need for Multi-National Collaborative Research." JSM Dent Surg. 2017;2(2):10-14.
Grubb P, Oguge N 2004. "Xerus erythropus." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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Grubb P, Oguge N. "Xerus rutilus." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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of Group GBD. "Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis." Lancet Global Health. 2013;1(6):e339-e349. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking.

METHODS:

We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the proportions of overall vision impairment attributable to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and uncorrected refractive error in 1990-2010 by age, geographical region, and year.

FINDINGS:

In 2010, 65% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 61-68) of 32·4 million blind people and 76% (73-79) of 191 million people with MSVI worldwide had a preventable or treatable cause, compared with 68% (95% UI 65-70) of 31·8 million and 80% (78-83) of 172 million in 1990. Leading causes worldwide in 1990 and 2010 for blindness were cataract (39% and 33%, respectively), uncorrected refractive error (20% and 21%), and macular degeneration (5% and 7%), and for MSVI were uncorrected refractive error (51% and 53%), cataract (26% and 18%), and macular degeneration (2% and 3%). Causes of blindness varied substantially by region. Worldwide and in all regions more women than men were blind or had MSVI due to cataract and macular degeneration.

INTERPRETATION:

The differences and temporal changes we found in causes of blindness and MSVI have implications for planning and resource allocation in eye care.

Group VBW, others. "Evidence-based recommendations in hyperglycemia and {ACS}." The Portland Protocol. University of Florida. 2009. Abstract
n/a
Group WHOODR. "Odon device for instrumental vaginal deliveries: results of a medical device pilot clinical study ." Reproductive Health . 2018;15(45). AbstractWebsite

Background
A prolonged and complicated second stage of labour is associated with serious perinatal complications. The Odon device is an innovation intended to perform instrumental vaginal delivery presently under development. We present an evaluation of the feasibility and safety of delivery with early prototypes of this device from an early terminated clinical study.

Methods
Hospital-based, multi-phased, open-label, pilot clinical study with no control group in tertiary hospitals in Argentina and South Africa. Multiparous and nulliparous women, with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, were enrolled during the third trimester of pregnancy. Delivery with Odon device was attempted under non-emergency conditions during the second stage of labour. The feasibility outcome was delivery with the Odon device defined as successful expulsion of the fetal head after one-time application of the device.

Results
Of the 49 women enrolled, the Odon device was inserted successfully in 46 (93%), and successful Odon device delivery as defined above was achieved in 35 (71%) women. Vaginal, first and second degree perineal tears occurred in 29 (59%) women. Four women had cervical tears. No third or fourth degree perineal tears were observed. All neonates were born alive and vigorous. No adverse maternal or infant outcomes were observed at 6-weeks follow-up for all dyads, and at 1 year for the first 30 dyads.

Conclusions
Delivery using the Odon device is feasible. Observed genital tears could be due to the device or the process of delivery and assessment bias. Evaluating the effectiveness and safety of the further developed prototype of the BD Odon Device™ will require a randomized-controlled trial.

of Group GBDVLE. "New Systematic Review Methodology for Visual Impairment and Blindness for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2013;20(1):33-39. Abstract

Purpose: To describe a systematic review of population-based prevalence studies of visual impairment (VI) and
blindness worldwide over the past 32 years that informs the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk
Factors Study.
Methods: A systematic review (Stage 1) of medical literature from 1 January 1980 to 31 January 2012 identified
indexed articles containing data on incidence, prevalence and causes of blindness and VI. Only cross-sectional
population-based representative studies were selected from which to extract data for a database of age- and sex-specific data of prevalence of four distance and one near vision loss categories (presenting and best-corrected).
Unpublished data and data from studies using rapid assessment methodology were later added (Stage 2).
Results: Stage 1 identified 14,908 references, of which 204 articles met the inclusion criteria. Stage 2 added
unpublished data from 44 rapid assessment studies and four other surveys. This resulted in a final dataset of
252 articles of 243 studies, of which 238 (98%) reported distance vision loss categories. A total of 37 studies of
the final dataset reported prevalence of mild VI and four reported near VI.
Conclusion: We report a comprehensive systematic review of over 30 years of VI/blindness studies. While there
has been an increase in population-based studies conducted in the 2000s compared to previous decades, there is limited information from certain regions (eg, Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and the Caribbean
and Latin America), and younger age groups, and minimal data regarding prevalence of near vision and mild
distance VI.

Group GBDVLE. "Global Burden of Visual Impairment and Blindness." Archives of Ophthalmology. 2012;130(5):645-647.
Gron KL, Ornbjerg LM, Hetland ML, Aslam F, Khan NA, Jacobs JW, Oyoo O, Stropuviene S, et al. "The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program." Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 2014. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS:

Nine thousands eight hundred seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (<24.000 USD) participated in the Quantitative Standard monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) study. The prevalence of 31 comorbid conditions, fatigue (0-10 cm visual analogue scale [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability and GDP.
RESULTS:

Overall, patients reported a median of 2 comorbid conditions of which hypertension (31.5%), osteoporosis (17.6%), osteoarthritis (15.5%) and hyperlipidaemia (14.2%) were the most prevalent. The majority of comorbidities were more common in high-GDP countries. The median fatigue score was 4.4 (4.8 in low-GDP countries and 3.8 in high-GDP countries, p<0.001). In low-GDP countries 25.4% of the patients had a high level of fatigue (>6.6) compared with 23.0% in high-GDP countries (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, fatigue increased with increasing number of comorbidities, disease activity and disability in both high- and low-GDP countries. In multivariate analysis of all countries, these 3 variables explained 29.4% of the variability, whereas GDP was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:

Fatigue is a widespread problem associated with high comorbidity burden, disease activity and disability regardless of GDP.

Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(8):373-9.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Grillenberger, M; Murphy SP; BNO, Neumann CG;, Neumann CG;, Bwibo NO. "High prevalence of inadequate iron intake in rural Kenyan school children.". 2013.
Grillenberger M;, Neumann CG;, Murphy SP;, Bwibo NO. "Impact of supplementation with animal source foods on morbidity of rural Kenyan school children.". 2006.
Grillenberger M;, Neumann CG;, Murphy SP;, Bwibo NO;, Weiss RE;, Jiang L;, Hautvast JG;, West CE. "Intake of micronutrients high in animal-source foods is associated with better growth in rural Kenyan school children.". 2006. Abstractintake_of_micronutrients_high_in_animal-source_foods.pdf

Observational studies have shown that children in developing countries consuming diets containing high amounts of bioavailable nutrients, such as those found in animal-source foods, grow better. The present study investigated which specific nutrients from the diet of Kenyan school children predicted their growth. The children (n 544, median age 7 years) participated in a 2-year long food supplementation study with animal-source foods. Height gain during the intervention period was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods, haem Fe, preformed vitamin A, Ca and vitamin B12. Weight gain was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods, haem Fe, preformed vitamin A, Ca and vitamin B12. Gain in mid-upper-arm muscle area was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods and vitamin B12. Gain in mid-upper-arm fat area was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods. Gain in subscapular skinfold thickness was not predicted by any of the nutrient intakes. Negative predictors of growth were total energy and nutrients that are contained in high amounts in plant foods. The study shows that growth was positively predicted by energy and nutrients that are provided in high amounts and in a bioavailable form in meat and milk, and their inclusion into the diets of children in developing countries should be part of all food-based programmes in order to improve micronutrient status and growth

Grifiths PA, Ogana W. "The challenge of strengthening mathematics in Africa." Notices of the Amer. Math. Soc. 2003;Vol 50(No.9):pp. 1061.
Gregg W;, Steven D. Forest Landscape Restoration Decision-Making and Conflict Management: Applying Discourse-Based Approaches.; 2012. AbstractWebsite

Forest landscape restoration (FLR) aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded forest landscapes. Despite its positive connotations, successfully implementing significant FLR will often involve considerable conflict. The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental principles for managing FLR conflicts. The chapter portrays FLR as a social and political process in which there is no “single” correct view of reality: “good forestry” or “bad forests” are value-laden social constructions that transcend objective facts. If not recognized, this alone can lead to misunderstanding and conflict. Social constructions often emerge and evolve through public discourse – the verbal communication, talk, or conversation among people. Accordingly the discourse-based approaches to conflict management can contribute meaningfully to FLR. Examining the various discourses within a conflict situation can improve mutual understanding, reveal salient aspects of the situation, and strengthen relationships as a foundation for problem-solving. Masters of FLR conflict management must be able to: (a) read the cultural-institutional context, (b) understand people, and (c) create an environment of constructive communication, fair power distribution, and strong incentives.

Greenwood RD. "Digitalis as treatment for pulmonary comsumption, 1799." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):531.
Greenfield, CL; Lartin KM; SFS; DRR. "Heterochromatin Staining Pattern Of Quail-chicken Hybrid Lymphocytes.". 1986. Abstract

Feulgen-Rossenbeck staining of lymphoid cells of quail-chicken hybrids in histologic sections revealed a pattern of heterochromatin arrangement distinguishable from that of either parental type. During interphase, hybrid lymphocytes exhibited combined characteristics of both the parental quail and the parental chicken. Hybrid heterochromatin was arranged in a large central mass as in the quail and in fairly evenly distributed small chromacenters around the periphery of the nucleus similar to the arrangement in the chicken. It is suggested that this pattern of staining can be used as a marker for hybrid cells in studies of genetic interactions.

Greenfield C, Wankya BM, Musoke R, Osidiana V, Nyangao J, Tukei PM, Owino N. "An Age Related Point Prevalence Study Of Markers Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Kenya.". 1986.Website
Greenfield, C; Fowler MJ. "Hepatitis B Virus And Primary Liver Cell Carcinoma. The Application Of Molecular Biology.". 1986. Abstract

Worldwide, primary liver cell carcinoma (PLC) is one of the most common tumours. Epidemiological evidence has implicated hepatitis B virus (HBV) in its aetiology and the mechanisms whereby HBV could operate at the genomic level have been investigated using the techniques of molecular biology. The resemblance of certain features of HBV to the retroviruses has also suggested mechanisms whereby malignant transformation may take place, but as yet there is no clear evidence for HBV being directly oncogenic. This has suggested to some that it is the persistent inflammatory reaction caused by HBV infection that is instrumental in causing PLC. We believe, however, that HBV can act independently of this mechanism and that the failure so far to show this at the molecular level may be due to technical reasons.

Greenfield C, Osidiana V, Karayiannis P, Galpin S, Musoke R, Jowett TP, Mati P, Tukei PM, Thomas HC. "Perinatal Transmission Of Hepatitis B Virus In Kenya: Its Relation To The Presence Of Serum Hbv-dna And Anti-hbe In The Mother.". 1986. Abstract

In Kenya hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae are common. We followed up 49 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive mothers and their newborn infants for 9 months to determine the importance of perinatal transmission in the African and to relate this to the HBe and HBV-DNA status of the mother. Our study shows that perinatal transmission is relatively unimportant in Kenya and that this may be a consequence of the low levels of circulating HBV-DNA in the maternal plasma. These results imply that vaccination without hyperimmune globulin may be adequate to control HBV infection in Kenya

Gravenir P, Obae DM. "Achieving full enrolment in Kenya." Maseno Journal of Education,Arts and Science. 1992:47-57.
Graven SN, Browne JV. "Visual {Development} in the {Human} {Fetus}, {Infant}, and {Young} {Child}." Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2008;8:194-201. AbstractWebsite

The development of the visual system is the most studied of the sensory systems. The advances in technology have made it possible to study the neuroprocesses at the cellular and circuit level. The physical structure of the eye develops early in fetal life, whereas the neurocomponents and connections develop in later fetal and early neonatal life. The development of the visual system involves genetic coding, endogenous brain activity, exogenous visual stimulation after birth at term, and protected sleep cycles, particularly rapid eye movement sleep. Before birth at term, the fetus requires no outside visual stimulation or light. The critical element in development of the visual system before birth at term is protection of rapid eye movement sleep and sleep cycles. Sleep deprivation or disruption in utero and early months of neonatal life causes significant interference with visual development resulting in loss of the topographic relationships between the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the primary visual cortex in the infant.

Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Grainger A, Wong G, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mbuvi D, Low PK, Low PS. "Economic and Social Impacts Assessment of DLDD. Chapter 2 .". In: Economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought. White Paper I. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, prepared with the contributions of an international group of scientists; 2013.unccd_white_paper_1.pdfunccd_key_findings_policy_implications_and_recommendations_of_wp_i.pdf
Graham SM, Raboud J MCRSJN-AMOBAMWJKJ. "Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence." PLoS One. . 2013;8(3):e59480.
Graham SM, Raboud J JMMCRSBAMWK &. "Changes in sexual risk behavior in the mombasa cohort: 1993-2007." PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113543.
Graham SM, Raboud J MCRSJN-AMOBAMWJKJ. "Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59480.abstract.pdf
Graham MD, Nyumba TO. The use of electrified fences to mitigate human-elephant conflict: experiences from the Laikipia Plateau in northern Kenya. South Africa: Mammmal Research Institute, University of Pretoria.; 2010.
Graham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Liles WC, Overbaugh J. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Graham MD. "A Wildlife Conservation Strategy for Laikipia County." Laikipia Wildlife Forum. 2012. Abstractlaikipia.org

The earliest records of the particular affinity for wildlife that existed amongst Laikipia’s people date back to the mid 1920’s in the minutes of Laikipia Farmers’ Committee meetings. During that time, large tracts of Kenya, including the Central highlands, Kisii highlands and the Lake Victoria basin were teeming with wildlife. The above areas and much of Kenya lost all their wildlife, other than those which came under state protection in National Parks. Laikipia is one of the most notable exceptions to this trend. This conservation ethic preceded the Laikipia Wildlife Forum, so ours has just been an attempt to give it some structure, hence the Laikipia Wildlife Conservation Strategy. It has now come to be, and with it we hope to open a new era in practice and study of wildlife conservation. I would like to acknowledge the efforts made by Dr. Max Graham and the conservation committee in compiling and synthesizing all the views and information needed in such a strategy. The Laikipia Wildlife Forum does not expect this document to be a prescription of how we are going to preserve wildlife in Laikipia, but a guideline on the issues that will form a basis for the conservation partnerships we must forge for the future of people and wildlife in Laikipia County. Laikipia’s wildlife has always been a challenge, a source of pride, and asset to many people at many levels. However, since this wildlife lives in and amongst people, the context of conservation in Laikipia is wider than what is generally acknowledged. It involves a constant state of negotiations over multiple aspects, including pasture sharing, water sharing, use of forests, crop damage, livestock loss, and security. Over 60% of the issues to be dealt with do not involve any direct dealings with wild animals- they are issues that arise amongst people. The implementation of this strategy therefore will be a process of managing partnerships with ranchers, farmers, law enforcement officers, water users, tourism businesses, scientists and others. Laikipia is changing rapidly, with a high rate of settlement, housing development and land subdivision, forcing people and wildlife into adjustments to meet the reduced availability of resources. The Laikipia Wildlife Forum now faces the task of implementing this strategy. Through this process, we expect that valuable lessons will be learnt by all, resulting in a more cohesive society, environmentally responsible population, secure in their pursuits of various livelihoods. This is the reason why we regard this document as a guideline. It will necessarily evolve as it is implemented, because a static tool cannot ‘repair’ a dynamic problem.

Graham BJ, RG T, Mulwa JK. "Comparison of Electrical Resistivity 2D Tomography and 1D Profiling to characterize erosion and deposition in the Katonga Valley of SW Uganda.". In: British Society for Geomorphology/British Geomorphological Research Group.; 2010.
Graham MD, Notter B, Adams WM, Lee PC, Ochieng TN. "Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human–elephant conflict." Systematics and Biodiversity. 2010. Abstractpatterns_of_crop_raiding_by_elephants_loxodonta_africana_in_laikipia_kenya_and_the_management_of_human_elephant_conflict.pdfdio.org

Recorded incidence of conflict between humans and elephants, in particular crop-raiding, is increasing in rural Africa and Asia, undermining efforts to conserve biological diversity. Gaining an understanding of the underlying determinants of human–elephant conflict is important for the development of appropriate management tools. This study analysed crop-raiding by African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Laikipia District, covering 9700 km2 in north-central Kenya to identify spatial determinants of crop-raiding by elephants at different spatial extents. On average crop-raiding incidents occurred within 1.54 km of areas of natural habitat where elephants could hide by day undisturbed by human activities (‘daytime elephant refuges’). The occurrence of crop-raiding was predicted by settlement density, distance from daytime elephant refuges and percentage of cultivation. However the relationship between crop-raiding and six candidate variables varied with sampling extent, with some variables diminishing in importance at a finer spatial scale. This suggests a tiered approach to human-elephant conflict management, with different interventions to address factors important at different spatial scales. Our results show that small-scale farms are particularly vulnerable to crop-raiding at settlement densities below approximately 20 dwellings per km2, above which crop-raiding declines. Land-use planning is therefore critical in preventing settlement patterns that leave farms vulnerable to crop-raiding by elephants. Where human–elephant conflict exists, efforts should focus on identifying and managing elephant refuges, through the use of electrified fences where resources are sufficient to construct, maintain and enforce them. This approach has been adopted for mitigating human–elephant conflict in Laikipia and with a major investment in resources and human capital it has been successful. Where such resources and human capital are not available then efforts should instead focus on the application of farm-based deterrents among vulnerable farms.

Gradus-Pizlo I, Bigelow B, Mahomed Y, Sawada SG, Rieger K, Feigenbaum H. "Left anterior descending coronary artery wall thickness measured by high-frequency transthoracic and epicardial echocardiography includes adventitia." The American journal of cardiology. 2003;91:27-32. Abstract

{High-frequency, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (HR-2DTTE) measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery wall thickness are larger than measurements obtained by intravascular ultrasound. We hypothesize that this difference is due to inclusion of the third vascular layer, which may represent adventitia by HR-2DTTE, and that this layer must be increasing in thickness with the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the contribution of this third layer to the wall thickness of the normal and atherosclerotic LAD artery imaged by HR-2DTTE using high-frequency epicardial echocardiography (HFEE) as the reference standard. Eighteen patients (10 men, mean age 62 years), 13 with coronary atherosclerosis and 5 with normal coronary arteries, referred for open-heart surgery, underwent preoperative HR-2DTTE evaluation of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 3- to 8-MHz transducer) and intraoperative HFEE of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 6- to 15-MHz transducer). Wall thickness was greater in patients with coronary atherosclerosis than in those with normal coronary arteries by both HR-2DTTE (1.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm

Gradin D, Gichuhi S. "Unilateral axial length elongation with chronic traumatic cataracts in young Kenyans. ." J Cataract Refract Surg . 2008;34(9):1566-1570. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:
To assess whether unilateral axial elongation in chronic traumatic cataract is associated with the time interval from trauma to surgery.

SETTING:
PCEA Kikuyu Hospital Eye Unit, Nairobi, Kenya.

METHODS:
This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients with traumatic cataract operated on between 1998 and 2007. Study patients (n = 13) had a delay from trauma to surgery of more than 1 year and an interocular axial length (AL) difference greater than 1.0 mm. Randomly selected age-matched control patients (n = 14) had less than 1 year delay between trauma and surgery. The correlation between interocular AL difference and surgical delay was calculated in each group.

RESULTS:
The median interval from trauma to surgical treatment in study patients was 8 years (range 1 to 27 years). Study patients had a significantly higher median interocular AL difference (3.09 mm; interquartile range [IQR] 2.45 to 4.13 mm) than control patients (0.24 mm; IQR 0.15 to 0.30 mm) (P = .000). The length of delay from trauma to surgical treatment did not correlate strongly with the interocular AL difference in study or control patients (R(2) = 0.0143 and R(2) = 0.1697, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:
Unilateral AL elongation may occur in young adults with chronic traumatic cataract. Delay of more than 1 year from trauma to surgery was associated with axial elongation, although the degree of elongation did not correlate with duration of delay. Surgeons are advised to implant lower-power intraocular lenses in such patients based on biometry readings to avoid postoperative refractive surprises.

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, R W Nduati, E Wafula, Lenja J. "Community understanding of pneumonia in Kenya ." African Health Sciences Vol 8 No 2 June 2008. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
Background: Effective management of pneumonia demands active participation by the caretaker to facilitate early seeking of
appropriate health care and adequate compliance to home
care messages. This would only be possible if the caretakers’ perception of pneumonia is appropriate. This study aims to determine
community’s perception of childhood pneumonia in a suburb of Nairobi.
Objectives: To determine community perception of childhood pneumonia.
Design: Cross sectional study utilizing qualitative ethnographic methodology.
Participants: Six key informants for in-depth interview and eight groups for focus group discussions from the study community.
Results: Pneumonia was perceived to be the most serious childhood illness. There was a great deal of diversity of Kikuyu phrases for
chest-in drawing. There was no term for rapid breathing. Chest in-drawing, fever, difficult in breathing, startling at night and
convulsions were perceived as features of pneumonia. Chest in-drawing, fever and convulsions were indicative of severe disease.
Conclusion: The caretakers perceived severe pneumonia as outlined in the IMCI guidelines. Non-severe pneumonia was not
perceived for what it should be. Inappropriate knowledge on causes of pneumonia and signs of non severe pneumonia are likely to
interfere with compliance with home care messages.

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, E Wafula LJ. "Community understanding of pneumonia in Kenya." African Health Sciences 2008; 8(2): 103-107. 2008. Abstractcommunity_understanding.pdf

Abstract
Background: Effective management of pneumonia demands active participation by the caretaker to facilitate early seeking of
appropriate health care and adequate compliance to home
care messages. This would only be possible if the caretakers’ perception of pneumonia is appropriate. This study aims to determine
community’s perception of childhood pneumonia in a suburb of Nairobi.
Objectives: To determine community perception of childhood pneumonia.
Design: Cross sectional study utilizing qualitative ethnographic methodology.
Participants: Six key informants for in-depth interview and eight groups for focus group discussions from the study community.
Results: Pneumonia was perceived to be the most serious childhood illness. There was a great deal of diversity of Kikuyu phrases for
chest-in drawing. There was no term for rapid breathing. Chest in-drawing, fever, difficult in breathing, startling at night and
convulsions were perceived as features of pneumonia. Chest in-drawing, fever and convulsions were indicative of severe disease.
Conclusion: The caretakers perceived severe pneumonia as outlined in the IMCI guidelines. Non-severe pneumonia was not
perceived for what it should be. Inappropriate knowledge on causes of pneumonia and signs of non severe pneumonia are likely to
interfere with compliance with home care messages.
African Health Sciences 2008; 8(2): 103-107

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and introducing evidence based clinical practice guidelines for serious illness in Kenya." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2008;93(9):799-804.
Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and Introducing Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Serious Illness in Kenya.". 2009;10(93):799-804. Abstractdeveloping_and_introducing_evidence_based_clinical_practice_guidelines_for_serious_illness_in_kenya..pdf

The under-5 mortality rate in most developing countries remains high yet many deaths could be averted if available knowledge was put into practice. For seriously ill children in hospital investigations in low-income countries commonly demonstrate incorrect diagnosis and treatment and frequent prescribing errors. To help improve hospital management of the major causes of inpatient childhood mortality we developed simple clinical guidelines for use in Kenya, a low-income setting. The participatory process we used to adapt existing WHO materials and further develop and build support for such guidelines is discussed. To facilitate use of the guidelines we also developed job-aides and a 5.5 days training programme for their dissemination and implementation. We attempted to base our training on modern theories around adult learning and deliberately attempted to train a ‘critical mass’ of health workers within each institution at low cost. Our experience suggests that with sustained effort it is possible to develop locally owned, appropriate clinical practice guidelines for emergency and initial hospital care for seriously ill children with involvement of pertinent stake holders throughout. Early experience suggests that the training developed to support the guidelines, despite the fact that it challenges many established practices, is well received, appropriate to the needs of front line health workers in Kenya and feasible. To our knowledge the process described in Kenya is among a handful of attempts globally to implement inpatient or referral care components of WHO / UNICEF’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach. However, whether guideline dissemination and implementation result in improved quality of care in our environment remains to be seen.

Grace C. John, Ruth W. Nduati, Dorothy A. Mbori-Ngacha, Carey Farquhar, Barbra A. Richardson, Dana Panteleeff, Anthony Mwatha JO, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, and Kreiss JK. "Correlates of Mother-to-Child Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission: Association with Maternal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Load, Genital HIV-1 DNA Shedding, and Breast Infections." The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;183:206–12. 2001. Abstract

To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control
study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding
among HIV-1–seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected
infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels 143,000
copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95%
confidence interval [CI], 2.2–7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95%
CI, 1.3–4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1–4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers
(OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of
plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR],
3.9; 95% CI, 1.2–12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR,
21.8; 95% CI, 2.3–211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7–571.0) were associated
with late transmission (occurring 12 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant
exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended
perinatal HIV-1 interventions.

Grace D;, Gilbert J;, Randolph T;, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012.
Grace D, Gilbert J, Randolph T, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012. Abstract

Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected. The Global Burden of Disease captures the impact of zoonoses on human health in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on this, we estimate that in low income countries, zoonoses and diseases which recently emerged from animals make up 26 % of the DALYs lost to infectious disease and 10 % of the total DALYs lost. In contrast, in high income countries, zoonoses and diseases recently which emerged from animals represent less than 1 % of DALYs lost to infectious disease and only 0.02 % of the total disease burden. We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
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Goro EC. Laboratory and field swelling pressures of a black cotton soil .; 1988. Abstract

The swelling pressure of a black cotton soil is investigated :n the project carried out for this thesis. SoiI as one of the materials on the earths crust is introduced; its mineralogy and atomic properties are discussed. The solid phase in soil consist of crystals whose properties are discussed paying particular attention to the structure part of it. The m1nerals in soils could be non-clay or clay, their difference with respect to structure and behaviour are considered in the thesis. The classification of clay minerals into groups and the structural differences existing between the groups are also considered. Problems encountered 1n the building industry, from black cotton soil due its swelling properties are outlined in this thesis.The various factors that influence the swelling characterlstics of soi 1 black cotton/ are considered, and thei r interrelation and influence on each other are also discussed. When an engineer undertakes to design a project, there are field and laboratory investigations ,. to be carried out before construction starts.The absence oE standard apparatus to measure swelling pressure of black cotton soil in the Eield called for the design and testing of appropriate equipment. The requirements for such equipment vary from site to site depending on both physical and environmental conditions. For this project a design was cariied out to suit the local conditions. The equipments were fabricated, tested ahd calibrated as part oE the res earch wo rk, Laboratory swelling pressure of black cotton soil was measured on soil samples obtained from all the five identified sites. In order to carry out the laboratory swelling pressure tests and be able to relate the results obtained to those from the field data, sampling apparatus had to be designed and the laboratory swelling pressure apparatus had to be modified. The pressure obtained both in the field and in the laboratory were compared and it was found that the field swelling pressure were much less than the laboratory swelling pressures, regardless of whether the laboratory soil sample was disturbed or undisturbed.

Gor SO. "Growth - Poverty Nexus in Eastern Africa.". In: Great Lakes Colleges Association Annual Symposium. Nairobi; 2002.
Gor SO, Okoth PG, Ogot BA. "Foreign Loan Capital and Economic Retardation in post Colonial Africa ; The case of Kenya.". In: Conflicts in Contemporary Africa. Nairobi,: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2000.
Gor SO. "Growth, Poverty and Policy in Kenya .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
Gor SO, Kiriti-Nganga TW, Sarkar S. "Regional Distribution of Income in Kenya: An Intra - Gender Analysis.". In: Gender Inequality in Developing Countries. New Delhi: Arise Publishers; 2008.
Gor SO. "10. Government Spending and Economic Growth in Kenya: Which Way for Vision 2030.". In: University of Nairobi, School of Economics’ Seminar on Policy Options for Achieving Vision 2030. Nairobi; 2007.
Gor SO. "7. Industrial Structure, the Nature of Informal Enterprise and Inequality in Kenya: A Dominance Analysis.". In: AIM-IARIW Special Conference on Measuring the Informal Economy in Developing Countries. Kathmandu, Nepal; 2009.
Gor S. "An Assessment of the Informal Sector Trade in Kenya." Journal of International Law and Trade Policy. 2012;13 (1):101-113.
Gor SO. "4. Poverty and Child Survival in a High Malaria Mortality Zone: The Case of Kenya.". In: Chronic Poverty Research Center 2010 Conference. University of Manchester, UK.; 2010.
Gor SO. "Foreign Aid Policy Formulation; Rules to Follow and Pitfalls to Avoid: The Case of US-Kenya Relations.". In: Institute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies of Maseno .; 1996.
Gor SO. "The Case for a Policy Framework to Support Productivity Mainstreaming into the Kenyan Economy .". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This study investigates the probable causes of the very low levels of productivity consciousness in both the public and private sectors of the Kenyan economy. It identifies impediments to the realization of a complete and functional productivity mainstreaming into the economy including; lack of integration of productivity into the country’s education and training programmes, weak broad based productivity driven research and development, poor productivity infrastructure and weak productivity governance among others. Consequently we propose possible interventions which we argue do constitute the basic building blocks for a productivity policy framework. In conclusion we argue that success of the proposed interventions depend on the commitment of all stakeholders to effective co-ordination of actions and interventions and to implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Gor SO. "IMF and World Bank: Fire Fighters or Arsonists? Lessons of Experiences.". In: presented at the Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University. Kisumu, Kenya; 1999.
Gor SO. "14. Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Groupings - a Transactions Cost Perspective.". In: First International Nilotic Studies Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2004.
Gor SO. "11. Labour Market Dialogue: Perspectives from the Healthcare Sector in Kenya.". In: Entrepreneurship and Business Support, Organized by FKE/COTU and Labour Market Dialogue, Sweden. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa.; 2006.
Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Rethinking the HDI: a More Theoretically Consistent Alternative." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2010;1(5):85-90.
Gor SO. "8. A New Approach to the Measurement of Wellbeing: A Technical Note.". In: General Conference of The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. Portoroz, Slovenia; 2008.
Gor SO. "5. Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub-Sector in Kenya: What Role for Public-Private Partnership.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
Gor SO, Wanjiru CM. "Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya.". In: OIDA’s International Conference on Sustainable Development. , Putrajaya, Malaysia; 2011.
Gor SO. "On the Verge of Collapse: What Next? A Commentary on the Current Economic Crisis in Kenya.". In: at The Annual Historical Association of Kenya Conference. Eldoret, Kenya; 1998.
Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Gor SO. "Economic Policy and Urban Poverty in Kenya.". In: 7th Congress of the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa. Khartoum, Sudan; 2002.
Gor SO, Okoth PG, Ogot BA. "Foreign Loan Capital and Economic Retardation in post Colonial Africa; The case of Kenya.". In: Conflicts in Contemporary Africa. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2000.
Gor SO. "Road Network Concessioning Proposal in Kenya: Laying the Ground Work." Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;III(1):1-13.
Gor SO. "12. An Assessment of the Implementation of the National Development Plans in Kenya: The Case of Education Sector Programmes .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub - sect or in Kenya: What Role for Public - Private Partnerships? ." IDA International Journal of Sustainable Development,. 2010;101(06):1-17.
Gor S. "The Turn Towards Regional Trade Agreements: Is EAC Welfare Enhancing to Partner States? ." Journal of World Trad e Studies. 2011;2(1):43-51.
Gor SO. "6. Rethinking the HDI: a More Theoretically Consistent Alternative.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
Gor SO. "2. An Assessment of the Trade Potential from the East African Community Integration.". In: TRAPCA’s Trade Policy Research Forum . Arusha, Tanzania; 2011.
Gor SO. "Towards a New Road Management and Financing Initiative in Kenya; An Agenda for Reform.". In: Institute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 1998.
and Goodluck Charles, Søren Jeppesen PKPK. "Firm-Level Perspectives on State-Business Relations in Africa: The Food processing Sector in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia." Forum for Development Studies Journal. Forthcoming.
Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "The Red Deer As An Experimental Animal.".; 1968.
Goo L, Milligan C, Simonich CA, Nduati R, Obimbo E, J. O. "Neutralizing antibody escape during HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission involves conformational masking of distal epitopes in envelope. ." J Virol. 2012 Sep;86(18):9566-82. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00953-12. Epub 2012 Jun 27.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 variants transmitted to infants are often resistant to maternal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), suggesting that they have escaped maternal NAb pressure. To define the molecular basis of NAb escape that contributes to selection of transmitted variants, we analyzed 5 viruses from 2 mother-to-child transmission pairs, in which the infant virus, but not the maternal virus, was resistant to neutralization by maternal plasma near transmission. We generated chimeric viruses between maternal and infant envelope clones obtained near transmission and examined neutralization by maternal plasma. The molecular determinants of NAb escape were distinct, even when comparing two maternal variants to the transmitted infant virus within one pair, in which insertions in V4 of gp120 and substitutions in HR2 of gp41 conferred neutralization resistance. In another pair, deletions and substitutions in V1 to V3 conferred resistance, but neither V1/V2 nor V3 alone was sufficient. Although the sequence determinants of escape were distinct, all of them involved modifications of potential N-linked glycosylation sites. None of the regions that mediated escape were major linear targets of maternal NAbs because corresponding peptides failed to compete for neutralization. Instead, these regions disrupted multiple distal epitopes targeted by HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that escape from maternal NAbs occurred through conformational masking of distal epitopes. This strategy likely allows HIV-1 to utilize relatively limited changes in the envelope to preserve the ability to infect a new host while simultaneously evading multiple NAb specificities present in maternal plasma.

Goo Y-K, Aboge GO, Terkawi AM, Jia H, Yamagishi J, Sunaga F, Namikawa K, Cha S-Y, Jang H-K, Kim S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "Four promising antigens, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, for serodiagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infection were classified as B. gibsoni merozoite surface protein family.". 2012. Abstract

We determined the molecular characteristics of four proteins, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, of Babesia gibsoni. Localization by subcellular fractionations followed by Western blotting revealed that the corresponding native proteins belong to merozoite surface protein family of B. gibsoni (BgMSP). Moreover, antisera against either rBgP45 or rBgP47 cross-reacted with all the proteins of the BgMSP family on ELISA and IFAT analyses. Of the four candidate antigens, ELISA with rBgP45 yielded high sensitivity, and ELISA with rBgP32 resulted in high specificity and in concordance with IFAT results.

Goo Y-K;, erkawi A;M, ia H;, Aboge O;G, Ooka H, Nelson B;, Kim S;, Sunaga F, Namikawa K;, Igarashi I. "Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection.". 2010. Abstract

The effects of artesunate, a water-soluble artemisinin derivative, against Babesia species, including Babesia bovis, Babesia gibsoni and Babesia microti were studied. Cultures of B. bovis and B. gibsoni were treated with 0.26, 2.6, 26 and 260 μM artesunate, showing inhibition of parasite growth at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.6 μM artesunate by days 3 post-treatment for B. gibsoni and B. bovis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with in vitro experiments, artesunate was effective in the treatment of mice infected with B. microti at doses equal to and greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight on days 8–10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection.

Goo L, Chohan V, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "Early development of broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected infants." Nat. Med.. 2014;20(6):655-8. Abstract

Eliciting protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 is daunting because of the extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of HIV-1. Moreover, broad and potent responses are uncommon even during persistent infection, with only a subset of adults developing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize viral variants from different HIV-1 clades. It is not known whether bNAbs can also arise in HIV-1-infected infants, who typically progress to disease faster than adults, presumably in part due to an immature immune system. Here, we show that bNAbs develop at least as commonly in infants as in adults. Cross-clade NAb responses were detected in 20/28 infected infants, in some cases within 1 year of infection. Among infants with breadth of responses within the top quartile, neutralization of tier 2 or 3 variants from multiple clades was detected at 20 months after infection. These findings suggest that, even in early life, there is sufficient B cell functionality to mount bNAbs against HIV-1. Additionally, the relatively early appearance of bNAbs in infants may provide a unique setting for understanding the pathways of B cell maturation leading to bNAbs.

Gontier DC. "Oreintation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Participants’ workbook.". In: Orientation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Ministry of Medical Services; 2012.
Gongora J, Rawlence NJ, Mobegi VA, Jianlin H, Alcalde JA, Matus JT, Hanotte O, Moran C, Austin JJ, Ulm S, Anderson AJ, Larson G, Cooper A. "Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2008;105(30):10308-13. Abstract

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

Gona G, Kailembo AMM. "The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist." Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa. 2002.
Gona G;, Kiai W;, Ngugi M. "Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya .". 2013.Website
Gona GM. "Elusive Peace in Kenya .". 2012.Website
Golub G, Herman-Roloff A, Hoffman S, Jaoko W, Bailey RC. "The Relationship Between Distance and Post-operative Visit Attendance Following Medical Male Circumcision in Nyanza Province, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2015. Abstract

To date, there is no research on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) catchment areas or the relationship between distance to a VMMC facility and attendance at a post-operative follow-up visit. We analyzed data from a randomly selected subset of males self-seeking circumcision at one of 16 participating facilities in Nyanza Province, Kenya between 2008 and 2010. Among 1437 participants, 46.7 % attended follow-up. The median distance from residence to utilized facility was 2.98 km (IQR 1.31-5.38). Nearly all participants (98.8 %) lived within 5 km from a facility, however, 26.3 % visited a facility more than 5 km away. Stratified results demonstrated that among those utilizing fixed facilities, greater distance was associated with higher odds of follow-up non-attendance (OR5.01-10km vs. 0-1km = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.08, 2.70, p = 0.02; OR>10km vs. 0-1 km = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.26, 6.21, p = 0.01), adjusting for age and district of residence. We found 5 km marked the threshold distance beyond which follow-up attendance significantly dropped. These results demonstrate distance is an important predictor of attending follow-up, and this relationship appears to be modified by facility type.

Gohil TR, Mutave RJ, Dimba EAO. "Effects of chemotherapy on oral health in paediatric oncology patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Kenya Dental Association. 2011;2:184-189.
Goh BKP, Tan Y-M, Cheow P-C, Alexander Chung Y-F, Chow PKH, Wong W-K, Ooi LLPJ. "Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: an updated experience." Journal of surgical oncology. 2007;95:640-644. AbstractWebsite
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