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Greenfield, C; Fowler MJ. "Hepatitis B Virus And Primary Liver Cell Carcinoma. The Application Of Molecular Biology.". 1986. Abstract

Worldwide, primary liver cell carcinoma (PLC) is one of the most common tumours. Epidemiological evidence has implicated hepatitis B virus (HBV) in its aetiology and the mechanisms whereby HBV could operate at the genomic level have been investigated using the techniques of molecular biology. The resemblance of certain features of HBV to the retroviruses has also suggested mechanisms whereby malignant transformation may take place, but as yet there is no clear evidence for HBV being directly oncogenic. This has suggested to some that it is the persistent inflammatory reaction caused by HBV infection that is instrumental in causing PLC. We believe, however, that HBV can act independently of this mechanism and that the failure so far to show this at the molecular level may be due to technical reasons.

Greenfield C, Osidiana V, Karayiannis P, Galpin S, Musoke R, Jowett TP, Mati P, Tukei PM, Thomas HC. "Perinatal Transmission Of Hepatitis B Virus In Kenya: Its Relation To The Presence Of Serum Hbv-dna And Anti-hbe In The Mother.". 1986. Abstract

In Kenya hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae are common. We followed up 49 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive mothers and their newborn infants for 9 months to determine the importance of perinatal transmission in the African and to relate this to the HBe and HBV-DNA status of the mother. Our study shows that perinatal transmission is relatively unimportant in Kenya and that this may be a consequence of the low levels of circulating HBV-DNA in the maternal plasma. These results imply that vaccination without hyperimmune globulin may be adequate to control HBV infection in Kenya

Greenfield, CL; Lartin KM; SFS; DRR. "Heterochromatin Staining Pattern Of Quail-chicken Hybrid Lymphocytes.". 1986. Abstract

Feulgen-Rossenbeck staining of lymphoid cells of quail-chicken hybrids in histologic sections revealed a pattern of heterochromatin arrangement distinguishable from that of either parental type. During interphase, hybrid lymphocytes exhibited combined characteristics of both the parental quail and the parental chicken. Hybrid heterochromatin was arranged in a large central mass as in the quail and in fairly evenly distributed small chromacenters around the periphery of the nucleus similar to the arrangement in the chicken. It is suggested that this pattern of staining can be used as a marker for hybrid cells in studies of genetic interactions.

Greenfield C, Wankya BM, Musoke R, Osidiana V, Nyangao J, Tukei PM, Owino N. "An Age Related Point Prevalence Study Of Markers Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Kenya.". 1986.Website
Greenwood RD. "Digitalis as treatment for pulmonary comsumption, 1799." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):531.
Gregg W;, Steven D. Forest Landscape Restoration Decision-Making and Conflict Management: Applying Discourse-Based Approaches.; 2012. AbstractWebsite

Forest landscape restoration (FLR) aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded forest landscapes. Despite its positive connotations, successfully implementing significant FLR will often involve considerable conflict. The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental principles for managing FLR conflicts. The chapter portrays FLR as a social and political process in which there is no “single” correct view of reality: “good forestry” or “bad forests” are value-laden social constructions that transcend objective facts. If not recognized, this alone can lead to misunderstanding and conflict. Social constructions often emerge and evolve through public discourse – the verbal communication, talk, or conversation among people. Accordingly the discourse-based approaches to conflict management can contribute meaningfully to FLR. Examining the various discourses within a conflict situation can improve mutual understanding, reveal salient aspects of the situation, and strengthen relationships as a foundation for problem-solving. Masters of FLR conflict management must be able to: (a) read the cultural-institutional context, (b) understand people, and (c) create an environment of constructive communication, fair power distribution, and strong incentives.

Grifiths PA, Ogana W. "The challenge of strengthening mathematics in Africa." Notices of the Amer. Math. Soc. 2003;Vol 50(No.9):pp. 1061.
Grillenberger, M; Murphy SP; BNO, Neumann CG;, Neumann CG;, Bwibo NO. "High prevalence of inadequate iron intake in rural Kenyan school children.". 2013.
Grillenberger M;, Neumann CG;, Murphy SP;, Bwibo NO. "Impact of supplementation with animal source foods on morbidity of rural Kenyan school children.". 2006.
Grillenberger M;, Neumann CG;, Murphy SP;, Bwibo NO;, Weiss RE;, Jiang L;, Hautvast JG;, West CE. "Intake of micronutrients high in animal-source foods is associated with better growth in rural Kenyan school children.". 2006. Abstractintake_of_micronutrients_high_in_animal-source_foods.pdf

Observational studies have shown that children in developing countries consuming diets containing high amounts of bioavailable nutrients, such as those found in animal-source foods, grow better. The present study investigated which specific nutrients from the diet of Kenyan school children predicted their growth. The children (n 544, median age 7 years) participated in a 2-year long food supplementation study with animal-source foods. Height gain during the intervention period was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods, haem Fe, preformed vitamin A, Ca and vitamin B12. Weight gain was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods, haem Fe, preformed vitamin A, Ca and vitamin B12. Gain in mid-upper-arm muscle area was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods and vitamin B12. Gain in mid-upper-arm fat area was positively predicted by average daily intakes of energy from animal-source foods. Gain in subscapular skinfold thickness was not predicted by any of the nutrient intakes. Negative predictors of growth were total energy and nutrients that are contained in high amounts in plant foods. The study shows that growth was positively predicted by energy and nutrients that are provided in high amounts and in a bioavailable form in meat and milk, and their inclusion into the diets of children in developing countries should be part of all food-based programmes in order to improve micronutrient status and growth

Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(8):373-9.
Gron KL, Ornbjerg LM, Hetland ML, Aslam F, Khan NA, Jacobs JW, Oyoo O, Stropuviene S, et al. "The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program." Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 2014. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS:

Nine thousands eight hundred seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (<24.000 USD) participated in the Quantitative Standard monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) study. The prevalence of 31 comorbid conditions, fatigue (0-10 cm visual analogue scale [VAS] [10=worst]), disease activity in 28 joints (DAS28), and physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire score [HAQ]) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between fatigue and comorbidities, disease activity, disability and GDP.
RESULTS:

Overall, patients reported a median of 2 comorbid conditions of which hypertension (31.5%), osteoporosis (17.6%), osteoarthritis (15.5%) and hyperlipidaemia (14.2%) were the most prevalent. The majority of comorbidities were more common in high-GDP countries. The median fatigue score was 4.4 (4.8 in low-GDP countries and 3.8 in high-GDP countries, p<0.001). In low-GDP countries 25.4% of the patients had a high level of fatigue (>6.6) compared with 23.0% in high-GDP countries (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, fatigue increased with increasing number of comorbidities, disease activity and disability in both high- and low-GDP countries. In multivariate analysis of all countries, these 3 variables explained 29.4% of the variability, whereas GDP was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS:

Fatigue is a widespread problem associated with high comorbidity burden, disease activity and disability regardless of GDP.

Group GBDVLE. "Global Burden of Visual Impairment and Blindness." Archives of Ophthalmology. 2012;130(5):645-647.
of Group GBD. "Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis." Lancet Global Health. 2013;1(6):e339-e349. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking.

METHODS:

We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the proportions of overall vision impairment attributable to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and uncorrected refractive error in 1990-2010 by age, geographical region, and year.

FINDINGS:

In 2010, 65% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 61-68) of 32·4 million blind people and 76% (73-79) of 191 million people with MSVI worldwide had a preventable or treatable cause, compared with 68% (95% UI 65-70) of 31·8 million and 80% (78-83) of 172 million in 1990. Leading causes worldwide in 1990 and 2010 for blindness were cataract (39% and 33%, respectively), uncorrected refractive error (20% and 21%), and macular degeneration (5% and 7%), and for MSVI were uncorrected refractive error (51% and 53%), cataract (26% and 18%), and macular degeneration (2% and 3%). Causes of blindness varied substantially by region. Worldwide and in all regions more women than men were blind or had MSVI due to cataract and macular degeneration.

INTERPRETATION:

The differences and temporal changes we found in causes of blindness and MSVI have implications for planning and resource allocation in eye care.

Group VBW, others. "Evidence-based recommendations in hyperglycemia and {ACS}." The Portland Protocol. University of Florida. 2009. Abstract
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of Group GBDVLE. "New Systematic Review Methodology for Visual Impairment and Blindness for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2013;20(1):33-39. Abstract

Purpose: To describe a systematic review of population-based prevalence studies of visual impairment (VI) and
blindness worldwide over the past 32 years that informs the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk
Factors Study.
Methods: A systematic review (Stage 1) of medical literature from 1 January 1980 to 31 January 2012 identified
indexed articles containing data on incidence, prevalence and causes of blindness and VI. Only cross-sectional
population-based representative studies were selected from which to extract data for a database of age- and sex-specific data of prevalence of four distance and one near vision loss categories (presenting and best-corrected).
Unpublished data and data from studies using rapid assessment methodology were later added (Stage 2).
Results: Stage 1 identified 14,908 references, of which 204 articles met the inclusion criteria. Stage 2 added
unpublished data from 44 rapid assessment studies and four other surveys. This resulted in a final dataset of
252 articles of 243 studies, of which 238 (98%) reported distance vision loss categories. A total of 37 studies of
the final dataset reported prevalence of mild VI and four reported near VI.
Conclusion: We report a comprehensive systematic review of over 30 years of VI/blindness studies. While there
has been an increase in population-based studies conducted in the 2000s compared to previous decades, there is limited information from certain regions (eg, Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and the Caribbean
and Latin America), and younger age groups, and minimal data regarding prevalence of near vision and mild
distance VI.

Grubb P, Oguge N. "Xerus rutilus." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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Grubb P, Oguge N 2004. "Xerus erythropus." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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Gudu SO, Woomer PL, Karanja NK, Okalebo R, Othieno CO, Serem C, Maritim HK, Sanginga N, Bationo A, Muasya RM. "The African Green Revolution and the Role of Partnerships in East Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region continues to experience perennial hunger, poverty and poor health of its people. Agricultural production has remained low over decades and is declining to extremely low staple maize yields below 0.5 t ha–1 season–1 at the smallholder farm scale, against the potential of 4–5 t ha–1 season–1 given modest levels of inputs and good crop husbandry. Constraints contributing to low productivity are numerous, but the planting of poor-quality seed, declining soil fertility, poor markets and value addition to products significantly contribute to poor productivity. Partnerships for development are weak even though there are numerous technologies to improve and sustain agricultural production arising from extensive research and extension in SSA. But, technology adoption rates have been extremely slow, and in some cases we find no adoption. In this chapter we highlight constraints which are bottlenecks for achievement of a green revolution in Africa. Success efforts are reported, but we moot a focus on efficient utilization of abundant and affordable African natural resources, such as phosphate rocks to replenish depleted phosphorus in soils. We argue that to achieve an African green revolution, partnerships with concerned global communities and national institutions, including universities, NGOs, CBOs and farming communities, need to be strengthened. Specifically, human capacity at all levels should be built through training. Without private sector’s strong participation on acquisition of inputs and marketing proven products, it will be difficult to achieve a green revolution

Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago MS;, Pieter Deschaght MS;, Nabil El Aila MS;, Teresa N. Kiama MS;, Hans Verstraelen, MD PD;, Kimberly K. Jefferson PD;, Marleen Temmerman, MD PD;, Mario Vaneechoutte PD. "Gardnerella vaginalis comprises three distinct genotypes of which only two produce sialidase. ." Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(5):450-457.
Guillory B, Sakwe AM, Saria M, Thompson P, Adhiambo C, Koumangoye R, Ballard B, Binhazim A, Cone C, Jahanen-Dechent W, Ochieng J. "Lack of fetuin-A (alpha2-HS-glycoprotein) reduces mammary tumor incidence and prolongs tumor latency via the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in a mouse model of breast cancer." Am. J. Pathol.. 2010;177(5):2635-44. Abstract

The present analyses were done to define the role of fetuin-A (Fet) in mammary tumorigenesis using the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic mouse model. We crossed Fet-null mice in the C57BL/6 background with PyMT mice in the same background and after a controlled breeding protocol obtained PyMT/Fet+/+, PyMT/Fet+/-, and PyMT/Fet-/- mice that were placed in control and experimental groups. Whereas the control group (PyMT/Fet+/+) formed mammary tumors 90 days after birth, tumor latency was prolonged in the PyMT/Fet-/- and PyMT/Fet+/- mice. The majority of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice were tumor-free at the end of the study, at approximately 40 weeks. The pathology of the mammary tumors in the Fet-null mice showed extensive fibrosis, necrosis, and squamous metaplasia. The preneoplastic mammary tissues of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice showed intense phopho-Smad2/3 staining relative to control tissues, indicating that transforming growth factor-β signaling is enhanced in these tissues in the absence of Fet. Likewise, p19ARF and p53 were highly expressed in tumor tissues of PyMT/Fet-/- mice relative to the controls in the absence of Fet. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway that we previously showed to be activated by Fet, on the other hand, was unaffected by the absence of Fet. The data indicate that Fet is a powerful modulator of breast tumorigenesis in this model system and has the potential to modulate breast cancer progression in humans.

Gumbe LO;, Okoth MW. "Co - products in the Sugar Industry.".; 2004.
Gumbe LO, Agullo JO, Brugger MF. "Environmental simulation of a greenhouse system in Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2009;10(2):108-121.
Gumbe LO. Drying Of Seed Maize.; 1989.
Gumbe LO;, Okoth MW. "Co - generation in the Sugar Industry.".; 2004.
Gunga S. A Philosophy of Mathematics Education. Berlin, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Gunga S. "Philosophy of Education."; 2010.
Gunga SO, Muriithi EM, Kodhiambo A K, Ngesu LM. "Women’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Education: Hermeneutics of Proverbs.". 2013.
Gunga PS. Use of Social Media in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Nairobi, College of Education and External Studies, School of Continuing and Distance Education; 2013.
Gunga S. EDU 1103: Philosophy of Education. African Virtual University; 2009.
Gunga S, Ngesu L. The Phenomenology of Rioting. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Gunga S, Odundo P. "Effects Of Application Of Instructional Methods On Learner Achievement In Business Studies In Secondary Schools In Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(5).
Gunga S. Prototyping in Systems Development Life Cycle: Students Database. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
GUNVANTRAY PROFJANIPANKAJ, M MRMUSAUPETER, A DROWILLAHFRANCIS. "Musau P, Jani PG, Owillah FA.Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43. 1999; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. DESIGN: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from November 2004 to February 2005 in the adult general surgical wards. PATIENTS: Eighty consecutive admissions of adult patients with either blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and cause of injury, demographic data, temporal parameters, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The 80 patients had a male to female ratio of 12.3:1, the majority were in the third decade of life with a range 15-56 years and mean of 28.2 years. Penetrating to blunt abdominal injuries had 2:1 ratio with the leading causes of injury being stab wounds, gunshot wounds and road traffic accidents. Blunt abdominal injuries had a higher tendency to extra-abdominal injuries. Duration prior to presentation to hospital and surgery depended on severity of injury. Modes of management varied between attending surgical firms. There was a 20% change in the mode of management and a 16.1% rate of negative laparotomy. Penetrating injuries had a better interventional outcome. Penetrating abdominal injuries had higher rates of complications while the blunt injuries had higher rates of mortality. Overall, both the complication and mortality rates were 12.5%. Correlates of mortality included delay before surgery, associated injuries, need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care unit and duration prior to admission. Abdominal injury patients stayed an average of 6.4 days with the blunt injuries with complications staying close to twice as much as their penetrating counterparts. CONCLUSION: Abdominal injuries are a predominantly male disease with the majority in the third decade of life. As opposed to previous studies, gunshot wounds are now a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The outcome of management depends on the severity and type, of injury sustained.
GUNVANTRAY PROFJANIPANKAJ, M MRMUSAUPETER, A DROWILLAHFRANCIS. "Musau P, Jani PG, Owillah FA.Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. DESIGN: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from November 2004 to February 2005 in the adult general surgical wards. PATIENTS: Eighty consecutive admissions of adult patients with either blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and cause of injury, demographic data, temporal parameters, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The 80 patients had a male to female ratio of 12.3:1, the majority were in the third decade of life with a range 15-56 years and mean of 28.2 years. Penetrating to blunt abdominal injuries had 2:1 ratio with the leading causes of injury being stab wounds, gunshot wounds and road traffic accidents. Blunt abdominal injuries had a higher tendency to extra-abdominal injuries. Duration prior to presentation to hospital and surgery depended on severity of injury. Modes of management varied between attending surgical firms. There was a 20% change in the mode of management and a 16.1% rate of negative laparotomy. Penetrating injuries had a better interventional outcome. Penetrating abdominal injuries had higher rates of complications while the blunt injuries had higher rates of mortality. Overall, both the complication and mortality rates were 12.5%. Correlates of mortality included delay before surgery, associated injuries, need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care unit and duration prior to admission. Abdominal injury patients stayed an average of 6.4 days with the blunt injuries with complications staying close to twice as much as their penetrating counterparts. CONCLUSION: Abdominal injuries are a predominantly male disease with the majority in the third decade of life. As opposed to previous studies, gunshot wounds are now a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The outcome of management depends on the severity and type, of injury sustained.
Gupta H, Davidoff AM, Pui C-H, Shochat SJ, Sandlund JT. "Clinical implications and surgical management of intussusception in pediatric patients with {Burkitt} lymphoma." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2007;42:998-1001. AbstractWebsite
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Gureya D, Barreto J. "Profiling for Asymmetric NUMA Systems.". In: 11th EuroSys Doctoral Workshop (EuroDW'17). Belgrade, Serbia; 2017. Abstract

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Guthiga P;, Mburu J;, Holm-Muller K. "Local Communities’ Perceptions Towards Forest Management Regimes: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Kakamega Forest is located in western Kenya and covers approximately 240 Km2. The forest is the only lowland tropical rainforest in Kenya and it is world famous for its diversity of unique and numerous flora and fauna. However its survival is under immense threat since it is located in a densely populated area where local communities depend heavily on agriculture and forest extraction for their livelihoods. Currently, the forest is divided into three different parts that are managed through three distinct management approaches: an incentive-based approach of the Forest department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and a quasi private- approach of a local church mission, the Quakers. A review of literature clearly indicates that forest management regimes of public forests are important in assigning property rights to the various stakeholders and guiding use and consequently the outcomes. On the same footing research has pointed out the centrality of the local communities in the process of natural resource management. The persistence of resource degradation problems and failure of technical simple technical or economic prescription clearly indicates that there is need to consider the more complex aspects of natural resource management. The perception of the local people towards management regimes and the factors that condition their perception is important in designing policies for sustainable use of natural resources. This study considers how the local communities perceive the management regimes in terms of meeting the goal of utilising and conserving forest biodiversity. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results.

Guthiga P;, Mburu J. "Local Communities Incentives for Forest Conservation: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

"The study is based on a biodiversity-rich remnant of a tropical rainforest located in western Kenya under immense threat of survival. The forest is located in a densely populated area inhabited by poor farming communities. Currently the forest is managed by three management regimes each carrying out its function in a different manner. The study identifies, describes and where possible quantifies the various conservation incentives (both economic and non-economic) offered by the three management regimes. Further, the study analyses local people's perception of management regimes by generating management satisfaction rankings; both overall and for specific management aspects. The findings of the study indicate that extraction of direct forest products is the main incentive offered by two of the regimes. The local people obtain substantial financial benefits in the form of products they extract from the forest. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall for it performance. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results."

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire R, Kiarie JN, Mackelprang RD, Gatuguta A, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "Predicting pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS Behav. 2010;14(5):1066-71. Abstract

This study examines the incidence and predictors of pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples from Nairobi, Kenya. Women from 454 discordant couples were followed for up to 2 years. One-year cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 9.7%. Pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between HIV-1-infected and uninfected women (HR = 1.46). The majority of pregnancies occurred among women < 30 years old reporting a desire for future children (1-year incidence 22.2%). Pregnancy rates may be high among discordant couples, indicating desire for children may override concerns of HIV-1 transmission and increase unprotected sex, and highlighting the need to make conception safer.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Whittington WLH, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(12):e8276. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, Kinuthia J, Whittington WL, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.". 2011. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire R, Kiarie JN, Mackelprang RD, Gatuguta A, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "Predicting pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples."; 2010. Abstract

This study examines the incidence and predictors of pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples from Nairobi, Kenya. Women from 454 discordant couples were followed for up to 2 years. One-year cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 9.7%. Pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between HIV-1-infected and uninfected women (HR = 1.46). The majority of pregnancies occurred among women < 30 years old reporting a desire for future children (1-year incidence 22.2%). Pregnancy rates may be high among discordant couples, indicating desire for children may override concerns of HIV-1 transmission and increase unprotected sex, and highlighting the need to make conception safer.

Guthua SW, Odhiambo WA. "Non-War Related Gunshot Injuries.". 2008.
Guthua SW. "protection against AIDS." (1985).
Guthua SW, F.G. M, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
Guthua SW, F.G. M, Mwaniki DL, Okallo G. "Occupational exposure of health personnel to disinfectants .". 1996.
Guthua SW, Odhiambo WA. "Gunshot Injuries in Maxillofacial Region.". 2008.
Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL, Chindia ML. "Reliability of clinical crieteria in diagnosing HIV.". 1993.
GUTO DRPETERSONMOMANYI. "Peterson M. Guto. Authored "Theory of Spectroscopy." The University of Nairobi Council; 2010.
Guyenet PG. "The sympathetic control of blood pressure." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7:335-346. AbstractWebsite

Hypertension — the chronic elevation of blood pressure — is a major human health problem. In most cases, the root cause of the disease remains unknown, but there is mounting evidence that many forms of hypertension are initiated and maintained by an elevated sympathetic tone. This review examines how the sympathetic tone to cardiovascular organs is generated, and discusses how elevated sympathetic tone can contribute to hypertension.

Guyton A, Hall J. Guyton {Textbook} {Of} {Medical} {Physiology} 11th {Edition}. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Inc.; 2006. AbstractWebsite

guyton

GW DRJALDESA, ZP DRQURESHI, SMH DRWANJALA, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Factors Enhancing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Somalis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998. 1998;14(2):110-114. AbstractWebsite

This is a descriptive cross sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 300 respondents who had infibulation as a form of female genital circumcision.The interviews were conducted at Garissa General Hosptial Gynaecology out-patient clinic. The objective of this study was to establish the factors that enhance the practice of female circumcision.
Female circumcision was performed between 3 to 14 years of age with the peak age of 7 years. In 83% of the respondents the event was arranged by the mother of the respondents. The three leading reasons why the practice was carried out in the community were, religious demand(66.3%), prevention of enlargement of clitoris(51%), and protection of virginity (48.3%).
In conclusion FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is traditionally justified but has no medical support.

Gwaki DL, N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M. "STOCHASTIC RESONANCE IN BISTABLE SYSTEMS.". 2007. Abstract

The stochastic Resonance (also known as SR) a phenomenon in which the signal and the signal to noise ratio of a non linear device is maximized for a moderate value of noise intensity.It often occurs in bistable and excitable systems with subthreshold inputs.For lower noise intensities,the signal does not cause the device to cross threshold so little signal is passed through it.For large noise intensities,the output is domonated by the noise,also leading ,also leading to a low signal to noise ratio.
For moderate intensities,the noise allows the signal to reach threshold ,but the noise intensity is not so large as to swamp it.Thus,a plot of signal to noise ratio as a function of noise intensity shows an upside down 'U" shape.Theoretical ideas explaining and describing SR are discussed.Some revealing experimental data that places SR within the wider context of statistical physics has been reviewed and established.

Gwako G, Qureshi Z, Kudoyi W, Were F. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr. 2013;25(1):3-9 .
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili: Siraji na Adili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(4):200-215 .
Gwako Bosibori Jackline RTHM&. "A Comperative Analysis of Virtue-Based Content for Youth in Two Epics in Swahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2017;4(2374-8850 (Print) 2374-8869 (online)):200-215 .
Gwendo JO, Muchemi L. "A Knowledge-based System for Selection of Trees for Urban Environments." Journal of Artificial Intelligence. 2012;5(1):37-46.gwedo_muchemi_jai_2012_37-46.pdf
Gyllensten L, Malmfors T, Norrlin M-L. "Effect of visual deprivation on the optic centers of growing and adult mice." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1965;124:149-160. AbstractWebsite

The thickness of the visual cortex, the diameter of cell nuclei and the mean volume of internuclear material per nucleus in the visual cortex, geniculate bodies and superior colliculi were determined in growing and adult mice. The influence of prolonged stay in complete darkness was investigated.In the visual cortex of normal mice, a peak in nuclear size occurred 20–30 days after birth, followed by a peak in relative volume of internuclear material.In growing mice, reared in darkness from birth, a highly significant decrease in relative volume of internuclear material occurred in all visual centers. The decrease was greatest in the geniculate bodies and greater in the granular and supragranular layers of the cortex than in the infragranular. In the cortex, the decrease was most pronounced after two months and became less pronounced during prolonged stay in darkness. No similar normalization was observed in subcortical visual centers. In the same mice, visual deprivation caused a highly significant decrease in the thickness of the visual cortex and in the diameter of its cell nuclei. The decrease in nuclear diameter was greater in the granular and supragranular than in the infragranular layers of the cortex and exhibited a similar normalization during prolonged stay in darkness as the decrease in relative volume of internuclear material.In adult mice, visual deprivation caused decrease in internuclear material.

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