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2011
Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite
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Gichuki N. "The Paradox in the Implementation Matrix in Capital Markets Reform in Kenya.". In: Emerging Trends in Commercial & Financial Law Workshop. KCB Leadership Centre, Karen, Nairobi; 2011.
Gor SO. "2. An Assessment of the Trade Potential from the East African Community Integration.". In: TRAPCA’s Trade Policy Research Forum . Arusha, Tanzania; 2011.
Mureithi SM, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Verdoodt A, Warinwa F, Ranst VE. "Impact of rehabilitated sites on herbivore dynamics in a livestock-wildlife interface in Laikipia, Kenya. CBD Technical Series. 62. p.78-80.". In: CBD SBSTTA 15 - Fifteenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. Montreal, Canada: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

Refer Website

Gor SO, Wanjiru CM. "Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya.". In: OIDA’s International Conference on Sustainable Development. , Putrajaya, Malaysia; 2011.
Gichuki NN, Ndiwa T, Jackson C, Olivier H. "Status of globally threatened waterbirds in Tana delta, Kenya.". In: Third Biennial Scientific Conference, National Musuems of Kenya, Nairobi. Nairobi, Kenya ; 2011.
Muthomi JW, Gachu SM, Narla RD, Nderitu JH. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops.". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.management_of_thrips_thrips_tabaci_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_vegetable_intercrops.pdf
Ogeng'o JA, Njongo W, Hemed E, Obimbo MM, Gimongo J. "Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery in an African population." Clin Anat. 2011;24(6):692-8. Abstract

Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery influences frequency of its aneurysms, and is of potential value in their surgical repair and diagnosis of stroke. This pattern shows inter-population variations but there is paucity of data from Africans. This study aimed at describing branching pattern among black Kenyans. Middle cerebral arteries numbering 288 from 144 formalin fixed brains obtained during dissection and autopsy at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were studied. Origin of the middle cerebral artery was identified at base of brain and its stem followed by gently separating the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes. Pattern of early cortical, lenticulostriate, and terminal branching was recorded and macrographs taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 for windows and presented using macrographs. All the brains had bilateral middle cerebral arteries which were continuations of the internal carotid artery. Variations of the artery observed included duplication (1.7%), early bifurcation (5.2%), and early cortical branching (47%), predominantly temporal (63.9%). Lenticulostriate arteries arose predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment as single branches (64.6%), and as common trunks (35.4%). Modes of termination were bifurcation (82.3%), trifurcation (10.8%), primary trunks (6.2%), and quadrifurcation (0.7%). Cortical branching pattern of the middle cerebral artery resembles that of Caucasian and Indian populations suggesting equal vulnerability to aneurysms and stroke. Pattern of origin of lenticulostriate arteries, predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment and higher percentage of common trunks implies that the population is more prone to ischemia after aneurysm repair. Extra diligence during operation on proximal middle cerebral artery is called for.

Ogeng'o JA, Njongo W, Hemed E, Obimbo MM, Gimongo J. "Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery in an African population." Clin Anat. 2011;24(6):692-8. Abstract

Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery influences frequency of its aneurysms, and is of potential value in their surgical repair and diagnosis of stroke. This pattern shows inter-population variations but there is paucity of data from Africans. This study aimed at describing branching pattern among black Kenyans. Middle cerebral arteries numbering 288 from 144 formalin fixed brains obtained during dissection and autopsy at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were studied. Origin of the middle cerebral artery was identified at base of brain and its stem followed by gently separating the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes. Pattern of early cortical, lenticulostriate, and terminal branching was recorded and macrographs taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 for windows and presented using macrographs. All the brains had bilateral middle cerebral arteries which were continuations of the internal carotid artery. Variations of the artery observed included duplication (1.7%), early bifurcation (5.2%), and early cortical branching (47%), predominantly temporal (63.9%). Lenticulostriate arteries arose predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment as single branches (64.6%), and as common trunks (35.4%). Modes of termination were bifurcation (82.3%), trifurcation (10.8%), primary trunks (6.2%), and quadrifurcation (0.7%). Cortical branching pattern of the middle cerebral artery resembles that of Caucasian and Indian populations suggesting equal vulnerability to aneurysms and stroke. Pattern of origin of lenticulostriate arteries, predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment and higher percentage of common trunks implies that the population is more prone to ischemia after aneurysm repair. Extra diligence during operation on proximal middle cerebral artery is called for.

Ogeng'o JA, Obimbo MM, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Ong'era D. "Pulmonary thromboembolism in an East African tertiary referral hospital." J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011;32(3):386-91. Abstract

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a frequent cause of mortality in Kenya, but its characteristics are hardly reported in Subsaharan Africa. To describe the pattern of PTE among black Africans, in a Kenyan referral hospital. Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Records of patients seen between January 2005 and December 2009 were examined for mode of diagnosis, comorbidities, age, gender, treatment and outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 and are presented in tables and bar charts. One hundred and twenty-eight (60 male; 68 female) cases were analyzed. Diagnosis was made by clinical evaluation, a Well's score of >4.0, high D-dimer levels and ultrasound demonstration of a proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT, 35.9%), lung spiral computer tomography (CT, 50%), multidetector CT (7.8%) and angiography (6.3%). Most frequent comorbidities included DVT (36%); hypertension (18.8%); pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, 12.5%); HIV infection (10.9%), pueperium, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking (9.4% each). Mean age was 40.8 years (range 5-86 years) with a peak between 30 and 50 years. Over 46% of patients were aged 40 years and less. Male:female ratio was 1:1.13. All the patients were treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics with only one having embolectomy. Ninety-two patients (71.9%) recovered, 18.8% of them with cor pulmonale, while 28.1% died. PTE is not uncommon in Kenya. It affects many individuals below 40 years without a gender bias, and carries high morbidity and mortality. Associated comorbidities include venous thrombosis, lifestyle conditions and communicable diseases. Control measures targeting both are recommended.

Ogeng'o JA, Obimbo MM, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Ong'era D. "Pulmonary thromboembolism in an East African tertiary referral hospital." J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011;32(3):386-391. Abstract

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a frequent cause of mortality in Kenya, but its characteristics are hardly reported in Subsaharan Africa. To describe the pattern of PTE among black Africans, in a Kenyan referral hospital. Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Records of patients seen between January 2005 and December 2009 were examined for mode of diagnosis, comorbidities, age, gender, treatment and outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 and are presented in tables and bar charts. One hundred and twenty-eight (60 male; 68 female) cases were analyzed. Diagnosis was made by clinical evaluation, a Well's score of >4.0, high D-dimer levels and ultrasound demonstration of a proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT, 35.9%), lung spiral computer tomography (CT, 50%), multidetector CT (7.8%) and angiography (6.3%). Most frequent comorbidities included DVT (36%); hypertension (18.8%); pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, 12.5%); HIV infection (10.9%), pueperium, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking (9.4% each). Mean age was 40.8 years (range 5-86 years) with a peak between 30 and 50 years. Over 46% of patients were aged 40 years and less. Male:female ratio was 1:1.13. All the patients were treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics with only one having embolectomy. Ninety-two patients (71.9%) recovered, 18.8% of them with cor pulmonale, while 28.1% died. PTE is not uncommon in Kenya. It affects many individuals below 40 years without a gender bias, and carries high morbidity and mortality. Associated comorbidities include venous thrombosis, lifestyle conditions and communicable diseases. Control measures targeting both are recommended.

Ogeng'o JA, Obimbo MM, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Ong'era D. "Pulmonary thromboembolism in an East African tertiary referral hospital." J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011;32(3):386-91. Abstract

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a frequent cause of mortality in Kenya, but its characteristics are hardly reported in Subsaharan Africa. To describe the pattern of PTE among black Africans, in a Kenyan referral hospital. Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Records of patients seen between January 2005 and December 2009 were examined for mode of diagnosis, comorbidities, age, gender, treatment and outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 and are presented in tables and bar charts. One hundred and twenty-eight (60 male; 68 female) cases were analyzed. Diagnosis was made by clinical evaluation, a Well's score of >4.0, high D-dimer levels and ultrasound demonstration of a proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT, 35.9%), lung spiral computer tomography (CT, 50%), multidetector CT (7.8%) and angiography (6.3%). Most frequent comorbidities included DVT (36%); hypertension (18.8%); pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, 12.5%); HIV infection (10.9%), pueperium, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking (9.4% each). Mean age was 40.8 years (range 5-86 years) with a peak between 30 and 50 years. Over 46% of patients were aged 40 years and less. Male:female ratio was 1:1.13. All the patients were treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics with only one having embolectomy. Ninety-two patients (71.9%) recovered, 18.8% of them with cor pulmonale, while 28.1% died. PTE is not uncommon in Kenya. It affects many individuals below 40 years without a gender bias, and carries high morbidity and mortality. Associated comorbidities include venous thrombosis, lifestyle conditions and communicable diseases. Control measures targeting both are recommended.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Wanje GH, Graham SM, Mutunga E, Peshu N, Kiarie JN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W. "Association between participant self-report and biological outcomes used to measure sexual risk behavior in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(5):429-33. Abstract

Few studies have examined the association between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and biologic outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seropositive African adults.

Kamau L, Skilton RA, Odongo DO, Mwaura S, Githaka N, Kanduma E, Obura M, Kabiru E, Orago A, Musoke A, Bishop RP. "Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida)." Insect Mol. Biol.. 2011;20(1):105-14. Abstract

The transcriptional control of gene expression is not well documented in the Arthropoda. We describe transcriptional analysis of two exceptionally divergent homologues (Ra86) of the Bm86 gut antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bm86 forms the basis of a commercial vaccine for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. appendiculatus Ra86 proteins contain 654 and 693 amino acids, with only 80% amino acid sequence identity. Reverse-transcription PCR of gut cDNA showed transcription of only one genotype in individual female ticks. PCR amplification of 3' untranslated sequences from genomic DNA indicated that both variants could be encoded within a single genome. When both variants were present, one of the two Ra86 genotypes was transcriptionally dominant.

Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opondo C, Opiyo N, Migiro S, Wamae A, Mogoa W, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "A multifaceted intervention to implement guidelines and improve admission paediatric care in Kenyan district hospitals: a cluster randomised trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(4):e1001018. Abstract

In developing countries referral of severely ill children from primary care to district hospitals is common, but hospital care is often of poor quality. However, strategies to change multiple paediatric care practices in rural hospitals have rarely been evaluated.

Ogeng'o JA, Gatonga P, Olabu BO. "Cardiovascular causes of death in an east African country: an autopsy study." Cardiol J. 2011;18(1):67-72. Abstract

The spectrum of cardiovascular diseases varies between countries. Data from east Africa is scarce, but important in formulating disease management strategies. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular causes of death in Kenya.

Ogeng'o JA, Gatonga P, Olabu BO. "Cardiovascular causes of death in an east African country: an autopsy study." Cardiol J. 2011;18(1):67-72. Abstract

The spectrum of cardiovascular diseases varies between countries. Data from east Africa is scarce, but important in formulating disease management strategies. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular causes of death in Kenya.

Opondo C, Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opiyo N, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Allen E, Carpenter J, English M. "Effect of a multi-faceted quality improvement intervention on inappropriate antibiotic use in children with non-bloody diarrhoea admitted to district hospitals in Kenya." BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:109. Abstract

There are few reports of interventions to reduce the common but irrational use of antibiotics for acute non-bloody diarrhoea amongst hospitalised children in low-income settings. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from an intervention comprising training of health workers, facilitation, supervision and face-to-face feedback, to assess whether it reduced inappropriate use of antibiotics in children with non-bloody diarrhoea and no co-morbidities requiring antibiotics, compared to a partial intervention comprising didactic training and written feedback only. This outcome was not a pre-specified end-point of the main trial.

English M, Nzinga J, Mbindyo P, Ayieko P, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Mbaabu L. "Explaining the effects of a multifaceted intervention to improve inpatient care in rural Kenyan hospitals--interpretation based on retrospective examination of data from participant observation, quantitative and qualitative studies." Implement Sci. 2011;6:124. Abstract

We have reported the results of a cluster randomized trial of rural Kenyan hospitals evaluating the effects of an intervention to introduce care based on best-practice guidelines. In parallel work we described the context of the study, explored the process and perceptions of the intervention, and undertook a discrete study on health worker motivation because this was felt likely to be an important contributor to poor performance in Kenyan public sector hospitals. Here, we use data from these multiple studies and insights gained from being participants in and observers of the intervention process to provide our explanation of how intervention effects were achieved as part of an effort to better understand implementation in low-income hospital settings.

Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Ogeng'o JA, Gatonga P, Olabu BO, Ongera D. "Pattern of hypertensive kidney disease in a black Kenyan population." Cardiology. 2011;120(3):125-9. Abstract

Hypertensive kidney disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its pattern displays geographical and ethnic variations. Data on these patterns are important for informing management and prevention strategies, but on Kenyans such data are scarce.

Ogeng'o JA, Gatonga P, Olabu BO, Ongera D. "Pattern of hypertensive kidney disease in a black Kenyan population." Cardiology. 2011;120(3):125-9. Abstract

Hypertensive kidney disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its pattern displays geographical and ethnic variations. Data on these patterns are important for informing management and prevention strategies, but on Kenyans such data are scarce.

Gathara D, Opiyo N, Wagai J, Ntoburi S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Wamae A, Migiro S, Mogoa W, Wasunna A, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Quality of hospital care for sick newborns and severely malnourished children in Kenya: a two-year descriptive study in 8 hospitals." BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:307. Abstract

Given the high mortality associated with neonatal illnesses and severe malnutrition and the development of packages of interventions that provide similar challenges for service delivery mechanisms we set out to explore how well such services are provided in Kenya.

Marika NM, Ganesh PP. "Video-Based Distance Learning Using Videoteleconferecing Technology in Institutions Higher Education in Kenya.". In: ORSEA Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2011.
Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
Chohan BH, Froggett S, Emery S WD, G J-S, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, J. O. "8.Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting." BMC Pediatr. 2011 Feb 18;11:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-18.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to develop an economical 'in-house' single round polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using filter paper-dried blood spots (FP-DBS) for early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and to evaluate its performance in an African setting.
METHODS:
An 'in-house' single round PCR assay that targets conserved regions in the HIV-1 polymerase (pol) gene was validated for use with FP-DBS; first we validated this assay using FP-DBS spiked with cell standards of known HIV-1 copy numbers. Next, we validated the assay by testing the archived FP-DBS (N=115) from infants of known HIV-1 infection status. Subsequently this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay was then established in Nairobi, Kenya for further evaluation on freshly collected FP-DBS (N=186) from infants, and compared with findings from a reference laboratory using the Roche Amplicor® HIV-1 DNA Test, version 1.5 assay.
RESULTS:
The HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay could detect one HIV-1 proviral copy in 38.7% of tests, 2 copies in 46.9% of tests, 5 copies in 72.5% of tests and 10 copies in 98.1% of tests performed with spiked samples. Using the archived FP-DBS samples from infants of known infection status, this assay was 92.8% sensitive and 98.3% specific for HIV-1 infant diagnosis. Using 186 FP-DBS collected from infants recently defined as HIV-1 positive using the commercially available Roche Amplicor v1.5 assay, 178 FP-DBS tested positive by this 'in-house' single-round HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS PCR assay. Upon subsequent retesting, the 8 infant FP-DBS samples that were discordant were confirmed as HIV-1 negative by both assays using a second blood sample.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1 was detected with high sensitivity and specificity using both archived and more recently collected samples. This suggests that this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol FP-DBS PCR assay can provide an alternative cost-effective, reliable and rapid method for early detection of HIV-1 infection in infants.

C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM, Vanlauwe B, de Goede RGM, Six J, Csuzdi C, Brussaard L. "Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2011;148:148-154. Abstract

Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the subhumid
to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic richness decreased in the direction fallow > high-C soil > low-C soil and earthworm abundance was higher in fallow than under continuous crop production. Termite abundance was not significantly different between fallow and high and low-C treatments and termite taxonomic richness was higher in fallow soil than in the two cropping systems. We concluded that fewer species of earthworms and termites were favored under agricultural management that led to lower soil C. Results indicated that the soil disturbance induced by continuous crop production was more detrimental to earthworms than to termites, when compared to the fallow.
Keywords: Soil biodiversity, Earthworms, Termites, Agriculture, Crop management, Soil carbon, Climate

Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO, Rading GO. "Analysis of natural degradation of high-density polyethylene lining using time-dependent properties.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this study was to determine the service life of high-density polyethylene lining when exposed to natural degradation in tropical climates using time-dependant properties. The changes in material density, strength, and strain at fracture over the degradation period were determined. Optical micrographs were obtained to track the changes in the material during aging. An exponential decay equation was developed that estimates of the service life of the high-density polyethylene lining. It was concluded that most of the degradation of the material takes place in the first few months of installation and that both the density and mechanical strength of the material increased in the course of degradation, whereas the fracture strain reduced over time. It was concluded that the most important factor that determines the lifespan of the liner is the ability to maintain high strains. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2011. © 2011 Society of Plastics Engineers

Musau JK, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW. "The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru Central District, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Five medicinal plants used by traditional medical health practitioners (TMP) in Meru central district namely: Piliostigma thonningii, Ajuga remota, Ocimum suave, Erythrina abyssinica and Harissonia abyssinica were investigated for their antibacterial activity against standard bacterial cultures namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of the methanolic and water extracts was determined using the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) were more susceptible to the plant extracts than Gram negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). The MIC and MBC of the positive control antibiotics (Ampicillin for gram positive and Gentamycin for gram negative) were less than 1mg/ml. The most susceptible bacteria was S. aureus followed by B. cereus while the most resistant was E. coli followed by P.aeruginosa. Methanolic extracts of P. thonningii stem and Ocimum suave leaves had the best antibacterial activity against the four bacterial species. There was no significant difference between the water and methanolic extracts of all the plants. These results justify the use of these plants by the traditional medical practitioners for management of bacterial conditions and further investigation on their safety and phytochemistry is needed.

Ndakala AJ, Gessner RK, Gitari PW, October N, White KL, Hudson A, Fakorede F, Shackleford DM, Kaiser M, Yeates C, Charman SA, Chibale K. "Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2011;54:4581-4589.Website
Onyango-Ouma W, Gerba. CP. "Away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya." Journal of Water and Health. 2011; 9(4):628-636. AbstractWebsite

Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).

Gatotoh AM. Behavior Change: An Assessment of Correctional Counselling . Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Academic publishing; 2011.
Yenesew A, Gumuia I, Heydenreich M, Derese S, Okalebo FA, Ndiege IO, Erdelyi M. "Bioactivity of 'Flemingin A' and other Natural Products from the leaves of Flemingia grahamiana.". 2011.yenesew.pdfWebsite
Bigirimana J, Njoroge K, Muthomi W, Gahakwa D, Phiri NA, Gichuru EK. "Breeding for resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berkely and Brome) and coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae Waller and Bridge) in Rwanda.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference. Rwanda; 2011.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Mulaa F. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference, College Of Health Sciences, University Of Nairobi.; 2011.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Mulaa F, Okalebo FA, Oluka M. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". 2011.Website
Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer in Kenya ." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2011;7. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2011;7. Abstract

Background
The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges.
Method
Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality while secondary outcomes included recurrence rates, time to recurrence and the patient, disease and treatment factors associated with mortality and recurrence. Kaplan Meir charts were charted for survival trends.
Results
Half of the lesions were located in the rectum. There was no relationship between the sub-site location and recurrence and mortality. The mean follow-up period was 15.9 months. Overall recurrency and mortality rates were 37.5% and 29.4% respectively. Most recurrences occurred within one year of surgery. Recurrence was not influenced by age, gender, sub-site, chemotherapy receipt or presence of comorbidity.
Factors significantly associated with mortality included the
male gender ( p 0.04), presence of co-morbidity (p 0.029), recurrence (p 0.001), curative intent (p 0.01), disease stage (p 0.036) and receipt of chemotherapy ( p< 0.01).
Conclusion
Follow up of colorectal cancer patients is still challenging. The mortality and recurrence rates are high for the short follow up periods. Further studies are needed to explore the determinants of both survival and recurrences, especially with longer follow ups.

Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Clinical, Haematological, Biochemical and Pathological Manifestations of Sub-acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:17-24.
Chindia M, Gathece L, Dimba EAO, Kamau MW, D.awange. "Clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies with emphasis sarcomas-A 10 Year Review.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Sarcomas are malignant neoplasms that occur anywhere in the human body. Though their occurrence in the head and neck region is rare vis-a-vis other malignancies, their presence is of tremendous concern due to their often grave prognosis. Objective: To determine the pattern of occurrence, histopathologic types of maxillofacial sarcomas and their proportion to other malignant neoplasms of this region based on archival material accumulated over 10 years (2000-2009). Design: A combined retrospective and prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH).
Subjects: All caseswithadiagnosisofsarcomaregisteredbetween2000-2009wereevaluated. Results: Of the 528 malignancies recorded over the ten-year period, 427 (80.9%) were of epithelial origin while 101 (19.1 %) were sarcomas. Patients with epithelial malignancies were older (54.16 ± 15.94 years) than patients with sarcomas (31.73 ± 16.78) with the differences having been statistically significant. Osteosarcoma was the most commonly occurring sarcoma (29.7%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (28.7%), fibrosarcoma (FBS) (18.8%), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) (9.9%). Sarcomas peaked in the third decade with 70% occurring below the age of 40 years. The maxilla and the mandible were the most afflicted sites in the maxillofacial region accounting' for 52%. The patients on average presented to medical personel about nine months after noticing the lesion with the most frequent complaint having been swelling.
Conclusion: The present study confirms the relative rarity of maxillofacial sarcomas. It also provides data on the histopathologic types and demographic characteristics of maxillofacial sarcomas in a select Kenyan population. This information is a contribution to the comprehensive documentation of sarcomas that occur globally and is useful in the provision of baseline data upon which future prospective analytical protocols may arise.

KAAYA GP, SAMISH, M., HEDIMBI, M., GINDIN G, GLAZER I. "Control of tick populations by spraying Metarhizium anisopliae conidia on cattle under field conditions. ." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 2011;55:273-281.
Gatotoh AM, Omulema B, E., D N. "Correctional AttitudesAn Impetus for a Paradigm Shift in Inmate Rehabilitation ." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science . 2011; Vol. 1 No. 4; April 2011 (4):263-270.correctional_attitudesan_impetus_for_a_paradigm_shift_in_inmate_rehabilitation.pdf
Ilovi CS, GN.Lule, Irimu H, Obel AO. Correlation of WHO clinical staging with CD4 counts in adult HIV/AIDS patients at KNH.; 2011. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of correlation between the WHO clinical staging and CD4 T cell counts in HIV / AIDS adults at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETIING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: 152 newly diagnosed HIV patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were first staged using the 2005 WHO clinical staging and then blood drawn for CD4 count. RESULTS: The mean age in the study was 35 years, with females comprising 56.2% of the study group. The mean CD4 counts were 455, 420, 203 and 92 for WHO Stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The sensitivity of the WHO clinical staging to predict CD4 counts of >350cells/lJl was 63% with a specificity of 82%. The commonest HIV clinical events were bacterial infections(33%), severe weight loss(28%) and tuberculosis(27%). CONCLUSIONS: There was correlation between the WHO clinical staging and expected CD4 T cell count. However, the sensitivity was low and missed over a third of the patients in need of HAART. Majority of the patients presented in severe disease in need of HAART at the onset of their HIV diagnosis with 107 (70.3%) of the patients with Stage 3 or 4 disease and 114 (75%) of patients with CD4 counts of <350 cells/pl. KEY WORDS: HIV, AIDS, CD4 counts, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi

Ilovi CS, GN.Lule, Irimu H, Obel A. "Correlation of WHO Clinical Staging with CD4 T cell counts in Adult HIV/AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." East African Medical Journal . 2011;Vol 88(No 2 (2011)):65-70.eamj_feb_2011-_csilovi_.pdf
G.Okeyo MUMBA, N.Maonga M, Malo.J.Otieno. "CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE FROM A NON CLASSICAL SPACE-TIME STATE. .". 2011. Abstract

Topological methods are used to study the creation of the universe from the initial hot state.It is found that the universe emerges from the initial compact stste with a finite size to an initial symmetric state and later evolves along the lines of the inflationary scenario to its asymmetric global minimum.The tunneling probability from this compactified state to a classical state(observable universe)rapidly approaches unity at very high temperatures where the particle masses are dominated by radiationThis inicates that the inital hot state is necessary for spontaneous quantum tunneling occur.
The bg bang singularity observed in the standard cosmological model is absent in this model.The result agrees to some extent with that that of refence for where a cosmological model is suggested in which the universe is spontaneosly created from nothing.It is this nothing that we interprete as the 'non classical space -time state' or 'instanton' in this paper.

GITURO WAINAINA, Kibera FN, K’Obonyo PO, Thuo JK. "Customer Relationship Management and Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Nairobi; 2011. Abstractcustomer_relationship_management_and_competitiveness_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Customer Relationship Management (CRM), also referred to as Relationship Marketing, is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy, conflicting opinions and increased pessimism about the effectiveness of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorous studies
to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation.
The general objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of the influence of CRM practices on organizational competitiveness and conduct an empirical assessment of the framework on the commercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection.
The study found statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationships between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderating role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was found not statistically significant. The overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significantly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational factors within the firm such as age, size, and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation, and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational
competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity.
Nonetheless, organizational factors positively enhance the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The results of the study have significant managerial and theoretical implications.
Key words: Customer Relationship Management, Relationship Marketing, Organizational Competitiveness, Marketing Productivity, Organizational Factors.

Gichuhi NW, Gitau AN, Mutua JM, Kaberere KK, Mangoli MK. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering . 2011;4(1):65-77.
Gichuhi, S, N.; GA, J.M.; M, K.K. K, M.K. M. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya. ." ICASTOR journal of engineering.. 2011;Vol. 4. No.1 (ISSN-0974-407X):65-77.
R.D N, Muthomi JW, Gachu SM, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping bulb onion and vegetables on purple blotch and downy mildew." Journal of Biological Sciences . 2011;11(1):52-57.effect_of_intercropping_bulb_onion_and_vegetables.pdf
Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Wepukhulu M, Kimenju J, Anyango B, Wachira P.M, G.K K. "Effect of soil fertility manangement practices and Bacillus subtilis on plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem. 2011;13(1):27-34.
Gohil TR, Mutave RJ, Dimba EAO. "Effects of chemotherapy on oral health in paediatric oncology patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Kenya Dental Association. 2011;2:184-189.
Mwangi FM, Wanderi PM, Wamukoya EK, Onywera VO, Gitonga ER. "Effects of different arm kinematics on performance in long distance running." International journal of current research. 2011;3(6):185-190.
J.J Muturi, J.P Mbugi, J.M Mueke, Lagerlof J, J.K Mungatu, Nyamasyo G, Gikungu M. "Effects of integrated soil fertility management interventions on the abundance and diversity of soil collembola in Embu and Taita Districts, Kenya." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13(1):37-42.
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Eliciting willingness-to-pay and benefits of livestock vaccination in Kenya.". 2011.
Awino ZB, GITURO WAINAINA. "An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Best Practices in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Volume 1(12):26-31.
P.K. T, Z. Q, G. N. "Estimation of blood loss after vaginal delivery." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2011;23(2):55-60. Abstract

Background: Thirty to thirty nine percent of maternal mortality is attributed to excess bleeding after childbirth. Amount of blood loss after childbirth is generally estimated visually though it is known that such estimates are grossly inaccurate. Locally, no studies had been done to assess the performance of visual estimation and direct measurement methods of estimating blood loss after delivery. This study aimed at estimating the amount of blood loss after childbirth using three different quantitative methods (visual estimation, direct measurement and laboratory determination). The study also aimed at establishing the incidence of Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH) in a setting where Active Management of Third Stage of Labor (AMSTL) is practiced.

Objectives: To determine the amount of blood loss and the prevalence of PPH after vaginal delivery.

Design: Analytic cross-sectional study.

Setting: Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects and methods: One hundred thirty four pregnant women delivering vaginally at PMH were recruited and studied. Sampled pregnant women were interviewed using a structured data collection form, pre- and post delivery venous blood samples were taken for determination of hematocrit and blood loss after delivery estimated visually by the primary clinician conducting the delivery and directly measured by the researchers.

Main outcome measures: Visually estimated blood loss, directly measured blood loss and pre-and post-delivery hematocrit values.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 24.7 ± 4.8 years. The mean visually estimated, directly measured and laboratory determined blood loss was 121.1 ml, 300.2 ml and 257.0 ml respectively. Prevalence of PPH (blood loss ≥ 500 ml) by visual estimation was zero percent and 13.4% (95% Cl 5.3 - 21.5) and 11.2% (95% Cl 4.0 - 18.8) by direct measurement and laboratory determination respectively. Visual estimation consistently underreported the most significant risk factor for PPH was performance of an episiotomy.

Conclusion: Visual estimation is not sensitive and grossly underestimates the amount of blood loss after delivery, magnitude of underestimation increases with increasing amount of blood loss. Direct measurement of blood loss is both highly sensitive and specific in the detection of PPH.

Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kareru PG, Mulei CM, Njonge FK. "Ethnobotanical Study of Anthelmintic and Other Medicinal Plants Traditionally used in Loitoktok District of Kenya." Journal of Ethno pharmacology. 2011;135:15-21.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Gakuya DW, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting." Frontiers in Pharmacology . 2011;2(30):1-14.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Gakuya D, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Ethnodiagnostic skills of the digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting.". 2011. Abstract

Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and
ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

PMID:
21738507

[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3125516

Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, M. M, Nguta JM. "Ethnoveterinary medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal plants products in Veterinary Medicine in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35(2):67-76.
Gatua W.K, Makumi J.K NKMWEMCS. "Evaluation of urinary tubular enzymes as screening markers of renal dysfunction in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus." Asian Journal of Medical Sciences . 2011;3(3):84-90.
Baldassarre GD, Elshamy M, v. Griensven A, Soliman E, Kigobe M, Ndomba P, Mutemi J, Mutua F, Moges S, Xuan Y, Solomatine D, Uhlenbrook S. "Future hydrology and climate in the River Nile basin: a review." Hydrological Sciences Journal . 2011;56(2).abstract.doc
Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago MS;, Pieter Deschaght MS;, Nabil El Aila MS;, Teresa N. Kiama MS;, Hans Verstraelen, MD PD;, Kimberly K. Jefferson PD;, Marleen Temmerman, MD PD;, Mario Vaneechoutte PD. "Gardnerella vaginalis comprises three distinct genotypes of which only two produce sialidase. ." Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(5):450-457.
Mary N, Nancy K, Gordon P, Diana L-S, Michael P. "Gender mainstreaming in organisational culture and agricultural research processes.". 2011. Abstract

Despite increased attention to gender issues in the international development arena since the rise of feminism in the 1970s, few agricultural research organisations have integrated gender in their problem diagnosis and technology development. Gender mainstreaming can significantly enhance the impact of research and technology development. Entrenching gender mainstreaming in organisations and their research agendas remains a challenge. To overcome it requires political will, accountability, a change in organisational culture, and technical capacity within an organisation. This article presents an illustration of gender-mainstreaming practice in the institutional culture and agricultural research processes by Urban Harvest and the International Potato Centre (CIP).

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

C. L’aho, G. C’wa, Y. F, M. H, G. P. "Genetic diversity of Kenyan potato germplasm revealed by simple sequence repeat markers." American Journal of Potato Research. 2011;88:424-434.genetic_diversity_of_kenyan_potato_germplasm_revealed.
Ouma C, Roca AL, were T, Raballah EO, Oguge NO, Jura WGZO, Ochieng JW, Hanotte O, Georgiadis N. "Genetic structure of hartebeest populations Straddling a transition zone between Morphotypes." J. Basic & Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;1(3):131-149.2011_ouma_et_al_jbasr.pdf
Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG, Team KBSS, Mbori-Ngacha DA, et al. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/123456789/30836.". 2011. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3) were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0%) and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%), respectively (p = 0.06); the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8%) and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants) were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These findings are consistent with those from other trials using maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens during breastfeeding in comparable settings.

Mwakimako H, Gona G. "IDP’s Narratives as Political Discourse of Identity." the Hague, Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation,. 2011.
Niels O Verhulst, Phoebe A Mbadi, Gabriella Bukovinszkine Kiss, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Renate C Smallegange. "Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:28.
Kisumbi BK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Gathece LW, Amisi SK. "Indications for initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restorations." African Journal of Oral Surgery. 2011.
Kisumbi BK, Alubale EA, Simila HO, Gathece LW, Amisi SK. "Indications of initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restorations." AJOHS. 2011;6(1):15-19. Abstract

Indications of initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restoraions.

GITURO WAINAINA. "An inequality perspective of education structure and performance in Kenya - University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited."; 2011. Abstractan_inequality_perspective_of_education_structure_and_performance_in_kenya.pdf

Education is an important determinant of individuals’ income, health as well as the capacity to interact and communicate with others. In spite of this view, there is considerable evidence of inequalities of opportunity in education in most developing countries. Differences abound with respect to sex of the head of the household, rural and urban areas heads, across population groups defined by parental education, region of residence and wealth. The probability that the household head is uneducated is higher than average when she is a woman and in general, household heads are more likely to have no education when they are in rural areas than in urban areas. Achievements by children in school vary considerably depending on the wealth of their household, their place of residence, the education of their mother and that of their father.
From the foregoing, the overall policy goal for the Kenyan Government is therefore to provide every Kenyan the right to education and training no matter his/her socio-economic status through the provision of all-inclusive quality education that is accessible and relevant. This vision is guided by the understanding that quality education and training contributes significantly to economic growth and the expansion of employment opportunities. The vision is in tandem with the Government’s plan as articulated in the Economic Recovery Strategy Paper which provides the rationale for major reforms in the current education system in order to enable all Kenyans to have access to quality lifelong education and training.
For the above reasons, the Kenyan Government has, over the years, demonstrated its commitment to the development of education and training through sustained allocation of resources to the sector. However, despite the substantial allocation of resources and notable achievements attained, the sector still faces major challenges related to access, equity, quality, relevance, efficiency in the management of educational resources, cost and financing of education, gender and regional disparities, and teacher quality and teacher utilization.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of inequalities that still exist within the Kenyan education system despite the Government’s efforts and at the same time suggest some policy issues and strategies thereof. The paper looks at the background to inequalities in education, education with respect to employment and national development, impact of free primary education, inequalities in education, an analysis of education expenditure and ends with a discussion on several strategies that must be implemented in order to reverse the current inequalities in education in Kenya.

Odhiambo WA;, Guthua SW;, Munene, J; Kariuki C;, Thang’a; PW. "Intra-myocardial Bullet in a Multiple Firearm Injury Patient: Case report on Management Challenges.". 2011.
MOULTON, J.E., Movassaghi, M., Jamison, J.L., Lobo, C., Lobo, C., Witbeck, W., Gikonyo, K., Gaynor, J., Rothschild, L.J., Mwaura F, and Duboise SM. "Isolation and Initial Study of Ø1M3-16, a Bacteriophage Infecting an Alkaliphilic Nitrincola sp Isolate from Lake Magadi, a Soda Lake in Kenya’s Great Rift Valley." Microscopy & Microanalysis,. 2011;17, S2, :350-351b.
Gichuki N. Law of Financial Institutions in Kenya. Nairobi: LawAfrica; 2011.
Susan S Imbahale, Krijn P Paaijmans, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ron van Lammeren, Githeko AK, Takken W. "A longitudinal study on Anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:81.
Otieno SP, Ng'ang'a E. Mami Baba/Fafa. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Muthomi JW;, Gachu SM;, Narla RD;, Nderitu J. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops."; 2011.
Muthomi JW;, Gachu SM;, Narla RD;, Nderitu J. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops."; 2011.
Gitau CMW, Gor SO. "Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2011;2(12):1-18.
George N,(Eds) KW. Media Contents: Evolution, Effects and Challenges in the Kenyan Context.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2011.
Wambugu SN, Mbaabu M, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya." Journal of Etnopharmacology. 2011;137:945-955. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

Wambugu SN, Mathiu PM, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage hronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal medical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains.
CONCLUSIONS:
The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:
21782014
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wambugu SN, MBAABU MP, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, SG K. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

Otieno SPV. Mtoto Wa Afrika. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opondo C, Opiyo N, Migiro S, Wamae A, Mogoa W, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines and Improve Admission Paediatric Care in Kenyan District Hospitals: A Cluster Randomised Trial.". 2011;8(4):19. Abstract

Abstract
Background:In developing countries referral of severely ill children from primary care to district hospitals is common, but hospital care is often of poor quality. However, strategies to change multiple paediatric care practices in rural hospitals have rarely been evaluated.
MethodsandFindings:This cluster randomized trial was conducted in eight rural Kenyan district hospitals, four of which were randomly assigned to a full intervention aimed at improving quality of clinical care (evidence-based guidelines, training, job aides, local facilitation, supervision, and face-to-face feedback; n = 4) and the remaining four to control intervention (guidelines, didactic training, job aides, and written feedback; n = 4). Prespecified structure, process, and outcome indicators were measured at baseline and during three and five 6-monthly surveys in control and intervention hospitals, respectively. Primary outcomes were process of care measures, assessed at 18 months postbaseline. In both groups performance improved from baseline. Completion of admission assessment tasks was higher in intervention sites at 18 months (mean = 0.94 versus 0.65, adjusted difference 0.54 [95% confidence interval 0.05–0.29]). Uptake of guideline recommended therapeutic practices was also higher within intervention hospitals: adoption of once daily gentamicin (89.2% versus 74.4%; 17.1% [8.04%–26.1%]); loading dose quinine (91.9% versus 66.7%, 26.3% [23.66% to 56.3%]); and adequate prescriptions of intravenous fluids for severe dehydration (67.2% versus 40.6%; 29.9% [10.9%–48.9%]). The proportion of children receiving inappropriate doses of drugs in intervention hospitals was lower (quinine dose .40 mg/ kg/day; 1.0% versus 7.5%; 26.5% [212.9% to 0.20%]), and inadequate gentamicin dose (2.2% versus 9.0%; 26.8% [211.9% to 21.6%]).
Conclusions:Specific efforts are needed to improve hospital care in developing countries. A full, multifaceted intervention was associated with greater changes in practice spanning multiple, high mortality conditions in rural Kenyan hospitals than a partial intervention, providing one model for bridging the evidence to practice gap and improving admission care in similar settings.

Awori MN, Finucane K, Gentles TL. "Optimal Normative Pediatric Cardiac Structure Dimensions for Clinical Use." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2011;2(1):85-89.normative_data_abstract.png
HEDIMBI, M., KAAYA GP, SAMISH M, GINDIN, G., GLAZER I. "Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the red-legged tick, Rhipicephalus evertsi everts." Journal of Entomology and Nematology. 2011;3(7): 68-72.
K A, A P, G G. "Pattern of Inner- vation of the Upper Gluteus Maximus Muscle: Implication in Prosthetic Hip Dislocation." Annals of African Surgery. 2011;8(2):28-30. Abstract

Gluteus Maximus Muscle: Implication in Prosthetic Hip Dislocation
Awori K.O. MBChB, MMed (Surgery), Dip. (SICOT), FCS (Orth) ECSA, Anne N. Pulei A.A. Bsc, MBChB, Gikenye G. MBChB, MMed,FCS(ECSA) Affiliation: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Correspondingauthor: KirsteenO.Awori,Tel.254-722812499,Email: karsto2005@yahoo.com
Abstract
Background: Dislocation is one of the most common complications after total hip arthroplasty. The posterolateral approach avoids disruption of the abductor mechanism but may denervate gluteus maximus as a basis for associated higher dislocation rates.
Objective: To determine the pattern of innervation of gluteus maximus Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study
Materials and methods: Twenty four cadavers for routine dissection in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi were used. Having exposed the gluteus maximus, the muscle was transected close to its distal attachment and reflected superiorly to expose the entry of the neurovascular structures into it from the greater sciatic foramen. The pattern of distribution of the inferior gluteal nerve to the muscle was
Introduction
Gluteus maximus (GM) is a powerful hip extensor inner- vated by the inferior gluteal nerve (IFN) and an impor- tant muscle in rising up from squatting position, climb- ing (1) and running (2). Its functions during running are to control flexion of the trunk on the stance-side (3) and to decelerate the swing leg. Low levels of GM activity may contribute to hip extension during stance, and to re- strain hip flexion during swing. During loading response of the gait cycle, in the frontal plane, activity in the up- per portions of the gluteus maximus, hip abductors and tensor fascia lata control drop of the contralateral pelvis, which is relative hip adduction (4).
Risk factors in prosthetic hip dislocation include patient- related ones such as neuromuscular disease (5) and sur- gical ones. Of the surgically-related factors, the approach has generated a lot of controversy. In the Moore posteri- or approach to the hip the incision starts 10 centimetres from the posterior superior iliac spine, is directed later- ally and distally to the back of the greater trochanter and extends for 10 or more centimetres, parallel to the shaft of the femur. The deep fascia is exposed and the iliotibial band is incised from the trochanter to the distal end of
noted and the left and right in the same cadaver compared
Results: In all the 48 cadaver sides, the inferior gluteal nerve exited
the pelvis via the infra-piriformic compartment of the greater sciatic foramen. In majority (43, 89.6%) of gluteal regions this nerve funned out in multiple equal branches to the GM. Only one branch crossed the upper border of piriformis muscle. In 5 cases, this single branch that crossed the upper border of piriformis was a major trunk almost equal in size to the parent nerve. One such case was bilateral.
Conclusion: A major branch of the inferior gluteal nerve to the upper part of GM, when present, could be injured in the posterior approaches to the hip to significantly weaken the upper part of this muscle increasing the risk of prosthetic hip dislocation.

M KM, G WE, N MB. "Periodontal treatment needs of psychiatric inpatients at Mathari Mental Hospital." Journal of Kenya Dental Association. 2011;(4):103-107.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K.Maloba, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE)." East Afric. J. Bot. 2(1): 279-289. 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Cohen D, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Leucht S, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Asai I, Möller H, Gautam S, Detraux J, Correll CU. "Physcial Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders II.". 2011.physcial_illness_in_patients_ii_2011.pdf
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Correll CU, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Cohen D, Asai I, Detraux J, Gautam S, Möller H, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Leucht S. "Physical Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders I.". 2011.physical_illness_in_patients_1_2011.pdf
Albert O. Mala, Lucy W. Irungu, Josephat I.Shililu, Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles C. Mbogo, Joseph K. Njagi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Githure JI. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:121.
Zeh C, Amornkul PN, Inzaule S, Ondoa P, Oyaro B, Mwaengo DM, Vandenhoudt H, Gichangi A, Williamson J, Thomas T, De Cock KM, Hart C, Nkengasong J, Laserson. K. "Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. A panel of 298, HIV-seronegative individuals aged 13-34 years was randomly selected from participants in two population-based cross-sectional surveys assessing HIV prevalence and other sexually transmitted infections in western Kenya. The adolescent (<18 years)-to-adults (≥ 18 years) ratio and the male-to-female ratio was 1∶1. Median and 95% reference ranges were calculated for immunohematological and biochemistry values. Compared with U.S-derived reference ranges, we detected lower hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), neutrophil, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen values but elevated eosinophil and total bilirubin values. Significant gender variation was observed in hematological parameters in addition to T-bilirubin and creatinine indices in all age groups, AST in the younger and neutrophil, platelet and CD4 indices among the older age group. Age variation was also observed, mainly in hematological parameters among males. Applying U.S. NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity grading to our results, 40% of otherwise healthy study participants were classified as having an abnormal laboratory parameter (grade 1-4) which would exclude them from participating in clinical trials. Hematological and biochemistry reference values from African population differ from those derived from a North American population, showing the need to develop region-specific reference values. Our data also show variations in hematological indices between adolescent and adult males which should be considered when developing reference ranges. This study provides the first locally-derived clinical laboratory reference ranges for adolescents and young adults in western Kenya.

G W. THE PREVALENCE OF INTERNET CRIMES ON STUDENTS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Zziwa E, Kironchi G;, Gachene CK, Mugerwa S;, Mpairwe D. "Production systems, land cover change and soil factors affecting pastur e production in semi1arid Nakasongola.". 2011. Abstract

The current pace of rangeland degradation imparted by appalling land use and management systems is greatly limiting the potential of the soil resource to support pasture production in semi - arid rangeland s of Uganda. Our objectives were to determine the effects of land cover change and production systems on pasture biomass yield and to identify the critical soil factors affecting pasture production in Nakasongola. The area was stratified into three product ion systems and three land cover types from which six pasture and soil samples were collected following a Modified - Whittaker sampling method. Pasture biomass was significantly high (p < 0.0001) under herbaceous cover (2019 kg/ha) compared to woody (1302 kg /ha) and bare which had no pasture biomass. The settled production system had a significantly (p = 0.013) high pasture biomass (1266 kg/ha) compared to non settled (1102 kg/ha) and semi settled systems (953 kg/ha). Biomass yield was more associated with hi gh levels of organic matter (r = 0.91), calcium (r = 0.91), magnesium (0.83), nitrogen (r = 0.77) and base saturation (r = 0.88). It can be concluded that maintaining native vegetation cover of the rangelands and increasing levels of limiting nutrients are the major strategies for increasing pasture production in semi - arid rangelands of Nakasongola

Masese LN, Graham SM, Gitau R, Peshu N, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya K, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "A prospective study of vaginal trichomoniasis and HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy.". 2011. Abstract

Trichomonas vaginalis has been associated with increased vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve women. The effect of trichomoniasis on vaginal HIV-1 shedding in ART-treated women has not been characterized. We tested the hypothesis that T. vaginalis infection would increase vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in women on ART, and that successful treatment would reduce vaginal HIV-1 RNA level

Gitonga E, Bailasha NK, Toriola AL. "Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players." African journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD). 2011;17(3):1-12.
Gatumu JC. "Reflective Teaching.". 2011.
Ngichabe SK, Gatinu BW, Nyangore MA, Karuga R, Wanyonyi SZ, Kiarie JN. "Reminder systems for self uterine massage in the prevention of postpartum blood loss: A Proof of Concept Study.". 2011. Abstract

Uterine massage may significantly reduce post partum blood loss and could be patient-driven. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an alarm reminder system for self uterine massage in the prevention of post partum blood loss. Setting: Meru District Hospital, Kenya. Methods: A randomized control trial was undertaken. One hundred and twenty seven (127) were randomly assigned to a 15 minute alarm reminder system (71) and non-alarm (56) control arm during the fourth stage of labour. All women self supervised their uterine massage after prior training. The primary outcome measure was the amount of blood loss within the first 2 hours post delivery. Other outcome measures included vital signs during the observation period, frequency of massage and need for blood transfusion. Results: Uterine massage compliance was better in the alarm group compared to the non-alarm group ( Average massage of 7 and 2 in two hours respectively P <0.0001) ,however the difference in blood loss was not significant 45.6 ml (95% CI 43-46) vs 47.1 ml (95% CI 43-52)ml p-value 0.892 Conclusion: Uterine massage compliance is remarkably increased by the use of an alarm reminder.

Gherardi, Britton FRJ, Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Grey J, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Developing conservation actions to protect East African lakes from the negative impacts of alien species. ." Biological Conservation.. 2011;(144):2585-2596.
Otieno SPV. Rhumba. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Kagira J.M., Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia, S.M., Maingi, N., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2011;44(3):657-664.2011._risk_factors_associated_with_occurence_of_nematodes_in_free-range_pigs_in_busia_district_kenye.pdf
Kiboi SK, Otieno NE, Gichuki N, Farwig N, Kiboi S. "The role of farm structure on bird assemblages around a Kenyan tropical rainforest.". 2011.
Otieno NE, Gichuki N, Farwig N, Kiboi S. "The role of farm structure on bird assemblages around a Kenyan tropical rainforest." African Journal of Ecology. 2011;49:410-417.
Guthrie BL, Kiarie JN, Morrison S, John-Stewart GC, Kinuthia J, Whittington WL, Farquhar C. "Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.". 2011. Abstract

More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.

Mutai, E.B.K., Gitau A. N., D.O. M, Otieno P. O. "Simulation of the microclimate in poultry structures in Kenya." Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology . 2011;3 (7):579-588.
Mutai EBK, O. OP, D.A M, Gitau AN, Mbuge D. "Simulation of the Microclimate in poutry structures in Kenya." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2011; Vol. 3 (No. 7 ISSN 2040-7459).
Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". 2011. Abstract

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Gherardi., Francesca., Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "The smell of Danger: Chemical recognition of fish predators by the invasive Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii." Freshwater Biology. 2011;56(8 ):1567-1578.
K.C C, E. B, G M. Software design for informal setups: Centring the benefits. East London, SA: Telecom SA; 2011.
phillip mwachaka, Ranketi S, G O, kasyoka B, J.G KIBOI. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a Kenyan tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." THE SPINE JOURNAL. 2011;4(APRIL11):265-269.
Sölkner J, Mulindwa H, Galukande E;, Wurzinger M, Ojango J;, Okeyo AM. "Stochastic simulation model of Ankole pastoral production system: Model development and evaluation.". 2011. Abstract

In the Ankole pastoral production system animals are grazed on pasture all year round. The cattle are not supplemented with conserved pasture or commercial feed except minerals. The large number of factors that influence production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of a pastoral production system was developed to provide a tool for developing and testing the system; for example, drying off animals early and supplement them for quick return on heat, testing the economic and ecological viability of the different stocking rates. The model links climate information, on a monthly basis, with dynamic, stochastic component-models for pasture growth and animal production, as well as management policies. Some of the component models were developed and published by other authors but are modified to suit the Ankole pastoral conditions. The model outputs were compared with on-farm data collected over 3 years and data collected for other on-farm studies in the region. The relative prediction error (RPE) values for body weight after weaning across both breeds ranged from 3% to 12% which is below the acceptable 20% and means that the model predicts post weaning growth with an average error of 7.5%. The model predicted pasture production and milk yield across seasons with relative prediction errors of 17.6% and 3.33%, respectively. The graph shapes of actual and predicted average daily milk yield as influenced by season (month of the year) were similar. Because pasture growth and milk production predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the model to test different management options such as seasonal breeding, alterations in lactation length and determination of appropriate off-takes and evaluation of economic viability of various stocking rates.

Tina L, Grace O, Karen L, Sabina W, James W, Matthews M. "Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards.". 2011. Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated the likely benefits of partograph use in low-resourced settings. However, the challenges of completing a partograph are also reported. The objective of this study was to examine students' views and experiences of partograph use to gain understanding of the realities of using this tool in the labour ward. Methods: In a qualitative study, 51 student nurses, undertaking their maternity placement at a university in Nairobi, Kenya, participated in five focus group discussions. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analyses: challenges to 'doing the right thing'; theory-practice disconnectedness; negative role models; and retrospective recording. Conclusions: The results provide insight into the challenges faced by students when practising in the labour ward environment. A more effective approach to partograph training and implementation should be adopted to support students. However, student midwife training is unlikely to be implemented into practice unless the qualified team supports their learning. Given that the partograph had little status in the labour ward, change may only happen when senior health professionals (midwives and obstetricians) lead by example. Further research is required to explore the views of obstetricians and qualified midwives on partograph use. Appropriate implementation strategies also warrant further investigation

Takla EM, Yumoto K, Cardinal MG, Abe S, Fujimoto A, Ikeda A, Tokunaga T, Yamazaki Y, Uo-zumi T, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Mengistu G, Afullo T, Macamo JA, Joao L, Mweene H, Mwiinga N, Uiso C, Baki P, Kianji G, Badi K, Sutcliffe P, Palangio P. "A Study of Latitudinal Dependence of Pc 3-4 Amplitudes at 96o Magnetic Meridian Stations in Africa." Sun and Geosphere,. 2011;Vol. 6(2):67-72.
Do DV, Hawkins BS, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS. "Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract (Review).". 2011. Abstract

Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye.The underlying problemthat led to vitrectomy may limit benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to April 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) (www.anzctr.org.au). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 19 April 2011. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently. No studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the pathologic process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of 8 or more letters vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six months) and long-term (oneyear or two-years) outcomes should be examined.

Kamanja IT, Githigia SM, Muchemi GM, Mwandawiro C. "A Survey of Schistosoma Bovis in cattle in Kwale District Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

Gatumu JC, Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teaching practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30. Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the Government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges, the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies, objectives, strategies, programs and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance, the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However, the quality of education can not be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently, many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities. This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teacher who enrolled in the B.Ed. program of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased in education at the primary level?

Juma WP, Akala HM, Eyase FL, Muiva LM, Heydenreich M, Okalebo FA, Gitu PM, Peter MG, Walsh DS, Imbuga M, Yenesew A. "Terpurinflavone: An antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia Purpurea." Phytochemistry letters. 2011;4(2):176-178. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47 ± 2.22 μg/ml and 12.06 ± 2.54 μg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, (−)-semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12 ± 0.28 μM (D6) and 6.26 ± 2.66 μM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

Mwisukha. A, Gitonga E, P.M. W. "Towards gender equality in sports." Insights into the underrepresentation of women in sports leadership in Kenya. 2011;2(1).
Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1001015. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention.

Gor S. "The Turn Towards Regional Trade Agreements: Is EAC Welfare Enhancing to Partner States? ." Journal of World Trad e Studies. 2011;2(1):43-51.
Pellé R, Graham SP, Njahira MN, Osaso J, Saya RM, Odongo DO, Toye PG, Spooner PR, Musoke AJ, Mwangi DM, Taracha E, Morrison IW, Weir W, Silva JC, Bishop RP. "Two Theileria parva CD8 T cell antigen genes are more variable in buffalo than cattle parasites, but differ in pattern of sequence diversity." PLoS ONE . 2011;29(6(4)):e19015.
Githinji N, Maleche-Obimbo E, Nderitu M, Wamalwa DC, Mbori-Ngacha D. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya ." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011. Abstractutility_of_total_lymphocyte_count.pdf

Abstract
Background: In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of
less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children.
Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected
children.
Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in
Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected
children aged 1 month - 12 years.
Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in
children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p <
0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4
count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750
cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/
mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000
cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62%
respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to
7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56%
and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%,
54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively.
Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific
thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore
utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the
various age categories.

Mbori-Ngacha DA, Wamalwa DC, Nderitu M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Githinji N. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4 count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750 cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/ mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

Mbori-Ngacha DA, Wamalwa DC, Nderitu M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Githinji N. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children. Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected children. Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected children aged 1 month - 12 years. Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4 count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750 cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/ mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000 cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62% respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to 7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56% and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%, 54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively. Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the various age categories.

J.P. S, A.M. G, G. C, P. L, Z. Q. "The World Health Organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol." BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:286-303. Abstract

Background: Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a
worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health.

Methods/Design: This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that
ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries.

Discussion: Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal nearmiss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children.

Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
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Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, James S, Ng’ayo M, Magana J, Bulimo W. "Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya." Virus Genes. 2011:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Although the important role of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus in virulence and replication is well-established, the knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Kenya and Africa is scanty. This study analysed the NS gene of 31 isolates from Kenya in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya. A comparison with the vaccine strain and viruses isolated elsewhere in Africa was also made. The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein, NS1 of the viruses from this study and the vaccine strain revealed 18 differences. Conversely, the nuclear export protein (NEP) of the isolates in this study had 11 differences from the vaccine strain. Analysis of the NS1 protein showed only one fixed amino acid change I123V which is one of the characteristics of clade 7 viruses. In the NEP, the amino acid at position 77 was the most mutable with 9 (39%) of all mutations seen in this protein. A mutation A115T which is a characteristic of clade 5 viruses was noted in the isolates from Lagos, Nigeria. The study shows a substantial number of mutations in the NS gene that has not been reported elsewhere and gives a glimpse of the evolution of this gene in the region.

George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Musa. N’ayo, Wallace. B. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Wallace B. Changes in Haemagglutinin epitopes of human influenza B viruses in Kenya, 2005-2009. . Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Gachara. G, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Obura. B, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. "Co-Infections and Co-Circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the H1N1 Outbreak of 2009 in Kenya.". In: Virology Africa 2011 conference. University of Cape Town South Africa.; 2011. Abstract
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Collins Ouma, Alfred L. Roca TWERNOWJJOOHOOGZ, Georgiadis N. "Genetic Structure of Hartebeest Populations Straddling a Transition Zone between Morphotypes." J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res. 1(3): 131-149; 2011. Abstract
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GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Gichohi, C.M., Mbuthia P.G., Waruiru R.M., Ngatia T.A., Kamundia P.W., Mutune N.M. and Otieno R.O. prevalence and intensity of paracamallanus species infection in farmed and wild fish. The Kenya Veterinarian 35 (1): 25- 32.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Kenya Veterinary association; 2011. Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya. Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda M, Pavlin JA, Shrestha SK, Schnabel DC, Tobias S, Tjaden JA, Montgomery JM, Faix DJ, Duffy MR, Cooper MJ, Sanchez JL, Blazes DL, Wangchuk S, Dorji T, Gibbons R, Iamsirithaworn S, Richardson J, Buathong R, Jarman R, Yoon IK, Shakya G, Ofula V, Coldren R, Bulimo W, Sang R, Omariba D, Obura B, Mwala D, Kasper M, Brice G, Williams M, Yasuda C, Barthel RV, Pimentel G, Meyers C, Kammerer P, Baynes DE, Metzgar D, Hawksworth A, Blair P, Ellorin M, Coon R, Macintosh V, Burwell K, Macias E, Palys T, Jerke K. "A growing global network's role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S3. AbstractWebsite

A cornerstone of effective disease surveillance programs comprises the early identification of infectious threats and the subsequent rapid response to prevent further spread. Effectively identifying, tracking and responding to these threats is often difficult and requires international cooperation due to the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by humans and animals. From Oct.1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 2009, the United States Department of Defense's (DoD) Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) identified 76 outbreaks in 53 countries. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks were identified by the global network and included a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners, several of which were in direct support of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The network also supported military forces around the world affected by the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009. With IHR (2005) as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying, analyzing and responding to emerging disease threats.

Krahe TE, Guido W. "Homeostatic {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Thalamus} by {Monocular} {Deprivation}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31:6842-6849. AbstractWebsite

Monocular deprivation (MD) is a classic paradigm for experience-dependent cortical plasticity. One form is known as homeostatic plasticity, in which neurons innervated by the deprived eye show a remarkable capacity to compensate for degraded visual signals in an attempt to stabilize network activity. Although the evidence supporting homeostatic plasticity in visual cortex is extensive, it remains unclear whether neurons in subcortical visual structures respond to MD in a similar manner. Here we examined whether cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic relay between the retina and visual cortex, show similar forms of experience-dependent homeostatic plasticity following MD. Two-week-old mice were monocularly deprived for a period of 5–7 d and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were obtained from cells located in dLGN regions receiving input from the deprived or nondeprived eye. We found that MD promotes increases in the frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs and were restricted to the monocular segment contralateral to the deprived eye. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the probability of glutamate release at corticothalamic terminals that arise from the deprived visual cortex. Our findings indicate that homeostatic synaptic regulation from MD extends beyond cortical circuitry and shed light on how the brain modulates and integrates activity in the face of altered sensory experience.

Sainsbury DCG, Kessell G, Fall AJ, Hampton FJ, Guhan A, Muir T. "Intralesional bleomycin injection treatment for vascular birthmarks: a 5-year experience at a single {United} {Kingdom} unit." Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2011;127:2031-2044. AbstractWebsite
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