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Githui F, Gitau W, Mutua F, Bauwens W. "Climate Change Impact on SWAT Simulated Streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2009;29(12):1823-1834. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Weather and climate extremes such as droughts and floods have far reaching impacts in Kenya. They havehad implications in a variety of sectors including agriculture, water resources, health, energy, and disaster managementamong others. Lake Victoria and its catchment support millions of people and any impact on its ability to support thelivelihoods of the communities in this region is of major concern. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess thepotential future climatic changes on the Nzoia catchment in the Lake Victoria basin, and how they might affect streamflow.The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to investigate the impact of climatic change on streamflow of the study area.The model was set up using readily available s patial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily streamflow.Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models.Results obtained showed increased amounts of annual rainfall for all the scenarios but with variations on a monthlybasis. All – but one – global circulation models (GCMs) showed consistency in the monthly rainfall amounts. Rainfall washigher in the 2050s than in the 2020s. According to climate change scenarios, temperature will increase i n t his region,with the 2050s experiencing much higher increases than the 2020s with a monthly temperature change range of 0–1.7°C.The range of change in mean annual rainfall o f 2.4–23.2% corresponded to a change in streamflow of about 6–115%. Theanalysis revealed important rainfall–runoff linear relationships for certain months that could be extrapolated to estimateamounts of streamflow under various scenarios of change in rainfall. Streamflow response was not sensitive to changesin temperature. If all other variables, e.g. land cover, population growth etc., were held constant, a significant increase instreamflow may be expected in the coming decades as a consequence of increased rainfall amounts. Copyright 2008Royal Meteorological SocietyKEY WORDS climate change; streamflow; runoff; general circulation models; hydrology; modelling

Githui FW, Mutua F, Bauwens W. Assessing the impacts of environmental change on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment, in the Lake Victoria Basin. Brussel: Vrije Universiteit Brussel; 2007. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess the past and potential future environmental changes, and their impact on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment. More specifically, the study has analyzed the historical climatic (1962-2004) and land cover changes (1973-2001) that have taken place in the Nzoia River catchment in Kenya, and the effect these have had on the hydrology of the catchment. It has also made use of land cover and climate change scenarios for the future to determine the potential effects these will have on the catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to investigate the impact of land cover and climatic change on streamflow of the study area. The model was set up using readily available spatial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily discharge. The land cover changes within the watershed were examined through classification of satellite images and a land cover change model generated the land cover change scenarios for the year 2020. Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models (GCMs) for the period 2010-2039 (ie 2020s) and 2040-2069 (ie 2050s). The climate change IPCC SRES scenarios A2 and B2 were selected. To this purpose, rainfall and temperature scenarios based on the GCMs CCSR, CSIRO, ECHAM4, GFDL and HADCM3 were superimposed on the calibrated SWAT model.

Githui EK, Kibegwa FM, Kamau JM, Mutura SK, Okwany ZA, Ngigi DM, Mwangi EW. "{Genetic relationships of indigenous goats reared by pastoralists in Kenya based on mitochondria D-loop sequence}." Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. 2016:1-8. AbstractWebsite

Kenya indigenous goat breeds ( Capra hircus ) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.

Githui T, Ngare P. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in the Informal Sector in Kenya." Education and Reseach. 2014:1-6. Abstract

Old age dependency has become a major issue of concern to governments today. This is because a large number of retirees lack any form of regular income to sustain them in retirement. Kenya has one of the highest levels of old age dependency currently estimated at 56%. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of financial literacy on retirement planning in the informal sector in Kenya. The study found that financial literacy remains low in Kenya. Financial literacy was found to have a positive impact on retirement planning; however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Gender was found to have no impact on retirement planning. The study established that the probability of a financially illiterate person having no retirement planning is significantly high calling for increased investment in financial literacy programs to reverse the trend. The study recommends the development of a curriculum on financial education and pension education in middle level and higher learning institutions as well as community pension awareness programs such as road-shows and aggressive advertising campaigns to enlighten the people on importance of retirement planning

Githui FW, Mutua FM, Bauwens W. "Estimating the impacts of land cover change on runoff using SWAT: Case study: Nzoia catchment, Kenya." Hydrological Sciences Journal. 2009;54(5):899-908.
Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/01/403.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

Githunguri CM;, Waithaka K;, Ekanayake IJ;, Imungi JK. "Influence of agro-ecological zones and plant age on the net assimilation, relative and crop growth rates of cassava.".; 2007. Abstract

Five cassava genotypes were grown at three agro-ecological zones. Plants were sampled for net assimilation, crop growth and relative growth rates at four, six, eight, ten and twelve months after planting. The genotypes were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. Cassava at the wetter agro-ecological zones had higher crop and relative growth rates than those at the drier agro-ecological zone. Plant age, agro-ecological zone and genotype effects were not important factors in determining the net assimilation rate of cassava. The lowest yielding genotype had the highest net assimilation rate demonstrating that a high net assimilation rate does not always result into high yields suggesting that net assimilation rate is not a good indicator of growth performance of cassava. The wetter agro-ecological zones had a positive effect on crop and relative growth rates, while the drier agro-ecological zone had a negative effect suggesting that the agro¬ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them. Cassava crop and relative growth rates were highly positively correlated to root yields. Therefore, breeding and selection for cassava genotypes with the highest crop and relative growth rates and hence yields may be done at the drier agro-ecological zone.

Githunguri CM;, Waithaka K;, Ekanayake IJ;, Imungi JK. "Influence of agro-ecological zones and plant age on the net assimilation, relative and crop growth rates of cassava.".; 2007. Abstract

Five cassava genotypes were grown at three agro-ecological zones. Plants were sampled for net assimilation, crop growth and relative growth rates at four, six, eight, ten and twelve months after planting. The genotypes were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. Cassava at the wetter agro-ecological zones had higher crop and relative growth rates than those at the drier agro-ecological zone. Plant age, agro-ecological zone and genotype effects were not important factors in determining the net assimilation rate of cassava. The lowest yielding genotype had the highest net assimilation rate demonstrating that a high net assimilation rate does not always result into high yields suggesting that net assimilation rate is not a good indicator of growth performance of cassava. The wetter agro-ecological zones had a positive effect on crop and relative growth rates, while the drier agro-ecological zone had a negative effect suggesting that the agro¬ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them. Cassava crop and relative growth rates were highly positively correlated to root yields. Therefore, breeding and selection for cassava genotypes with the highest crop and relative growth rates and hence yields may be done at the drier agro-ecological zone.

Githure JI, Kabiru EW, Martin SK, Khan B, Ofulla AV, Kariuki DM. "Drug sensitivity studies during a highland malaria epidemic in Kenya.". 1992.Website
Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Gitonga P, Karani A, Kimani S. "Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring." http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2017;2(2):1/4.
Gitonga E, Bailasha NK, Toriola AL. "Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players." African journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD). 2011;17(3):1-12.
Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS. "Effects of selected School factors in socialization into Sport of Kenyan Secondary school Athletes." African Journal of educational research and development. 2007;2(1):240-246.
Gitonga D, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo. "Dangerous wireless local area network (wlan) risks students and university employees need to know about.". In: IBM/Unesco-Hp Workshop on Trends in Distributed Computing Applications. Nairobi; 2013.
Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye C;, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Gitonga ER. "Role of Family Members in socialization into Sport of secondary School athletes in Kenya: Preliminary Findings." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(2):9-14.
Gitonga ER, Andanje M, Wanderi PW, Bailasha N. "Teacher-trainees attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya." Educational Reviews and Research. 2012;7(27):585-588.
Gitonga ER. "Participation in Sport of family members of Kenyan secondary school athletes." African Journal of Education research and development . 2007;2(2):184-190.
Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye, C; Ritho CN, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS, P.W. W. "Participatory Motives of university athletes: The case of Kenyatta University." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(1):31-36.
Gitonga ER. "Knowledge about HIV/AIDS of college athletes in Kenya." Journal of International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. 2003;(4):21-24.
Gitonga ER. "Significant others influence on socialization into sport of Kenya Secondary School athletes." African Journal of Educational research and development . 2009;4(1):111-117.
Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS, Wahome P. "Evaluation of athletes’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS: The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya." African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance . 2004;10(3):193-203.
Gitonga L, Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK, Muriuki, N.S. "Determination of Plasmodium Parasite Life Stages and Species in Images of Thin Blood Smears Using Artificial Neural Networks." Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 2014;4:78-88. Abstract
n/a
Gitonga ER. "Influence of parents SES on selected Kenyatta University Students type of sports participation." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(2):9-14.
Gitu P, Yusuf A, Ogutu V. "Application of tetralinyl group in solid-phase peptide synthesis." Int. J. BioChemiPhysics. 1998;6,7(1,2):7-10.scan0055.pdf
Gitu, K.W. W;, Nyangito H, Oluoch-Kosura. W;. "Agriculture, Food and Environment. Kenya’s Situation."; 1998.
Gitu PM, Yusuf A, Bhatt BM. "Application of tetralinyls as carboxamide protecting groups in peptide synthesis." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 1998;12(1):35-43.bcse_12_1_1998.pdf
Gituku BC, a OVW, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
Gituku BC, Wasonga OV, Ngugi RK. "Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya." London: IIED. 2015. Abstract
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Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M. "Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2009;14(1):118-22. Abstract

To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information.

Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Nduati Ruth, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M. Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstractabstract_accesssources_and_value_of_new_medical_information.pdf

Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi.
Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Irimu G, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information.
METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires.
RESULTS: Questionnaires were distributed to 85% of a possible 343 students and returned by 44% (152). Half reported having accessed some form of new medical information within the previous 12 months, most commonly from books and the internet. Few students reported regular access; and specific, new journal articles were rarely accessed. Absence of internet facilities, slow internet speed and cost impeded access to literature; and current training seems rarely to encourage students to seek new information.
CONCLUSION: Almost half the students had not accessed any new medical information in their final year in medical school. This means they are ill prepared for a career that may increasingly demand life-long, self-learning.

Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Jan;14(1):118-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02209.x.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Time And Cost Overruns In Power Projects In Kenya: A Case Study Of Kenya Electricity Generating Company Limited.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2008.
Gituro W, Kisaka SE, Ngugi RW, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economics Bullletin. 2008. Abstractan_analysis_of_the_efficiency_of_the_foreign_exchange_market_in_kenya.pdf

This study examined the Efficiency Market hypothesis in its weak form using run tests, unit root tests and the Ljung-Box Q-statistics. The motivation was to determine whether foreign exchange rate returns follow a random walk. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing spot price of the Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rate. The main finding of this study is that the foreign exchange rate market is not efficient. The results showed that most of the rejections are due to significant patterns, trend stationarity and autocorrelation in foreign exchange returns. This is attributed to both
exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Chapter 17 in the Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1996.
GITURO WAINAINA. "The Prospects of Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Wild Herbivores in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya. A Case Study on the Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa),.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1998.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Attainment and Maintenance of Universal Primary Education in Commonwealth Developing Countries: Lessons from Past Qualitative and Quantitative Regression. A Case of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
GITURO WAINAINA. "An inequality perspective of education structure and performance in Kenya - University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited."; 2011. Abstractan_inequality_perspective_of_education_structure_and_performance_in_kenya.pdf

Education is an important determinant of individuals’ income, health as well as the capacity to interact and communicate with others. In spite of this view, there is considerable evidence of inequalities of opportunity in education in most developing countries. Differences abound with respect to sex of the head of the household, rural and urban areas heads, across population groups defined by parental education, region of residence and wealth. The probability that the household head is uneducated is higher than average when she is a woman and in general, household heads are more likely to have no education when they are in rural areas than in urban areas. Achievements by children in school vary considerably depending on the wealth of their household, their place of residence, the education of their mother and that of their father.
From the foregoing, the overall policy goal for the Kenyan Government is therefore to provide every Kenyan the right to education and training no matter his/her socio-economic status through the provision of all-inclusive quality education that is accessible and relevant. This vision is guided by the understanding that quality education and training contributes significantly to economic growth and the expansion of employment opportunities. The vision is in tandem with the Government’s plan as articulated in the Economic Recovery Strategy Paper which provides the rationale for major reforms in the current education system in order to enable all Kenyans to have access to quality lifelong education and training.
For the above reasons, the Kenyan Government has, over the years, demonstrated its commitment to the development of education and training through sustained allocation of resources to the sector. However, despite the substantial allocation of resources and notable achievements attained, the sector still faces major challenges related to access, equity, quality, relevance, efficiency in the management of educational resources, cost and financing of education, gender and regional disparities, and teacher quality and teacher utilization.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of inequalities that still exist within the Kenyan education system despite the Government’s efforts and at the same time suggest some policy issues and strategies thereof. The paper looks at the background to inequalities in education, education with respect to employment and national development, impact of free primary education, inequalities in education, an analysis of education expenditure and ends with a discussion on several strategies that must be implemented in order to reverse the current inequalities in education in Kenya.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Separation of Mean Analysis of Corn Basis Movement in Selected Locations in Southern United States:.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
GITURO WAINAINA. "An Inequality Perspective of Education Structure and Performance in Kenya,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
GITURO WAINAINA. "An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Best Practices in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2009.
GITURO WAINAINA, Kibera FN, K’Obonyo PO, Thuo JK. "Customer Relationship Management and Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Nairobi; 2011. Abstractcustomer_relationship_management_and_competitiveness_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Customer Relationship Management (CRM), also referred to as Relationship Marketing, is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy, conflicting opinions and increased pessimism about the effectiveness of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorous studies
to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation.
The general objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of the influence of CRM practices on organizational competitiveness and conduct an empirical assessment of the framework on the commercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection.
The study found statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationships between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderating role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was found not statistically significant. The overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significantly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational factors within the firm such as age, size, and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation, and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational
competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity.
Nonetheless, organizational factors positively enhance the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The results of the study have significant managerial and theoretical implications.
Key words: Customer Relationship Management, Relationship Marketing, Organizational Competitiveness, Marketing Productivity, Organizational Factors.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Explanatory Data Analysis of Corn Basis Movement in Selected Locations in Southern United States,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Income Generation at Public Universities: A Case of University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
Gizaw S;, Getachew T;, Goshme S;, Mwai OA;, Dessie T. "A cooperative village breeding scheme for smallholder sheep farming systems in Ethiopia."; 2013.
GIZEMBA MRONTITAEDWARD. "Forestry and Food Security in Kenya: The Case of South-West Mau Forest, Nairobi: Forest Action Network, 2000 - with L. Kangethe.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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GIZEMBA MRONTITAEDWARD. "Foreward to Paul Barton-Kriese, Nonviolent Revolution. Shirikon Publishers, Nairobi, 1995.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
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GIZEMBA MRONTITAEDWARD. "In P.O. Chitere and R. Mutiso Eds. Working with Rural Commuties: A Participatory Action Research in Kenya. Nairobi University Press, 1991.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
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GK G, JW A, Mbuthia P G, CM M. "). Causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod.. 2010;42:1643-1647 .
GK G, RM B, J V, CM M. "Evaluation of Petrifilms as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. . 2013;45:883-886 .
Gladys, Machira HKLMN. Impact of Pain Education Program on Nurses: Pain Knowledge and Attitude..; 2013. Abstract

International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Vol. 19, Iss. 7, 26 Jul 2013, pp 341 - 345

Introduction: Pain is a common symptom for patients receiving palliative care, but can be relieved by effective pain management. Nurses play a critical part in implementing pain management effectively and must therefore have a solid foundation of knowledge and a positive attitude toward it. Aim: The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate an educational pain management programme (PMP) for nurses in Kenya. Methods: The effects of the PMP were measured using a quasi-experimental pre-post test design. Twenty seven nurses from two units in a single health institution in Kenya participated in a baseline assessment using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP). Nine randomly selected nurses then received 7 hours of focused education. This group completed the assessment again both immediately after and 2 weeks after the PMP. Results: A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent at baseline. The nurses who received the PMP scored significantly higher on the NKASRP following the PMP: mean scores were 18.44, 28.00, and 27.56 at baseline, first follow-up, and second follow-up assessment respectively. Conclusion: The PMP appears to be effective in improving nurses' pain knowledge and attitudes.

Glazier AP, Kokwaro GO, Edwards G. "Possible isozyme-specific effects of experimental malaria infection with Plasmodium berghei on cytochrome P450 activity in rat liver microsomes.". 2005. Abstract

We have investigated the effect of experimental malaria infection on rat cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism using ethoxyresorufin and metoprolol as probe compounds. Malaria infection caused a significant reduction in total intrinsic clearance of ethoxyresorufin in both low and high parasitaemia malaria compared with control (control 18.7 +/- 7.2; low parasitaemia 10.5 +/- 4.1; high parasitaemia 4.3 +/- 1.4 mL min-1). However, clearance of metoprolol was unchanged in malaria infection compared with control (control 2.7 +/- 1.2; malaria 4.0 +/- 1.7 mL min-1). The change in clearance of ethoxyresorufin was the result of a decrease in Vmax, with no apparent change in Km. There was no change in either Vmax or Km of metoprolol. These results indicate a possible isozyme-selective effect of experimental malaria.

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Mattei J, Malik V, Wedick NM, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Campos H. "Reducing the global burden of type 2 diabetes by improving the quality of staple foods: The Global Nutrition and Epidemiologic Transition Initiative." Global Health. 2015;11:23. Abstract

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been reaching epidemic proportions across the globe, affecting low/middle-income and developed countries. Two main contributors to this burden are the reduction in mortality from infectious conditions and concomitant negative changes in lifestyles, including diet. We aimed to depict the current state of type 2 diabetes worldwide in light of the undergoing epidemiologic and nutrition transition, and to posit that a key factor in the nutrition transition has been the shift in the type and processing of staple foods, from less processed traditional foods to highly refined and processed carbohydrate sources.

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Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
Gluecksohn-Waelsch S, Schiffman MB. "Glutamine synthetase in newborn mice homozygous for lethal albino alleles." Dev. Biol.. 1975;45(2):369-71.
GN C’wa, OM K, JH N. "Status, Challenges and Marketing Opportunities for Canning Navy Bean in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2014;14(14(5)20272-2087).status_challenges_and_marketing_opportunities_for_2014.pdf
GN M, RA N, MG K. "Championing radiation safety in Africa: The AFROSAFE campaign.". In: The International Pediatric Radiology 7th Conjoint Meeting and Exhibition. Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2016.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Historiography of East Africa, In to the 80's.". In: Edited by D.I. Ray, P. Shinnite and D. Williams, Tantalus Research Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.; 1979. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Reconstruction of African History Through Historical, Ethnographic and Oral Sources".". In: In P. Stone and R. Mackenzie. The Excluded past: Archaeology in Education, Unwin Hyman, London.; 1990. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Research and Publications" in Barbara Matiru, Anna Mwangi and Ruth Schlette Teach your Best: A HandBook for University Lecturers.". In: German Foundation for International Development (DSE), Bonn, 1995, pp 309-54.; 1995. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Fruits of Uhuru", in African Today.". In: August/September, New York, U.S.A.; 1965. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Harry Thuku" in Encyclopedia of African History.". In: Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 3, 2005, pp 1559-60.; 2005. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "Traditional Social and Political Institutions of the Mount Kenya Peoples" in Hadith IV, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Kikuyu, People of Kenya Series.". In: A Evan Brothers, London. "Central Kenya in the Nyayo Era", Africa Today, Vol 26, New York, U.S.; 1977. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Historiography of East Africa, In to the 80's.". In: Edited by D.I. Ray, P. Shinnite and D. Williams, Tantalus Research Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.; 1983. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Some Reflections on Cold War Africa and After"in The United States and Africa: From Independence to the End of the Cold War.". In: Edited by Macharia Munene, J.D. Olewe Nyunya and Korwa Adar, E.A. Educational Publishers Limited, Nairobi, pp 5-24.; 1995. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Kenya's Historical Experience: An Overview" in East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change.". In: Edited by Judith M. Bahemuka and Joseph L. Brockington, Nairobi, 2001, pp 135-147.; 2001. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""A History of the Kikuyu to 1904", Ph.D. thesis, University of London.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1969. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Kikuyu in the Pre-Colonial Period" in Kenya Before 1900.". In: Edited by B.A. Ogot, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "3 Chapters in Official Handbook.". In: Kenya Government, Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The State of Research in Kenya".". In: Conference on the State of Humanities in Africa, Nairobi, 29 November - 1 December.; 1994. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Kikuyu Reaction to Traders and British Administration".". In: In Hadith 1, E.A. Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1968. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Life and Government of Jomo Kenyatta".". In: In Encyclopedia of African History, Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 2,pp 755-57.; 2005. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Chronology of the Kikuyu".". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
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Goh BKP, Tan Y-M, Cheow P-C, Alexander Chung Y-F, Chow PKH, Wong W-K, Ooi LLPJ. "Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: an updated experience." Journal of surgical oncology. 2007;95:640-644. AbstractWebsite
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Gohil TR, Mutave RJ, Dimba EAO. "Effects of chemotherapy on oral health in paediatric oncology patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Kenya Dental Association. 2011;2:184-189.
Golub G, Herman-Roloff A, Hoffman S, Jaoko W, Bailey RC. "The Relationship Between Distance and Post-operative Visit Attendance Following Medical Male Circumcision in Nyanza Province, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2015. Abstract

To date, there is no research on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) catchment areas or the relationship between distance to a VMMC facility and attendance at a post-operative follow-up visit. We analyzed data from a randomly selected subset of males self-seeking circumcision at one of 16 participating facilities in Nyanza Province, Kenya between 2008 and 2010. Among 1437 participants, 46.7 % attended follow-up. The median distance from residence to utilized facility was 2.98 km (IQR 1.31-5.38). Nearly all participants (98.8 %) lived within 5 km from a facility, however, 26.3 % visited a facility more than 5 km away. Stratified results demonstrated that among those utilizing fixed facilities, greater distance was associated with higher odds of follow-up non-attendance (OR5.01-10km vs. 0-1km = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.08, 2.70, p = 0.02; OR>10km vs. 0-1 km = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.26, 6.21, p = 0.01), adjusting for age and district of residence. We found 5 km marked the threshold distance beyond which follow-up attendance significantly dropped. These results demonstrate distance is an important predictor of attending follow-up, and this relationship appears to be modified by facility type.

Gona GM. "Elusive Peace in Kenya .". 2012.Website
Gona G, Kailembo AMM. "The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist." Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa. 2002.
Gona G;, Kiai W;, Ngugi M. "Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya .". 2013.Website
Gongora J, Rawlence NJ, Mobegi VA, Jianlin H, Alcalde JA, Matus JT, Hanotte O, Moran C, Austin JJ, Ulm S, Anderson AJ, Larson G, Cooper A. "Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2008;105(30):10308-13. Abstract

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

Gontier DC. "Oreintation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Participants’ workbook.". In: Orientation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Ministry of Medical Services; 2012.
Goo L, Chohan V, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "Early development of broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected infants." Nat. Med.. 2014;20(6):655-8. Abstract

Eliciting protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 is daunting because of the extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of HIV-1. Moreover, broad and potent responses are uncommon even during persistent infection, with only a subset of adults developing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize viral variants from different HIV-1 clades. It is not known whether bNAbs can also arise in HIV-1-infected infants, who typically progress to disease faster than adults, presumably in part due to an immature immune system. Here, we show that bNAbs develop at least as commonly in infants as in adults. Cross-clade NAb responses were detected in 20/28 infected infants, in some cases within 1 year of infection. Among infants with breadth of responses within the top quartile, neutralization of tier 2 or 3 variants from multiple clades was detected at 20 months after infection. These findings suggest that, even in early life, there is sufficient B cell functionality to mount bNAbs against HIV-1. Additionally, the relatively early appearance of bNAbs in infants may provide a unique setting for understanding the pathways of B cell maturation leading to bNAbs.

Goo Y-K, Aboge GO, Terkawi AM, Jia H, Yamagishi J, Sunaga F, Namikawa K, Cha S-Y, Jang H-K, Kim S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "Four promising antigens, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, for serodiagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infection were classified as B. gibsoni merozoite surface protein family.". 2012. Abstract

We determined the molecular characteristics of four proteins, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, of Babesia gibsoni. Localization by subcellular fractionations followed by Western blotting revealed that the corresponding native proteins belong to merozoite surface protein family of B. gibsoni (BgMSP). Moreover, antisera against either rBgP45 or rBgP47 cross-reacted with all the proteins of the BgMSP family on ELISA and IFAT analyses. Of the four candidate antigens, ELISA with rBgP45 yielded high sensitivity, and ELISA with rBgP32 resulted in high specificity and in concordance with IFAT results.

Goo Y-K;, erkawi A;M, ia H;, Aboge O;G, Ooka H, Nelson B;, Kim S;, Sunaga F, Namikawa K;, Igarashi I. "Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection.". 2010. Abstract

The effects of artesunate, a water-soluble artemisinin derivative, against Babesia species, including Babesia bovis, Babesia gibsoni and Babesia microti were studied. Cultures of B. bovis and B. gibsoni were treated with 0.26, 2.6, 26 and 260 μM artesunate, showing inhibition of parasite growth at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.6 μM artesunate by days 3 post-treatment for B. gibsoni and B. bovis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with in vitro experiments, artesunate was effective in the treatment of mice infected with B. microti at doses equal to and greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight on days 8–10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection.

Goo L, Milligan C, Simonich CA, Nduati R, Obimbo E, J. O. "Neutralizing antibody escape during HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission involves conformational masking of distal epitopes in envelope. ." J Virol. 2012 Sep;86(18):9566-82. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00953-12. Epub 2012 Jun 27.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 variants transmitted to infants are often resistant to maternal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), suggesting that they have escaped maternal NAb pressure. To define the molecular basis of NAb escape that contributes to selection of transmitted variants, we analyzed 5 viruses from 2 mother-to-child transmission pairs, in which the infant virus, but not the maternal virus, was resistant to neutralization by maternal plasma near transmission. We generated chimeric viruses between maternal and infant envelope clones obtained near transmission and examined neutralization by maternal plasma. The molecular determinants of NAb escape were distinct, even when comparing two maternal variants to the transmitted infant virus within one pair, in which insertions in V4 of gp120 and substitutions in HR2 of gp41 conferred neutralization resistance. In another pair, deletions and substitutions in V1 to V3 conferred resistance, but neither V1/V2 nor V3 alone was sufficient. Although the sequence determinants of escape were distinct, all of them involved modifications of potential N-linked glycosylation sites. None of the regions that mediated escape were major linear targets of maternal NAbs because corresponding peptides failed to compete for neutralization. Instead, these regions disrupted multiple distal epitopes targeted by HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that escape from maternal NAbs occurred through conformational masking of distal epitopes. This strategy likely allows HIV-1 to utilize relatively limited changes in the envelope to preserve the ability to infect a new host while simultaneously evading multiple NAb specificities present in maternal plasma.

Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "The Red Deer As An Experimental Animal.".; 1968.
and Goodluck Charles, Søren Jeppesen PKPK. "Firm-Level Perspectives on State-Business Relations in Africa: The Food processing Sector in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia." Forum for Development Studies Journal. Forthcoming.
Gor SO. "The African Regional Integration Index: a Selective Audit." Trade and Development Review. 2017;9(1-2):86-98.
Gor SO. "Economic Policy and Urban Poverty in Kenya.". In: 7th Congress of the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa. Khartoum, Sudan; 2002.
Gor SO, Okoth PG, Ogot BA. "Foreign Loan Capital and Economic Retardation in post Colonial Africa; The case of Kenya.". In: Conflicts in Contemporary Africa. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2000.
Gor SO. "Road Network Concessioning Proposal in Kenya: Laying the Ground Work." Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;III(1):1-13.
Gor SO. "12. An Assessment of the Implementation of the National Development Plans in Kenya: The Case of Education Sector Programmes .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub - sect or in Kenya: What Role for Public - Private Partnerships? ." IDA International Journal of Sustainable Development,. 2010;101(06):1-17.
Gor S. "The Turn Towards Regional Trade Agreements: Is EAC Welfare Enhancing to Partner States? ." Journal of World Trad e Studies. 2011;2(1):43-51.
Gor SO. "6. Rethinking the HDI: a More Theoretically Consistent Alternative.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
Gor SO. "2. An Assessment of the Trade Potential from the East African Community Integration.". In: TRAPCA’s Trade Policy Research Forum . Arusha, Tanzania; 2011.
Gor SO. "Towards a New Road Management and Financing Initiative in Kenya; An Agenda for Reform.". In: Institute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 1998.
Gor SO. "Growth - Poverty Nexus in Eastern Africa.". In: Great Lakes Colleges Association Annual Symposium. Nairobi; 2002.
Gor SO, Okoth PG, Ogot BA. "Foreign Loan Capital and Economic Retardation in post Colonial Africa ; The case of Kenya.". In: Conflicts in Contemporary Africa. Nairobi,: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2000.
Gor SO. "Growth, Poverty and Policy in Kenya .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
Gor SO, Kiriti-Nganga TW, Sarkar S. "Regional Distribution of Income in Kenya: An Intra - Gender Analysis.". In: Gender Inequality in Developing Countries. New Delhi: Arise Publishers; 2008.
Gor SO. "10. Government Spending and Economic Growth in Kenya: Which Way for Vision 2030.". In: University of Nairobi, School of Economics’ Seminar on Policy Options for Achieving Vision 2030. Nairobi; 2007.
Gor SO. "7. Industrial Structure, the Nature of Informal Enterprise and Inequality in Kenya: A Dominance Analysis.". In: AIM-IARIW Special Conference on Measuring the Informal Economy in Developing Countries. Kathmandu, Nepal; 2009.
Gor S. "An Assessment of the Informal Sector Trade in Kenya." Journal of International Law and Trade Policy. 2012;13 (1):101-113.
Gor SO. "4. Poverty and Child Survival in a High Malaria Mortality Zone: The Case of Kenya.". In: Chronic Poverty Research Center 2010 Conference. University of Manchester, UK.; 2010.
Gor SO. "Foreign Aid Policy Formulation; Rules to Follow and Pitfalls to Avoid: The Case of US-Kenya Relations.". In: Institute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies of Maseno .; 1996.
Gor SO. "The Case for a Policy Framework to Support Productivity Mainstreaming into the Kenyan Economy .". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This study investigates the probable causes of the very low levels of productivity consciousness in both the public and private sectors of the Kenyan economy. It identifies impediments to the realization of a complete and functional productivity mainstreaming into the economy including; lack of integration of productivity into the country’s education and training programmes, weak broad based productivity driven research and development, poor productivity infrastructure and weak productivity governance among others. Consequently we propose possible interventions which we argue do constitute the basic building blocks for a productivity policy framework. In conclusion we argue that success of the proposed interventions depend on the commitment of all stakeholders to effective co-ordination of actions and interventions and to implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Gor SO. "IMF and World Bank: Fire Fighters or Arsonists? Lessons of Experiences.". In: presented at the Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University. Kisumu, Kenya; 1999.
Gor SO. "14. Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Groupings - a Transactions Cost Perspective.". In: First International Nilotic Studies Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2004.
Gor SO. "11. Labour Market Dialogue: Perspectives from the Healthcare Sector in Kenya.". In: Entrepreneurship and Business Support, Organized by FKE/COTU and Labour Market Dialogue, Sweden. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa.; 2006.
Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Rethinking the HDI: a More Theoretically Consistent Alternative." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2010;1(5):85-90.
Gor SO. "8. A New Approach to the Measurement of Wellbeing: A Technical Note.". In: General Conference of The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. Portoroz, Slovenia; 2008.
Gor SO. "5. Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub-Sector in Kenya: What Role for Public-Private Partnership.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
Gor SO, Wanjiru CM. "Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya.". In: OIDA’s International Conference on Sustainable Development. , Putrajaya, Malaysia; 2011.
Gor SO. "On the Verge of Collapse: What Next? A Commentary on the Current Economic Crisis in Kenya.". In: at The Annual Historical Association of Kenya Conference. Eldoret, Kenya; 1998.
Goro EC. Laboratory and field swelling pressures of a black cotton soil .; 1988. Abstract

The swelling pressure of a black cotton soil is investigated :n the project carried out for this thesis. SoiI as one of the materials on the earths crust is introduced; its mineralogy and atomic properties are discussed. The solid phase in soil consist of crystals whose properties are discussed paying particular attention to the structure part of it. The m1nerals in soils could be non-clay or clay, their difference with respect to structure and behaviour are considered in the thesis. The classification of clay minerals into groups and the structural differences existing between the groups are also considered. Problems encountered 1n the building industry, from black cotton soil due its swelling properties are outlined in this thesis.The various factors that influence the swelling characterlstics of soi 1 black cotton/ are considered, and thei r interrelation and influence on each other are also discussed. When an engineer undertakes to design a project, there are field and laboratory investigations ,. to be carried out before construction starts.The absence oE standard apparatus to measure swelling pressure of black cotton soil in the Eield called for the design and testing of appropriate equipment. The requirements for such equipment vary from site to site depending on both physical and environmental conditions. For this project a design was cariied out to suit the local conditions. The equipments were fabricated, tested ahd calibrated as part oE the res earch wo rk, Laboratory swelling pressure of black cotton soil was measured on soil samples obtained from all the five identified sites. In order to carry out the laboratory swelling pressure tests and be able to relate the results obtained to those from the field data, sampling apparatus had to be designed and the laboratory swelling pressure apparatus had to be modified. The pressure obtained both in the field and in the laboratory were compared and it was found that the field swelling pressure were much less than the laboratory swelling pressures, regardless of whether the laboratory soil sample was disturbed or undisturbed.

Gow L, Gulati R, Khan A, Mihaimeed F. "Adult-onset cystic hygroma: a case report and review of management." Grand Rounds. 2011;11:5-11. AbstractWebsite
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Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Grace D;, Gilbert J;, Randolph T;, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012.
Grace D, Gilbert J, Randolph T, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012. Abstract

Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected. The Global Burden of Disease captures the impact of zoonoses on human health in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on this, we estimate that in low income countries, zoonoses and diseases which recently emerged from animals make up 26 % of the DALYs lost to infectious disease and 10 % of the total DALYs lost. In contrast, in high income countries, zoonoses and diseases recently which emerged from animals represent less than 1 % of DALYs lost to infectious disease and only 0.02 % of the total disease burden. We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

Grace C. John, Ruth W. Nduati, Dorothy A. Mbori-Ngacha, Carey Farquhar, Barbra A. Richardson, Dana Panteleeff, Anthony Mwatha JO, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, and Kreiss JK. "Correlates of Mother-to-Child Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission: Association with Maternal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Load, Genital HIV-1 DNA Shedding, and Breast Infections." The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;183:206–12. 2001. Abstract

To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus
type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control
study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding
among HIV-1–seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected
infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels 143,000
copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95%
confidence interval [CI], 2.2–7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95%
CI, 1.3–4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1–4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers
(OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2–5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of
plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR],
3.9; 95% CI, 1.2–12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR,
21.8; 95% CI, 2.3–211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7–571.0) were associated
with late transmission (occurring 12 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant
exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended
perinatal HIV-1 interventions.

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and Introducing Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Serious Illness in Kenya.". 2009;10(93):799-804. Abstractdeveloping_and_introducing_evidence_based_clinical_practice_guidelines_for_serious_illness_in_kenya..pdf

The under-5 mortality rate in most developing countries remains high yet many deaths could be averted if available knowledge was put into practice. For seriously ill children in hospital investigations in low-income countries commonly demonstrate incorrect diagnosis and treatment and frequent prescribing errors. To help improve hospital management of the major causes of inpatient childhood mortality we developed simple clinical guidelines for use in Kenya, a low-income setting. The participatory process we used to adapt existing WHO materials and further develop and build support for such guidelines is discussed. To facilitate use of the guidelines we also developed job-aides and a 5.5 days training programme for their dissemination and implementation. We attempted to base our training on modern theories around adult learning and deliberately attempted to train a ‘critical mass’ of health workers within each institution at low cost. Our experience suggests that with sustained effort it is possible to develop locally owned, appropriate clinical practice guidelines for emergency and initial hospital care for seriously ill children with involvement of pertinent stake holders throughout. Early experience suggests that the training developed to support the guidelines, despite the fact that it challenges many established practices, is well received, appropriate to the needs of front line health workers in Kenya and feasible. To our knowledge the process described in Kenya is among a handful of attempts globally to implement inpatient or referral care components of WHO / UNICEF’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach. However, whether guideline dissemination and implementation result in improved quality of care in our environment remains to be seen.

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, R W Nduati, E Wafula, Lenja J. "Community understanding of pneumonia in Kenya ." African Health Sciences Vol 8 No 2 June 2008. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
Background: Effective management of pneumonia demands active participation by the caretaker to facilitate early seeking of
appropriate health care and adequate compliance to home
care messages. This would only be possible if the caretakers’ perception of pneumonia is appropriate. This study aims to determine
community’s perception of childhood pneumonia in a suburb of Nairobi.
Objectives: To determine community perception of childhood pneumonia.
Design: Cross sectional study utilizing qualitative ethnographic methodology.
Participants: Six key informants for in-depth interview and eight groups for focus group discussions from the study community.
Results: Pneumonia was perceived to be the most serious childhood illness. There was a great deal of diversity of Kikuyu phrases for
chest-in drawing. There was no term for rapid breathing. Chest in-drawing, fever, difficult in breathing, startling at night and
convulsions were perceived as features of pneumonia. Chest in-drawing, fever and convulsions were indicative of severe disease.
Conclusion: The caretakers perceived severe pneumonia as outlined in the IMCI guidelines. Non-severe pneumonia was not
perceived for what it should be. Inappropriate knowledge on causes of pneumonia and signs of non severe pneumonia are likely to
interfere with compliance with home care messages.

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, E Wafula LJ. "Community understanding of pneumonia in Kenya." African Health Sciences 2008; 8(2): 103-107. 2008. Abstractcommunity_understanding.pdf

Abstract
Background: Effective management of pneumonia demands active participation by the caretaker to facilitate early seeking of
appropriate health care and adequate compliance to home
care messages. This would only be possible if the caretakers’ perception of pneumonia is appropriate. This study aims to determine
community’s perception of childhood pneumonia in a suburb of Nairobi.
Objectives: To determine community perception of childhood pneumonia.
Design: Cross sectional study utilizing qualitative ethnographic methodology.
Participants: Six key informants for in-depth interview and eight groups for focus group discussions from the study community.
Results: Pneumonia was perceived to be the most serious childhood illness. There was a great deal of diversity of Kikuyu phrases for
chest-in drawing. There was no term for rapid breathing. Chest in-drawing, fever, difficult in breathing, startling at night and
convulsions were perceived as features of pneumonia. Chest in-drawing, fever and convulsions were indicative of severe disease.
Conclusion: The caretakers perceived severe pneumonia as outlined in the IMCI guidelines. Non-severe pneumonia was not
perceived for what it should be. Inappropriate knowledge on causes of pneumonia and signs of non severe pneumonia are likely to
interfere with compliance with home care messages.
African Health Sciences 2008; 8(2): 103-107

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and introducing evidence based clinical practice guidelines for serious illness in Kenya." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2008;93(9):799-804.
Gradin D, Gichuhi S. "Unilateral axial length elongation with chronic traumatic cataracts in young Kenyans. ." J Cataract Refract Surg . 2008;34(9):1566-1570. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:
To assess whether unilateral axial elongation in chronic traumatic cataract is associated with the time interval from trauma to surgery.

SETTING:
PCEA Kikuyu Hospital Eye Unit, Nairobi, Kenya.

METHODS:
This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients with traumatic cataract operated on between 1998 and 2007. Study patients (n = 13) had a delay from trauma to surgery of more than 1 year and an interocular axial length (AL) difference greater than 1.0 mm. Randomly selected age-matched control patients (n = 14) had less than 1 year delay between trauma and surgery. The correlation between interocular AL difference and surgical delay was calculated in each group.

RESULTS:
The median interval from trauma to surgical treatment in study patients was 8 years (range 1 to 27 years). Study patients had a significantly higher median interocular AL difference (3.09 mm; interquartile range [IQR] 2.45 to 4.13 mm) than control patients (0.24 mm; IQR 0.15 to 0.30 mm) (P = .000). The length of delay from trauma to surgical treatment did not correlate strongly with the interocular AL difference in study or control patients (R(2) = 0.0143 and R(2) = 0.1697, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:
Unilateral AL elongation may occur in young adults with chronic traumatic cataract. Delay of more than 1 year from trauma to surgery was associated with axial elongation, although the degree of elongation did not correlate with duration of delay. Surgeons are advised to implant lower-power intraocular lenses in such patients based on biometry readings to avoid postoperative refractive surprises.

Gradus-Pizlo I, Bigelow B, Mahomed Y, Sawada SG, Rieger K, Feigenbaum H. "Left anterior descending coronary artery wall thickness measured by high-frequency transthoracic and epicardial echocardiography includes adventitia." The American journal of cardiology. 2003;91:27-32. Abstract

{High-frequency, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (HR-2DTTE) measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery wall thickness are larger than measurements obtained by intravascular ultrasound. We hypothesize that this difference is due to inclusion of the third vascular layer, which may represent adventitia by HR-2DTTE, and that this layer must be increasing in thickness with the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the contribution of this third layer to the wall thickness of the normal and atherosclerotic LAD artery imaged by HR-2DTTE using high-frequency epicardial echocardiography (HFEE) as the reference standard. Eighteen patients (10 men, mean age 62 years), 13 with coronary atherosclerosis and 5 with normal coronary arteries, referred for open-heart surgery, underwent preoperative HR-2DTTE evaluation of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 3- to 8-MHz transducer) and intraoperative HFEE of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 6- to 15-MHz transducer). Wall thickness was greater in patients with coronary atherosclerosis than in those with normal coronary arteries by both HR-2DTTE (1.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm

Graham BJ, RG T, Mulwa JK. "Comparison of Electrical Resistivity 2D Tomography and 1D Profiling to characterize erosion and deposition in the Katonga Valley of SW Uganda.". In: British Society for Geomorphology/British Geomorphological Research Group.; 2010.
Graham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Liles WC, Overbaugh J. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Graham SM, Raboud J JMMCRSBAMWK &. "Changes in sexual risk behavior in the mombasa cohort: 1993-2007." PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113543.
Graham SM, Raboud J MCRSJN-AMOBAMWJKJ. "Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59480.abstract.pdf
Graham SM, Raboud J MCRSJN-AMOBAMWJKJ. "Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence." PLoS One. . 2013;8(3):e59480.
Grainger A, Wong G, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mbuvi D, Low PK, Low PS. "Economic and Social Impacts Assessment of DLDD. Chapter 2 .". In: Economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought. White Paper I. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, prepared with the contributions of an international group of scientists; 2013.unccd_white_paper_1.pdfunccd_key_findings_policy_implications_and_recommendations_of_wp_i.pdf
Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Graven SN, Browne JV. "Visual {Development} in the {Human} {Fetus}, {Infant}, and {Young} {Child}." Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2008;8:194-201. AbstractWebsite

The development of the visual system is the most studied of the sensory systems. The advances in technology have made it possible to study the neuroprocesses at the cellular and circuit level. The physical structure of the eye develops early in fetal life, whereas the neurocomponents and connections develop in later fetal and early neonatal life. The development of the visual system involves genetic coding, endogenous brain activity, exogenous visual stimulation after birth at term, and protected sleep cycles, particularly rapid eye movement sleep. Before birth at term, the fetus requires no outside visual stimulation or light. The critical element in development of the visual system before birth at term is protection of rapid eye movement sleep and sleep cycles. Sleep deprivation or disruption in utero and early months of neonatal life causes significant interference with visual development resulting in loss of the topographic relationships between the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the primary visual cortex in the infant.

Gravenir P, Obae DM. "Achieving full enrolment in Kenya." Maseno Journal of Education,Arts and Science. 1992:47-57.

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