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GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. Quality of feed raw materials (feedstuffs).". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., 1999. Pig production. Radio listening Groups, 2002.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Githang'a JN. Chromosomal Abnormalities In Childhood Acute Leukaemia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 14 patients aged from
ten months to 13 years admitted to KNH with acute leukaemia
(AL). Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed in
nine children. The clinical and laboratory features of the
patients were also analysed in relation to cytogenetic
abnormalities identified.
The study revealed that eight out of 14 (57!1~) of the
patients had acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) and 43%
had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Out of the five
children with ANLL who had chromosomal analysis performed
three (60%) had karyotype abnormal it i es: two pat i en ts had
hyperdiploidy, one with AML M5a had 47 chromosomes, and the
other with AML M2 had trisomy 21; the third patient had
monosomy 7. None of the four patients with ALL who had
chromosomal analysis performed had any karyotype
abnormalities.
Four out of the nine patients, whose karyotypes were
determined, died. All the four had normal karyotypes . Two
died of haemorrhage having had platelet counts less than 20
x 109/1 which is a poor prognostic feature. The other two
died of overwhelming infections.
Surface marker studies done during the course of the
study were helpful in making a final
complemented the morphological diagnosis.
diagnosis and

Evidence from the study shows that karyotypic
abnormalities in ANLL occur as frequently as those found in
other studies. The prognostic significance of the
chromosomal abnormalities has not been clearly demonstrated
in this study in view of the sample size. It is therefore
recommended that further similar but larger studies be
performed. A larger study should also bring out any
associations between certain karyotypes and morphologi cal
types of acute leukaemia.

Githanga D. "The effects of aflatoxin exposure on Hepatitis B-induced immunity in Kenyan children." Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2019. 2019:1-14. Abstractresearchgate

Background: Globally, approximately three million children die each year from vaccine preventable infectious diseases mainly in developing countries. Despite the success of the expanded immunization program, not all infants and children around the world develop the same protective immune response to the same vaccine. A vaccine must induce a response over the basal immune response that may be driven by population-specific, environmental or socio-economic factors. Mycotoxins like aflatoxins are immune suppressants that are confirmed to interfere with both cell-mediated and acquired immunity. The mechanism of aflatoxin toxicity is through the binding of the bio-activated AFB1-8, 9-epoxide to cellular macromolecules. Methods: We studied Hepatitis B surface antibodies [anti-HBs] levels to explore the immune modulation effects of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in children aged between one and fourteen years in Kenya. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced for routine administration for Kenyan infants in November 2001. To assess the effects of aflatoxin on immunogenicity of childhood vaccines Aflatoxin B1-lysine in blood serum samples were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection while anti-HBs were measured using Bio-ELISA anti-HBs kit. Results: The mean § SD of AFB1-lysine adducts in our study population was 45.38 § 87.03 pg/mg of albumin while the geometric mean was 20.40 pg/mg. The distribution of AFB1-lysine adducts was skewed to the right. Only 98/205 (47.8%) of the study population tested positive for Hepatitis B surface antibodies. From regression analysis, we noted that for every unit rise in serum aflatoxin level, anti-HBs dropped by 0.91 mIU/ml (¡0.9110038; 95% C.I ¡1.604948,¡0.21706). Conclusion: Despite high coverage of routine immunization, less than half of the study population had developed immunity to HepB. Exposure to aflatoxin was high and weakly associated with low anti-HBs antibodies. These findings highlight a potentially significant role for environmental factors that may contribute to vaccine effectiveness warranting further research.

Githanga J, Axt J, Abdallah F, Axt M, Hansen E, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National institute of health. 2013;48(6)(2013 June ):1254-1262.wilms_paper_githanga__abdalla.pdf
Githanga J N KGW. "Blood Safety in Kenya:Challenges in blood distribution and cold chain maintenance.". In: 6th International Congress of the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion .; 2012.
Githigia S. "Importance of gastrointestinal helminths to the livestock industy in Kenya.". 1998; 141:72-77. Abstract

Gastrointestinal helminthes cause considerable losses to the livestock industry in Kenya. These losses are related to clinical parasitic gastroenterities leading to mortalities especially in lambs, kids, calves and poorly managed and malnourished adults. Greater losses occur due to sub clinical parasitic gastroenteritis leading to chronic production losses. These losses have been reported in all the agroecological zones of Kenya. Although most losses occur in the high rainfall areas, losses have also been reported in the dry and semi arid areas. These production losses are manifested as reduced weight gains, lower milk and wool production and in meat and organ condemnations.

The most common and economically important meatode Haemonchus contortus is causing high mortalilties in sheep and goats in Kenya (Njanja, 1985; Maingi 1991; Mwamachi et.al., 1993; Baker et. Al., 1993). In the coastal area, the Diani estate farm lost 81 out of 355 lambs due to helminthosis within a period of 6 weeks within one year. In the semi arid area of Marsabit, a survey of gastrointestinal helminthes of cattle under nomadic management showed that helminthosis was a major constraint to livestock production in this area. Haemonchus spp were the most important parasites (Omara-Opyene, 1985). Ulvund et.al., 1984) found that ewes and lambs grazing the cool highland pastures were heavily infected with gastrointestinal helminthes and had to be treated every 3 – 4 weeks through out the year. The animals lost considerable weight and H. contortus was the main helminth present.

Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Githigia, S.M., Willingham AL, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya.". In: I0th International Conference of Associations of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Copenhagen, Denmark ; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Murekefu K;, Ngesa SM;, Otieno RO. "The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya."; 2002.
Githigia S, S. T, M L. "Effectiveness of grazing management in controlling GI nematodes in weaner lambs on pasture in Denmark." International Conference of the World Asociation for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;(18):118-119. Abstract

The problem of anthelmintic resistance calls for alternative control methods, including grazing management. Dose- and – move and move- only strategies of control methods were compared in this study.

In early May, 1999, 16 ewes with twin lambs (2-3 weeks old) were turned out on infected pasture. On 1st July, the lambs were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and weaned to clean pasture. Two groups (dose – and –move) were treated with anthelmintics while the other two (move- only) were not treated. Each group was allocated to a separate paddock sampled every two weeks and set stocked until slaughter.

Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg, S.M.;. Kyvsgaard. NC, Thamsborg, S.M.;. Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia, S.M., Willingham, L., Maingi N, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya.". In: 10th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 2001.
Githigia SM, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Willingham AL;, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala, B.O.; Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM, Okomo MA, Inyangala BA, Munyua SJ, Okeyo M, Otieno RL. "Prevalence and infection levels of helminths in goats at machanga Field station over a period of one year.". 1996. Abstract

Helminthiasis in livestock is of considerable significance in a wide range of agroclimatic zones in Africa. It constitutes one of the most important constraints to small ruminant production. The widespread occurrence of infections at sub-clinical levels with internal parasites in grazing animals, the associated loss of production, the cost of anthelmintics and death of infected animals are some of the major concerns'. There is seasonal variation in the rate of infection by endoparasites depending on whether eggs passed in faeces develop into infective stages. Most· reports indicate high rates of transmission in the wet seasons". The level of pasture contamination can indicate to what degree animals are exposed to parasitic infections in different seasons+". This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and seasonal variations in infection levels of helminths in a flock of goats over a period of one year. The study was carried out at the University of Nairobi's Machanga field station adjacent to Kamburu dam, in the arid to semi-arid areas of Kenya. The annual rainfall was 680mm in 1993 and 783mm in 1994 with most of it falling during the short rains period (October to December). The area's vegetation consists of several varieties of browse plants and grasses. The study involved forty Small East African goats aged between 2 and 3 years which were bought from the surrounding farms and brought to the station in October 1993. They were eartagged for identification. They were faecal sampled in January and February (during the dry period), May and June (during the wet season -long rains) and October and November (during the wet season short rains) in 1994. Individual rectal faecal samples were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) using the modified MacMaster technique'". Magnesium Sulphate (Sp.Gr. 1.14) was used as the floatation fluid. Pooled feacal cultures were made and infective larva were identified using standard methods already described

Githigia S, A W, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya." The Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. 2001;(10):92-93. Abstract

There has been a decrease in the prevalence of cysticercosis (T. saginata and T solium) in Kenya since independence in the early 1960s. this has been due to improvement of hygiene, strict meat inspection procedures, public educational nd a ban on free range pig keeping.

The prevalence of C. bovis decreased from 25% in the 1960s to 8.8% in the 1970s and to 1.1% in the early 1990s. the decline has been attributed in addition to the above to the take over of control of meat inspection in the country by the department of veterinary services from the ministry of health in 19;74. The training of meat inspectors was also centralized. Among the provinces , the prevalence has been highest in the Rift Valley which is a net exporter of animals to other provinces and this is where the pastoral communities are found. The infection seems to spread from this province.

Outbreaks of porcine cysticercosis (T.solium) were recorded in the early 1960s mainly among the free range pig farmers in the north western Rift Valley (Tranzoia) Kakamega and Busia. A government ban on free range pig raising in the country after independence and proper hygience led to a sharp devreas in cases of T> Solium.

Githigia SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Okomo, M. A.;. d. NC, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaar. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia S, Munyua WK, Willingham AL. "Helminth infections in goats on mixed farms in Central Kenya.". 1997;(16):32-33. Abstract

A survey was undertaken to study the epidemiology and intensity of nematode infection among goats on eight randomly selected mixed farms in a coffee marginal area of Central Kenya.

Various age groups of goats were ear tagged and faecal sampled at the beginning of the study. They were treated with albendazole 10% at manufacturers recommended dose. These goats were faecal sampled fortnightly. Weights and blood for PCV and serum albumin were taken monthly.

The intensity of infection varied with age groups of the goats and the individual farms.

Fourteen days after treatment, the faecal egg counts were reduced to zero except one farm. Coprocultures revealed that Haemonchus contortus was the main nematode species infecting these goats. Cooperia curticei occurred in low numbers in a few farms.

Githigia SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Murekefu K;, Ngesa SM;, Otieno RO. "The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya."; 2002.
GITHII MW. "DETERMINATION OF THE UNIT COST FOR BACHELOR OF COMMERCE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: MBA; 2004. Abstract

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GITHII MW. "OPERATIONS RESEARCH II DISTANCE LEARNING MANUAL.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract

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Githinj TW, Nyamai CM, Kutukhulu AW. "Overview of mineral processing and beneficiation in Kenya.". In: Mineral processing and beneficiation. New Delhi (India): NAM S $ T; 2015.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Githinji M, Kironchi G, Mbuvi JP, Onwonga RN. "Production in semi-arid areas of Kenya using the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM).". 2000. Abstract

Managing crop production risks associated with inter-annual climate variability and climate change has received insignificant attention in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. Against this backdrop, the potential impact of climate change on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production in the semi-arid areas of Kenya will be assessed using the Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM). The study will employ participatory tools in the use of APSIM model to identify risks and cropping system improvement options and designing cropping strategies for field experimentation. The field experiments will be conducted in Makueni district of Eastern Province, Kenya. Initially, a farmers’ workshop will be held to gather information on farmers’ experience with recent climatic changes and possible causes, effect on current farming systems, coping and adaption strategies to current management practices. Farm households’ perceptions of risks, options to reduce climatic risks, specific vulnerabilities of the current cropping systems and coping strategies will be documented using semi-structured interviews during farm surveys. This is in addition to establishing the socio-economic and agricultural systems setting of the smallholder farmers. Potential technologies to address the anticipated negative impacts of climate change in respect of cowpea (legume) and sorghum (cereal) cropping system will jointly be identified with the farmers and a subset of tactical adaptation options identified. The options will initially be tested on-station in the first year and on farm in the second year. The on station experiments will be conducted for two (four seasons) years to model sorghum and cowpea growth and soil-water, soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a legume-cereal cropping system. The APSIM model will be validated to simulate both the legume and cereal components of the cropping system. The integrity of the simulated system will be evaluated by comparing the simulated performance of the crops with actual experimental crop data and by exploring other facets such as water use, denitrification and leaching. It is envisioned that the APSIM model will allow for quick exploration of production outcomes of a range of management alternatives under a range of climatic scenarios (realized or predicted), and for a range of soil conditions. This is in addition to provision of valuable information for evaluating a wide range of cropping system options.

Githinji CW, Kokwaro JO. "Ethnomedicinal study of major species in the family Labiatae from Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1993;39(3):197-203.
Githinji N, Maleche-Obimbo E, Nderitu M, Wamalwa DC, Mbori-Ngacha D. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya ." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011. Abstractutility_of_total_lymphocyte_count.pdf

Abstract
Background: In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of
less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children.
Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected
children.
Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in
Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected
children aged 1 month - 12 years.
Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in
children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p <
0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4
count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750
cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/
mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000
cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62%
respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to
7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56%
and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%,
54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively.
Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific
thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore
utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the
various age categories.

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GithinjI TW, Nyamai CM, Kutukhulu AW. "Overview of mineral processing and beneficiation in Kenya." Mineral processing and beneficiation. 2015.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
and Githinji C.G., P.M. Mbugua KKTIDK. "Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of Mondia Whytei (hook.f) root.". 2012.
Githiori J;, Mbaabu M;, poke L;, Miaron. J;, Omari P. Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa.; 2004.Website
Githiri SM, Kimani PM, Saxena KB. "Natural out-crossing in dwarf pigeonpea."; 1991. Abstract

Natural out-crossing rate in pigeonpea was studied at ICRISAT Center using plant stature (tall plants in dwarf progenies) as the genetic marker. The data indicated natural out-crossing rates of 9.7% to 24.1% with a pooled value of 13.1% in the six populations studied. These data were comparable to earlier studies at the same site using stem colour and growth habit as genetic markers in tall pigeonpea cultivars thus suggesting that foraging of insect pollination vectors is not influenced by plant type. The implications of natural out-crossing on breeding and maintenance of genetic purity of cultivars is discussed.

Githiri M, Njeri T, Muthoni FK, Yego R, Muchane M, Njoroge P, Giani A. "African wild dogs from south-eastern Kenya: recent records and conservation issues." Canid News. 2008;11. Abstract
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Githiri JG, J. P P, Barongo JO, Karanja PK. "An investigation of the structure beneath Magadi area in southern Kenya rift using gravimetric data." Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology. 2012;Volume 24(Number 1):142-160.
Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ, Omore AO, Arimi SM, E K K'the. "The prevalence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in marketed milk in Kenya and its public health implications.". 2000. Abstract

The risk of infection by milk-borne brucellosis is one reason for public health regulations which discourage informal milk markets that sell unpasteurized milk. However, these regulations are not generally implemented in many developing countries. Kenya is a typical example, with over 85% of milk sales passing through informal channels. Consumer practices to reduce or eliminate potential infection by milk-borne health hazards under these circumstances have rarely been studied. Seasonal survey data were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from informal milk market agents of various cadres and from households consuming unpasteurized milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. In addition, pasteurized and packaged milk samples from five processors were collected. Samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the milk ring test (MRT) (unpasteurized milk) and indirect antibody ELISA (both unpasteurized and pasteurized milk). Milk samples originating from farms in the extensive production system and those containing milk from many sources were associated with higher antibody detection proportions. Five percent of all raw milk samples collected from consumer households and 4% of samples collected from various levels of bulking of market samples were positive to the ELISA. There was poor to no agreement between the two antibody detection tests. All urban consumers and 96% of rural consumers of unpasteurized milk indicated that they boil the milk (in tea or otherwise) before consumption. The implications of these results on milk marketing in Kenya are discussed.

Githua A, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. AbstractWebsite

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ;, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. Abstract

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

Githui FW, Mutua FM, Bauwens W. "Estimating the impacts of land cover change on runoff using SWAT: Case study: Nzoia catchment, Kenya." Hydrological Sciences Journal. 2009;54(5):899-908.
Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Githui FW, Mutua F, Bauwens W. Assessing the impacts of environmental change on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment, in the Lake Victoria Basin. Brussel: Vrije Universiteit Brussel; 2007. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess the past and potential future environmental changes, and their impact on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment. More specifically, the study has analyzed the historical climatic (1962-2004) and land cover changes (1973-2001) that have taken place in the Nzoia River catchment in Kenya, and the effect these have had on the hydrology of the catchment. It has also made use of land cover and climate change scenarios for the future to determine the potential effects these will have on the catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to investigate the impact of land cover and climatic change on streamflow of the study area. The model was set up using readily available spatial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily discharge. The land cover changes within the watershed were examined through classification of satellite images and a land cover change model generated the land cover change scenarios for the year 2020. Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models (GCMs) for the period 2010-2039 (ie 2020s) and 2040-2069 (ie 2050s). The climate change IPCC SRES scenarios A2 and B2 were selected. To this purpose, rainfall and temperature scenarios based on the GCMs CCSR, CSIRO, ECHAM4, GFDL and HADCM3 were superimposed on the calibrated SWAT model.

Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/01/403.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

Githui FW, Gitau W, Mutua FM, Bauwens W. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." Inter. J. Climatol. . 2009;29(12):1823-1834.
Githui F, Gitau W, Mutua F, Bauwens W. "Climate Change Impact on SWAT Simulated Streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2009;29(12):1823-1834. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Weather and climate extremes such as droughts and floods have far reaching impacts in Kenya. They havehad implications in a variety of sectors including agriculture, water resources, health, energy, and disaster managementamong others. Lake Victoria and its catchment support millions of people and any impact on its ability to support thelivelihoods of the communities in this region is of major concern. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess thepotential future climatic changes on the Nzoia catchment in the Lake Victoria basin, and how they might affect streamflow.The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to investigate the impact of climatic change on streamflow of the study area.The model was set up using readily available s patial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily streamflow.Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models.Results obtained showed increased amounts of annual rainfall for all the scenarios but with variations on a monthlybasis. All – but one – global circulation models (GCMs) showed consistency in the monthly rainfall amounts. Rainfall washigher in the 2050s than in the 2020s. According to climate change scenarios, temperature will increase i n t his region,with the 2050s experiencing much higher increases than the 2020s with a monthly temperature change range of 0–1.7°C.The range of change in mean annual rainfall o f 2.4–23.2% corresponded to a change in streamflow of about 6–115%. Theanalysis revealed important rainfall–runoff linear relationships for certain months that could be extrapolated to estimateamounts of streamflow under various scenarios of change in rainfall. Streamflow response was not sensitive to changesin temperature. If all other variables, e.g. land cover, population growth etc., were held constant, a significant increase instreamflow may be expected in the coming decades as a consequence of increased rainfall amounts. Copyright 2008Royal Meteorological SocietyKEY WORDS climate change; streamflow; runoff; general circulation models; hydrology; modelling

Githui T, Ngare P. "Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in the Informal Sector in Kenya." Education and Reseach. 2014:1-6. Abstract

Old age dependency has become a major issue of concern to governments today. This is because a large number of retirees lack any form of regular income to sustain them in retirement. Kenya has one of the highest levels of old age dependency currently estimated at 56%. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of financial literacy on retirement planning in the informal sector in Kenya. The study found that financial literacy remains low in Kenya. Financial literacy was found to have a positive impact on retirement planning; however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Gender was found to have no impact on retirement planning. The study established that the probability of a financially illiterate person having no retirement planning is significantly high calling for increased investment in financial literacy programs to reverse the trend. The study recommends the development of a curriculum on financial education and pension education in middle level and higher learning institutions as well as community pension awareness programs such as road-shows and aggressive advertising campaigns to enlighten the people on importance of retirement planning

Githui EK, Kibegwa FM, Kamau JM, Mutura SK, Okwany ZA, Ngigi DM, Mwangi EW. "{Genetic relationships of indigenous goats reared by pastoralists in Kenya based on mitochondria D-loop sequence}." Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. 2016:1-8. AbstractWebsite

Kenya indigenous goat breeds ( Capra hircus ) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.

Githunguri CM;, Waithaka K;, Ekanayake IJ;, Imungi JK. "Influence of agro-ecological zones and plant age on the net assimilation, relative and crop growth rates of cassava.".; 2007. Abstract

Five cassava genotypes were grown at three agro-ecological zones. Plants were sampled for net assimilation, crop growth and relative growth rates at four, six, eight, ten and twelve months after planting. The genotypes were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. Cassava at the wetter agro-ecological zones had higher crop and relative growth rates than those at the drier agro-ecological zone. Plant age, agro-ecological zone and genotype effects were not important factors in determining the net assimilation rate of cassava. The lowest yielding genotype had the highest net assimilation rate demonstrating that a high net assimilation rate does not always result into high yields suggesting that net assimilation rate is not a good indicator of growth performance of cassava. The wetter agro-ecological zones had a positive effect on crop and relative growth rates, while the drier agro-ecological zone had a negative effect suggesting that the agro¬ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them. Cassava crop and relative growth rates were highly positively correlated to root yields. Therefore, breeding and selection for cassava genotypes with the highest crop and relative growth rates and hence yields may be done at the drier agro-ecological zone.

Githunguri CM;, Waithaka K;, Ekanayake IJ;, Imungi JK. "Influence of agro-ecological zones and plant age on the net assimilation, relative and crop growth rates of cassava.".; 2007. Abstract

Five cassava genotypes were grown at three agro-ecological zones. Plants were sampled for net assimilation, crop growth and relative growth rates at four, six, eight, ten and twelve months after planting. The genotypes were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. Cassava at the wetter agro-ecological zones had higher crop and relative growth rates than those at the drier agro-ecological zone. Plant age, agro-ecological zone and genotype effects were not important factors in determining the net assimilation rate of cassava. The lowest yielding genotype had the highest net assimilation rate demonstrating that a high net assimilation rate does not always result into high yields suggesting that net assimilation rate is not a good indicator of growth performance of cassava. The wetter agro-ecological zones had a positive effect on crop and relative growth rates, while the drier agro-ecological zone had a negative effect suggesting that the agro¬ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them. Cassava crop and relative growth rates were highly positively correlated to root yields. Therefore, breeding and selection for cassava genotypes with the highest crop and relative growth rates and hence yields may be done at the drier agro-ecological zone.

Githure JI, Kabiru EW, Martin SK, Khan B, Ofulla AV, Kariuki DM. "Drug sensitivity studies during a highland malaria epidemic in Kenya.". 1992.Website
Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye C;, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Gitonga ER. "Role of Family Members in socialization into Sport of secondary School athletes in Kenya: Preliminary Findings." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(2):9-14.
Gitonga ER, Andanje M, Wanderi PW, Bailasha N. "Teacher-trainees attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya." Educational Reviews and Research. 2012;7(27):585-588.
Gitonga ER. "Participation in Sport of family members of Kenyan secondary school athletes." African Journal of Education research and development . 2007;2(2):184-190.
Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye, C; Ritho CN, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS, P.W. W. "Participatory Motives of university athletes: The case of Kenyatta University." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(1):31-36.
Gitonga ER. "Knowledge about HIV/AIDS of college athletes in Kenya." Journal of International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. 2003;(4):21-24.
Gitonga ER. "Significant others influence on socialization into sport of Kenya Secondary School athletes." African Journal of Educational research and development . 2009;4(1):111-117.
Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS, Wahome P. "Evaluation of athletes’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS: The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi-Kenya." African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance . 2004;10(3):193-203.
Gitonga L, Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK, Muriuki, N.S. "Determination of Plasmodium Parasite Life Stages and Species in Images of Thin Blood Smears Using Artificial Neural Networks." Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 2014;4:78-88. Abstract
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Gitonga ER. "Influence of parents SES on selected Kenyatta University Students type of sports participation." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(2):9-14.
Gitonga P, Karani A, Kimani S. "Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring." http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2017;2(2):1/4.
Gitonga E, Bailasha NK, Toriola AL. "Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players." African journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD). 2011;17(3):1-12.
Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS. "Effects of selected School factors in socialization into Sport of Kenyan Secondary school Athletes." African Journal of educational research and development. 2007;2(1):240-246.
Gitonga D, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo. "Dangerous wireless local area network (wlan) risks students and university employees need to know about.". In: IBM/Unesco-Hp Workshop on Trends in Distributed Computing Applications. Nairobi; 2013.
Gitu, K.W. W;, Nyangito H, Oluoch-Kosura. W;. "Agriculture, Food and Environment. Kenya’s Situation."; 1998.
Gitu PM, Yusuf A, Bhatt BM. "Application of tetralinyls as carboxamide protecting groups in peptide synthesis." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 1998;12(1):35-43.bcse_12_1_1998.pdf
Gitu P, Yusuf A, Ogutu V. "Application of tetralinyl group in solid-phase peptide synthesis." Int. J. BioChemiPhysics. 1998;6,7(1,2):7-10.scan0055.pdf
Gituku BC, Wasonga OV, Ngugi RK. "Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya." London: IIED. 2015. Abstract
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Gituku BC, a OVW, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the pastoral meat trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M. "Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2009;14(1):118-22. Abstract

To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information.

Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Nduati Ruth, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M. Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstractabstract_accesssources_and_value_of_new_medical_information.pdf

Access, sources and value of new medical information: views of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi.
Gituma A, Masika M, Muchangi E, Nyagah L, Otieno V, Irimu G, Wasunna A, Ndiritu M, English M
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate final year medical students' access to new medical information.
METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of final year medical students at the University of Nairobi using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires.
RESULTS: Questionnaires were distributed to 85% of a possible 343 students and returned by 44% (152). Half reported having accessed some form of new medical information within the previous 12 months, most commonly from books and the internet. Few students reported regular access; and specific, new journal articles were rarely accessed. Absence of internet facilities, slow internet speed and cost impeded access to literature; and current training seems rarely to encourage students to seek new information.
CONCLUSION: Almost half the students had not accessed any new medical information in their final year in medical school. This means they are ill prepared for a career that may increasingly demand life-long, self-learning.

Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Jan;14(1):118-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02209.x.

GITURO WAINAINA. "The Prospects of Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Wild Herbivores in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya. A Case Study on the Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa),.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1998.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Attainment and Maintenance of Universal Primary Education in Commonwealth Developing Countries: Lessons from Past Qualitative and Quantitative Regression. A Case of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
GITURO WAINAINA. "An inequality perspective of education structure and performance in Kenya - University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited."; 2011. Abstractan_inequality_perspective_of_education_structure_and_performance_in_kenya.pdf

Education is an important determinant of individuals’ income, health as well as the capacity to interact and communicate with others. In spite of this view, there is considerable evidence of inequalities of opportunity in education in most developing countries. Differences abound with respect to sex of the head of the household, rural and urban areas heads, across population groups defined by parental education, region of residence and wealth. The probability that the household head is uneducated is higher than average when she is a woman and in general, household heads are more likely to have no education when they are in rural areas than in urban areas. Achievements by children in school vary considerably depending on the wealth of their household, their place of residence, the education of their mother and that of their father.
From the foregoing, the overall policy goal for the Kenyan Government is therefore to provide every Kenyan the right to education and training no matter his/her socio-economic status through the provision of all-inclusive quality education that is accessible and relevant. This vision is guided by the understanding that quality education and training contributes significantly to economic growth and the expansion of employment opportunities. The vision is in tandem with the Government’s plan as articulated in the Economic Recovery Strategy Paper which provides the rationale for major reforms in the current education system in order to enable all Kenyans to have access to quality lifelong education and training.
For the above reasons, the Kenyan Government has, over the years, demonstrated its commitment to the development of education and training through sustained allocation of resources to the sector. However, despite the substantial allocation of resources and notable achievements attained, the sector still faces major challenges related to access, equity, quality, relevance, efficiency in the management of educational resources, cost and financing of education, gender and regional disparities, and teacher quality and teacher utilization.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of inequalities that still exist within the Kenyan education system despite the Government’s efforts and at the same time suggest some policy issues and strategies thereof. The paper looks at the background to inequalities in education, education with respect to employment and national development, impact of free primary education, inequalities in education, an analysis of education expenditure and ends with a discussion on several strategies that must be implemented in order to reverse the current inequalities in education in Kenya.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Separation of Mean Analysis of Corn Basis Movement in Selected Locations in Southern United States:.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
GITURO WAINAINA. "An Inequality Perspective of Education Structure and Performance in Kenya,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
GITURO WAINAINA. "An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Best Practices in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2009.
GITURO WAINAINA, Kibera FN, K’Obonyo PO, Thuo JK. "Customer Relationship Management and Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Nairobi; 2011. Abstractcustomer_relationship_management_and_competitiveness_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Customer Relationship Management (CRM), also referred to as Relationship Marketing, is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy, conflicting opinions and increased pessimism about the effectiveness of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorous studies
to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation.
The general objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of the influence of CRM practices on organizational competitiveness and conduct an empirical assessment of the framework on the commercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection.
The study found statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationships between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderating role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was found not statistically significant. The overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significantly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational factors within the firm such as age, size, and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation, and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational
competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity.
Nonetheless, organizational factors positively enhance the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The results of the study have significant managerial and theoretical implications.
Key words: Customer Relationship Management, Relationship Marketing, Organizational Competitiveness, Marketing Productivity, Organizational Factors.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Explanatory Data Analysis of Corn Basis Movement in Selected Locations in Southern United States,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Income Generation at Public Universities: A Case of University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006.
GITURO WAINAINA. "Time And Cost Overruns In Power Projects In Kenya: A Case Study Of Kenya Electricity Generating Company Limited.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2008.
Gituro W, Kisaka SE, Ngugi RW, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economics Bullletin. 2008. Abstractan_analysis_of_the_efficiency_of_the_foreign_exchange_market_in_kenya.pdf

This study examined the Efficiency Market hypothesis in its weak form using run tests, unit root tests and the Ljung-Box Q-statistics. The motivation was to determine whether foreign exchange rate returns follow a random walk. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing spot price of the Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rate. The main finding of this study is that the foreign exchange rate market is not efficient. The results showed that most of the rejections are due to significant patterns, trend stationarity and autocorrelation in foreign exchange returns. This is attributed to both
exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Chapter 17 in the Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1996.
Gizaw S;, Getachew T;, Goshme S;, Mwai OA;, Dessie T. "A cooperative village breeding scheme for smallholder sheep farming systems in Ethiopia."; 2013.
GIZEMBA MRONTITAEDWARD. "Foreward to Paul Barton-Kriese, Nonviolent Revolution. Shirikon Publishers, Nairobi, 1995.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
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GIZEMBA MRONTITAEDWARD. "In P.O. Chitere and R. Mutiso Eds. Working with Rural Commuties: A Participatory Action Research in Kenya. Nairobi University Press, 1991.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
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GIZEMBA MRONTITAEDWARD. "Forestry and Food Security in Kenya: The Case of South-West Mau Forest, Nairobi: Forest Action Network, 2000 - with L. Kangethe.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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GK G, RM B, J V, CM M. "Evaluation of Petrifilms as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. . 2013;45:883-886 .
GK G, JW A, Mbuthia P G, CM M. "). Causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod.. 2010;42:1643-1647 .
Gladys, Machira HKLMN. Impact of Pain Education Program on Nurses: Pain Knowledge and Attitude..; 2013. Abstract

International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Vol. 19, Iss. 7, 26 Jul 2013, pp 341 - 345

Introduction: Pain is a common symptom for patients receiving palliative care, but can be relieved by effective pain management. Nurses play a critical part in implementing pain management effectively and must therefore have a solid foundation of knowledge and a positive attitude toward it. Aim: The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate an educational pain management programme (PMP) for nurses in Kenya. Methods: The effects of the PMP were measured using a quasi-experimental pre-post test design. Twenty seven nurses from two units in a single health institution in Kenya participated in a baseline assessment using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP). Nine randomly selected nurses then received 7 hours of focused education. This group completed the assessment again both immediately after and 2 weeks after the PMP. Results: A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent at baseline. The nurses who received the PMP scored significantly higher on the NKASRP following the PMP: mean scores were 18.44, 28.00, and 27.56 at baseline, first follow-up, and second follow-up assessment respectively. Conclusion: The PMP appears to be effective in improving nurses' pain knowledge and attitudes.

Glazier AP, Kokwaro GO, Edwards G. "Possible isozyme-specific effects of experimental malaria infection with Plasmodium berghei on cytochrome P450 activity in rat liver microsomes.". 2005. Abstract

We have investigated the effect of experimental malaria infection on rat cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism using ethoxyresorufin and metoprolol as probe compounds. Malaria infection caused a significant reduction in total intrinsic clearance of ethoxyresorufin in both low and high parasitaemia malaria compared with control (control 18.7 +/- 7.2; low parasitaemia 10.5 +/- 4.1; high parasitaemia 4.3 +/- 1.4 mL min-1). However, clearance of metoprolol was unchanged in malaria infection compared with control (control 2.7 +/- 1.2; malaria 4.0 +/- 1.7 mL min-1). The change in clearance of ethoxyresorufin was the result of a decrease in Vmax, with no apparent change in Km. There was no change in either Vmax or Km of metoprolol. These results indicate a possible isozyme-selective effect of experimental malaria.

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Mattei J, Malik V, Wedick NM, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Campos H. "Reducing the global burden of type 2 diabetes by improving the quality of staple foods: The Global Nutrition and Epidemiologic Transition Initiative." Global Health. 2015;11:23. Abstract

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been reaching epidemic proportions across the globe, affecting low/middle-income and developed countries. Two main contributors to this burden are the reduction in mortality from infectious conditions and concomitant negative changes in lifestyles, including diet. We aimed to depict the current state of type 2 diabetes worldwide in light of the undergoing epidemiologic and nutrition transition, and to posit that a key factor in the nutrition transition has been the shift in the type and processing of staple foods, from less processed traditional foods to highly refined and processed carbohydrate sources.

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Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
Gluecksohn-Waelsch S, Schiffman MB. "Glutamine synthetase in newborn mice homozygous for lethal albino alleles." Dev. Biol.. 1975;45(2):369-71.
GN M, RA N, MG K. "Championing radiation safety in Africa: The AFROSAFE campaign.". In: The International Pediatric Radiology 7th Conjoint Meeting and Exhibition. Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2016.
GN C’wa, OM K, JH N. "Status, Challenges and Marketing Opportunities for Canning Navy Bean in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2014;14(14(5)20272-2087).status_challenges_and_marketing_opportunities_for_2014.pdf
GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Kikuyu, People of Kenya Series.". In: A Evan Brothers, London. "Central Kenya in the Nyayo Era", Africa Today, Vol 26, New York, U.S.; 1977. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Historiography of East Africa, In to the 80's.". In: Edited by D.I. Ray, P. Shinnite and D. Williams, Tantalus Research Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.; 1983. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Some Reflections on Cold War Africa and After"in The United States and Africa: From Independence to the End of the Cold War.". In: Edited by Macharia Munene, J.D. Olewe Nyunya and Korwa Adar, E.A. Educational Publishers Limited, Nairobi, pp 5-24.; 1995. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""A History of the Kikuyu to 1904", Ph.D. thesis, University of London.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1969. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Kenya's Historical Experience: An Overview" in East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change.". In: Edited by Judith M. Bahemuka and Joseph L. Brockington, Nairobi, 2001, pp 135-147.; 2001. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Kikuyu in the Pre-Colonial Period" in Kenya Before 1900.". In: Edited by B.A. Ogot, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "3 Chapters in Official Handbook.". In: Kenya Government, Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The State of Research in Kenya".". In: Conference on the State of Humanities in Africa, Nairobi, 29 November - 1 December.; 1994. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Kikuyu Reaction to Traders and British Administration".". In: In Hadith 1, E.A. Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1968. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Chronology of the Kikuyu".". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Life and Government of Jomo Kenyatta".". In: In Encyclopedia of African History, Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 2,pp 755-57.; 2005. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "A History of the Kikuyu, 1500-1900.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Historiography of East Africa, In to the 80's.". In: Edited by D.I. Ray, P. Shinnite and D. Williams, Tantalus Research Ltd., Vancouver, Canada.; 1979. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Reconstruction of African History Through Historical, Ethnographic and Oral Sources".". In: In P. Stone and R. Mackenzie. The Excluded past: Archaeology in Education, Unwin Hyman, London.; 1990. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""The Fruits of Uhuru", in African Today.". In: August/September, New York, U.S.A.; 1965. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Research and Publications" in Barbara Matiru, Anna Mwangi and Ruth Schlette Teach your Best: A HandBook for University Lecturers.". In: German Foundation for International Development (DSE), Bonn, 1995, pp 309-54.; 1995. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "Traditional Social and Political Institutions of the Mount Kenya Peoples" in Hadith IV, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Harry Thuku" in Encyclopedia of African History.". In: Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 3, 2005, pp 1559-60.; 2005. Abstract
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Goh BKP, Tan Y-M, Cheow P-C, Alexander Chung Y-F, Chow PKH, Wong W-K, Ooi LLPJ. "Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: an updated experience." Journal of surgical oncology. 2007;95:640-644. AbstractWebsite
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Gohil TR, Mutave RJ, Dimba EAO. "Effects of chemotherapy on oral health in paediatric oncology patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Kenya Dental Association. 2011;2:184-189.
Golub G, Herman-Roloff A, Hoffman S, Jaoko W, Bailey RC. "The Relationship Between Distance and Post-operative Visit Attendance Following Medical Male Circumcision in Nyanza Province, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2015. Abstract

To date, there is no research on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) catchment areas or the relationship between distance to a VMMC facility and attendance at a post-operative follow-up visit. We analyzed data from a randomly selected subset of males self-seeking circumcision at one of 16 participating facilities in Nyanza Province, Kenya between 2008 and 2010. Among 1437 participants, 46.7 % attended follow-up. The median distance from residence to utilized facility was 2.98 km (IQR 1.31-5.38). Nearly all participants (98.8 %) lived within 5 km from a facility, however, 26.3 % visited a facility more than 5 km away. Stratified results demonstrated that among those utilizing fixed facilities, greater distance was associated with higher odds of follow-up non-attendance (OR5.01-10km vs. 0-1km = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.08, 2.70, p = 0.02; OR>10km vs. 0-1 km = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.26, 6.21, p = 0.01), adjusting for age and district of residence. We found 5 km marked the threshold distance beyond which follow-up attendance significantly dropped. These results demonstrate distance is an important predictor of attending follow-up, and this relationship appears to be modified by facility type.

Gona G, Kailembo AMM. "The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist." Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa. 2002.
Gona G;, Kiai W;, Ngugi M. "Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya .". 2013.Website
Gona GM. "Elusive Peace in Kenya .". 2012.Website
Gongora J, Rawlence NJ, Mobegi VA, Jianlin H, Alcalde JA, Matus JT, Hanotte O, Moran C, Austin JJ, Ulm S, Anderson AJ, Larson G, Cooper A. "Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2008;105(30):10308-13. Abstract

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

Gontier DC. "Oreintation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Participants’ workbook.". In: Orientation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Ministry of Medical Services; 2012.
Goo Y-K, Aboge GO, Terkawi AM, Jia H, Yamagishi J, Sunaga F, Namikawa K, Cha S-Y, Jang H-K, Kim S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "Four promising antigens, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, for serodiagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infection were classified as B. gibsoni merozoite surface protein family.". 2012. Abstract

We determined the molecular characteristics of four proteins, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, of Babesia gibsoni. Localization by subcellular fractionations followed by Western blotting revealed that the corresponding native proteins belong to merozoite surface protein family of B. gibsoni (BgMSP). Moreover, antisera against either rBgP45 or rBgP47 cross-reacted with all the proteins of the BgMSP family on ELISA and IFAT analyses. Of the four candidate antigens, ELISA with rBgP45 yielded high sensitivity, and ELISA with rBgP32 resulted in high specificity and in concordance with IFAT results.

Goo Y-K;, erkawi A;M, ia H;, Aboge O;G, Ooka H, Nelson B;, Kim S;, Sunaga F, Namikawa K;, Igarashi I. "Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection.". 2010. Abstract

The effects of artesunate, a water-soluble artemisinin derivative, against Babesia species, including Babesia bovis, Babesia gibsoni and Babesia microti were studied. Cultures of B. bovis and B. gibsoni were treated with 0.26, 2.6, 26 and 260 μM artesunate, showing inhibition of parasite growth at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.6 μM artesunate by days 3 post-treatment for B. gibsoni and B. bovis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with in vitro experiments, artesunate was effective in the treatment of mice infected with B. microti at doses equal to and greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight on days 8–10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection.

Goo L, Chohan V, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "Early development of broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected infants." Nat. Med.. 2014;20(6):655-8. Abstract

Eliciting protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against HIV-1 is daunting because of the extensive genetic and antigenic diversity of HIV-1. Moreover, broad and potent responses are uncommon even during persistent infection, with only a subset of adults developing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that recognize viral variants from different HIV-1 clades. It is not known whether bNAbs can also arise in HIV-1-infected infants, who typically progress to disease faster than adults, presumably in part due to an immature immune system. Here, we show that bNAbs develop at least as commonly in infants as in adults. Cross-clade NAb responses were detected in 20/28 infected infants, in some cases within 1 year of infection. Among infants with breadth of responses within the top quartile, neutralization of tier 2 or 3 variants from multiple clades was detected at 20 months after infection. These findings suggest that, even in early life, there is sufficient B cell functionality to mount bNAbs against HIV-1. Additionally, the relatively early appearance of bNAbs in infants may provide a unique setting for understanding the pathways of B cell maturation leading to bNAbs.

Goo L, Milligan C, Simonich CA, Nduati R, Obimbo E, J. O. "Neutralizing antibody escape during HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission involves conformational masking of distal epitopes in envelope. ." J Virol. 2012 Sep;86(18):9566-82. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00953-12. Epub 2012 Jun 27.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 variants transmitted to infants are often resistant to maternal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), suggesting that they have escaped maternal NAb pressure. To define the molecular basis of NAb escape that contributes to selection of transmitted variants, we analyzed 5 viruses from 2 mother-to-child transmission pairs, in which the infant virus, but not the maternal virus, was resistant to neutralization by maternal plasma near transmission. We generated chimeric viruses between maternal and infant envelope clones obtained near transmission and examined neutralization by maternal plasma. The molecular determinants of NAb escape were distinct, even when comparing two maternal variants to the transmitted infant virus within one pair, in which insertions in V4 of gp120 and substitutions in HR2 of gp41 conferred neutralization resistance. In another pair, deletions and substitutions in V1 to V3 conferred resistance, but neither V1/V2 nor V3 alone was sufficient. Although the sequence determinants of escape were distinct, all of them involved modifications of potential N-linked glycosylation sites. None of the regions that mediated escape were major linear targets of maternal NAbs because corresponding peptides failed to compete for neutralization. Instead, these regions disrupted multiple distal epitopes targeted by HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that escape from maternal NAbs occurred through conformational masking of distal epitopes. This strategy likely allows HIV-1 to utilize relatively limited changes in the envelope to preserve the ability to infect a new host while simultaneously evading multiple NAb specificities present in maternal plasma.

Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "The Red Deer As An Experimental Animal.".; 1968.

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