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Gitao C. "Role of Academia and Researchers in the Agricultural sector in Kenya’.". In: Kenya Private Sector Agricultural sector. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Bebora, L.C., Wanjohi. G. Camel Mik Hygiene: Analysis of Camel Milk contamination in Garissa and Wajir Counties in Kenya. OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.978-3-659-58174-8_coverpreview2.pdf
Gitao CG, Maina SM, Kihu SM. . Enhanced Diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) using experimental infection models. Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU; 2015.
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE, Wanjohi M. "Lessons from interaction of researchers with pastoralists from eastern Africa." African Journal of Rural Development. 2016;1(3):271-280.
Gitao, C G; Kihu BNWKSWMSM; LC;. Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.; 2010. Abstract

Major losses in sheep and goats have been incurred from Peste des petit ruminants (PPR), a relatively new disease in East Africa. It first appeared in Eastern Uganda but has since spread to most of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Small ruminants are the source of income for most pastoralists in East Africa. In this study the epidemiology of PPR including risk factors, prevalence, and socio-economic effects will be analyzed using participatory tools in Turkana, Kenya and Longido in Tanzania.

Gitao C, Mbindyo C, Omani R, Chemenwo V. "Review of Sheep Pox Disease in Sheep." Journal of Veterinary medicine and Research. 2017;4(1):1068.review_of_sheep_pox.pdf
Gitao CG, S.M.Kihu, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Karimuribo E, P S, Wahome R, Maingi N. "Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.gitao.pdf
Gitao CG, Bebora L. "Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstractsubclinical_mastitis_affecting_hygienic_quality_of.pdfWebsite

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region. OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.978-3-659-61078-3_coverpreview2.pdf
Gitao G, Maina S, Gathumbi P. Experimental infection of Peste des petits ruminants disease in Kenya. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2016.978-3-659-97197-6-1.pdf
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE. Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants in Kenya and Tanzania.. in Nairobi Jacaranda Hotel, Westlands Nairobi-Kenya 9th – 10th June: FAO-EU ; 2015.comparison_of_peste_des_petits_ruminants_ppr.pptx
Gitao, C.G. "PhD supervision at University of Nairobi.". In: Carta Supervision workshop. Johannesburg, South Africa; 2018.
Gitao C, Wanjohi G, Bebora L, Muchemi, L. "Camel Milk Quality and Bacterial Contamination along Market Chain in Wajir and Garissa Counties of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2017;4(10):1114.
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Muse E, E K, Misinzo G, Mellau LSB, Msoffe PLM, Swai ES, Albano. "Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease between Tanzania and Kenya.". In: Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2012.gitao_523_3.pdf
Gitao, C.G. Reviewer, Transboundary and Emerging diseases. Trsansboundary and Emerging Diseases; 2020.tbed_reviewer_certificate_1_1.pdf
Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. "Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
Gitao, C.G. Current Research Projects. Nairobi: Dept Vet Pathology; 2014.current_research-.pdf
Gitao, C.G., Khalif, others. Validation of camel milk standards. Isiolo, 8-11 May: KEBS; 2016.dks_2062_2016__pasteurized_camel___milk_1.docx
Gitao CG, Wanjohi M, Gitari R, Akweya B, Okoth MW. "The Prevalence of Common Milk Borne Pathogens of Camelus Mastitis Origin and their Antibiotic Resistance in North Eastern Province, Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(7):53-71.
Gitao C.G. UoN vet-German student exchange programme. Nairobi/Berlin: UoN/Free University of Berlin; 2014.uon_students_and_german_students.pdf
Gitari JN;, Mugendi, D.N.;, Kung’u JB;, Mureithi JG;, Gachene CKK;, Muna MM. "The Role Of Agroforestry Trees In Soil Productivity: Verification Of Farmers’ Knowledge A Nd Perceptions In Central Kenya Highlands."; 2003.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F. "Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5:250-255. Abstract
n/a
Gitari AN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM, Varma VJ, Mwangi WE, Konde AM, Rashid FK, others. "Hematological and biochemical changes in horses with colic in Nairobi county, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5:250-255. Abstract
n/a
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2017;10(10):1255-1263.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary world. 2017;10(10):1255.
Gitari JN;, Mugendi DN;, Mureithi JG;, Kung'u JB;, Gachene CKK. "The role of plant residues in soil productivity: farmers'knowledge and practices in Embu District, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Plant residues from trees, crops or weeds play an important role in determining the soil fertility status in smallholder farmers of the central highlands of Kenya region. A study was conducted in Embu district of Kenya, located in the densely populated windward side of the south-eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, to document farmers knowledge and practices in the prevalence and utilisation ofthese residues. A total of 134 small-scale . farmers cutting across five major agro ecological zones of the 30 kIn transect were interviewed. Farmers indicated that trees, Degraded soils are a major constraint to crops or weed residues found in their farms agricultural production and food security in were associated with generation of plant the central highland of Kenya region residues which either improve or impoverish (Smaling, 1997; Hudgens 1996). The the farm niches where they are found. Plant traditional residues that were associated with soil Long term experiments provide some fertility enhancement included: Zea mays, insights in the consequences of land Physeolus vulgaris, Grevillea robusta, management strategies that cannot be Combretum molle, Cordia africana, Ficus obtained through other means. For instance, sycomorous, and Camellina sinensis. On the trials established at Kenya Agricultural other hand, the residues of Eucalyptus Research Institute land at Kabete near saligna, Macadamia integrifolia, Cupressus Nairobi have shown that the soil organic lusitanica, Croton megalocarpus, Acacia matter declined from 2.1 % (in the original meamsii, Sorghum bicolour and Mangifera coffee estate) to 1.2% C after planting a indica continued to impoverish the soil in the maize-beans rotation over a period of twenty farm fields where they occur. The farmers years (Kapkiyai et al., 1999). Swift and attributed the good or poor crop Woomer (1993) state that it is not the loss performance in farm sections with certain of the soil carbon which poses the threat to types of plant residues to the decomposability the smallholder livelihood, but rather the assocated decline in crop yields resulting from degraded soils. Th euse of plant residues play a crucial role in the long-term improvement of soil physical and chemical properties.

Gitari AN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM, Varma VJ, Mwangi WE, Konde AM, Rashid FK. "Hematological and biochemical changes in horses with colic in Nairobi county, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(4):250-255.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya, Veterinary World, 10 (10): 1255-1263.". 2017. Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9. 8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic.
Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement …

Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2017;10:1255-1263. Abstract
n/a
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F. "Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(4):250-255.
Gitau J, GATARI MJ, Pant HJ. "Investigation of flow dynamics of porous clinkers in a ball mill using technitium-99m as a radiotracer." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a ball mill of a cement plant in Kenya. Residence time distribution (RTD) of raw feed to the mill was measured using Technetium-99m adsorbed on the clinkers as a radiotracer. From the measured RTDs, solid holdup and …

Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Bosire E. "Trends of Intraseasonal Descriptors of Wet and Dry Spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2018;38(3):1189-1200. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Many African countries whose economies are largely based on weather/climate sensitive sectors are vulnerable to long‐term changes in weather and climate. This study is aimed at assessing whether the recent decades have observed any significant trend in the intraseasonal descriptors (ISDs) of wet and dry spells at local and sub‐regional levels at seasonal and monthly timescales over equatorial eastern Africa (EEA). Daily rainfall observations over 36 stations and spanning a period of 51 years (1962–2012) were used.

The study has expanded on previous results that showed contrasting trends on seasonal totals between the two rainfall seasons by demonstrating that this also affects the ISDs. At the local level, it was observed that during the long rainfall season, a given ISD would have a significant trend over several neighbouring locations, which was not the case during the short rainfall season. Secondly, for the short rainfall season, a given location would have significant trend in several ISDs. Finally, when a given ISD had a significant trend at seasonal timescale during the long rainfall season, the same ISD would have significant trends in the second and third months of the season and rarely in the first month. Such a feature was not observed for the short rainfall season. Binomial probability distribution assessment confirmed that the significant trends in the various ISDs during the long rainfall season did not occur by mere chance.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Acute toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in cattle and mice. Muthee, J.K., Mbaria, J.M., Thaiya, A.G. and Gakuya, D.W.". In: kenya veterinarian 33: 1-6. kenya veterinarian 33: 1-6; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J. K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, A.G. Thaiya, S.J.M. Munyua, D.N. Karanja and E.M. Njoroge(2000). Progressive atrophic rhinitis in a medium scale pig farm in Kiambu, Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 71 (2): 122-124.". In: Journal of South Africa Veterinary Association. 71(2): 122-124. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.G. Thaiya, S.M. Ndurumo, J.K. Wabacha. Suspected Nitrate/Nitrite poisoning in stall-fed dairy Cattle resulting from consumption of Amaranthus Plants.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Kenya veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
and Gitau AN, Gumbe LO. "Alleviating hard pan formation in the semi-arid Kenya soils for conservation farming. .". In: Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture and Rainwater Harvesting. Adidas Ababa, Ethiopia.; 2004.
Gitau, A.N., Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe P(S)LO. Mechanical behaviour of a hardsetting luvisol soil Gitau, Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe, L.O Prof. (Supervisor) .; 2004. Abstract

The study applies critical state soil mechanics to model the mechanical behavior of luvisol soils. Field work involved sampling and soil physical characterization to obtain undisturbed and disturbed specimens

Gitau CMW, Gor SO. "Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2011;2(12):1-18.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiya, A.G (1992). Cassia didymotrya Fres and Solanum incanum L in rats.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. Thesis; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua .S.J.M, Mbai ,K, Thaiya , A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma V.T.(1999). Reproductive health care in Dairy animals. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26.". In: Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
Gitau, A.N., K. N. Technical Manual : Soil and Water Conservation - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 8 8. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiyah, A.G. (1996). Differential diagnosis of Eye diseases in cattle. Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96.". In: Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group. ILRI, 4-6TH March. Nbi, Kenya. KVA central branch annual SC. conference; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau M, Omwenga EI. "Application of the UTAUT Model to understand Factors Influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in e-learning in Kenyan Public Universities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):204-209. Abstractjournal_vol7no4_6_miriam_omwenga.pdfJournal website

The introduction of Web 2.0 tools has led to enhanced communication and collaboration in both social and academic environments. The focus of this study was to identify factors influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in e-learning in Kenyan Public Universities. The tools can then be introduced and used to aid in successful collaborative learning. A descriptive survey research design was used. Data was collected through questionnaires from both students and lecturers. Purposive sampling was used for the selection and the respondents, who included e-learning instructors and students. A total of 48 lecturers and 136 students participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the most common tools used for elearning
in Kenyan Public Universities were social networks, which included YouTube and Facebook. It was also interesting to note how learners perceived the tools. The major challenges relating to these tools were also identified.
Finally, Performance expectancy was identified as the main factor influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in Public Universities in Kenya.
Keywords: E-learning, learning management systems, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, N PROFNYAGAP, MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Experimental Solanum incanum L poisoning in goats. Thaiya, A.G., Nyaga, P.N., Maribei, J.M., Nduati, D., Mbuthia, P.G. and Ngatia, T.A.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2010. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

Gitau, A.N., Ali A.A., Hassan M.A., Gumbe L.O. Gichuki NN. "Household solid waste generation and management practices in Nairobi." Journal of waste management. Elsevier.. 2010;30:1752-1755.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua(1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium -scale piggery in Kiambu district, Kenya. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 69(2): 61-.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Central branch Scientific Seminar, 16th - 17th October, 1997, Nyeri, Kenya. Journal of South African Veterinary Association; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A case of Newcastle disease in parrots in Nairobi, Kenya. Bebora, L.C., Thaiyah, A.G., Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Ngatia, T.A. and Nyaga, P.N. (2007).". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 55:292-295. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr; 2007. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Munyua, S.J.M., Karioki, D.I., Chibeu, D.M., Wabacha, J.K., Thaiya, A.G. Njenga, M.J., Gathuma J.M., and Mitaru, B.M. (2000) Prognostic indicator of postpartum viability of kids born of Escherichia coli vaccinated or unvaccinated does.J. S. Afr Vet Ass.71.". In: Journal of South Africa Veterinary Association. 71(2): 122-124. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farm study, 97 were crosses of Galla x Small East African (SEA) and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA x Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 +/- 0.22 kg, 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 +/- 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 +/- 0.19 kg and 2.05 +/- 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively). The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 +/- 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female) (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 +/- 0.04 kg ). Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8) and unvaccinated does (n = 7) had a total protein content of <40.0 g/l and no detectable levels of IgG and A or E. coli antibodies. Sera obtained 12 hours post partum) from kids that survived in both groups contained about 19-22 g of Ig g/l, 50-80 g total protein/l, blood glucose of >5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths) and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low (<40 g/l) total protein, low white blood cell count (4,000/ml) and low blood glucose concentration (<4.9 mmol/l). It is concluded that kids with delayed righting reaction (>45 minutes), low rectal temperature (<36 degrees C), low birth weights (<1.5 kg for singles and <1.0 kg for twins), low white blood cells (<4,000/ml), low (<2 mmol/l) blood glucose levels, low total protein (<40.0 g/l), low (<1:160) E. coli antibody titre and IgG (< or =3,350 mg/l) in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival
Gitau GK, O'Callaghan - JJ CJ, ADAMS. JE, LISSEMORE KD, WALTNER. "McDermott.". 1994.
Gitau GK, Bundi RM, Vanleeuwen J, Mulei CM. "Evaluation of PetrifilmsTM as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013;45(3):883-886. Abstracttrop_anim_health_prod-2013.pdf

The study purpose was to validate PetrifilmsTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and PetrifilmsTM (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count –3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and PetrifilmTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the PetrifilmsTM had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. PetrifilmsTM should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.

Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Okoola R. "Oceanic and Atmospheric Linkages with Short Rainfall Season Intraseasonal Statistics over Equatorial Eastern Africa and their Predictive Potential." International Journal of Climatology. 2015;35(9):2382-2399. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Despite earlier studies over various parts of the world including equatorial Eastern Africa (EEA) showing that intraseasonal statistics of wet and dry spells have spatially coherent signals and thus greater predictability potential, no attempts have been made to identify the predictors for these intraseasonal statistics. This study therefore attempts to identify the predictors (with a 1‐month lead time) for some of the subregional intraseasonal statistics of wet and dry spells (SRISS) which showed the greatest predictability potential during the short rainfall season over EEA. Correlation analysis between the SRISS and seasonal rainfall totals on one hand and the predefined predictors on the other hand were initially computed and those that were significant at 95% confidence levels retained. To identify additional potential predictors, partial correlation analyses were undertaken between SRISS and large‐scale oceanic and atmospheric fields while controlling the effects of the predefined predictors retained earlier. Cross‐validated multivariate linear regression (MLR) models were finally developed and their residuals assessed for independence and for normal distribution. Four large‐scale oceanic and atmospheric predictors with robust physical/dynamical linkages with SRISS were identified for the first time. The cross‐validated MLR models for the SRISS of wet spells and seasonal rainfall totals mainly picked two of these predictors around the Bay of Bengal. The two predictors combined accounted for 39.5% of the magnitude of the SST changes between the July–August and October–November–December periods over the Western Pole of the Indian Ocean Dipole, subsequently impacting EEA rainfall. MLR models were defined yielding cross‐validated correlations between observed and predicted values of seasonal totals and number of wet days ranging from 0.60 to 0.75, depending on the subregion. MLR models could not be developed over a few of the subregions suggesting that the local factors could have masked the global and regional signals encompassed in the additional potential predictors.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, N PROFNYAGAP, MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Experimental Solanum incanum L poisoning in goats. Thaiya, A.G., Nyaga, P.N., Maribei, J.M., Nduati, D., Mbuthia, P.G. and Ngatia, T.A.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2010. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Gitau AN, Mutai EBK, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Wabacha, J.K., Gitau, G.K., Nduhiu, J.M., Thaiya, A.G., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Munyua, S.J.M. (2002). An outbreak of urticarial form of domestic pig Erysipelas in a medium scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya veterinarian Vol. 23, 95-97.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . The Kenya veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Gitau AN, Gumbe LO. "Triaxial testing of an agricultural soil. ISBN 7-80167-707-2.". In: 2004 CIGR International Conference. Beijing, China; 2004.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. Wabacha, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and C.M. Mulei (2006). An outbreak of acute bovine dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.K. Maina, J.K Muthee, Thaiya, A.G and V.T. Tsuma (1991). An outbreak of progressive cataracts of an undetermined cause in a herd of dairy cows.The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences vol. 61 no. 11.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau EN, Muchohi SN, Ogutu BR, Githiga IM, Kokwaro GO. "Selective and sensitive liquid chromatographic assay of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in whole blood spotted on filter paper.". 2004. Abstract

We have developed a sensitive, selective and reproducible reversed-phase HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (340 nm) for the simultaneous quantification of amodiaquine (AQ) and its major metabolite, desethylamodiaquine (AQm) in a small volume (200 microl) of whole blood spotted on filter paper. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether followed by elution from a reversed-phase phenyl column with an acidic (pH 2.8) mobile phase (25 mM KH2PO4-methanol; 80:20% (v/v) +1% (v/v) triethylamine). Calibration curves in spiked whole blood were linear from 100-2500 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.99) for AQ and 200-2500 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.99) for AQm. The limit of detection was 5 ng for AQ and 10 ng for AQm. The relative recovery at 150 ng/ml of AQ (n = 6) was 84.0% and at 300 ng/ml of AQm the relative recovery was 74.3%. The intra-assay coefficients of variation at 150, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQ and 300, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQm were 7.7, 8.9 and 6.2% (AQ) and 10.1, 5.4 and 3.9% (AQm), respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation at 150, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQ and 300, 600 and 2250 ng/ml of AQm were 5.2, 8.1 and 6.9% (AQ) and 3.3, 2.3 and 4.6% (AQm). There was no interference from other commonly used antimalarial and antipyretic drugs (chloroquine, quinine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, artesunate, acetaminophen and salicylate). The method is particularly suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in settings where facilities for storing blood/plasma samples are not available.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiya, A.G., Chege, J.N. and Wekesa, L.S. (1993). Efficacy of buparvaquone in cattle in kiambu district, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr. 41, 333-335.". In: Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr. (a) 41, 333. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr.; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau AN, Gumbe LO. "Transition from brittle failure to ductile flow in an irrigatable sandy soil. ." Discovery and Inovation journal. . 2007;19 No. 2 . (1015 – 079X):Pg. 140-146.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiya, A.G. (1997). Clinical observations on cattle rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group. ILRI, 4-6TH March. Nbi, Kenya.". In: Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group. ILRI, 4-6TH March. Nbi, Kenya. Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group; 1997. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau GK, Perry BD, Katende JM, McDermott JJ, Morzaria SP, Young AS. "The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in cattle in smallholder dairy farms in Murang'a District, Kenya; a cross-sectional study.". 1997. Abstract

The most important tick-borne disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa is East Coast fever (ECF) caused by Theileria parva and transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Other less-important tick-borne diseases in cattle are benign theileriosis caused by Theileria mutans, babesiosis caused by Babesia bigemina, anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale and cowdriosis caused by Cowdria ruminatum. In Murang'a District, Central Province of Kenya, five agroecological zones (AEZs) are defined according to climate, altitude and agricultural activities. A cross-sectional serological study was conducted on 750 smallholder dairy farms in Murang'a District, selected in a stratified random sampling method. The farms had a total of 362 calves. One hundred and fifty farms were studied from three administrative sublocations in each of the five AEZs. Prevalence of serum antibodies to three tick-borne parasites, that is T. parva, T. mutans and B. bigemina, were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Antibody prevalence values differed across the AEZs. The ranges of means for the prevalences were: T. parva (18–72%), T. mutans (1.5–28%) and B. bigemina (12–49%). The above results serve as indicators of the possible existence of endemic stability in some AEZs for some parasites.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya. J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and J. nduhiu (2007).". In: J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 78(3): 178-181. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2007. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua .S.J.M, Mbai ,K, Thaiya , A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma V.T.(1999). Reproductive health care in Dairy animals. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26.". In: Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farm study, 97 were crosses of Galla x Small East African (SEA) and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA x Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 +/- 0.22 kg, 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 +/- 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 +/- 0.19 kg and 2.05 +/- 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively). The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 +/- 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female) (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 +/- 0.04 kg ). Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8) and unvaccinated does (n = 7) had a total protein content of <40.0 g/l and no detectable levels of IgG and A or E. coli antibodies. Sera obtained 12 hours post partum) from kids that survived in both groups contained about 19-22 g of Ig g/l, 50-80 g total protein/l, blood glucose of >5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths) and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low (<40 g/l) total protein, low white blood cell count (4,000/ml) and low blood glucose concentration (<4.9 mmol/l). It is concluded that kids with delayed righting reaction (>45 minutes), low rectal temperature (<36 degrees C), low birth weights (<1.5 kg for singles and <1.0 kg for twins), low white blood cells (<4,000/ml), low (<2 mmol/l) blood glucose levels, low total protein (<40.0 g/l), low (<1:160) E. coli antibody titre and IgG (< or =3,350 mg/l) in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya veterinarian. Thaiyah, A.G., Gitau, P., Gitau, G.K., and Nyaga, P.N. (2010).". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. kenya veterinarian: 33: 6-19; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiya, A.G., Gitau, G.K. and Mugambi, J.J. (2001). Outbreaks of bovine rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21, 10-11.". In: Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21, 10-11. Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "M. J. Njenga, J.N. Kuria, R.G. Wahome, P.B. Gathura, A.G.Thaiya, C.G. Maina, J. Mwangi (2006). An investigation into a Human Anthrax outbreak in Maragua District, Central Kenya. Kenya veterinarian Vol. 30 (2) 62-67.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147. Kenya veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Maina, A.K., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Thaiya, A.G. (1993). Mammary gland infections in free range goats in Kenya. Bulletin Animal Production Africa 41:333.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 33. Bulletin Animal Production Africa; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau GK, Karioki DI. "The use of preserved colostrum for rearing replacement dairy calves: calf performance, economics and on-farm practicability in Kenya.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

A total of 133 observations on mean daily mass gains from 19 calves reared on either whole milk (control) or preserved colostrum (treatment) were estimated. The control group had a total of 104 observations computed, while the treatment group had a total of 29 observations. There was no significant difference in the overall mean daily mass gains between the treatment and control groups which were 0.2257 and 0.3607 kg, respectively (P < 0.1). Partial budgeting analysis estimated that with an annual calf crop of 80 calves, the use of preserved colostrum would result in a direct saving of an estimated US$1,800 per year for the farm.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, N PROFNYAGAP, MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Experimental Solanum incanum L poisoning in goats. Thaiya, A.G., Nyaga, P.N., Maribei, J.M., Nduati, D., Mbuthia, P.G. and Ngatia, T.A.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2010.
Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J. K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, A.G. Thaiya, S.J.M. Munyua, D.N. Karanja and E.M. Njoroge(2000). Progressive atrophic rhinitis in a medium scale pig farm in Kiambu, Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 71 (2): 122-124.". In: Journal of South Africa Veterinary Association. 71(2): 122-124. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
Gitau, A.N. "Mechanical Behaviour of Hardsetting Soils, The critical state soil mechanics approach to soil tillage. ISBN: 978-3-8433-7027-1.". In: Mechanical Behaviour of Hardsetting Soils. Nairobi: LAMBAERT publishers; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Munyua S. J. M. Wabacha, J. and Thaiya, A. G (1996). Infertility in dairy cattle with special emphasis to those kept under zero grazing units. Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96.". In: Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group. ILRI, 4-6TH March. Nbi, Kenya. KVA central branch annual Sc. Conference; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau T;, McDermott JJ;, Waltner-Toews D;, Gathuma JM;, Kang EK;, Kimani VW;, Kilungo, J K;, Muni RK;, Mwangi JM;, Otieno GO. "Agro-ecosystems, natural resources management and human health related research in East Africa."; 1989. Abstract

The paper briefly describes the application of agro-ecosystem health framework for characterization of an agro-ecosystem in central Kenya, and identification of the indications of its health. The lessons learnt from the application are briefly discussed.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. WABACHA, C.M.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G. Thaiyah and J. Nduhiu. An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54:144-147.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.; 2006. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Gitau, A.N., L. K, Mganilwa ZM. "Mechanization status in the lake Victoria of East Africa." AJAE.. 2010;Vol. 1(5):(ISSN-1836-9448):160-164.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua. An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium -scale piggery in Kiambu district, Kenya. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 69(2): 61-63.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Central branch Scientific Seminar, 16th - 17th October, 1997, Nyeri, Kenya. Journal of South African Veterinary Association; 1998. Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farm study, 97 were crosses of Galla x Small East African (SEA) and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA x Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 +/- 0.22 kg, 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 +/- 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 +/- 0.19 kg and 2.05 +/- 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively). The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 +/- 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female) (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 +/- 0.04 kg ). Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8) and unvaccinated does (n = 7) had a total protein content of <40.0 g/l and no detectable levels of IgG and A or E. coli antibodies. Sera obtained 12 hours post partum) from kids that survived in both groups contained about 19-22 g of Ig g/l, 50-80 g total protein/l, blood glucose of >5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths) and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low (<40 g/l) total protein, low white blood cell count (4,000/ml) and low blood glucose concentration (<4.9 mmol/l). It is concluded that kids with delayed righting reaction (>45 minutes), low rectal temperature (<36 degrees C), low birth weights (<1.5 kg for singles and <1.0 kg for twins), low white blood cells (<4,000/ml), low (<2 mmol/l) blood glucose levels, low total protein (<40.0 g/l), low (<1:160) E. coli antibody titre and IgG (< or =3,350 mg/l) in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Certification of Organic Products - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 2 6. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Groundnut Production - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 5 7. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual - Nine-Seeded Hole Technique - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 6 4. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Integrated Agriculture Systems - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 9 5. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Githae, W E, Gachene CKK, Njoka JT, Odee DW, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence." Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Journal. 2010. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Participation in, and processing of a national livestock policy.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Wahome, R.G., Kang'ethe, E.K. and Nyaga, P.N., 1997. Clinical, serological and pathological response in goats infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis through cutaneous and subcutaneous routes. Bul. Anim. Hlth. & prod. Afr. 45:73-78.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Beef cattle, meat Sheep and Goat, and hide and skin production and marketing in the ASAL.". In: Paper presented at the ASPS Workshop on Livestock production, held at Agricultural information centre Nairobi On Tuesday 20th June 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbuthia, E.M., C.K. Gachuiri and A.A. Abate 2002. Chemical evaluation of bovine colostrum preserved by different methods in a hot climate. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72:341-345.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Noor, I.M., Wanyoike, M.M., Wakhungu, J.W. and Wahome, R.G., 1998. Assessment of pastoral camel production system in Moyale district. The Kenya veterinarian 23:155-158.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian 12:.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G. and Kuria, J.K.N., 2006. Re-evaluation of the use of over the counter (OTC) feed supplements and additives. Zambian Veterinary Journal (Special Edition).". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo, T.A., C.K.Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Effect protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover in Red Maasai sheep. South African J Anim Sci 34:23-30.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. An evaluation of the faculty.". In: A paper presented at the University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine held at The Aberdares Country Club, between 10th and 14th September, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, J. Van Bruchen and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of supplementing napier grass with desmodium and lucerne on DM, CP and NDF intake and weight gains of growing heifers. Livestock Production Science. 60:81-8.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., Mitaru, B.N., and Mbugua, P.N. 1992. Replacing maize with sorghum in diets for Breeding pigs.". In: Paper presented at the first All Africa Conference in Animal Agriculture held at Nairobi, November, 1992. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. and Mbogoh, S.G. 2005. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Dairy and Other Livestock Products.". In: Paper presented at the National Conference for revitalizing Agricultural Sector for Economic Growth, Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi Kenya between 21st and 24th February 2005. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo T.A., Gachuiri, C.K. Wahome R.G. and Mbugua P.N. 2004. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover by Red Maasai sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:23.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, K.R.G. Irungu and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of maturity on the mineral composition of napier grass. Trop. Sci. 39:56- 61.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Kang'ethe, E.K. and Wahome, R.G., 2001. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the pathogenesis, incubation period and serological response after experimental infection. Veterinary Research communications 25: 89-97.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., Munyua S.J.M. and Mitaru, B.N. 1992. Strategies for improving small-scale pig production in Kenya. J. Zimb. Soc. Anim. Sci 4:87-91.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels Marsabit District, Kenya. Journal of camel Practice and research 11:87- 96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., Mbugua P.N. and Mitaru, B.N., 2001. Variation in plasma luteinising hormone levels, return to oestrus and ovulation rates in sows on different planes of sorghum based rations. Muarik Bulletin 4:49-54.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Odoi, A., J.M. Gathuma, C.K. Gachuiri, A. Omore, T. Gitau and S.W. Wanyangu 1998. Constraints to small ruminant production in small holder farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:191-195.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 1994. Baseline production and health livestock data in Transmara Sub-district. Technical Report, GTZ-TDP.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. A presentation of the draft national livestock policy.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kaitho, R.J., Biwott, K.J, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 2001. Effects of allocation of fixed amounts of concentrate on milk yields and of dairy cows. AGRIPPAPeer reviewed electronic journal. http://www.fao.org/agrippa/agrippa-main asp.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri,C.K. and Wahome R.G., 1997. Use of feed additives in Kenyan feeds. Technical report, Hoechst Roussel Vet.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Pig Production Trends in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo, T.A., C.K.Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Effect protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover in Red Maasai sheep. South African J Anim Sci 34:23-30.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Njenga Munene and Wahome R.G., 2002. Napier grass production and Silage Making. Radio listening Groups, 2002.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Noor, I.M., Wanyoike, M.M., Wakhungu, J.W. and Wahome, R.G., 1998. The state of health in Somali and Borana camel herds in Moyale District, Kenya. The Kenya veterinarian 23:155-158.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Science 2002, Heredity 2003, Animal Genetics 2003, 2000, Molecular Ecology 2000, JCPR 2004, Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 2006,.". In: Plant & Animal Genome 2006, proceedings & book chapters. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. Quality of feed raw materials (feedstuffs).". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., 1999. Pig production. Radio listening Groups, 2002.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., Baidoo, S., Aherne, F.X., Pharazyn, A. and Beltranena E. 1989. Use of Plasma concentration of luteinizing and Follicle stimulating hormone (LH & FSH) in predicting sows' return to heat after weaning. Afr. Bull. Anim. Hlth. & Prod. (1989 sppl.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Use of linear body measurements in estimating live weight of camel calves in Kenya. Accepted for publication. Journal of Camel Practice.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "T.A. Woyengo, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Books or Chapters in a book 31) Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85- 1.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, J. Van Bruchen and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass supplemented with graded levels of lucerne. S. Afri. J. Anim. Sci. 29:1-11.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. and Mbugua, P.N., 1998. Evaluation of the feeding value of dried brewer's yeast in broiler chicken diets. The Kenya veterinarian 23:155-158.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G., Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah, G.J.O., and Kiptoon, J.C. 1992. Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. J. Zimb. Soc. Anim. Sci 4:93-96.5.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria S G, R.G. Wahome, Gachuiri C. K. and Wanyoike M M, 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in western Marsabit, Kenya. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and Wahome, R.G., 2001. Total mixed rations vs traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kinuthia, M.N., J.W. Wakhungu, M.M. Wanyoike and C.K. Gachuiri. 1998. Milk production performance of dairy goat crosses on smallholdings in central Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:196-198.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua, P.N. and Wahome R.G., 1994. Formulae for Poultry, pigs and dairy cattle feeds. Technical report. Kenya Breweries, Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. 2006. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Livestock Products in the ASAL.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo T.A., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua, 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment. KARI conference Proc., 2004.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki, J.N., S. Tamminga, C.K. Gachuiri, G.K. Gitau and J.M. Muia. 2001. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier (Pennisetum purpureum) supplemented with varying levels of Desmodium intortum and Ipomea batatus vines. South African J Anim Sci 3.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua, P.N., Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome R.G., Abate, A.A., Wanyoike, M.M.,3Munyua, S.J.M. and Kamau, J.M.Z. 1995. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Njenga M.J., Thaiya A., Gathura, P., Kuria J. and R.G. Wahome, 2006.". In: Report of the faculty of veterinary medicine on anthrax outbreak in Maragua district, Kenya. FVM Reports, CAVS, UON, January 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Delivery of technical information to smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district. In: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences: The Kenya Veterinarian 23:160-162.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Wahome, R.G. and Kang'ethe, E.K., 1998. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the dose of infection and the serological response. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68:601-604.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006 Businesses in livestock production: What areas do we target?". In: Paper presented at the ABD-DASS Workshop on Development of Livestock oriented Business, held at Tsavo National Park Lodge, Voi, on 8th August 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. Insights on production of quality pet feeds (dogs and cats).". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Biwott, K.J, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production and body weights of lactating dairy cows. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:212- 214.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian, 12:35-36.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "P M Ongadi, R G Wahome, J W Wakhungu, L O Okitoi and K Otieno, 2006. Bio-economic analysis of expenditure on inputs and output value from crops and grade dairy cattle sub systems in Vihiga, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development Journal 18(12):.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "T.A. Woyengo, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbuthia, E.M. and C.K. Gachuiri. 2003. Effect of inclusion of Mucuna pruriens and Dolicchos lablab forage in napier grass silage on silage quality and on voluntary intake and digestibility in sheep. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 1: 123-128.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki, J.N., G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga and J.M. Muia. 1999. Feeding behaviour of sahiwal and friesian cattle under zero grazing system in a tropical climate. In D. van der Heide, E.A. Huisman, E. Kanis, J.W.M. Osse and M.W.A. Verstegen (Eds.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua P.N. and Wahome R.G., 1992. Nuclear technique in animal nutrition.". In: Paper presented at the NCST meeting, 1992. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2005. Nutritive value of important range species for camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria J.K.N., Wahome R.G. and Gitau P.K., 2001. An account of a recent outbreak of marek's disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 21:34-36.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., C.K. Gachuiri, G.K. Gitau, S. Tamminga, J. Van Bruchen, J.M.K. Muia and K.R.G. Irungu. 1998. Effect of feeding Napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines as sole diets to dairy heifers on nutrient intake, average dairy gain and rumen degra.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 1993. Vitamin requirements in pig production.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.

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