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Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya veterinarian. Thaiyah, A.G., Gitau, P., Gitau, G.K., and Nyaga, P.N. (2010).". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. kenya veterinarian: 33: 6-19; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiya, A.G., Gitau, G.K. and Mugambi, J.J. (2001). Outbreaks of bovine rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21, 10-11.". In: Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21, 10-11. Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "M. J. Njenga, J.N. Kuria, R.G. Wahome, P.B. Gathura, A.G.Thaiya, C.G. Maina, J. Mwangi (2006). An investigation into a Human Anthrax outbreak in Maragua District, Central Kenya. Kenya veterinarian Vol. 30 (2) 62-67.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147. Kenya veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua .S.J.M, Mbai ,K, Thaiya , A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma V.T.(1999). Reproductive health care in Dairy animals. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26.". In: Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Maina, A.K., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Thaiya, A.G. (1993). Mammary gland infections in free range goats in Kenya. Bulletin Animal Production Africa 41:333.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 33. Bulletin Animal Production Africa; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Gitau, A.N. "Mechanical Behaviour of Hardsetting Soils, The critical state soil mechanics approach to soil tillage. ISBN: 978-3-8433-7027-1.". In: Mechanical Behaviour of Hardsetting Soils. Nairobi: LAMBAERT publishers; 2010.
Gitau T;, McDermott JJ;, Waltner-Toews D;, Gathuma JM;, Kang EK;, Kimani VW;, Kilungo, J K;, Muni RK;, Mwangi JM;, Otieno GO. "Agro-ecosystems, natural resources management and human health related research in East Africa."; 1989. Abstract

The paper briefly describes the application of agro-ecosystem health framework for characterization of an agro-ecosystem in central Kenya, and identification of the indications of its health. The lessons learnt from the application are briefly discussed.

Gitau GK, Karioki DI. "The use of preserved colostrum for rearing replacement dairy calves: calf performance, economics and on-farm practicability in Kenya.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

A total of 133 observations on mean daily mass gains from 19 calves reared on either whole milk (control) or preserved colostrum (treatment) were estimated. The control group had a total of 104 observations computed, while the treatment group had a total of 29 observations. There was no significant difference in the overall mean daily mass gains between the treatment and control groups which were 0.2257 and 0.3607 kg, respectively (P < 0.1). Partial budgeting analysis estimated that with an annual calf crop of 80 calves, the use of preserved colostrum would result in a direct saving of an estimated US$1,800 per year for the farm.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, N PROFNYAGAP, MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Experimental Solanum incanum L poisoning in goats. Thaiya, A.G., Nyaga, P.N., Maribei, J.M., Nduati, D., Mbuthia, P.G. and Ngatia, T.A.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2010. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Munyua S. J. M. Wabacha, J. and Thaiya, A. G (1996). Infertility in dairy cattle with special emphasis to those kept under zero grazing units. Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96.". In: Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group. ILRI, 4-6TH March. Nbi, Kenya. KVA central branch annual Sc. Conference; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau, A.N., L. K, Mganilwa ZM. "Mechanization status in the lake Victoria of East Africa." AJAE.. 2010;Vol. 1(5):(ISSN-1836-9448):160-164.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. WABACHA, C.M.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G. Thaiyah and J. Nduhiu. An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54:144-147.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.; 2006. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Bosire E. "Trends of Intraseasonal Descriptors of Wet and Dry Spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2018;38(3):1189-1200. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Many African countries whose economies are largely based on weather/climate sensitive sectors are vulnerable to long‐term changes in weather and climate. This study is aimed at assessing whether the recent decades have observed any significant trend in the intraseasonal descriptors (ISDs) of wet and dry spells at local and sub‐regional levels at seasonal and monthly timescales over equatorial eastern Africa (EEA). Daily rainfall observations over 36 stations and spanning a period of 51 years (1962–2012) were used.

The study has expanded on previous results that showed contrasting trends on seasonal totals between the two rainfall seasons by demonstrating that this also affects the ISDs. At the local level, it was observed that during the long rainfall season, a given ISD would have a significant trend over several neighbouring locations, which was not the case during the short rainfall season. Secondly, for the short rainfall season, a given location would have significant trend in several ISDs. Finally, when a given ISD had a significant trend at seasonal timescale during the long rainfall season, the same ISD would have significant trends in the second and third months of the season and rarely in the first month. Such a feature was not observed for the short rainfall season. Binomial probability distribution assessment confirmed that the significant trends in the various ISDs during the long rainfall season did not occur by mere chance.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua. An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium -scale piggery in Kiambu district, Kenya. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 69(2): 61-63.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Central branch Scientific Seminar, 16th - 17th October, 1997, Nyeri, Kenya. Journal of South African Veterinary Association; 1998. Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farm study, 97 were crosses of Galla x Small East African (SEA) and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA x Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 +/- 0.22 kg, 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 +/- 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 +/- 0.19 kg and 2.05 +/- 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively). The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 +/- 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female) (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 +/- 0.04 kg ). Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8) and unvaccinated does (n = 7) had a total protein content of <40.0 g/l and no detectable levels of IgG and A or E. coli antibodies. Sera obtained 12 hours post partum) from kids that survived in both groups contained about 19-22 g of Ig g/l, 50-80 g total protein/l, blood glucose of >5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths) and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low (<40 g/l) total protein, low white blood cell count (4,000/ml) and low blood glucose concentration (<4.9 mmol/l). It is concluded that kids with delayed righting reaction (>45 minutes), low rectal temperature (<36 degrees C), low birth weights (<1.5 kg for singles and <1.0 kg for twins), low white blood cells (<4,000/ml), low (<2 mmol/l) blood glucose levels, low total protein (<40.0 g/l), low (<1:160) E. coli antibody titre and IgG (< or =3,350 mg/l) in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Acute toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in cattle and mice. Muthee, J.K., Mbaria, J.M., Thaiya, A.G. and Gakuya, D.W.". In: kenya veterinarian 33: 1-6. kenya veterinarian 33: 1-6; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J. K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, A.G. Thaiya, S.J.M. Munyua, D.N. Karanja and E.M. Njoroge(2000). Progressive atrophic rhinitis in a medium scale pig farm in Kiambu, Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 71 (2): 122-124.". In: Journal of South Africa Veterinary Association. 71(2): 122-124. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
and Gitau AN, Gumbe LO. "Alleviating hard pan formation in the semi-arid Kenya soils for conservation farming. .". In: Regional Workshop on Conservation Agriculture and Rainwater Harvesting. Adidas Ababa, Ethiopia.; 2004.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A.G. Thaiya, S.M. Ndurumo, J.K. Wabacha. Suspected Nitrate/Nitrite poisoning in stall-fed dairy Cattle resulting from consumption of Amaranthus Plants.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Kenya veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Gitau, A.N., Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe P(S)LO. Mechanical behaviour of a hardsetting luvisol soil Gitau, Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe, L.O Prof. (Supervisor) .; 2004. Abstract

The study applies critical state soil mechanics to model the mechanical behavior of luvisol soils. Field work involved sampling and soil physical characterization to obtain undisturbed and disturbed specimens

Gitau CMW, Gor SO. "Measuring Factor Productivity of the Banking Sector in Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2011;2(12):1-18.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Thaiya, A.G (1992). Cassia didymotrya Fres and Solanum incanum L in rats.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. Thesis; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Gitau, A.N., K. N. Technical Manual : Soil and Water Conservation - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 8 8. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Groundnut Production - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 5 7. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual - Nine-Seeded Hole Technique - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 6 4. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Integrated Agriculture Systems - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 9 5. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Certification of Organic Products - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 2 6. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Githae, W E, Gachene CKK, Njoka JT, Odee DW, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence." Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Journal. 2010. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

Githae EW;, Gachene CKK;, Njoka JT;, Odee DW;, Omondi SF. "Genefic Diversity of Gum Arabic-producing Acacia senegal Variefies in Kenya using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Chloroplast Simple Sequence."; 2011. Abstract

Acacia senegal is a drought-tolerant, multi-purpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production and increasingly being used in agro-forestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its long history of use, there has not been exhaustive genetic evaluation of the extant genetic resource base of A. senegal in Kenya for genetic improvement of the species. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were used to study genetic diversity among seven Kenyan populations of A. senegal embracing three putative varieties: kerensis, leiorhachis and senegal. The two marker types detected similar levels of Nei’s gene diversity (HISSR = 0.211, HcpSSR = 0.212) among the A. senegal populations. Acacia senegal var. kerensis exhibited the highest diversity using ISSR markers (HISSR = 0.248), followed by varieties leiorhachis (HISSR = 0.218) and senegal (HISSR = 0.151). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected significant genetic variations within and among populations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for ISSR and cpSSR, respectively). Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram of the seven populations, two regions were differentiated (north and south). Both markers demonstrated their potential for delineating population structure at local and regional levels, and infra-specific relations within the species, hence their potential as tools for conservation, improvement programmes and sustainable use of the species. This study provides baseline genetic information for the domestication of A. senegal varieties in Kenya.

GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. and Mbogoh, S.G. 2005. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Dairy and Other Livestock Products.". In: Paper presented at the National Conference for revitalizing Agricultural Sector for Economic Growth, Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi Kenya between 21st and 24th February 2005. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo T.A., Gachuiri, C.K. Wahome R.G. and Mbugua P.N. 2004. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover by Red Maasai sheep. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:23.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, K.R.G. Irungu and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of maturity on the mineral composition of napier grass. Trop. Sci. 39:56- 61.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Kang'ethe, E.K. and Wahome, R.G., 2001. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the pathogenesis, incubation period and serological response after experimental infection. Veterinary Research communications 25: 89-97.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., Munyua S.J.M. and Mitaru, B.N. 1992. Strategies for improving small-scale pig production in Kenya. J. Zimb. Soc. Anim. Sci 4:87-91.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels Marsabit District, Kenya. Journal of camel Practice and research 11:87- 96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., Mbugua P.N. and Mitaru, B.N., 2001. Variation in plasma luteinising hormone levels, return to oestrus and ovulation rates in sows on different planes of sorghum based rations. Muarik Bulletin 4:49-54.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Odoi, A., J.M. Gathuma, C.K. Gachuiri, A. Omore, T. Gitau and S.W. Wanyangu 1998. Constraints to small ruminant production in small holder farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:191-195.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 1994. Baseline production and health livestock data in Transmara Sub-district. Technical Report, GTZ-TDP.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. A presentation of the draft national livestock policy.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kaitho, R.J., Biwott, K.J, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 2001. Effects of allocation of fixed amounts of concentrate on milk yields and of dairy cows. AGRIPPAPeer reviewed electronic journal. http://www.fao.org/agrippa/agrippa-main asp.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri,C.K. and Wahome R.G., 1997. Use of feed additives in Kenyan feeds. Technical report, Hoechst Roussel Vet.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Pig Production Trends in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo, T.A., C.K.Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Effect protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover in Red Maasai sheep. South African J Anim Sci 34:23-30.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Njenga Munene and Wahome R.G., 2002. Napier grass production and Silage Making. Radio listening Groups, 2002.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Noor, I.M., Wanyoike, M.M., Wakhungu, J.W. and Wahome, R.G., 1998. The state of health in Somali and Borana camel herds in Moyale District, Kenya. The Kenya veterinarian 23:155-158.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., Baidoo, S., Aherne, F.X., Pharazyn, A. and Beltranena E. 1989. Use of Plasma concentration of luteinizing and Follicle stimulating hormone (LH & FSH) in predicting sows' return to heat after weaning. Afr. Bull. Anim. Hlth. & Prod. (1989 sppl.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Science 2002, Heredity 2003, Animal Genetics 2003, 2000, Molecular Ecology 2000, JCPR 2004, Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 2006,.". In: Plant & Animal Genome 2006, proceedings & book chapters. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. Quality of feed raw materials (feedstuffs).". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., 1999. Pig production. Radio listening Groups, 2002.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Use of linear body measurements in estimating live weight of camel calves in Kenya. Accepted for publication. Journal of Camel Practice.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "T.A. Woyengo, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Books or Chapters in a book 31) Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85- 1.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, J. Van Bruchen and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass supplemented with graded levels of lucerne. S. Afri. J. Anim. Sci. 29:1-11.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. and Mbugua, P.N., 1998. Evaluation of the feeding value of dried brewer's yeast in broiler chicken diets. The Kenya veterinarian 23:155-158.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G., Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah, G.J.O., and Kiptoon, J.C. 1992. Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. J. Zimb. Soc. Anim. Sci 4:93-96.5.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria S G, R.G. Wahome, Gachuiri C. K. and Wanyoike M M, 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in western Marsabit, Kenya. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and Wahome, R.G., 2001. Total mixed rations vs traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kinuthia, M.N., J.W. Wakhungu, M.M. Wanyoike and C.K. Gachuiri. 1998. Milk production performance of dairy goat crosses on smallholdings in central Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:196-198.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua, P.N. and Wahome R.G., 1994. Formulae for Poultry, pigs and dairy cattle feeds. Technical report. Kenya Breweries, Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. 2006. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Livestock Products in the ASAL.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo T.A., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua, 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment. KARI conference Proc., 2004.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki, J.N., S. Tamminga, C.K. Gachuiri, G.K. Gitau and J.M. Muia. 2001. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier (Pennisetum purpureum) supplemented with varying levels of Desmodium intortum and Ipomea batatus vines. South African J Anim Sci 3.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua, P.N., Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome R.G., Abate, A.A., Wanyoike, M.M.,3Munyua, S.J.M. and Kamau, J.M.Z. 1995. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Njenga M.J., Thaiya A., Gathura, P., Kuria J. and R.G. Wahome, 2006.". In: Report of the faculty of veterinary medicine on anthrax outbreak in Maragua district, Kenya. FVM Reports, CAVS, UON, January 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Delivery of technical information to smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district. In: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences: The Kenya Veterinarian 23:160-162.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Wahome, R.G. and Kang'ethe, E.K., 1998. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the dose of infection and the serological response. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68:601-604.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian, 12:35-36.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006 Businesses in livestock production: What areas do we target?". In: Paper presented at the ABD-DASS Workshop on Development of Livestock oriented Business, held at Tsavo National Park Lodge, Voi, on 8th August 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. Insights on production of quality pet feeds (dogs and cats).". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Biwott, K.J, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production and body weights of lactating dairy cows. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:212- 214.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua P.N. and Wahome R.G., 1992. Nuclear technique in animal nutrition.". In: Paper presented at the NCST meeting, 1992. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "P M Ongadi, R G Wahome, J W Wakhungu, L O Okitoi and K Otieno, 2006. Bio-economic analysis of expenditure on inputs and output value from crops and grade dairy cattle sub systems in Vihiga, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development Journal 18(12):.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "T.A. Woyengo, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Economic evaluation of increasing the energy value of Zea mays stover by urea treatment..". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbuthia, E.M. and C.K. Gachuiri. 2003. Effect of inclusion of Mucuna pruriens and Dolicchos lablab forage in napier grass silage on silage quality and on voluntary intake and digestibility in sheep. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 1: 123-128.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki, J.N., G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga and J.M. Muia. 1999. Feeding behaviour of sahiwal and friesian cattle under zero grazing system in a tropical climate. In D. van der Heide, E.A. Huisman, E. Kanis, J.W.M. Osse and M.W.A. Verstegen (Eds.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2005. Nutritive value of important range species for camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria J.K.N., Wahome R.G. and Gitau P.K., 2001. An account of a recent outbreak of marek's disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 21:34-36.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., C.K. Gachuiri, G.K. Gitau, S. Tamminga, J. Van Bruchen, J.M.K. Muia and K.R.G. Irungu. 1998. Effect of feeding Napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines as sole diets to dairy heifers on nutrient intake, average dairy gain and rumen degra.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 1993. Vitamin requirements in pig production.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Wahome R.G., Gachuiri, C.K. and Wanyoike, M.M. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on the plasma mineral profiles in camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Int. J Agric and Biol., 8: 168 -171.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kaitho, R.J., Biwott, J., Tanner, J.C., Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G., 2001. Effect of Allocation of fixed amounts of concentrates on milk yields and fertility of dairy cows.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Delivery of technical information to smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district. In: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences: The Kenya Veterinarian 23:160-162.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G. and Carles A.B. and Schwartz H.J., 1994. An analysis of the variation of lactation curve of Small East African goats. Small Ruminant Research.15: 1- 7.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Participation in, and processing of a national livestock policy.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., R.G. Wahome, P.N. Mbugua, M.M. Wanyoike, J.M.Z. Kamau and S.J.M. Munyua. 1998. Performance of dairy animals under two zero grazing systems in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:180-182.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Wahome, R.G., Kang'ethe, E.K. and Nyaga, P.N., 1997. Clinical, serological and pathological response in goats infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis through cutaneous and subcutaneous routes. Bul. Anim. Hlth. & prod. Afr. 45:73-78.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome, R.G. and Carles, A.B. 1988. Reproduction levels of the Small East African goat under range conditions. The Kenya Veterinarian 12:.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Beef cattle, meat Sheep and Goat, and hide and skin production and marketing in the ASAL.". In: Paper presented at the ASPS Workshop on Livestock production, held at Agricultural information centre Nairobi On Tuesday 20th June 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbuthia, E.M., C.K. Gachuiri and A.A. Abate 2002. Chemical evaluation of bovine colostrum preserved by different methods in a hot climate. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72:341-345.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Noor, I.M., Wanyoike, M.M., Wakhungu, J.W. and Wahome, R.G., 1998. Assessment of pastoral camel production system in Moyale district. The Kenya veterinarian 23:155-158.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G., Mitaru, B.N., and Mbugua, P.N. 1992. Replacing maize with sorghum in diets for Breeding pigs.". In: Paper presented at the first All Africa Conference in Animal Agriculture held at Nairobi, November, 1992. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G. and Kuria, J.K.N., 2006. Re-evaluation of the use of over the counter (OTC) feed supplements and additives. Zambian Veterinary Journal (Special Edition).". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Woyengo, T.A., C.K.Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and P.N. Mbugua. 2004. Effect protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of maize stover in Red Maasai sheep. South African J Anim Sci 34:23-30.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G. 2003. An evaluation of the faculty.". In: A paper presented at the University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine held at The Aberdares Country Club, between 10th and 14th September, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kariuki J.N., C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, J. Van Bruchen and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of supplementing napier grass with desmodium and lucerne on DM, CP and NDF intake and weight gains of growing heifers. Livestock Production Science. 60:81-8.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Muli, A.N., C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of water sources and watering frequency for dairy cattle on water offered and milk production in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 208-211.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Githang'a JN. Chromosomal Abnormalities In Childhood Acute Leukaemia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 14 patients aged from
ten months to 13 years admitted to KNH with acute leukaemia
(AL). Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed in
nine children. The clinical and laboratory features of the
patients were also analysed in relation to cytogenetic
abnormalities identified.
The study revealed that eight out of 14 (57!1~) of the
patients had acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) and 43%
had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Out of the five
children with ANLL who had chromosomal analysis performed
three (60%) had karyotype abnormal it i es: two pat i en ts had
hyperdiploidy, one with AML M5a had 47 chromosomes, and the
other with AML M2 had trisomy 21; the third patient had
monosomy 7. None of the four patients with ALL who had
chromosomal analysis performed had any karyotype
abnormalities.
Four out of the nine patients, whose karyotypes were
determined, died. All the four had normal karyotypes . Two
died of haemorrhage having had platelet counts less than 20
x 109/1 which is a poor prognostic feature. The other two
died of overwhelming infections.
Surface marker studies done during the course of the
study were helpful in making a final
complemented the morphological diagnosis.
diagnosis and

Evidence from the study shows that karyotypic
abnormalities in ANLL occur as frequently as those found in
other studies. The prognostic significance of the
chromosomal abnormalities has not been clearly demonstrated
in this study in view of the sample size. It is therefore
recommended that further similar but larger studies be
performed. A larger study should also bring out any
associations between certain karyotypes and morphologi cal
types of acute leukaemia.

Githanga J, Axt J, Abdallah F, Axt M, Hansen E, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National institute of health. 2013;48(6)(2013 June ):1254-1262.wilms_paper_githanga__abdalla.pdf
Githanga J N KGW. "Blood Safety in Kenya:Challenges in blood distribution and cold chain maintenance.". In: 6th International Congress of the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion .; 2012.
Githiga R, Ambuko J, Hutchnison M, Owino W. "Effect of Activebag® modified atmosphere packaging on the postharvest characteristics of mango fruits, Mangifera indica L, cultivar Tommy Atkins." Journal of Applied Biosciences. Submitted;83:7535-7544. Abstract
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Githigia SM, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Willingham AL;, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala, B.O.; Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia S, A W, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya." The Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. 2001;(10):92-93. Abstract

There has been a decrease in the prevalence of cysticercosis (T. saginata and T solium) in Kenya since independence in the early 1960s. this has been due to improvement of hygiene, strict meat inspection procedures, public educational nd a ban on free range pig keeping.

The prevalence of C. bovis decreased from 25% in the 1960s to 8.8% in the 1970s and to 1.1% in the early 1990s. the decline has been attributed in addition to the above to the take over of control of meat inspection in the country by the department of veterinary services from the ministry of health in 19;74. The training of meat inspectors was also centralized. Among the provinces , the prevalence has been highest in the Rift Valley which is a net exporter of animals to other provinces and this is where the pastoral communities are found. The infection seems to spread from this province.

Outbreaks of porcine cysticercosis (T.solium) were recorded in the early 1960s mainly among the free range pig farmers in the north western Rift Valley (Tranzoia) Kakamega and Busia. A government ban on free range pig raising in the country after independence and proper hygience led to a sharp devreas in cases of T> Solium.

Githigia SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Okomo, M. A.;. d. NC, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaar. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM, Okomo MA, Inyangala BA, Munyua SJ, Okeyo M, Otieno RL. "Prevalence and infection levels of helminths in goats at machanga Field station over a period of one year.". 1996. Abstract

Helminthiasis in livestock is of considerable significance in a wide range of agroclimatic zones in Africa. It constitutes one of the most important constraints to small ruminant production. The widespread occurrence of infections at sub-clinical levels with internal parasites in grazing animals, the associated loss of production, the cost of anthelmintics and death of infected animals are some of the major concerns'. There is seasonal variation in the rate of infection by endoparasites depending on whether eggs passed in faeces develop into infective stages. Most· reports indicate high rates of transmission in the wet seasons". The level of pasture contamination can indicate to what degree animals are exposed to parasitic infections in different seasons+". This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and seasonal variations in infection levels of helminths in a flock of goats over a period of one year. The study was carried out at the University of Nairobi's Machanga field station adjacent to Kamburu dam, in the arid to semi-arid areas of Kenya. The annual rainfall was 680mm in 1993 and 783mm in 1994 with most of it falling during the short rains period (October to December). The area's vegetation consists of several varieties of browse plants and grasses. The study involved forty Small East African goats aged between 2 and 3 years which were bought from the surrounding farms and brought to the station in October 1993. They were eartagged for identification. They were faecal sampled in January and February (during the dry period), May and June (during the wet season -long rains) and October and November (during the wet season short rains) in 1994. Individual rectal faecal samples were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) using the modified MacMaster technique'". Magnesium Sulphate (Sp.Gr. 1.14) was used as the floatation fluid. Pooled feacal cultures were made and infective larva were identified using standard methods already described

Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia, S.M., Willingham AL, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya.". In: I0th International Conference of Associations of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Copenhagen, Denmark ; 2001.
Githigia S, Munyua WK, Willingham AL. "Helminth infections in goats on mixed farms in Central Kenya.". 1997;(16):32-33. Abstract

A survey was undertaken to study the epidemiology and intensity of nematode infection among goats on eight randomly selected mixed farms in a coffee marginal area of Central Kenya.

Various age groups of goats were ear tagged and faecal sampled at the beginning of the study. They were treated with albendazole 10% at manufacturers recommended dose. These goats were faecal sampled fortnightly. Weights and blood for PCV and serum albumin were taken monthly.

The intensity of infection varied with age groups of the goats and the individual farms.

Fourteen days after treatment, the faecal egg counts were reduced to zero except one farm. Coprocultures revealed that Haemonchus contortus was the main nematode species infecting these goats. Cooperia curticei occurred in low numbers in a few farms.

Githigia SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Murekefu K;, Ngesa SM;, Otieno RO. "The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya."; 2002.
Githigia S. "Importance of gastrointestinal helminths to the livestock industy in Kenya.". 1998; 141:72-77. Abstract

Gastrointestinal helminthes cause considerable losses to the livestock industry in Kenya. These losses are related to clinical parasitic gastroenterities leading to mortalities especially in lambs, kids, calves and poorly managed and malnourished adults. Greater losses occur due to sub clinical parasitic gastroenteritis leading to chronic production losses. These losses have been reported in all the agroecological zones of Kenya. Although most losses occur in the high rainfall areas, losses have also been reported in the dry and semi arid areas. These production losses are manifested as reduced weight gains, lower milk and wool production and in meat and organ condemnations.

The most common and economically important meatode Haemonchus contortus is causing high mortalilties in sheep and goats in Kenya (Njanja, 1985; Maingi 1991; Mwamachi et.al., 1993; Baker et. Al., 1993). In the coastal area, the Diani estate farm lost 81 out of 355 lambs due to helminthosis within a period of 6 weeks within one year. In the semi arid area of Marsabit, a survey of gastrointestinal helminthes of cattle under nomadic management showed that helminthosis was a major constraint to livestock production in this area. Haemonchus spp were the most important parasites (Omara-Opyene, 1985). Ulvund et.al., 1984) found that ewes and lambs grazing the cool highland pastures were heavily infected with gastrointestinal helminthes and had to be treated every 3 – 4 weeks through out the year. The animals lost considerable weight and H. contortus was the main helminth present.

Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia, S.M., Willingham, L., Maingi N, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya.". In: 10th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC. "Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya.".; 1995.
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC. "Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation).".; 1995.
Githigia SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME. "Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Githigia SM;, Murekefu K;, Ngesa SM;, Otieno RO. "The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya."; 2002.
Githigia S, S. T, M L. "Effectiveness of grazing management in controlling GI nematodes in weaner lambs on pasture in Denmark." International Conference of the World Asociation for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;(18):118-119. Abstract

The problem of anthelmintic resistance calls for alternative control methods, including grazing management. Dose- and – move and move- only strategies of control methods were compared in this study.

In early May, 1999, 16 ewes with twin lambs (2-3 weeks old) were turned out on infected pasture. On 1st July, the lambs were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and weaned to clean pasture. Two groups (dose – and –move) were treated with anthelmintics while the other two (move- only) were not treated. Each group was allocated to a separate paddock sampled every two weeks and set stocked until slaughter.

Githigia SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg, S.M.;. Kyvsgaard. NC, Thamsborg, S.M.;. Kyvsgaard. NC. "Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya.".; 1995.
GITHII MW. "OPERATIONS RESEARCH II DISTANCE LEARNING MANUAL.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract

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GITHII MW. "DETERMINATION OF THE UNIT COST FOR BACHELOR OF COMMERCE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: MBA; 2004. Abstract

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Githinj TW, Nyamai CM, Kutukhulu AW. "Overview of mineral processing and beneficiation in Kenya.". In: Mineral processing and beneficiation. New Delhi (India): NAM S $ T; 2015.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GithinjI TW, Nyamai CM, Kutukhulu AW. "Overview of mineral processing and beneficiation in Kenya." Mineral processing and beneficiation. 2015.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Githinji N, Maleche-Obimbo E, Nderitu M, Wamalwa DC, Mbori-Ngacha D. "Utility of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 counts in HIV-1 infected children in Kenya ." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011. Abstractutility_of_total_lymphocyte_count.pdf

Abstract
Background: In resource-limited settings, such as Kenya, access to CD4 testing is limited. Therefore, evaluation of
less expensive laboratory diagnostics is urgently needed to diagnose immuno-suppression in children.
Objectives: To evaluate utility of total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV-infected
children.
Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study conducted in three HIV clinics in Kisumu and Nairobi in
Kenya. TLC, CD4 count and CD4 percent data were abstracted from hospital records of 487 antiretroviral-naïve HIVinfected
children aged 1 month - 12 years.
Results: TLC and CD4 count were positively correlated (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) with highest correlation seen in
children with severe immuno-suppression (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and children >59 months of age (r = 0.68, p <
0.001). Children were considered to have severe immuno-suppression if they met the following WHO set CD4
count thresholds: age below 12 months (CD4 counts < 1500 cells/mm3), age 12-35 months (CD4 count < 750
cells/mm3), age 36-59 months (CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3, and age above 59 months (CD4 count < 200 cells/
mm3). WHO recommended TLC threshold values for severe immuno-suppression of 4000, 3000, 2500 and 2000
cells/mm3 for age categories <12, 12-35, 36-59 and >59 months had low sensitivity of 25%, 23%, 33% and 62%
respectively in predicting severe immuno-suppression using CD4 count as gold standard. Raising TLC thresholds to
7000, 6000, 4500 and 3000 cells/mm3 for each of the stated age categories increased sensitivity to 71%, 64%, 56%
and 86%, with positive predictive values of 85%, 61%, 37%, 68% respectively but reduced specificity to 73%, 62%,
54% and 68% with negative predictive values of 54%, 65%, 71% and 87% respectively.
Conclusion: TLC is positively correlated with absolute CD4 count in children but current WHO age-specific
thresholds had low sensitivity to identify severely immunosuppressed Kenyan children. Sensitivity and therefore
utility of TLC to identify immuno-suppressed children may be improved by raising the TLC cut off levels across the
various age categories.

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Githinji CW, Kokwaro JO. "Ethnomedicinal study of major species in the family Labiatae from Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1993;39(3):197-203.
Githinji M, Kironchi G, Mbuvi JP, Onwonga RN. "Production in semi-arid areas of Kenya using the agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM).". 2000. Abstract

Managing crop production risks associated with inter-annual climate variability and climate change has received insignificant attention in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. Against this backdrop, the potential impact of climate change on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production in the semi-arid areas of Kenya will be assessed using the Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM). The study will employ participatory tools in the use of APSIM model to identify risks and cropping system improvement options and designing cropping strategies for field experimentation. The field experiments will be conducted in Makueni district of Eastern Province, Kenya. Initially, a farmers’ workshop will be held to gather information on farmers’ experience with recent climatic changes and possible causes, effect on current farming systems, coping and adaption strategies to current management practices. Farm households’ perceptions of risks, options to reduce climatic risks, specific vulnerabilities of the current cropping systems and coping strategies will be documented using semi-structured interviews during farm surveys. This is in addition to establishing the socio-economic and agricultural systems setting of the smallholder farmers. Potential technologies to address the anticipated negative impacts of climate change in respect of cowpea (legume) and sorghum (cereal) cropping system will jointly be identified with the farmers and a subset of tactical adaptation options identified. The options will initially be tested on-station in the first year and on farm in the second year. The on station experiments will be conducted for two (four seasons) years to model sorghum and cowpea growth and soil-water, soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a legume-cereal cropping system. The APSIM model will be validated to simulate both the legume and cereal components of the cropping system. The integrity of the simulated system will be evaluated by comparing the simulated performance of the crops with actual experimental crop data and by exploring other facets such as water use, denitrification and leaching. It is envisioned that the APSIM model will allow for quick exploration of production outcomes of a range of management alternatives under a range of climatic scenarios (realized or predicted), and for a range of soil conditions. This is in addition to provision of valuable information for evaluating a wide range of cropping system options.

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
and Githinji C.G., P.M. Mbugua KKTIDK. "Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of Mondia Whytei (hook.f) root.". 2012.
Githiori J;, Mbaabu M;, poke L;, Miaron. J;, Omari P. Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa.; 2004.Website
Githiri JG, J. P P, Barongo JO, Karanja PK. "An investigation of the structure beneath Magadi area in southern Kenya rift using gravimetric data." Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology. 2012;Volume 24(Number 1):142-160.
Githiri SM, Kimani PM, Saxena KB. "Natural out-crossing in dwarf pigeonpea."; 1991. Abstract

Natural out-crossing rate in pigeonpea was studied at ICRISAT Center using plant stature (tall plants in dwarf progenies) as the genetic marker. The data indicated natural out-crossing rates of 9.7% to 24.1% with a pooled value of 13.1% in the six populations studied. These data were comparable to earlier studies at the same site using stem colour and growth habit as genetic markers in tall pigeonpea cultivars thus suggesting that foraging of insect pollination vectors is not influenced by plant type. The implications of natural out-crossing on breeding and maintenance of genetic purity of cultivars is discussed.

Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ;, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. Abstract

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ, Omore AO, Arimi SM, E K K'the. "The prevalence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in marketed milk in Kenya and its public health implications.". 2000. Abstract

The risk of infection by milk-borne brucellosis is one reason for public health regulations which discourage informal milk markets that sell unpasteurized milk. However, these regulations are not generally implemented in many developing countries. Kenya is a typical example, with over 85% of milk sales passing through informal channels. Consumer practices to reduce or eliminate potential infection by milk-borne health hazards under these circumstances have rarely been studied. Seasonal survey data were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from informal milk market agents of various cadres and from households consuming unpasteurized milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. In addition, pasteurized and packaged milk samples from five processors were collected. Samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the milk ring test (MRT) (unpasteurized milk) and indirect antibody ELISA (both unpasteurized and pasteurized milk). Milk samples originating from farms in the extensive production system and those containing milk from many sources were associated with higher antibody detection proportions. Five percent of all raw milk samples collected from consumer households and 4% of samples collected from various levels of bulking of market samples were positive to the ELISA. There was poor to no agreement between the two antibody detection tests. All urban consumers and 96% of rural consumers of unpasteurized milk indicated that they boil the milk (in tea or otherwise) before consumption. The implications of these results on milk marketing in Kenya are discussed.

Githua A, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. AbstractWebsite

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

Githui FW, Gitau W, Mutua FM, Bauwens W. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." Inter. J. Climatol. . 2009;29(12):1823-1834.

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