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George N,(Eds) KW. Media Contents: Evolution, Effects and Challenges in the Kenyan Context.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2011.
George P, Ogot M. "A compromise method for the design of parametric polynomial surrogate models.". In: ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2005:. Abstract

This study presents a compromise approach to augmentation of response surface (RS) designs to achieve the desired level of accuracy. RS are frequently used as surrogate models in multidisciplinary design optimization of complex mechanical systems. Augmentation is necessitated by the high computational expense typically associated with each function evaluation. As a result previous results from lower fidelity models are incorporated into the higher fidelity RS designs. The compromise approach yields higher quality parametric polynomial response surface approximations than traditional augmentation. Based on the D-optimality criterion as a measure of RS design quality, the method simultaneously considers several polynomial models during the RS design, resulting in good quality designs for all models under consideration, as opposed to good quality designs only for lower order models as in the case of traditional augmentation. Several numerical and an engineering example are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Musa. N’ayo, Wallace. B. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, Japheth. M, Wallace. B. "Analysis of Antigenic Drift in the Neuraminidase (NA) gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya. .". In: 3rd Annual African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology Meeting. Crowne plaza, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Wallace B. Changes in Haemagglutinin epitopes of human influenza B viruses in Kenya, 2005-2009. . Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germaine KJ, Otieno N, Culhane J, Menton C, Keogh E, Brazil D, Dowling D. Microbial communities associated with the bio-energy plant Miscanthus. 18-21 May 2012, Aldemar Hotel, Rhodes, Greece: New Phytologist Organisation; 2012. Abstract

in improving the phytoremediation capacity of plants. This study investigated the
culturable-aerobic bacterial diversity associated with the bio-energy plant
Miscanthus giganteus. 250 bacterial strains were isolated from Miscanthus and 70 of
these strains were identified through 16S rDNA sequencing. Eleven different species
were identified in Miscanthus originating from the leaf, stem and rhizome tissues.
The majority of these isolates were gamma-Proteobacteria with Pseudomonas and
Acinetobacter species dominating. Many of these strains expressed plant growth
promotion traits such as phytohormone production and phosphate solubilisation
ability. The majority of the isolates were found to possess resistance to heavy
metals and 7-13% possessed inherent organic xenobiotic degradation abilities. A
number of these isolates were tagged with a gfp:kanamycin marker and were found
to colonise the rhizosphere of inoculated plants. These isolates may prove to be
useful inoculants for improving plant biomass and phytoremediation efficiency of
Miscanthus.

Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Gervasioh GP, Kagure KA, Samuel K. "“ Physiological Basis of Empathy and Emotionality in Nursing Practice”. ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research -Research www.ijier.net . 2016;5(7 ):2016.
Gervasioh PG, Gatere R, Karani A. "Professional Ethics Among Nurse Educators in Diploma Nursing Training Colleges, Meru County." University of Nairobi. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2014;2 (1):49-52.
Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, fusional, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measures the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per a word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measure the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gessaghi VC, Raschi MA, Larreteguy AE, y Perazzo CA. "Influence of arterial geometry on a model for growth rate of atheromas." Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2007;90:012046. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects medium and large size arteries and it can partially or totally obstruct blood flow through them. The lack of blood supply to the heart or the brain can cause an infarct or a stroke with fatal consequences or permanent effects. This disease involves the proliferation of cells and the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, cell debris, calcium and other substances in the artery wall. Such accumulation results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques called atheromas, which may cause the obstruction of the blood flow. Cardiovascular diseases, among which atherosclerosis is the most frequent, are the first cause of death in developed countries. The published works in the subject suggest that hemodynamic forces on arterial walls have influence on the localization, initial development and growth rate of atheromas. This paper presents a model for this growth rate, and explores the influence of the bifurcation angle on the blood flow patterns and on the predictions of the model in a simplified carotid artery. The choice of the carotid bifurcation as the subject for this study obeys the fact that atheromas in this artery are often responsible for strokes. Our model predicts a larger initial growth rate in the external walls of the bifurcation and smaller growth area and lower growth rates as the bifurcation angle is increased. The reason for this seems to be the appearance of helical flow patterns as the angle is increased.

Getanda CM. • Labour Law principles structures and practice . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Getanda CM. • Fair Trial & The Rights Of The Accused . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Getao KW, Miriti EK. "Computational Modelling in Bantu Language.". In: SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPUTING AND ICT RESEARCH: Advances in Systems Modelling and ICT Applications. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2006.computational_modeling_in_bantu_language.pdf
Getao K, Miriti E. "Creation of a Speech to Text System for Kiswahili.". In: 5th World Congress of African Linguistics. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.wocal-swa-dict.pdf
Getenga ZM, Madadi VO, Wandinga SO. "Studies of degradation of 2,4-D and metribuzin in soil under controlled conditions." Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. . 2004;72(3):504-513. AbstractWebsite

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Getuno PM, Awino ZB, Ngugi PK, Mwaura F. ") Implementation of The Public Procurement And Disposal Act, (2005)." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015;5(1):75-93.
Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya." Br. J. Nutr.. 2009;101(9):1378-87. Abstractdietary_micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
Gharial J, Laving A, Were F. "Racecadotril for the treatment of severe acute watery diarrhoea in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1). AbstractWebsite

Background

Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age in Kenya. It is usually treated with oral rehydration, zinc and continued feeding. Racecadotril has been in use for over 2 decades; however, there is a paucity of data regarding its efficacy from Africa.
Objectives

The objectives of this study were: to compare the number of stools in the first 48 hours in children with severe gastroenteritis requiring admission and treated with either racecadotril or placebo, to study the impact of racecadotril on duration of inpatient stay as well as duration of diarrhoea and to describe the side effect profile of racecadotril.
Methods

This was a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. It enrolled children between the age of 3 and 60 months who were admitted with severe acute gastroenteritis. They received either racecadotril or placebo in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc and were followed up daily.
Results

120 children were enrolled into the study. There were no differences in the demographics or outcomes between the 2 groups. Stools at 48 hours: median (IQR) of 5 (3–7) and 5 (2.5–7.5), respectively; p=0.63. The duration of inpatient stay: median (IQR): 4 days (1.5–6.5) and 4.5 (1.8–6.3); p=0.71. The duration of illness: 3 days (2–4) and 2 days (1–3); p=0.77. The relative risk of a severe adverse event was 3-fold higher in the drug group but was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.63 to 14.7); p=0.16.
Conclusions

Racecadotril has no impact on the number of stools at 48 hours, the duration of hospital stay or the duration of diarrhoea in children admitted with severe gastroenteritis and managed with ORS and zinc

Gherardi, Britton FRJ, Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Grey J, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Developing conservation actions to protect East African lakes from the negative impacts of alien species. ." Biological Conservation.. 2011;(144):2585-2596.
Gherardi., Francesca., Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "The smell of Danger: Chemical recognition of fish predators by the invasive Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii." Freshwater Biology. 2011;56(8 ):1567-1578.
o. c. Ghibingal, Musimba NRK, Nyangito MM, Simbay J, Daural MT. "Climate variability; enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock production among agro-pastoralists communities in Southern Zambia." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012;6((7)):267-274. Abstract

Agro-pastoralists whose sources of livelihood depend on rain-fed agriculture are very vulnerable to
ecological disturbance due to increasing climate variability. They are unable to adequately feed their
animals in times of extreme weather conditions of floods and droughts thereby causing a disruption in
their maior source of (rve(ihood. fhfs study ana$zed (he feedrng s(ra(egies empfoyed by agropastoralists
in Southern Zambla and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in
order to improve their utilization for improved livestock production. The major feeding strategies during
droughts include browse utilization, dambo grazing, grazing along streams and supplementary feeding.
While during floods, upland grazing and browse grazing were the main strategies. However, most of the
agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the
21 lree browse species identified by the agro-pastoralists, 18 species were found to be important during
droughts and 8 during floods. Most of the agro-pastoralists neither knew how to plant these browse
species nor how to manage them for befter and sustainable use in feeding their animals. Therefore, the
agro-pastoralists in the study area need to take up management and feed conservation measures for
their animals. Deliberate effort should be made to teach the agro-pastoralists how to plant and manage
the important browse species that are suitable in extreme weather conditions. This will enhance
productive use of the browse species for improved animal feeding to ensure food security among the
pastoralists.

Key words: Extreme weather conditions, adaption, browse species, Agro-pastoralists.

Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Giangrande M, Kim YW, Mizukami H. "N-terminal spin label studies of hemoglobin, Ligand and pH dependence." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):187-93. Abstract

Human hemoglobin was spin labeled with 4-isothiocanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperdinooxyl, which is known to bind specifically to the N-terminal alpha-amino groups of proteins and slightly to the reactive sulfhydryl groups. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated a partially resolved five-line spectrum, suggesting that the label was attached to at least two different binding sites. Using specific blocking reagents prior to spin labeling, the two binding sites were attributed to the sulfhydryl group of beta-93 (immobile) and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal valines (mobile). The relative motion of the spin at one set of binding sites was restricted regardless of the state of ligation and pH, while the motion at the other site showed dependence on those parameters, e.g. the spin-labeled N-terminal ends of deoxyhemoglobin have restricted motion at all pH ranges studied, while those of oxyhemoglobin are relatively free to move at the basic pH range, but become more restricted in the acidic pH range.

Gichaga FJ. "The Quality of Training for Civil Engineering graduates in Kenya.". In: 12th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam. ; 1972.
Gichaga FJ, Visweswaraiya TG, Sahu BK. "Prediction of Swell of Black Cotton Soils in Nairobi.". In: International Symposium on Prediction and Performance in Geotechnical Engineering. Calgary. Alberta, Canada. ; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Design Standards, Performance and Maintenance of Roads in Kenya." Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nairobi; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Training Professionals for Infrastructure Development: The Troika of Government, Industry and Academia.". In: Transformative and Effective Infrastructure Conference Report. Nairobi; 2010.
Gichaga FJ, Sahu BK, Visweswaraiya TG, Atibu FS. "Strength of Red Coffee Soils in Kenya.". In: 8th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics, and Foundation Engineering. Kyoto, Japan; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Slow Sand Filtration Pilot plant Construction.". In: IRC/MOH/MOWD/UON Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "The Impact of Professional Ethics in the Built Environment in Kenya.". In: Workshop on Ethics and Integrity among professionals.; 2006.
Gichaga FJ. "Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements under Tropical Climate.". In: Fifth International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. Arnhem, Netherlands.; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Urban Transportation in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Storm Water Drainage Design for Roads.". In: TRRL/MOTC UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Integration and outputs of Research, Science and Technology in Kenya’s Development.". In: National Workshop on Science and Technology. Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Nairobi.; 2004.
Gichaga FJ. "Evaluation of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Conference on Criteria for Planning Highway Investment in Developing Countries. Institution of Civil Engineers.London; 1982.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". Nairobi; 1971.
Gichaga FJ. "Revitalizing professionalism in engineers.". In: Engineers Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Gichaga FJ. "Road/Railway Embankment Slide at Mikindani in Mombasa." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1984:35-39.
Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. "Introduction To Building And Civil Engineering Drawing."; 1985.
Gichaga FJ, Kipkore SK. "Violation of Traffic Laws in Selected Roads in Nairobi.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Shelter, Transport, Water and Solid Waste Management.". In: Regional Workshop on the Role of Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Nairobi.; 2007.
Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Crushed Stone Embankment." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1979:14-16.
Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development for Highway and Transportation Engineering. .". In: Subject Meeting in Civil Engineering. University of Nairobi; 1975.
Gichaga FJ, Atibu FS, Sahu BK. "Horizontal and Vertical Movements of Red Clay Highway Embankments.". In: Second International Conference on case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. St. Louis. U.S.A.; 1988.
Gichaga FJ. "The Trans-African highway – Mombasa/Lagos,." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1975:16-21.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Education and Related Development in Kenya.". In: Issues in Resource Management and Development in Kenya. East African Educational Publishers.; 2000.
Gichaga FJ, Sahu BK, Visweswaraiya TG. "Compaction and Compression Characteristics of Kenya Red Coffee Soils.". In: 8th Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering . Castegena, Colombia.; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Kenyan Industry.". In: Seminar on Engineering Education – Industry Cooperation. University of Nairobi; 1985.
Gichaga FJ. "The Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex.". In: Consultative Workshop on the Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex. Naivasha; 2007.
Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Education as a Continuing Process of Development.". In: Seminar on Continuing Education for Mechanical Engineers. Nairobi; 1985.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Maintenance of Roads in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "University-Industry Collaboration in Kenya.". In: Institution of Engineers of Kenya Conference.; 2005.
Gichaga FJ. "Strength of Flexible Road pavements in Kenya.". In: International Symposium on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. The Norwegian Institute of Technology-Trondheim, Norway; 1982.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections Relationship with Repetititions of Wheel Loads for Typical Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". In: East African Institution of Engineers. Nairobi.; 1971.
Gichaga FJ. "Industrialization and Development in the 21st Century.". In: Institution of Engineers of Kenya Conference.; 2003.
Gichaga FJ. "Transportation in Large Towns of Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1985:29-31.
Gichaga FJ. "Pavement Design Considerations Under Tropical Climate.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi ; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "The Engineer and the Vision 2030.". In: International Conference on the Engineer and Vision 2030. The Institution of Engineers of Kenya-Nairobi. ; 2008.
Gichaga FJ. "Research on Road Safety Measures." Ministry of Public Works; 1988.
Gichaga FJ. "Study of Structural Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements with Thin Bituminous Surfacing in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1981;Series A(No. 2):105-115.
Gichaga FJ. "Integrated Engineering Training for Civil Engineers in Kenya.". In: 13th Annual Conference on Engineering Education in East Africa. Nairobi; 1975.
Gichaga FJ, Mwea SK. "Structural Strength Condition for Some Flexible Road and Airfield Pavements Under Tropical Environment.". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. Trondheim, Norway; 1990.
Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development in Civil Engineering in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1978.
Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. Introduction to Building and Civil Engineering Drawing. MacMillan Publishers; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. Structural Behaviour of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1979.
Gichaga FJ, Murunga PA, Atibu FS. "Design and Performance Of Flexible Pavements under Tropical Environment.". In: 9th Africa Regional Conference. Lagos, Nigeria.; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Transfer of Research Results to the Kenyan Industry.". In: Continuing Education Course for Mechanical Engineering Graduates. Nairobi; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Professional Ethics and Codes of Conduct in the Built Environment.". In: Workshop on Ethics and Integrity among Professionals. Nairobi; 2007.
Gichaga FJ. "The Engineer and the Vision 2030." Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 2008;29(4):22-25.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering and Economic Aspects of Highway Maintenance with reference to Kenya.". In: International Engineers Conference. Nairobi; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Conducting Technical Research.". In: CIDA/Kenya Polytechnic/Mombasa Polytechnic Staff Development Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Gichaga FJ. "Essentials and Promotion of Linkage between Research and Development and Entrepreneurship.". In: National Workshop on Science and Technology Capacity in the Framework of Millennium Development Goals. The Kenya National Academy of Sciences; 2005.
Gichaga FJ, Misoi GK, Carson RN. Effect Of Vehicle Speeds On Corrugation Formation.; 1986.
Gichaga FJ. "Distress Features of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Seminar on Maintenance and Drainage aspects of Road Pavements.Indian Road Congress. Bangalore - India; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "Industrial Training for Engineering Undergraduates.". In: Engineers Seminar. Nairobi; 1981.
Gichaga FJ. "Red Clay Soils and Black Clays.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi,; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "A Transformation of Kenya through industrialization.". In: Professionals Forum.; 2004.
Gichaga FJ. "The role of Engineering in the Promotion of Health Care.". In: 9th Council Meeting of the Commonwealth Medical Association and 9th Annual Scientific Conference of Kenya Medical Association. Nairobi; 1980.
Gichaga FJ. "Engineering Technologies for Production and Infrastructure.". In: Fourth JKUAT Scientific,Technological and Industrialization Conference.; 2008.
Gichaga FJ. "Flexible Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation.". In: Seminar. Department of Civil Engineering.University of Nairobi.; 1989.
Gichaga FJ. "Laboratory Study of Deformation Modulus/Time Relationship for Various Subgrade Soils Under Road Pavement Structure." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1982;3(No. 2):63-74.
Gichaga FJ. "Training of Engineers in a Developing country.". In: UNESCO International Group Meeting. Cairo.; 1978.
Gichaga FJ. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of Low Volume Tea Roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads.; 1991.
Gichaga FJ. "Research on Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. . 1978:3-5.
Gichaga FJ, Parker NA. Essentials of Highway Engineering.. MacMillan Publishers.; 1988.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJISSET). 2017;3:36-40. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers and agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers who are curious about new farming methodologies, strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques, among other factors. The ICT platforms employed include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice Response systems, social media platform such as Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise millions of farmers across different parts of the country using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were interviewed. The officers represented 15 different counties in Kenya. The study made important findings that would inform the government, agriculture extension content providers, and other stakeholders on critical aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension platforms among a population of diverse users within a developing country.

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained
popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT
for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and
advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing
number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available
services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers an

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology . 2017;3(7):36-40. Abstractfull text link

The use of ICT in agriculture within
developing countries has quickly gained popularity
among development agencies, the private sector and
even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag)
services such as trade platforms, notification platforms
and advisory/extension services have been developed.
This has been catalyzed by the growing number of
farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile
phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension
platforms have gained popularity among farmers and
agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These
platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers
who are curious about new farming methodologies,
strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques,
among other factors. The ICT platforms employed
include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice
Response systems, social media platform such as
Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as
Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The
aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension
platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise
millions of farmers across different parts of the country
using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers
employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were
interviewed. The officers represented 15 different
counties in Kenya. The study made important findings
that would inform the government, agriculture extension
content providers, and other stakeholders on critical
aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension
platforms among a population of diverse users
within a developing country.

Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kigondu C, Ngugi E, Diener L. Domestic violence in Kenya: A baseline survey among women in Nairobi. FIDA Kenya.. Nairobi: Federation of women lawyers; 2002.
Gichangi EM, Karanja NK, Wood W. "The potential of agro-organic wastes to reduce nitrogen losses from cattle manure used by smallholder farmers in the central Kenyan highlands.". 2005. Abstract

Livestockmanure is a valuable source of plant nutrients for crop production in the Central Kenyan highlands but its quality in terms of available nitrogen is low due to considerable nitrogen losses through ammonia olatilization. This study aimed at assessing the potential of agro-organic wastes to reduce nitrogen losses from manure heaps during the storage period. Three organic amendments selected from a laboratory simulation experiment were evaluated under farmers' conditions based in Karura, Kiambu District for their ability to reduce nitrogen losses from cattle manure heaps. The effect of a polyethylene sheet covering of manure heaps on nitrogen retention was also determined. There were eight treatments that comprised three agro­organic amendments (maize stover, coffee pulp and sawdust) and the control. Agronomic effectiveness of the treated manure samples and N uptake by maize seedlings were evaluated in a glasshouse experiment. 19% and 46% of the initial nitrogen respectively. Maize growth improved significantly (p:s;0.05) with increasing rates of manure irrespective of the organic treatments except for manure amended with sawdust. Treatments that received the recommended rate of nitrogen at 100 kg N ha-' had significantly higher (p:S;0.05) biomass of 21.55 g/p1ant while the control produced 2.78 g/p1ant only. Nitrogen uptake increased with increasing rates of manure and was higher (p-;O.O5) with manure amended with coffee pulp. Covering manure heaps to reduce moisture loss would also be beneficial in reducing nitrogen losses.

Gichangi P, Mugania S, Olabu Beda. "Elastic Fibre System in the Shaft of Adult Human Penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):466-475.
Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer prevention." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
Gichangi P. "Female Reproductive System.". In: Kimani's Histology: Text and manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi; 2014.
Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, Fonck K, Temmerman M. "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." Contraception. 1999;59(4):253-6. Abstract

A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students.

Gichangi P, LGATHECE, B ESTAMBALE TEMMERMANM. "CD4 T LYMPHOCYTES SUBSET IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA." eamj. 2013;90(10):310-316. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV are common in sub-Sahara Africa.
Both ICC and HIV are immunosuppressive, and are associated with decreased CD4
and CD8 profiles. In a group of women with ICC starting radiotherapy, we determined
their CD4 profiles.
Design: This was a cross-sectional study design.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, radiotherapy unit.
Subjects: Women with invasive cervical cancer (344) seeking radiotherapy treatment
for the first time between January 2000 and March 2003, had blood samples analyzed
for CD4 and CD8 cell counts by flow cytometry. Haemoglobin, white cell count,
lymphocyte and platelet counts were determined using coulter machine. All patients
had received pre- and post HIV counseling.
Results: The mean age was 49+13 years. About 13.1% of the women with ICC were
HIV positive. Overall, mean and median CD4 cell count was 829+355 cells/mm3 and
792 cells/mm3. Among HIV+ patients, mean and median CD4 cell counts were 451+288
cells/mm3 and 405 cells/mm3 respectively. The mean CD4 cell count for the HIV+women was 886+329 cells/mm3 with median of 833 cells/mm3, range 147-2065 cells/mm3.
Only nine (20%) of the 45 HIV+ women had CD4 cell count of 0-200. HIV+ women
had lower CD4 percentage and cell count and higher CD8 percentage and cell count
as compared to HIV negative women, p < 0.001. HIV infection was significantly and
independently associated with high proportion of women who had CD4 cell count of
less than 200 cells/mm3 or less than 350 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Women with ICC and concurrent HIV infection have decreased CD4 cell
subset. These results suggest HIV infection may be associated with more severe CD4
depletion in women with ICC.

Gichangi P, De Vuyst H, Estambale B, Rogo K, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. "HIV and cervical cancer in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;76(1):55-63. Abstract

To determine the effect of the HIV epidemic on invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.

Gichangi P, Renterghem LV, Karanja J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Temmerman M. "Congenital syphilis in a Nairobi maternity hospital." East Afr Med J. 2004;81(11):589-93. Abstract

To assess adverse pregnancy outcome associated with maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis rate based on FTA-ABS-19s-IgM.

Gichangi PB, Opole, IO, Saidi SH. "The aorta in health and disease." Nairobi journal of medicine. 1990;10:19-27.
Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2006;16(2):681-5. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer in pregnancy." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
Gichangi PB, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ombete J, Nagelkerke NJ, Temmerman M. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis in pregnancy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with cefetamet-pivoxil in pregnant women with a poor obstetric history." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1997;177(3):680-4. Abstract

This study was undertaken to measure the impact of a single oral dose of cefetamet-pivoxil on pregnancy outcome in a population with substantial rates of low birth weight and high prevalence rates of maternal infections.

Gichangi P. "Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):212-214.
Gichangi P, Apers L, Temmerman M. "Rate of caesarean section as a process indicator of safe-motherhood programmes: the case of Kenya." J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;19(2):52-8. Abstract

The study assessed the value of currently-available data on the rates of caesarean section as an indicator of safe-motherhood programmes. Data, collected through the routine health information system of the Ministry of Health, Kenya, were used for analyzing the available process indicators. The methodology of this study illustrates both usefulness and limitations of readily-available healthcare information. The rate of hospital-based caesarean section was 6.3% of all births (range 0.3-37%), whereas the rate of population-based caesarean section was 0.95% (range 0.1%-4%). The rate of population-based caesarean section indicates a significant unmet need for obstetric care in the rural areas and may be a useful tool for monitoring progress on safe-motherhood initiatives in poor settings. Rates of population-based caesarean section are low in Kenya, especially in the rural areas. The rate of caesarean section may be a valuable process indicator for identifying the gaps in obstetric care and may be used for advocating improvements for healthcare to the relevant authorities.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Opiyo A, Temmerman M. "Knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2003;13(6):827-33. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries. Population-based cytologic screening and early treatment does reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Some of the factors related to the success of such a program include awareness about cervical cancer and its screening. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among cervical cancer and noncancer patients using a structured questionnaire to obtain information. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were aware of cervical cancer while 32% knew about Pap smear testing. There were no significant differences in knowledge between cervical cancer and noncancer patients. Health care providers were the principal source of information about Pap testing (82%). Only 22% of all patients had had a Pap smear test in the past. Patients aware of cervical cancer were more likely to have had a Pap smear test in the past. The level of knowledge is low among ICC and noncancer patients. There is need to increase the level of knowledge and awareness about ICC and screening among Kenyan women to increase uptake of the currently available hospital screening facilities.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, Estambale B, Rogo K, Njuguna E, Ojwang S, Temmerman M. "HIV impact on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following radiotherapy for cervical cancer." Gynecol. Oncol.. 2006;100(2):405-11. Abstract

To determine the impact of HIV infection on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for cervical cancer.

Gichangi PB, Nyongo AO, Temmerman M. "Pregnancy outcome and placental weights: their relationship to HIV-1 infection." East Afr Med J. 1993;70(2):85-9. Abstract

The relationship between placental characteristics, including weight and inflammation, and pregnancy outcome was examined as part of a case control study looking into the impact of maternal HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcome. Cases defined as low birth weight (< 2500g) or stillbirth deliveries, were compared to controls defined as mothers who delivered a live born neonate weighing 2500g or more. The mean placental weight and the mean foetal/placental weight ratio were significantly lower in cases (n = 253) than in controls (n = 216) (p < .05). Placental inflammation (chorioamnionitis) was significantly associated with prematurity (p < .001) and with stillbirth (p < .05), maternal HIV-1 antibody being a risk factor for chorioamnionitis in the preterm group. These data support a correlation between placental weight and pregnancy outcome, and suggest that maternal HIV-1 infection is a risk factor for chorioamnionitis in HIV-1 seropositive preterm deliveries.

Gichangi P, Gathece L, Estambale B, Temmerman M. "CD4 T-Lymphocytrs subsets in Women with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;90:310-316.cd4_t-lymphocytes_subsets_in_women_with_invasive_cervical.pdf
Gichangi P, Fonck K, Sekande-Kigondu C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Claeys P, Temmerman M. "Partner notification of pregnant women infected with syphilis in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11(4):257-61. Abstract

We examined partner notification among syphilitic pregnant women in Nairobi. At delivery, 377 women were found to be rapid plasma reagin (RPR) reactive. Data were available for 94% of the partners of women who were tested during pregnancy; over 67% of the partners had received syphilis treatment while 23% had not sought treatment mainly because they felt healthy. Six per cent of the women had not informed their partners as they feared blame and/or violence. Adverse pregnancy outcome was related to lack of partner treatment during pregnancy (7% versus 19%, odds ratio (OR) 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-10.0). Our data suggest that messages focusing on the health of the unborn child have a positive effect on partner notification and innovative and locally adapted strategies for partner notification need more attention.

Gichangi PB, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, Estambale B, De Vuyst H, Ojwang S, Rogo K, Abwao H, Temmerman M. "Impact of HIV infection on invasive cervical cancer in Kenyan women." AIDS. 2003;17(13):1963-8. Abstract

To determine the association between invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV infection in Kenyan women.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi, Mugania, S, Beda O. "The Elastic fibre system in the shaft of adult human penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2015;4(1):466-475.
Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi PB. "Reproductive health awareness among adolescents." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(7):337-8.
Gichangi PB, Opole IO, Saidi H. "The aorta in health and disease." Nairobi Journal of Medicine. 1990;16:42-48.
Gicheru PT, Gachene CKK. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on soil moisture conservation and maize yield on a sandy loam in semiarid Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Maize is an important crop in the high and medium rainfall areas of Kenya and thus, there is a need for additional information on the effect of tillage and soil management practices on water conservation and yield of maize. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of seven soil management practices: bare with conventional tillage (BC), bare with minimum tillage (BM), incorporated mulch with conventional tillage (IMuC), manure with conventional tillage (MaC), manure with minimum tillage (MaM), surface mulch with conventional tillage (SMuC), and surface mulch with minimum tillage (SMuM) on water conservation and yield of maize. Soil water content was greater in minimum tilled plots than in the conventionally tilled (hand hoeing) plots during the study period. This was demonstrated by the manure with minimum tilled treatment, which had the highest soil moisture (7.6% and 8.3%) both at 0-7 cm and 7-23 cm depth. However, when organic matter additions were analyzed separately, it was observed that manure irrespective of tillage had the highest soil moisture in both depths (7.6% and 8.1%). The differences within the treatments occurred when soil water contents were highest shortly after the rains. When the amount of soil water for each management practice was averaged for all the seasons, a significant difference was found at P = 0.0001. Manure (Ma) and surface mulched (Smu) treatments had significantly higher soil moisture content than the other treatments. The higher moisture content found under these treatments was attributed to higher infiltration rates, better cover that reduced the rainfall kinetic energy, and to better structural stability contributed to by higher organic carbon. Compared with the traditional form of hand hoeing, minimum tillage increased available soil water content drastically and crop performance was improved. Grain yields were greatest in manure and lowest in bare treatments. There were significant differences in grain yield in all treatments.

Gicheru MM, Olobo JO, Kariuki TM, Adhiambo C. "Visceral leishmaniasis in vervet monkeys: immunological responses during asymptomatic infections." Scand. J. Immunol.. 1995;41(2):202-8. Abstract

Nine vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were infected intradermally with 8 x 10(7) virulent L. donovani promastigotes. Four animals developed clinical visceral leishmaniasis and died over a period of 18 months. The remaining five animals have remained asymptomatic for a period of 3 years now. Attempts to isolate parasites from spleen and liver through biopsies were fruitless. Immunological responses of these subclinically infected animals were examined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analyses demonstrated Leishmania specific antibodies in these animals, but the antibody titres were low. When proliferation of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) to Concanavalin A (Con A) of these animals was compared with control 'disease free animals' there were no significant differences in response. However, L. donovani antigen (fixed promastigotes) specific proliferation was demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals. High and varying levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were secreted in PBMC cultures from the five vervet monkeys when stimulated with either Con A or L. donovani antigens. In control animals, IFN-gamma was only detected when PBMC were stimulated with Con A. Marked delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals 48 h after injection with formalin fixed promastgotes. It was concluded that the visceral Leishmania disease spectrum due to L. donovani observed in humans could be induced in vervet monkeys and that L. donovani asymptomatic/cryptic infected animals have competent humoral and cellular responses to homologous parasites.

Gichigo N, Kimani K, Wanyoike MK. "Survival Among Retinoblastoma Patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2013;1:16-19.
Gichira CM, Kahonge MA, Miriti EK. "Adoption of Open Source Software by Organizations – A Framework for Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(7):25-32.
Gichira PS, Agwata JF, Muigua KD. "Climate Finance: Fears and Hopes for Developing Countries." Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization. 2014;Vol.22. Abstract

This article looks at the current climate finance architecture and its impact on developing countries climate
change responses. The primary aim is to capture the contradictions that exist in the climate finance architecture
particularly between those recommended by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) and those advanced by developed countries otherwise known as non-UNFCCC climate financing
mechanisms. The overall observation is that once non-UNFCCC climate financing mechanisms emerged and the
more they were justified using the UNFCCC, the global response to the climate change problem was fatally
wounded through a procedural derailment of UNFCCC objectives. This article calls for a review of nonUNFCCC
with the aim of divesting them of the profit factor which in this case is the problematic.

Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., P.M.F. Mbithi, J.K. Wabacha, and P.G. Mbuthia 2007. Radiographic features of laminitis claws of dairy cows around Nairobi. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 31 (2): 72 -78.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., P. N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, L.W. Njagi, U. Minga, J.E.Olsen, 2003. Ducks in rural and semi-urban poultry production.". In: A paper presented at a national workshop on the . University of Nairobi; 2003.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R.M., J. W. Ngotho, E.H. Ngotho, R. O. Otieno, P.G. Mbuthia, and J. K. Kogi, 1998. Effect of development of resistance to levamisole, ivermectin, and benzimidazoles on the pathogenicity and survival of Haemonchus contortus. Bulletin of Animal Hea.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and T. A. Ngatia, 1993. Causes of mortalities in rainbow trouts (Salmo giardneri) farmed on earth ponds in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts of Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (2): 155 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and H. Mbugua, 1989. Gout in Domestic birds. The Kenya Veterinarian, 13: 47 .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1989.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni Z A, Mbuthia P G, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W, Bebora L C and Michieka J N. 2011. Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development23(11)2011. http://www.lrrd.org/.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Livestock research for Rural Development; 2011. Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya. Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Use of ambient conditions and saw dust in storage of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) roots in Kenya. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol.33(1),83-90.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD, WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "Abong.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in non-infective claw disorders in cattle. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 32 (1): 26 -40.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2007. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages and its correlation with subclinical laminitis in dairy cows. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 55 (4): 232-243.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., P.G. Mbuthia, L.C.Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U.M. Minga and J.E. Olsen. 2004. Sensitivity of Listeria species recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. East African Medical Journal, 81 (10): 534-537.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Verminous pneumonia in five species of wild ruminants in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 153 -155.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mulei, C.M., S. M. Macharia, and P.G. Mbuthia, 1994. Report on an outbreak of bovine leptospirosis in a zero grazing unit in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42: 327 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1992. Common fish diseases and their occurrence in Kenya. A review.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina A.N., R.M. Waruiru, T.A. Ngatia, P.G. Mbuthia and W.K. Munyua. 2012. Gastrointestinal parasites and other endoparasites of indigenous chickens traded in Nairobi, Kenya. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medicine, UON, CAVS, 8th Biennia.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Involving rural Kenyan women in the development of nutritionally improved weaning foods. Nutribusiness strategy. Journal of Nutritional Education.Vol .29(6): 335-342 Karuri, E.G., 1997. The state of water in stored dry cereal grains and legumes .The J.of.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kibebe, H.W., Gathumbi, p.K., kigondu, C.S., Mbuthia, P.G., Karioki, J.W., 2010. Early Detection of Hyperglycemia using glycated hemoglobin in mice model. In the Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Fac.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., Nyaga, P.N, Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2008. Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissue of carrier ducks. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008,.". In: the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Comparison of the carrier status of Pasteurella multocida between farm and live market indigenous birds. The Kenya Veterinarian, 29: 45-47.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
Gichohi LNAN&. "The role of parents in promoting moral values amongst the youth." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1999. Management of fish diseases.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1999.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., D.I. Kariuki, and C.M. Mulei, 1994. A generalized demodicosis in a friesian heifer from a zero-grazing unit. Veterinary Parasitology, 51 (3-4): 337 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., R.E.N. Runyenje, T.A. Ngatia, and C. M. Mulei, 1992. Poultry chemical poisoning in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (1): 45 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kyalo M.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., Nyaga P.N., Njagi, L.W., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O., Gachoka J.M., Msoffe, P.L.M. and Bunn, D. 2012. Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens in Kenya. In the Proce.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Commercial pectolytic enzymes in production of mango juice concentrate. J. of Food Technology in Africa Vol.2(4), 82-86.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kamundia P.W., Mbuthia P.G., Waruiru R. M., Njagi L. W., Nyaga P. N., Mdegela, R.H., Byarugaba, D. K and Otieno R.O. 2010. Occurrence of Trypanosoma in Nile Tilapia in Lake Victoria, Kenya. In the Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of t.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The application of direct solar radiation to the dehydration of foods . Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy, Food Production and Post Harvest Technology in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, 16-18 April 1986. ANSTI/RAIST. Pp. 53-70.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Indigenous ducks are better reservoirs of Pasteurella multocida than indigenous chickens. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 29: 104-106.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and W. Karaba, 2000. Infectious bursal disease around Kabete, Kenya. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 19: 21 .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mulei, C.M., G. K. Gitau, and P.G. Mbuthia, 1995. Causes of calf mortalities around Kabete. Onderstespoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 62: 181 .". In: Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1995.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD).". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch / Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 19th June 1993. Sponsored by Pfizer (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "MathengeC.G.. Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru R.M., Ngatia, T.A., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O.Prevalence, Intensity and pathological lesions associated with Contracaecum species infection in farmed and wild catfish in the upper Tana river basin, Kenya. In the Proceedi.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.

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