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Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
and Gathumbi, J.K. BMNLCDJ. "A survey of mycotoxins in poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 1995;43:243-245.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi, N; Pelle WR; J, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi, J. K.; Muthomi N'u C'waJW; JK. Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat grain in Kenya.; 2005. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2004 wheat-cropping season in 6 agro-ecclogical zones to determine fusarium contamination of freshly harvested wheat grain. This was done by plating in culture media. Contaminations with mycotoxins t!cnxynivalcnol, zenralenonc and aflatoxin B I were determined by competitive EUSA. Farmers indicated presence ol'hcnd blight 111 wheat fields and occurrence of wet weather during flowering. Wheat residue was mainly directly grazed to animals in the field or ploughed in. Most popular rotation was wheal-maize followed by continuous wheat cropping. Fusarium contaminated 85 % of the wheat samples, but kernel infection rate was 15%. Fusarium species most isolated were F.poae. F. chlumvdospnrum and F. grammC:Ul1lfll. Other fungi isolated were Alternaria. Epicoccum. Aspergigiilus anti Penicillium. Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. There is need for regular screening for Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat grain.

and Gathumbi, J. K. UMEE. "Production of ultrasensitive antibodies against aflatoxin B1." Letters in Applied Microbiology . 2001;32:349-351.
Gathumbi PK, Varma S, Wells C. "Pathological and Ultrastructural Features of Equine Klosiellosis." Kenya Veterinarian. 2001;21:45-48.
and Gathumbi, J.K. KKSG. "Traces of opiates in Shisha collected in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: National Conference on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Kasarani stadium; 2013.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi, J.K. and Bebora LC. "The occurrence of aflatoxin in poultry tissues collected in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 2000;48:61-62.
Gathumbi PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN. "Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology.". In: 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2013.
Gathumbi JK. A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds. . Nairobi.: University of Nairobi.; 1993.
and Gathumbi, J.K. WMMJEWJ. "Application of rapid immunoassays in a survey of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) in foods and feeds. .". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
Gathumbi, P.K., Thoithi, G.N., Mwangi, J.W., KIBWAGE, Maingi, N., Pelle R, Wando J. "Evaluation of effects of plant extracts on Trypanosomes.". In: End of ARF Project Conference . KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
and Gathumbi, J.K. BMNLCDJ. "Mycological examination of poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 1996;44:19-22.
Gathumbi PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J. "Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes."; 2003.
Gathumbi JK, Ndung'u JK, Hindorf H, Muthomi JW. "Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight–causing Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Kenyan Wheat.". 2006. Abstract

Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals, causing grain yield reduction, reduced quality and mycotoxin contamination. This study was conducted in two districts of Kenya to determine the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat. A survey was carried out during the 2004 growing season in different agro-climatic zones to determine the presence of Fusarium head blight and weather conditions during the critical stages of wheat growth. Fungal contamination was determined by isolation on agar media while mycotoxin analysis was by direct competitive ELISA. Fusarium head blight was reported by 81% of the farmers and wet conditions were prevalent during anthesis. The wheat grain samples were highly contaminated with fungi, especially Epicoccum, Alternaria and Fusarium species. The mean Fusarium infection rate varied from 13 to 18%, with the major head blight – causing species being F. poae, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, and F. avenaceum. Fusarium poae, F. chlamydosporum and F. oxysporum were the most prevalent in all the agro-ecological zones while F. graminearum was isolated in 6 out of the 9 agro-ecological zones. Most grain samples were contaminated with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. The most prevalent mycotoxin was T-2 (86% of the samples) followed by deoxynivalenol (59%), zearalenone (53%), and aflatoxin B1 (52%). The maximum mycotoxin concentration was 302mg/kg, 95.8mg/kg, 65.7mg/kg and 6.9mg/kg for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin and aflatoxin B1, respectively. The incidence and levels of the mycotoxins varied depending on the agro-ecological zone. Samples with high proportion of total Fusarium infection contained higher deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin levels. Co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone was fund in up to 35% of the samples. The results suggested the presence of Fusarium head blight in Kenya and associated mycotoxin contamination, though at low but significant levels. The presence of the different mycotoxins, though at low levels, could pose chronic adverse health effects to human and livestock fed on the contaminated wheat products.

and Gathumbi, J. K. UMEE. "Rapid extraction and immunological determination of aflatoxin in chicken liver tissues. .". In: XXI World Poultry Congress. Montréal, Canada ; 2000.
Gathumbi JK. "Immunological determination of mycotoxins in animal feeds: principles and application.". In: 2nd Kenya Livestock Technicians Association Scientific Conference . KARI, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2002.
Gathumbi PK, J.W. M, Mugera GM, Njiro SM. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of Prunus africana stem-bark in rats: Gross and histopathological lesions." Phytotherapy Research . 2001;15:1-4.
Gathumbi JK, Usleber E, Martlbauer E. "Production of ultrasensitive antibodies against aflatoxin B 1.". 2001. Abstract

Aims: To produce speciÆc antibodies against the haptenic fungal toxin aØatoxin B1 (AFB1) and apply these antibodies in immunochemical assays for aØatoxins. Methods and Results: Rabbits were immunized using an AFB1 -bovine serum albumin conjugate and serum titres determined by double-antibody enzyme immunoassay. High titres of antibodies with very high afÆnity for AFB 1 were obtained 15 and 4 weeks after the initial immunization and the Ærst booster immunization respectively. The antibodies were employed in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoafÆnity chromatography (IAC) methods for aflatoxins. With a detection limit of 15 · 8pgml)1 for AFB1 , the EIA employing these antibodies is the most sensitive test for AFB1 described so far. In IAC columns, these antibodies provided high binding capacity for all major aØatoxins, including AFB1 , AFB2 , AFG1 and AFG2 Conclusions: The antibodies described here are useful for the analysis of trace levels of aflatoxins. SigniÆcance and Impact of the Study: Polyclonal antibody-based EIA and IAC methods for aflatoxin analysis offer a suitable alternative to the more expensive monoclonal antibody- based methodS.

Gathumbi J.K. "Overview of sampling and analytical methods for mycotoxins. .". In: COMESA Regional training on food safety/aflatoxin control for Regionally harmonized sampling and laboratory procedures. KEPHIS Hqs, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2012.
Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
GATHUMBI. PROFPETERKARURI. "Should we design extended or straightforward questions for small stock when records are unavailable?" The Kenya Veterinarian . 2012. Abstract

Data from two closely related questions in a survey on rabbits is analyzed in order to determine
whether results from these two groups of questions would yield similar results about numbers of
rabbits kept by a household. One question seeks a straightforward answer about numbers of
rabbits kept while the other group of questions breaks the question into several questions seeking
numbers of rabbits disaggregated by sex and age. This is prompted by the fact that record
keeping is not a very common undertaking in a small holder agricultural setting in Kenya and
that in their absence, farmers may not recall precisely how many rabbits they own unless a
headcount is performed. A paired sample t test is implemented to detect any significant
underreporting of rabbit numbers based on numbers from the straightforward question which we
hypothesize would yield numbers far less than what is on the farm. The results show that such
underreporting is not serious enough. The conclusion is that between the two question modes
implemented in the survey, the straightforward question is suitable as it is time saving when the
survey data required does not include numbers disaggregated by sex or age of rabbits.

Gathungu JMOWA&. "performance contracting strategy public sector reforms and performance of public institution in the transport sector in Kenya." International journal of Art and Commerce . 2012;1(3):243-251.
Gathungu JKJ&. "). Employee Trust of Top Management and Performance of Saccos in Nairobi City County, Kenya." American Research Journal of Humanities Social Sciences. 2018;01(02):10-190.
Gathungu, J & Mungai AN. "Contextual factors Affecting E-Government strategy implementation and its impact on public sector performance in Kenya ." Journal of arts and humanities . 2012;1(1):143-157.
vii. James Gathungu M. "Organization Development Interventions on Teamwork and Teambuilding Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies . 2018;2(10).
Gathungu JM. "Organization Development Interventions on Communication Skills of Commercial Bank Executives: A Case of KCB Bank Limited in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Review. 2018;4(5).
Gathungu MJKJM &. "Dynamic capabilities, Talent Development and from performance." DBA Africa Management Review . 2012;2(3):83-100.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
Gatimu WN, Aduda BO, Nyongesa FW. "Electrophoretically deposited TiO2 thin films for photocatalytic oxidation of phenol.". In: The 6th Edward Bouchet-Abdus Salam Institute International Conference, iThemba LABS. Cape Town, South Africa ; 2007. Abstract

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit TiO2 thin film on a conducting glass substrate for use in water purification from organic contaminants. The optimum deposition parameters of a good quality film in terms of adherence to the substrate, homogeneity of the film and the extent of microcracking upon drying were: ethanol for obtaining a stable suspension, a pH of 3 for best stability of the suspension and the speed of coating, TiO2 loading concentration of 4 wt %; 0.3wt% iodine dispersant with respect to TiO2 concentration, an applied voltage of 25 volts, and films’ sintering temperature of 573 K for highest photocatalytic activity. The quantitative analysis of phenol by bromination method was used to determine photocatalytic decomposition of phenol in water.

Gatonga P, Ogeng'o JA, Awori KO. "Spinal cord termination in adult Africans: relationship with intercristal line and the transumbilical plane.". 2010. Abstract

The level of cord termination and level of vertebral intersection of intercristal line and transumbilical plane (TUP), frequently used landmarks, show ethnic variation. The relationship of the spinal cord termination to these lines is vital in spinal surgery and anesthesia, but data on these parameters are scarce in the African population. The purpose of this work is to determine the level of cord termination and establish its relationship with intercristal line and TUP. One hundred and twelve specimens obtained from the department of Human Anatomy at the University of Nairobi were used in this study. The conus medullaris was exposed by laminectomy and its vertebral level together with those of intercristal line and TUP recorded. The distance of conus medullaris from intercristal plane was measured in millimeters. Data obtained were coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 16.0 Chicago, Illinois, 2002. Student's t-test was used in the statistical assessment of gender differences. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The median level of termination of the cord was the upper third of L2, 51.9% of cases terminating below this. There was no statistically significant gender difference in the level of termination of the cord. The intercristal plane passed through L4/L5 disc (70.9%) and below (29.1%). The TUP corresponded with intercristal line in 78.2% of subjects. The mean distance of the spinal cord termination from intercristal line was 99 +/- 24 mm. The spinal cord terminates at or below the upper third of L2. Care should be exercised during lumbar punctures and spinal epidural anesthesia among Africans. Intecristal line and TUP are safe landmarks to use in location of conus medullaris.

Gatonga P, Ogeng'o JA, Awori KO. "Spinal cord termination in adult Africans: relationship with intercristal line and the transumbilical plane." Clin Anat. 2010;23(5):563-5. Abstract

The level of cord termination and level of vertebral intersection of intercristal line and transumbilical plane (TUP), frequently used landmarks, show ethnic variation. The relationship of the spinal cord termination to these lines is vital in spinal surgery and anesthesia, but data on these parameters are scarce in the African population. The purpose of this work is to determine the level of cord termination and establish its relationship with intercristal line and TUP. One hundred and twelve specimens obtained from the department of Human Anatomy at the University of Nairobi were used in this study. The conus medullaris was exposed by laminectomy and its vertebral level together with those of intercristal line and TUP recorded. The distance of conus medullaris from intercristal plane was measured in millimeters. Data obtained were coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 16.0 Chicago, Illinois, 2002. Student's t-test was used in the statistical assessment of gender differences. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The median level of termination of the cord was the upper third of L2, 51.9% of cases terminating below this. There was no statistically significant gender difference in the level of termination of the cord. The intercristal plane passed through L4/L5 disc (70.9%) and below (29.1%). The TUP corresponded with intercristal line in 78.2% of subjects. The mean distance of the spinal cord termination from intercristal line was 99 +/- 24 mm. The spinal cord terminates at or below the upper third of L2. Care should be exercised during lumbar punctures and spinal epidural anesthesia among Africans. Intecristal line and TUP are safe landmarks to use in location of conus medullaris.

Gatongi PM, Scott ME, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Effects of three nematode anthelmintic treatment regimes on flock performance of sheep and goats under extensive management in semi-arid Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

A study was undertaken in a semi-arid area of Kenya between August 1991 and June 1993 to evaluate the effects of anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin before or during the rains, on performance of mixed sheep and goat flocks, in comparison with an untreated flock. Performance parameters measured included age and weight of dams at first parturition, parturition intervals, body weights of dams and offspring, and birth weights, growth rates, and mortality rates of offspring. Among these parameters, birth weights and growth rates of offspring were found to be significantly improved by the treatment administered before the rains compared with the other two treatments. Mortality was lower in lambs and kids with high birth weights. Treatment, either before or during the rains, significantly reduced the faecal egg output and improved body weight, packed cell volume and flock fertility. Liveweight was confirmed to be a better measure of sexual maturity than age. It was further shown that lambs and kids, born of dams at their first lambing or kidding, experienced higher mortality rates than lambs and kids born of dams in their second and subsequent parturitions. Overall, treatment with ivermectin before the onset of rains was equal to or better, in terms of the performance parameters measured, than treatment during the rains, whilst treatment compared with no treatment increased performance in almost all of the parameters measured.

Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

Gatotoh AM. Behavior Change: An Assessment of Correctional Counselling . Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Academic publishing; 2011.
Gatotoh AM, Omulema B, E., D N. "Correctional AttitudesAn Impetus for a Paradigm Shift in Inmate Rehabilitation ." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science . 2011; Vol. 1 No. 4; April 2011 (4):263-270.correctional_attitudesan_impetus_for_a_paradigm_shift_in_inmate_rehabilitation.pdf
Gatotoh, A.M, N.W G. "Empowering Communities Through Adult Education: Closing The Chasm Through Distance Learning .". In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN ADULT EDUCATION. Makerere University Uganda; 2009.
Gatotoh AM, Kariuki DK. "GROUP SYNERGY: A BEHAVIOURAL THRUST FOR MICRO-ENTREPRENEURIAL GROWTH FOR WOMEN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012; Vol. 2 No. 5; March 2012 (5):255-262.group_synergy_a_behavioural_thrust_for_micro-entrepreneurial.pdf
Gatua W.K, Makumi J.K NKMWEMCS. "Evaluation of urinary tubular enzymes as screening markers of renal dysfunction in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus." Asian Journal of Medical Sciences . 2011;3(3):84-90.
Gatuguta AW, Muchunga EK. "Adherence to Antiretroviral treatment among adolescents at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

All over the world and specifically sub-Saharan Africa, there is massive scaling up of availability and accessibility to highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) which resulted in improved survival and reduced incidence of opportunistic infections among people living with HIV & AIDS. Nonetheless, whereas efforts to increase access to HIV & AIDS treatment have achieved the desired effects with respect to improvement in the quality of life, other issues such as adherence, sustainability and effectiveness of treatment have emerged.
The goal to sustain a near optimal adherence for successful antiretroviral treatment is undoubtedly a major concern in the management of HIV & AIDS. Among adolescents, the challenge assumes greater proportions given the unique circumstances the group is exposed to. For instance, emotional, neurocognitive and physical development changes are some of the challenges. The transition from paediatric to adult state coupled with the knowledge about their HIV status that prompts them to initiate treatment on their own is to say the least, monumental challenges for adolescents. Moreover, adolescents are generally in school where they are subjected to stigma, discrimination and unfavourable school schedules that do not permit them time to access treatment and medication. Several studies have concluded that a high level of adherence to HAART at 95% or higher is necessary in order to avoid treatment failure and emergence of resistant strains.
Consequently, patients with 95% or higher adherence are known to have a superior virological outcome, an increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, and a lower rate of hospitalization compared with patients with lower levels of adherence.
As cited earlier, a near optimal adherence is a challenge for all patients, and non-adherent behavior is a big problem during adolescent period.
The aim of the study was therefore to determine adherence levels to antiretroviral drugs among adolescents and also establish levels of appointment keeping to clinic visits and pharmacy drug refi 11.

Gatuma AK. A Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigation Of The Poisonous Principle(s) Of Elaeodendron Buchananii (Loes.) Loes.; 1977. Abstract

A pharmacognostical investigation of Elaeodendron buchananii
(Loes.) Loes. has been undertaken. Phytochemical and pharmacological
properties of the active (poisonous) principles of the plant
have also been studied.
The pharmacognostical investigation of the plant involved identifying
features of the different parts of the plant using photographic
and macroscopic methods .
Results of the screening tests of the different parts of the
plant for the active constituents indicated the presence of chemical
compounds with a, b-unsaturated 6- lactone ring, possibly cardiac
glycosides. Investigation of a suitable solvent system for the extraction
of these compounds was undertaken. Of the different parts
of the plant examined for active principles , the leaves were found
to contain the highest percentage of the chemical compounds with <,
(3- unsaturated 0-- lactone ring. Isolation and purification of the
active principle(s) from the original crude plant extracts involving
the removal of pigments, tannins! resins and excess lead has been
described. Crystellisat ion of the isolated gycoside from a suitable
solvent system and the subsequent study of some of the physical l and
chemical properties of the isolated compound has been described.
From the elemental analysis and the molecular weight of the
isolated compound the molecular formula of t he compound has been
determined as C32H47011. Using the infra-red, ultraviolet, nuclear
magnetic resonance and mass spectra$ a partial molecular structure
has been suggested.
The isolated compound has been reacted with Kedde reagent and
the resulting coloured complex has been examined to see whether it
obeys Beer - Lambert law. The calibration curve obtained has been
used to determine the percentage recovery of the isolated compound
in the leaves of the plant.
The pharmacological study of the isolated compound has also
been undertaken. This study involved the investigation of the
effects of the isolated compound on the blood pressure of anaesthetised
rat and the effect of the compound on the isolated perfused
rabbi t heart.
Suggestions for further work as regards pharmacognostical investigation
of the plant together with ascertaining the exact structural
formula of the compound has been proposed.

Gatumu HN. Essentials of Educational Statistics. Nairobi: East African Education Publishers Ltd; 1996.
Gatumu JC. "Reflective Teaching." African Virtual University (on line). 2009.
Gatumu HN. STC/GCD 517: Psychological Assessment. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu HN. EGC 501: Research Statistics and Data Processing. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu JC. Counselling and sexually abused children’s academic performance. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert academic publishing; 2013.
Gatumu HN. "Sources of VCT Information and Reasons for Use or Non Use of VCT Services by Young People in Selected Rural Locations in Kenya." International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow (ISSN: 2277-6168). 2012;Vol. 1 No. 2.
Gatumu JC. Teachers and students attitudes towards Christian Religious Education.. Saarbrucken: Scholars press. ISBN 9783639710205; 2014. Abstract

The research discussed in this book sought to penetrate the functional role fo teachers and students’ attitudes towards Christian Religious Education in Kenya. A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) approach was employed with the investigations being ‘ex post facto’ in design. A random stratified procedure was employed to select the constituents of the sample. The sample consisted of 49 teachers and 909 students. The methodology, findings, discussion, conclusions and recommendations of the research are presented in the book.

Gatumu JC. "Activities of three to six year old children not in preschool: the case of Mbeere Disctrict, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2008;7(2 & 3):252-265.
Gatumu HN. "Problem Solving among standard four children.". 1975;vol. 2 No. 1:68-73.
Gatumu JC, Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teaching practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30. Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the Government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges, the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies, objectives, strategies, programs and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance, the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However, the quality of education can not be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently, many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities. This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teacher who enrolled in the B.Ed. program of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased in education at the primary level?

Gatumu JC. "Activities of three to six year old children not in preschool: the case fo Mbeere District, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2009;VII, No. 2 & 3, 2008(ISSN 1021 - 1128):252-265.
Gatumu HN. GCD-015: Research Methods in Guidance counseling. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2002.
Gatumu HN. EGC 501: Research Statistics and Data Processing. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu HN, Kariuki SN, Kinai T, Aloka PJO, Ndeke SFN. "Relationship between Adolescents’ Perceptions of Their Parents’ Behaviours and 3 Youths’ Non-Illegal and Minor- Illegal Delinquency in Nairobi Secondary Schools, Kenya." Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;5(7):390-401.
Gatumu JC. Philosophical Foundations of Early Childhood Education. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2013.
Gatumu HN. EGC 500: Research Methods in Counselling. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2004.
Gatumu JC. "Evaluating preschool children’s performance. In: Teaching children: a handbook for preschool teachers.". In: ISBN 978-9966-1797-0-8. Vol. ISBN 978-9966-1797-0-8.; 2014:. Abstract

What entails the training of young children making them ready for primary school and in essence for the future? Are there specific items, procedures, factors, etc. that need to be considered for the successful achievements of this goal? Can anybody who loves children undertake teaching preschoolers? These are some of the question that Teaching children seeks to address. This book navigates the waters of preschool teaching – the process of learning, teaching methods, motivation, differences in children all thorough to evaluation as preschool children lay blocks for their future. The journey along this road of preschool education and training begins here.

Gatumu JC. "Reflective Teaching.". 2011.
Gatumu JC. "Head teachers’ tasks in the implementation of preschool curriculum in Kenya public preschools." Ife PsychologIA: An International Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2010;18(1):12-32.
Gatumu HN. "The Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards the Use of Punishment in Secondary Schools in Kaloleni Kilifi District.". In: Kenyatta University Research Conference. kenyatta University; 2009.
Gatumu HN. "Latent Trait Theory from a confirmatory factor analysis point of view of a Criterion referenced University Examinations." Ife Psychology IA International Journal. 1993;vol. 1 No. 2:59-68.
Gatumu JC. "Impact of counseling on the sexually abused children's academic performance: A case study of two children in a foster home in Thika, Kenya." Journal of sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice. 2009;1, No. 3, 2009.:112-125.
Gatumu HN. EPS 402: Educational Statistics and Evaluation. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu JC. Religious Education Methods. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING; 2013.
Gatumu HN. EPS 402: Educational Statistics and Evaluation. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu JC, Munene LM, Chandi J. "Priests’ leadership styles and youth participation in Church activities in the Catholic Diocese of Meru, Kenya." International Journal of Education and research. 2013;1(8):123-134.
Gatumu HN. CPY 211: BASIC STATISTICS. Nairobi; 2012.
Gatumu J.C., Origa J.O. ME. "Kenya preschool curriculum on environmental conservation by young children." International Journal of Early Childhood Education and Care. 2012;Vo. 1.(ISSN 2289-3156):1-14.
and Gatumu J.C., Inyega J.O. IHN. "Teaching Practice Experience: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." the Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2013;(ISSN 2079-3383).
Gatune JW, Nyamongo IK. "An Ethnographic Study of Cervical Cancer Among Women in Rural Kenya: Is there a Folk Causal Model? International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, Vol. 15: 1049-1059.". In: Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1049-59. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract

This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.

Gaudensia Mutua, Gloria Omosa HPPBDLPAJL, Pat Fast, Jill Gilmour OABF. "Uptake and tolerability of repeated mucosal specimen collection in two Phase 1 AIDS preventive vaccine trials in Kenya." Retrovirology . 2012;9(Suppl 2):122.
Gausset Q, Andersen SK, Hansen HH, Lund JF, Mugasha AG, Nathan I, Theilade I. "Opportunities and constraints for private and communal tree management in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007.
Gausset Q, Nathan I. "Why combine private and communal tree management? A case-study based in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007. Abstract

Despite the focus on the importance of trees in Africa and the many projects that try to improve their management, there is very little research and few development projects which address tree related problems in a holistic manner. With respect to forest management arrangements, focus tends to be either exclusively on community forestry, or on private tree planting. Such a divided focus makes it difficult to understand the complementarities and possible synergetic effects of these two approaches in solving common problems and improving local livelihoods. The present article argues that interdisciplinary projects are needed to develop a holistic approach to tree management and to improve the use of trees. This argument builds on the results from the PETREA (People, Trees and Agriculture) research programme in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania). In this village, private and collective tree management is characterized by very different uses, opportunities and problems. Common woodlands play an important role in providing villagers with Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) from indigenous species that are important for local livelihoods as they provide food, medicine, and grazing areas. The constraints linked to the management of common woodlands pertain to group dynamics and resemble, at first glance, a “tragedy of the commons” as described by Hardin (1968). Private tree planting, on the other hand, provides both local services (including providing fruits, firewood or securing boundaries between fields) and cash from the selling of poles. The constraints characterizing private tree management are linked to land-tenure, tree seedling cost and season for planting. Land tenure is of paramount importance as trees cannot be planted on borrowed or rented land, or at the expense of cropland needed to sustain the household. The season for planting seedlings is a constraint because of a conflict with labour demands for crops needed to survive. Despite being characterized by very different uses and constraints, the management of private and common trees also share common constraints as both require that grazing is under control and that there exist clear rules and efficient institutions able to solve management conflicts. Both types of management should therefore be analyzed together as improving one can help relieve the pressure on the other.

Gawriluk, T. R., Simkin, J., Thompson, K.L., Biswas, S., Clare-Salzler, Z., Kimani, J.M., Kiama, S.G., Ezenwa V.O., Smith, M. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals. Nat. Commun. 7:11164 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11164.". 2016.
Gayle H;, Ngugi E;, Berkley S;, Kimball AM. "International aspects of the AIDS/HIV epidemic." Annual review of public health ''.". 1995.
GBD VLEG. "Global Prevalence of Vision Impairment and Blindness: Magnitude and Temporal Trends, 1990-2010." Ophthalmology. 2013;120(12):2377-84. Abstract

PURPOSE:

Vision impairment is a leading and largely preventable cause of disability worldwide. However, no study of global and regional trends in the prevalence of vision impairment has been carried out. We estimated the prevalence of vision impairment and its changes worldwide for the past 20 years.

DESIGN:

Systematic review.

PARTICIPANTS:

A systematic review of published and unpublished population-based data on vision impairment and blindness from 1980 through 2012.

METHODS:

Hierarchical models were fitted fitted to estimate the prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; defined as presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥ 3/60) and the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) by age, country, and year.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Trends in the prevalence of MSVI and blindness for the period 1990 through 2010.

RESULTS:

Globally, 32.4 million people (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.4-36.5 million people; 60% women) were blind in 2010, and 191 million people (95% CI, 174-230 million people; 57% women) had MSVI. The age-standardized prevalence of blindness in older adults (≥ 50 years) was more than 4% in Western Sub-Saharan Africa (6.0%; 95% CI, 4.6%-7.1%), Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa (5.7%; 95% CI, 4.4%-6.9%), South Asia (4.4%; 95% CI, 3.5%-5.1%), and North Africa and the Middle East (4.6%; 95% CI, 3.5%-5.8%), in contrast to high-income regions with blindness prevalences of ≤ 0.4% or less. The MSVI prevalence in older adults was highest in South Asia (23.6%; 95% CI, 19.4%-29.4%), Oceania (18.9%; 95% CI, 11.8%-23.7%), and Eastern and Western Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa and the Middle East (95% CI, 15.9%-16.8%). The MSVI prevalence was less than 5% in all 4 high-income regions. The global age-standardized prevalence of blindness and MSVI for older adults decreased from 3.0% (95% CI, 2.7%-3.4%) worldwide in 1990 to 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-2.2%) in 2010 and from 14.3% (95% CI, 12.1%-16.2%) worldwide to 10.4% (95% CI, 9.5%-12.3%), respectively. When controlling for age, women's prevalence of blindness was greater than men's in all world regions. Because the global population has increased and aged between 1990 and 2010, the number of blind has increased by 0.6 million people (95% CI, -5.2 to 5.3 million people). The number with MSVI may have increased by 19 million people (95% CI, -8 to 72 million people) from 172 million people (95% CI, 142-198 million people) in 1990.

CONCLUSIONS:

The age-standardized prevalence of blindness and MSVI has decreased in the past 20 years. However, because of population growth and the relative increase in older adults, the blind population has been stable and the population with MSVI may have increased

GEBRE SOLOMON, MEKONNEN SILESHI, GODWIN KAAYA, TEKLE TILAHUN, JOBRE YILMA. "Prevalence of ixodid ticks and trypanosomosis in camels in southern rangelands of Ethiopia." Ethiopian Veterinary Journal . 2004;2:23-31.
Gebrekidan B, Wafula BM, Njoroge K. "Agro-ecological zoning in relation to maize research priorities in Kenya." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. . 1992:1-4.
Gebreyesus G;, Wamalwa M;, Dessie T;, Agaba M;, Benor S;, Mwai OA. "Harnessing “ODK collect” on smartphones for on-farm data collection in Africa: The ILRI-BecA goat project."; 2013.
Gecaga W, Mwango G, Mutala T. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital- Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Gecaga W, Mwango G MT. "Knowledge on ionizing radiation among non-radiologist clinicians at Kenyatta National Hospital – Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(1):1108-1115.
Geere JL, Gona J, Omondi FO, Kifalu MK, Newton CR, Hartley S. "Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. Methods  A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Results  Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Conclusions  Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike.

Genga EK, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital." IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy. 2014;4(3):15-21. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo O, Espinoza LR, Adebajo A. "Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility of rheumatology in Africa.". 2017. Abstractajr_enhancing_the_visibility_of_rheumatology_in_africa_2017-clinical_rheumatology.pdf

Africa Journal of Rheumatology: enhancing the visibility
of rheumatology in Africa
Eugene K. Genga1,2 & Omondi Oyoo1,2 & Luis R. Espinoza3 & Adewale Adebajo4
Received: 5 July 2017 /Accepted: 10 July 2017
# International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017
Clinical Rheumatology welcomes the African Journal of
Rheumatology as an important development for the furtherance
of rheumatological scholarship and education on the
African continent and for rheumatology research in
Africans. It is hoped that this development will in turn raise
the profile of rheumatological conditions in Africa and among
Africans. In particular, it is hoped that this will lead to the
much needed collection of African musculoskeletal epidemiological
and health services data, assist in the training of
African rheumatologists, help to open up African rheumatology
to the global rheumatology community, and ultimately
improve the quality of care for myriads of Africans with rheumatic
disorders.
The current population of Africa is 1,241,858,354
which is equivalent to 16.36% of the total world population
based on the latest United Nations estimates [1].
There are many challenges facing Africa including limited
financial resources, misuse of finances, malnutrition, poor
water, and sanitation among others. Despite these many
challenges faced in Africa, in recent times, the continent
has undergone rapid economic growth and development.
The available healthcare resources are overburdened by
the high burden of communicable diseases and the rising
prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Rheumatic
diseases are therefore not considered a high priority by
the various African governments. Part of the reason for
this is due to the limited epidemiological data on rheumatic
diseases and their burden in Africa. Scientific
journals play a central role in the dissemination of research
results which will ultimately impact on policy
change. Horton et al. [2] noted that researchers and policy
makers in developing countries believe that the main way
to solve problems of developing countries is by using
information from Western research rather than using local
data to solve regional problems. He, however, noted that
in Africa “there is already a well-developed local information
culture that needs support, not swamping,” noting,
moreover, the lack of African journals in MEDLINE [2].
Researchers in Africa and the developing world require
access not only as readers but also as authors: for them
to feel part of the global science community, they need
not only to obtain information but also to be able to contribute
to it and take part in the global discourse. The
continent’s resources are prioritized towards infectious
diseases like HIV and malaria over the now increasing
non-communicable diseases. Data on rheumatic diseases
in Africa has been limited partly due to lack of infrastructure
thus under diagnosis but also due to low scholarly
output. Thus, the Africa Journal of Rheumatology was
born. Since its inception 5 years ago, it has provided an
uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners
and scientists from Africa and beyond can publish their
rheumatology research. It has become a rich source of
information about rheumatic disorders in the continent
and a timely addition to our worldwide rheumatology
community [3]. The journal has published various research
articles on diseases once thought to be rare in Africa. They
* Adewale Adebajo
a.o.adebajo@sheffield.ac.uk
1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of
Health Sciences, University of Nairobi/Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi, Kenya
2 Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA,
USA
4 Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield,
Sheffield, UK
Clin Rheumatol
DOI 10.1007/s10067-017-3761-z
range from rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout, myositis to rheumatology
in HIV. Research articles published in the journal
shows rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome to
be increasing in frequency in the indigenous populations of
East, West, Central, and Southern Africa [4–7]. The HIV pandemic
has changed the epidemiological spectrum of diseases
in Africa. It has led to an increase in a variety of previously
rarely seen conditions like spondyloarthropathies, fibromyalgia,
pyomyositis, and scleroderma. Various scholars have
shared their experiences in the journal [8–12]. The journal
has also provided a forum through which scholars have been
able to share their experiences in management of the rheumatic
diseases with biologic therapy. The results have been similar
to data from around the world [13, 14]. Case reports of rare
diseases and review articles have not been left out and have
enriched the content of the journal bringing diversity in the
articles published.
The visibility of the journal is hampered by the low scholarly
output. This is in part due to severe limitations in the
overall economic development and especially in research infrastructure.
Researchers have limited access to funding for
research as most African countries have no national agencies
that are responsible for research. This is compounded by limitations
in scientific writing, designing, and conducting research
and in reporting the results. Partnership with international
journals like the African Journal Partnership Project is
welcome to bridge that gap by training African health researchers
to improve the quality and visibility of their research
and make the Africa journal of rheumatology a better resource
for local researchers and policy makers [15].
This journal has become a site for exchange of knowledge
of local rheumatic diseases, research, and debate and providing
a forum through which international research can be made
applicable to the African set-up. The Africa Journal of
Rheumatology encourages international agencies, which conduct
research in the region to support the journal through
submission of research and subscription to the publication. It
is our hope that this journal will provide a big step to bridge
the big gaps in rheumatology in Africa.
Compliance with ethical standards
Disclosures None.
References
1. Worldometers (2017) (www.Worldometers.info)
2. Horton R (2000a) Development aid: manna or myth? Lancet 356:
1044–1045
3. Espinoza LR (2014) Welcoming an African asset: African Journal
of Rheumatology. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):47–48
4. Otieno FO, Moots RJ, Oyoo GO (2017) Rheumatoid arthritis in
Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):1–2
5. Akintayo RO, Aworinde OO, Olawumi HO, Yusuf IA (2016)
Antiphospholipid syndrome in Africa: a review. Afr J Rheumatol
3(1):3–8
6. Genga EK, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO (2015) Clinical profiles of patients
SLE in Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 3(2):62–66
7. Adelowo F (2013) Systemic lupus erythematosus: not a rare disease
among black Africans. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):46–47
8. Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno FO, Omondi EA (2016) Clinical
patterns of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a single tertiary centre experience
in Kenya Nairobi. Afr J Rheumatol 4(2):66–71
9. Venkat R, Jawad ASM, Chikanza IC (2014) Spontaneous resolution
of a case of anti-retroviral treatment-naïve HIV-associated
polymyositis. Afr J Rheumatol 2(2):78–84
10. Ilovi S, Oyoo G (2013) Characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients
in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective study. Afr J Rheumatol 1(1):8–12
11. Malombe NM, Oyoo GO, Maritim MC, Kwasa J (2013) Prevalence
of fibromyalgia in ambulatory HIV positive patients with musculoskeletal
pain at Comprehensive Care Clinic, Kenyatta National
Hospital. Afr J Rheumatol 1(2):70–75
12. Ouédraogo DD, Ouédraogo T, Kaboré F et al (2013) Prevalence of
HIV infection among the patients with an avascular necrosis of the
femoral head in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Ouédraogo. Afr J
Rheumatol 1(2):57–60
13. Oyoo GO, Otieno FO, Mbuthia B, Omondi EA, Genga EK (2015)
Experience with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in
Nairobi, Kenya. Afr J Rheumatol 3(1):17–21
14. Elhabbash B, Tarsin R (2017) Certolizumab effect in a cohort of 60
Libyan patients with rheumatic diseases. Afr J Rheumatol 5(1):19–
23
15. Muula AS (2008) Medical journals and authorship in low-income
countries. Croat Med J 49:681–683

Genga EK, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital.". 2014. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Genga EK, Otieno CF. "Case report of patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with gangrene and Diabetes." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;1 (2):74-84. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumour that may precipitate life-threatening hypertension. The tumour is malignant in 10% of cases but may be cured completely by surgical removal. Because of excessive catecholamine secretion, pheochromocytomas may precipitate life-threatening hypertension or cardiac arrhythmias. If the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences can be disastrous, even fatal; the diagnosis can be established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection. The most common clinical sign of pheochromocytoma is sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, and the most common symptoms are headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitation. In some cases, the clinical symptoms are not clear. Roughly 70% of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional. A small group of 5–7% of the functional ones (30%) may exist as pheochromocytoma. Ten percent of pheochromocytoma cases are diagnosed incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screenings for other reasons.
CASE PRESENTATION: 21 year old female patient who was referred to Kenyatta National Hospital with diagnosis of gangrene in a young lady newly diagnosed with diabetes in a known hypertensive for three years. The gangrene was of a duration of two weeks. She was diagnosed with diabetes during work up for the cause of the gangrene. Investigations revealed a 24 hour-urine norepinephrine levels of 5085nmol, Normetanephrines excretion of 45213nmol over 24hoursShe tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C surface antigens, VDRL, ANA, C-Anca and P-Anca. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal sized kidneys with a suprarenal mass (80 *63) mm with ectopic right kidney in pelvis, ECG a sinus tachycardia, Echo cardiogram reported as normal with an LVEF of 54%. Arteriogram had a vaso- occlusive disorder at the digital femoral artery and CT abdomen showing a supra renal mass (8x6x5) cm border of head and body of pancreas displacing the right kidney inferiorly. The patient underwent an amputation of the limb and adrenelectomy. Following the surgery the blood pressure and the glucose has normalised and currently is of medication
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of hypertension in a young patient should involve looking for secondary causes of the disease. A young hypertensive patient presenting with a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweating was then investigated for pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma can present and occur as an emergency ranging from pheochromocytoma-related multisystem failure, cardiovascular emergencies, pulmonary emergencies, abdominal emergencies, neurologic emergencies, renal emergencies, and metabolic emergencies. This presentations are associated with a high morbidity and mortality if pheochromocytoma is unsuspected. This presentation was unique because it was none of the expected emergencies but a rapidly evolving asymmetrical gangrene of the right foot.
Key words: pheochromocytoma, gangrene
Abbreviations: ANA- Antinuclear antibody
C-Anca- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
P-Anca- Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

Genga EK, Shiruli BC, Odhiambo J, Jepkorir S, Omondi EA, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO. "Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(2):62-66.
Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga. E. K, Otieno. C.F. "Case report of patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with gangrene and Diabetes." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;Vol 1(2):74-84. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumour that may precipitate life-threatening hypertension. The tumour is malignant in 10% of cases but may be cured completely by surgical removal. Because of excessive catecholamine secretion, pheochromocytomas may precipitate life-threatening hypertension or cardiac arrhythmias. If the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences can be disastrous, even fatal; the diagnosis can be established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection. The most common clinical sign of pheochromocytoma is sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, and the most common symptoms are headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitation. In some cases, the clinical symptoms are not clear. Roughly 70% of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional. A small group of 5–7% of the functional ones (30%) may exist as pheochromocytoma. Ten percent of pheochromocytoma cases are diagnosed incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screenings for other reasons.
CASE PRESENTATION: 21 year old female patient who was referred to Kenyatta National Hospital with diagnosis of gangrene in a young lady newly diagnosed with diabetes in a known hypertensive for three years. The gangrene was of a duration of two weeks. She was diagnosed with diabetes during work up for the cause of the gangrene. Investigations revealed a 24 hour-urine norepinephrine levels of 5085nmol, Normetanephrines excretion of 45213nmol over 24hoursShe tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C surface antigens, VDRL, ANA, C-Anca and P-Anca. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal sized kidneys with a suprarenal mass (80 *63) mm with ectopic right kidney in pelvis, ECG a sinus tachycardia, Echo cardiogram reported as normal with an LVEF of 54%. Arteriogram had a vaso- occlusive disorder at the digital femoral artery and CT abdomen showing a supra renal mass (8x6x5) cm border of head and body of pancreas displacing the right kidney inferiorly. The patient underwent an amputation of the limb and adrenelectomy. Following the surgery the blood pressure and the glucose has normalised and currently is of medication
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of hypertension in a young patient should involve looking for secondary causes of the disease. A young hypertensive patient presenting with a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweating was then investigated for pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma can present and occur as an emergency ranging from pheochromocytoma-related multisystem failure, cardiovascular emergencies, pulmonary emergencies, abdominal emergencies, neurologic emergencies, renal emergencies, and metabolic emergencies. This presentations are associated with a high morbidity and mortality if pheochromocytoma is unsuspected. This presentation was unique because it was none of the expected emergencies but a rapidly evolving asymmetrical gangrene of the right foot.
Key words: pheochromocytoma, gangrene
Abbreviations: ANA- Antinuclear antibody
C-Anca- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
P-Anca- Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies
HIV- human immunodeficiency virus

GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Gebremichael, M., G. Kironchi, D.M. Nyariki and E.K. Biamah, E.K. 2002. Soil and water conservation. p. 83-93. In: Managing Dryland Resource in Eastern and Southern Africa, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
This book provides an overview of selected problems and issues in dryland agriculture in eartern and southern Africa, and the various attempts by individuals, communities and development organizations to overcome these problems. It provides specific examples of technologies and approaches, as well as selected experiences of individual farmers, organizations and communities
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mugendi, D.N., G.Kironchi, and P.T. Gicheru. 2005 (Eds). Capacity building for land resource management to meet the challenges of food security in Africa. Proceedings of the 21st Conference of the Soil Science Society of East Africa.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2005. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., S.M. Kinyali and J.P. Mbuvi. 1993. Validity of Philip equation for infiltration into soils of Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 58(4): 155-160.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
The capability of the two-parameter Phiip equation to describe infiltration of water into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District was investigated. Field measurements of infiltration during dry and wet seasons were taken using a double cylinder infiltrometer on plots under four landuse/vegetation cover treatments within different soil types surveyed at detail level. The four treatments were: (i) tree/bush, (ii) open grass, (iii) bare ground, and (iv) cultivation. The infiltration rates predicted by the Philip equation after 180 minutes in the dry and the wet seasons for Mukogodo and the wet season for Sirima agreed with observed infiltration rates. However, the fit of the equation was inadequate in the early stages of infiltration in both areas and seasons. Equation parameters obtained by best fit of observed data significantly differed between the landuse /vegetation cover treatments and soil types within each area. Only Sirima soils yielded significantly different parameters in-between seasons
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P, S.N. Wanjogu and G. Kironchi. 1995. Characteristics of soil crusts and their influence on some soil properties in Mukogodo catchment, Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 3 (4): 425-431.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P., G. Kironchi and P.M. Mainga. 1997. Effect of topography and climate on soils of the northwestern slopes of Mount Kenya. ITC Journal, 1997 (2): 154-159.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Ogara, W.O., D.M. Nyariki and G. Kironchi. 2001 (Eds). Food Security in Rural Development. Proceedings of the Seminar of Berlin Alumni Network, November 22-24, 2000, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN 3-823613472. pp. 119. www.ban.fu-berlin.de.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
This book provides an overview of selected problems and issues in dryland agriculture in eartern and southern Africa, and the various attempts by individuals, communities and development organizations to overcome these problems. It provides specific examples of technologies and approaches, as well as selected experiences of individual farmers, organizations and communities
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., S.M. Kinyali and J.P. Mbuvi. 1992. Effect of soils, vegetation and land use on infiltration in a tropical semi-arid catchment. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 57(3): 177-185.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
The capability of the two-parameter Phiip equation to describe infiltration of water into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District was investigated. Field measurements of infiltration during dry and wet seasons were taken using a double cylinder infiltrometer on plots under four landuse/vegetation cover treatments within different soil types surveyed at detail level. The four treatments were: (i) tree/bush, (ii) open grass, (iii) bare ground, and (iv) cultivation. The infiltration rates predicted by the Philip equation after 180 minutes in the dry and the wet seasons for Mukogodo and the wet season for Sirima agreed with observed infiltration rates. However, the fit of the equation was inadequate in the early stages of infiltration in both areas and seasons. Equation parameters obtained by best fit of observed data significantly differed between the landuse /vegetation cover treatments and soil types within each area. Only Sirima soils yielded significantly different parameters in-between seasons
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., S.M. Kinyali and J.P. Mbuvi. 1995. Environmental influence on water characteristics of soils in two semi-arid catchments in Laikipia District, Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 3 (4): 417-424.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Matuva, D, G. Kironchi and L. MacOpiyo. 1997. Environmental impact assessment for swamps drainage in Laikipia District. Technical Report. ASAL Programme, Laikipia District.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., J.P. Mbuvi, and F.N. Gichuki. 1999. Hydraulic properties of andosols following deforestation in the northern slopes of Mt. Kenya. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Volume 65(2): 115-124.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Deterioration in soil hydraulic properties due to deforestation adversely affects the hydrology of catchments, especially those on mountain slopes. The effects of clearing natural forest (NF) for potato cultivation (PC) and livestock grazing (GL) on the hydraulic properties of an andosol (after 5 to 8 years) were investigated in the northern slopes of Mount Kenya. The two farming activities have resulted in deleterious changes in soil water flow and storage. Results obtained showed that steady infiltration rates were 65.7, 9.7 and 13.4 cm h-1 in NF, PC and GL, respectively. Sorpitivity decreased by 15% in PC and 22% in GL, while topsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased by 62% in PC and 76% in GL compared to NF. Both PC and GL topsoil had higher volumetric water content at soil matric potentials (<-25cm) than NF. Cultivation and grazing in the area have led to compacted topsoil with lower (11%) total porosity and decreased plant available water holding capacity by 16 in PC and 19% in GL
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Strengthening Agricultural and Environmental Capacities through Distance Education and Locally Relevant Research: Proceedings of the Pan Commonwealth Forum of Distance Education, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 2006.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2006. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P and G. Kironchi. 1994. Reconnaissance soil survey of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Laikipia-Mt. Kenya Papers, Baseline Data Series, B-8.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G. and J.P. Mbuvi. 1996. Effect of deforestation on soil fertility on the northwestern slopes of Mount Kenya. ITC Journal, 1996 (3/4): 260-263.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Kironchi, G., H.P. Liniger and J.P. Mbuvi. 2000. Degradation of soil physical properties of overgrazed rangelands in Laikipia District. p. 5-10. In: Gichuki. F.N., D.N. Mungai C.K. Gachene and D.B. Thomas (eds). Land and Water Management in Kenya. English.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Infiltration rate, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, organic carbon content, particle size distribution and water content, for bush cover, grass cover and bare ground sites within four representative soil types of the overgrazed Mukogodo rangelands were assessed. All properties, except particle size distribution, differed significantly among soil cover types consistently, but rarely among soil types. Surface soil properties differed more often than those of the sub-surface layers. The infiltration rates of grass and bush cover sites were three to four times higher than bare ground. Consistently, bare-ground surface soils retained significantly less water than vegetated sites and also held the least amount of plant-available water. The results indicate that depletion of soil cover due to overgrazing has adversely affected the soil physical properties important for soil water intake, storage and availability to plants
Geoffrey Kipkoech Kirui, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji NOA. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
George N,(Eds) KW. Media Contents: Evolution, Effects and Challenges in the Kenyan Context.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2011.
GEORGE O. "Employee Handbook for Rwanda Tea Board.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, . Nairobi: Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2004. Abstract

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This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

George G, Samwel S, Joseph M, Japheth M, Wallace B. "Comparison of Selection Pressures on the Haemagglutinin (HA) Gene of Pandemic (2009) and Seasonal Influenza A Viruses in Kenya.". In: XIV International Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections. Istanbul, Turkey.; 2012. Abstract

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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, Japheth. M, Wallace. B. "Analysis of Antigenic Drift in the Neuraminidase (NA) gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya. .". In: 3rd Annual African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology Meeting. Crowne plaza, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Wallace B. Changes in Haemagglutinin epitopes of human influenza B viruses in Kenya, 2005-2009. . Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Musa. N’ayo, Wallace. B. Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germaine KJ, Otieno N, Culhane J, Menton C, Keogh E, Brazil D, Dowling D. Microbial communities associated with the bio-energy plant Miscanthus. 18-21 May 2012, Aldemar Hotel, Rhodes, Greece: New Phytologist Organisation; 2012. Abstract

in improving the phytoremediation capacity of plants. This study investigated the
culturable-aerobic bacterial diversity associated with the bio-energy plant
Miscanthus giganteus. 250 bacterial strains were isolated from Miscanthus and 70 of
these strains were identified through 16S rDNA sequencing. Eleven different species
were identified in Miscanthus originating from the leaf, stem and rhizome tissues.
The majority of these isolates were gamma-Proteobacteria with Pseudomonas and
Acinetobacter species dominating. Many of these strains expressed plant growth
promotion traits such as phytohormone production and phosphate solubilisation
ability. The majority of the isolates were found to possess resistance to heavy
metals and 7-13% possessed inherent organic xenobiotic degradation abilities. A
number of these isolates were tagged with a gfp:kanamycin marker and were found
to colonise the rhizosphere of inoculated plants. These isolates may prove to be
useful inoculants for improving plant biomass and phytoremediation efficiency of
Miscanthus.

Gerrard CM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya: A case of prisons in Meru region." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(3):185-209. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
The prisons departments have been working with Non-Governmental Medical Organizations to implement health projects within the prison’s facilities in Kenya in order to improve the health of prisoners. However, successful implementation of health projects is a common problem in the Kenya Prisons Service not only with an immeasurable cost to society who benefits from these projects within the prisons but also with debilitating effects on the inmates. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing the implementation of prisons health projects in Kenya, Meru region Prisons. The study sought to achieve the following objectives; to evaluate the extent to which technical capacity, stakeholders’ involvement, source of funding and prisons leadership influences implementation of prisons health projects in the Kenya, Meru Region Prisons. The study was grounded on resource base view theory, agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and strategic leadership theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design with the target population comprising of Kenya Prison Staff. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires while secondary data was obtained using data collection sheet. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 23.0) which is the most recent version. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages were estimated for all the quantitative variables and information presented inform of tables. The qualitative data from the open-ended questions was analysed using conceptual content analysis and presented in prose. Inferential data analysis was done using multiple …

Gervasioh PG, Gatere R, Karani A. "Professional Ethics Among Nurse Educators in Diploma Nursing Training Colleges, Meru County." University of Nairobi. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2014;2 (1):49-52.
Gervasioh GP, Kagure KA, Samuel K. "“ Physiological Basis of Empathy and Emotionality in Nursing Practice”. ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research -Research www.ijier.net . 2016;5(7 ):2016.
Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measure the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, fusional, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measures the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per a word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gessaghi VC, Raschi MA, Larreteguy AE, y Perazzo CA. "Influence of arterial geometry on a model for growth rate of atheromas." Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2007;90:012046. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects medium and large size arteries and it can partially or totally obstruct blood flow through them. The lack of blood supply to the heart or the brain can cause an infarct or a stroke with fatal consequences or permanent effects. This disease involves the proliferation of cells and the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, cell debris, calcium and other substances in the artery wall. Such accumulation results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques called atheromas, which may cause the obstruction of the blood flow. Cardiovascular diseases, among which atherosclerosis is the most frequent, are the first cause of death in developed countries. The published works in the subject suggest that hemodynamic forces on arterial walls have influence on the localization, initial development and growth rate of atheromas. This paper presents a model for this growth rate, and explores the influence of the bifurcation angle on the blood flow patterns and on the predictions of the model in a simplified carotid artery. The choice of the carotid bifurcation as the subject for this study obeys the fact that atheromas in this artery are often responsible for strokes. Our model predicts a larger initial growth rate in the external walls of the bifurcation and smaller growth area and lower growth rates as the bifurcation angle is increased. The reason for this seems to be the appearance of helical flow patterns as the angle is increased.

Getanda CM. • Labour Law principles structures and practice . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Getanda CM. • Fair Trial & The Rights Of The Accused . Aura Publishers; 2012.
Getao KW, Miriti EK. "Computational Modelling in Bantu Language.". In: SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPUTING AND ICT RESEARCH: Advances in Systems Modelling and ICT Applications. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2006.computational_modeling_in_bantu_language.pdf
Getao K, Miriti E. "Creation of a Speech to Text System for Kiswahili.". In: 5th World Congress of African Linguistics. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.wocal-swa-dict.pdf
Getenga ZM, Madadi VO, Wandinga SO. "Studies of degradation of 2,4-D and metribuzin in soil under controlled conditions." Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. . 2004;72(3):504-513. AbstractWebsite

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Getuno PM, Awino ZB, Ngugi PK, Mwaura F. ") Implementation of The Public Procurement And Disposal Act, (2005)." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015;5(1):75-93.
Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya." Br. J. Nutr.. 2009;101(9):1378-87. Abstractdietary_micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
Gharial J, Laving A, Were F. "Racecadotril for the treatment of severe acute watery diarrhoea in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1). AbstractWebsite

Background

Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age in Kenya. It is usually treated with oral rehydration, zinc and continued feeding. Racecadotril has been in use for over 2 decades; however, there is a paucity of data regarding its efficacy from Africa.
Objectives

The objectives of this study were: to compare the number of stools in the first 48 hours in children with severe gastroenteritis requiring admission and treated with either racecadotril or placebo, to study the impact of racecadotril on duration of inpatient stay as well as duration of diarrhoea and to describe the side effect profile of racecadotril.
Methods

This was a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. It enrolled children between the age of 3 and 60 months who were admitted with severe acute gastroenteritis. They received either racecadotril or placebo in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc and were followed up daily.
Results

120 children were enrolled into the study. There were no differences in the demographics or outcomes between the 2 groups. Stools at 48 hours: median (IQR) of 5 (3–7) and 5 (2.5–7.5), respectively; p=0.63. The duration of inpatient stay: median (IQR): 4 days (1.5–6.5) and 4.5 (1.8–6.3); p=0.71. The duration of illness: 3 days (2–4) and 2 days (1–3); p=0.77. The relative risk of a severe adverse event was 3-fold higher in the drug group but was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.63 to 14.7); p=0.16.
Conclusions

Racecadotril has no impact on the number of stools at 48 hours, the duration of hospital stay or the duration of diarrhoea in children admitted with severe gastroenteritis and managed with ORS and zinc

Gherardi, Britton FRJ, Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Grey J, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Developing conservation actions to protect East African lakes from the negative impacts of alien species. ." Biological Conservation.. 2011;(144):2585-2596.
Gherardi., Francesca., Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Tricarico E, Harper DM. "The smell of Danger: Chemical recognition of fish predators by the invasive Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii." Freshwater Biology. 2011;56(8 ):1567-1578.
o. c. Ghibingal, Musimba NRK, Nyangito MM, Simbay J, Daural MT. "Climate variability; enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock production among agro-pastoralists communities in Southern Zambia." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012;6((7)):267-274. Abstract

Agro-pastoralists whose sources of livelihood depend on rain-fed agriculture are very vulnerable to
ecological disturbance due to increasing climate variability. They are unable to adequately feed their
animals in times of extreme weather conditions of floods and droughts thereby causing a disruption in
their maior source of (rve(ihood. fhfs study ana$zed (he feedrng s(ra(egies empfoyed by agropastoralists
in Southern Zambla and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in
order to improve their utilization for improved livestock production. The major feeding strategies during
droughts include browse utilization, dambo grazing, grazing along streams and supplementary feeding.
While during floods, upland grazing and browse grazing were the main strategies. However, most of the
agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the
21 lree browse species identified by the agro-pastoralists, 18 species were found to be important during
droughts and 8 during floods. Most of the agro-pastoralists neither knew how to plant these browse
species nor how to manage them for befter and sustainable use in feeding their animals. Therefore, the
agro-pastoralists in the study area need to take up management and feed conservation measures for
their animals. Deliberate effort should be made to teach the agro-pastoralists how to plant and manage
the important browse species that are suitable in extreme weather conditions. This will enhance
productive use of the browse species for improved animal feeding to ensure food security among the
pastoralists.

Key words: Extreme weather conditions, adaption, browse species, Agro-pastoralists.

Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Giangrande M, Kim YW, Mizukami H. "N-terminal spin label studies of hemoglobin, Ligand and pH dependence." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):187-93. Abstract

Human hemoglobin was spin labeled with 4-isothiocanato-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperdinooxyl, which is known to bind specifically to the N-terminal alpha-amino groups of proteins and slightly to the reactive sulfhydryl groups. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated a partially resolved five-line spectrum, suggesting that the label was attached to at least two different binding sites. Using specific blocking reagents prior to spin labeling, the two binding sites were attributed to the sulfhydryl group of beta-93 (immobile) and the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal valines (mobile). The relative motion of the spin at one set of binding sites was restricted regardless of the state of ligation and pH, while the motion at the other site showed dependence on those parameters, e.g. the spin-labeled N-terminal ends of deoxyhemoglobin have restricted motion at all pH ranges studied, while those of oxyhemoglobin are relatively free to move at the basic pH range, but become more restricted in the acidic pH range.

Gichaga FJ. "Cooperation between the Faculty of Engineering and the Kenyan Industry.". In: Seminar on Engineering Education – Industry Cooperation. University of Nairobi; 1985.
Gichaga FJ. "The Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex.". In: Consultative Workshop on the Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex. Naivasha; 2007.
Gichaga FJ. "Strength of Flexible Road pavements in Kenya.". In: International Symposium on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. The Norwegian Institute of Technology-Trondheim, Norway; 1982.
Gichaga FJ, Bhogal BS. "Rebound Deflections Relationship with Repetititions of Wheel Loads for Typical Flexible Pavements in Kenya.". In: East African Institution of Engineers. Nairobi.; 1971.
Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

Gichaga FJ. "Maintenance of Roads in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Gichaga FJ. "University-Industry Collaboration in Kenya.". In: Institution of Engineers of Kenya Conference.; 2005.

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