Publications

Found 1929 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is G  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F [G] H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
G
Gacheru PK, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CKM. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND QUALITY OF DRIED CASSAVA CHIPS AND FLOUR SOLD IN THE NAIROBI AND COASTAL REGIONS OF KENYA." African Crop Science Journal,. 2016;24(1):137-143.
Gachihi M. "Women and Mau.". In: S.M Shamsul, Rethinking Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya. Palgrave, Macmillan; 2007.
Gachohi JW, Ng’ang’a JC, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.". 2012.
Gachohi J, Chege N’ang’a, Samuel Maina Githigia, Maingi N, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM. "Relationship between the prevalence of ectoparasites and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. 306 pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%) and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decolaratus (31%) and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly (p<0.05) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly (p<0.05) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented.

Gachohia JM, Kitala PM, Ngumi PN, Skiltone RA, Betta B. "Population attributable fractions of farm vector tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) presence on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence under endemic instability.". 2013. Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick presence (exposure variable) on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence (outcome variable) in a group of cattle belonging to a farm using population attributable fractions (PAF). The analyses were based on a representative sample of 80 traditional smallholder mixed farms. The farms were selected by first stratifying the population administratively and implementing a multistage random sampling in Mbeere district in Kenya. The PAFs were estimated using the stratified, Bruzzi, and sequential partitioned PAF approaches. A secondary objective was, thus, to evaluate the impact of the approaches on the PAF estimates. The stratified and Bruzzi approaches estimated proportion of T. parva infection cases directly attributable to the exposure after controlling for confounding by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). The sequential partitioned PAF approach estimated a PAF associated with exposure after adjusting for any effect that the AEZ may have had by influencing the prevalence of the exposure. All analyses were carried out at the farm level where a farm was classified as infested if the tick was found on cattle on a farm, and infected if at least one animal on a farm was positive for T. parva antibodies. Variance estimation for PAFs was implemented using ‘delete-a-group’ jackknife re-sampling method. The stratified PAF (26.7% [95% CI: 9.0%, 44.4%]) and Bruzzi PAF (26.4% [95% CI: 9.6%, 43.2%]) were consistent in estimating a relatively low impact of farm vector tick presence with a relatively high level of uncertainty. The partitioned PAF (15.5% [95% CI: 1.5%, 29.6%]) suggested that part of the impacts estimated using the stratified PAF and Bruzzi approaches was driven by AEZ effects. Overall, the results suggested that under endemic instability in Mbeere district, (1) presence of R. appendiculatus was not a good indicator of T. parva infection occurrence on a farm; (2) ecological variation could play a role in determining infection impacts. This study provides a preliminary basis for evaluating the potential value and utility of estimating PAFs for variables amenable to control in tick-borne diseases (TBDs) epidemiological studies.

Gachoka, J.M., Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Intervening Effect of Internal Controls on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):53-79.
Gachoka N, Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Moderating Effect of Organizational Characteristics on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):81-102.
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops.". 2012;2:599-607.
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(5):393-402.
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops. International Journal of AgriScience 2(5): 393-402." International Journal of AgriScience. 2012; 2(5):393-402.gachu_thrips_paper.pdfWebsite
Gachu. S. M., Muthomi JW,, Narla RD, Nderitu, J., FM O, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips ( Thrips tabaci ) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012; 2 (5):293-402.2012-management_of_thrips_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_veg_intercrops.pdf
Gachuh M, iKaratu Kiemo. "Research Capacity on Ageing in Africa: Limitations and Ways Forward." British Society of Gerontology, Generations Review. 2005;15(2):36-38.afran_gachuhi__kiemo_genrev_apr05_v15_no_2.pdf
Gachuiri CK;, Carles AB;, Schwartz HJ. "Levels, causes and factors affecting mortality in a herd of small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush Savannah."; 1986. Abstract

Kenya comprises vast arid and semi-arid areas and at the present level of technology and economic infrastructure in the country, the only feasible way to prod-:&z food for human consumption from these areas is through domestic ruminants. Small stock production has played a major role in th economy of range areas in the past 10 years. Sheep and goats have contributed significantly more than cattle in terms of livestock products in these areas (Semenye, 1977). The goat population has recently been estimated at 7.7 million with 40% of these being kept by pastoralists (Stotz, 1983). An increasing proportion of goats is observed in the pastoralists flocks with increasing aridity of the environment, leading to the assumption that goats are better adapted to the conditions of the arid rangeland of Northern Kenya. High mortality rates, especially prcweaning, has been cited as a major constraint on improving productivity. Wilson et al. (1985) reported a preweaning mortality of 28.6% for goats in a Maasai ranch. Carles et al. (1982), working in a pastoral area in Northern Kenya, reported mortalities of 6-12% for breeding females, rising as high as 66% during the first year of life. An opportunity arose to study in more detail, the causes, levels and factors affecting mortality in a typical pastoral system with the establishment, by the Department of Animal Production in cooperation with the Ministry of Livestock Development, the European Economic Community, the German Research Foundation and the German Agency for Technical cooperation, of a research station in a pastoral area near Isiolo.

Gachukia, E; Njau KPW; WM. "Rural, woman's Contribution to Economic Development."; 1986.
Gaciri SJ, Altherr R, Nyamai CM, Mathu EM. Distribution of elements in mineral pairs from Mozambique belt rocks of Matuu a rea, central Kenya. Nairobi - Kenya: UNEP/UNESCO; 1993.
Gage GJ, Kipke DR, Shain W. "Whole {Animal} {Perfusion} {Fixation} for {Rodents}." Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2012. AbstractWebsite
n/a
GAITA DRMAATHAIRONALD. "Eintracht, J., Maathai, R., Mellors, A. and Ruben, L (1998). Calcium entry in Trypanosoma brucei is regulated by phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid. Biochem. J. 336: 659-666.". In: Biochem. J. 336: 659-666. Kenya Met Soc; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
GAITA DRMAATHAIRONALD. "Maathai, R., Zhao, Y., Battaglini, M., Jiang, P. and Mellors, A. Lipid Metabolism in T. brucei: Cell signalling and the regulation of phospholipase A1. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 1997 (FASE.". In: FASEB Journal, 11 (9): A1440). Kenya Met Soc; 1997. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Pettersson JBC,... "Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Saharan African city: Nairobi, Kenya." … Chemistry & Physics. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, filter samples of airborne particulate matter (particle diameter≤ 2.5 µm, PM2. 5) were …

Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Wagner A,... "Characterization of size-fractionated particulate matter and deposition fractions in human respiratory system in a typical African city: Nairobi, Kenya." Aerosol Air Qual …. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Information from elemental and mass composition of size-fractionated airborne particle matter (PM) provides insightful knowledge about their impact on human health, meteorology and climate. To attain insight into the nature of sizefractionated PM from a typical African city …

Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Gakinya B, Mburu J, Ongecha-Owuor F, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Psycho-Neurological Investigations."; 2006.
Gakinya B, Mburu J, Maru H, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT)."; 2006.
Gakonyo J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E. "Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology." International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2015;1:1-5. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Gakonyo J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E. "Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology." International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2015;1:1-5. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Gakunga DK. "Effects of Technical Education on Socio-Economic Development in Kenya: Students’ Perceptions." Right to Education and Development. Focus on Africa. 2014:45. Abstract
n/a
Gakunga, Daniel K, Brovermann S, Sadhna G. Promoting Girls Education in Kenya,WiserBridge Progamme in Muhuru Bay. Mauritious: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2013.
Gakunga 24 J, Mugo S, Njoroge K, Olubayo F. "Combining ability of maize inbred lines resistant to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in the mid-altitude environment of Kenya." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2012;4(10):161-168.
Gakunga, Daniel K, Brovermann S, Sadhna G. Promoting Girls Education in Kenya,WiserBridge Progamme in Muhuru Bay. Mauritious: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Gakunga DK. Comparative Education : East African Perspective. Nairobi: RiverBrooks; 2008. Abstract
n/a
Gakunga DK. Comparative Education : East African Perspective. Nairobi: RiverBrooks; 2008.
Gakunga DK. "Educational Challenges after Year 2007 Post Election Violence in Kenya." Journal of US-China Public Administration. 2010;7:91-96. Abstract
n/a
Gakungai DK. "Development of education in Kenya:Influence of the political factor beyond 2015 MDGs." Journal of education and Practice. 2016;7:55-60. Abstract
n/a
Gakungu, N. K., Gitau A. N., K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya; A case study of Public Technical Training Institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5:3(ISSN-0974-407X):127-138.
Gakungu NK, N. GA, K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5(No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakungu NK, N GA, K NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5 (No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakunju DM, Mberu E, Dossaji SF, Gray I, Waigh RD, Waterman PG, Watkins WM. "Antimalarial Activity of the Alkaloid Nitidine, isolated from a Kenyan Herbal remedy." Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, (39), 2606.. 1995;39:2606.-2609. AbstractWebsite

Bioassay guided fractionations of extracts of Toddalia asiatica, a plant used by Pokot tribe in Kenya to treat fevers, has yielded the alkaloid nitidine as the major antimalarial component. Fractions containing nitidine have in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations against Plasmodium falciparum in the range of 9 to 108 ng/ml for range of chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains. The results show a lack of cross-resistance between chloroquine and nitidine

Gakuru, A. GLMNS, Kaingi CN. "Factors hindering community participation in the development of ECD centers." Educational Research and Review. 2013. Abstract
n/a
Gakuru ON. "Rural sociology in Mau Narok. .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Grupos etnicos; Conservation des sols; Proteccion ambiental; Recursos forestales; Reconstitution forestiere; Structure sociale; Groupe ethnique; Kenia; Tenencia; Kenya; Rural communities; Desarrollo forestal; Environmental protection; Conciencia social; Cambio social; Changement social; Soil conservation; Mode de faire valoir; Ethnic groups; Protection de l' environnement; Comunidades rurales; Conservacion de suelos; Developpement forestier; Reforestacion; Social change; Forestry development; Social consciousness; Communaute rurale; Ressource forestiere; Social structure; Forest resources; Estructura social; Conscience sociale; Tenure; Reforestation

Gakuru, Mucemi; Tucker RCF. "Sustainability of Research and Development:.". 2009.
Gakuru O. "The Rural Youth in Africa."; 1983.
Gakuru O. "Youth at the Periphery: The case of Youth in Kenya." GLCA, Indianapolis, USA; 2006.
Gakuu IO;, MULIMBA JAO. "Intramedullary interlocking nailing fixation for forearm fractures: Kenyan experience: Initial report.". 2008. Abstract

Objective: To evaluate treatment results of intramedullary fixation of radius and ulna diaphyseal fractures using interlocking nailing - system locked proximaly and distally by screws. Methodology: Between December 2007 and May 2008, six patients (4 males and 2 females) with displaced diaphyseal forearm fractures underwent intramedullary fixation using interlocking nails. The nails were introduced into the ulna via a 1.5cm long incision at the tip of the olecranon splitting distal fibres of the triceps. The distal radius was entered via a 3cm longitudinal incision lateral to the Lister's tubercle. Locking for the proximal and distal radius and ulna was done with the forearm positioned appropriately. This produced a stable osteosynthesis and no casting was needed. Physiotherapy was started immediately and patient follow-up with check X-rays post-operation then at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. The time to union, functional recovery and complications was assessed. Results: All the data was available for analysis. Nine fractures achieved stable osteosynthesis and proceeded to union by eight to twelve weeks. No infection was noted, and no neurological lesions were documented. The other two fractures have not yet united as we go to the press. Incidentally they were the compound Gustillo III fractures. Based on the Anderson criteria all the patients attained excellent results. Conclusion: The newly introduced interlocking system for diaphyseal fractures of the forearm o'ffer a stable intramedullary fixation with excellent results. Further studies need to be done to confirm continuation of this good initial observation.

Gakuu LN, H.Saidi, Ogeng'o J. "Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc In An African Population: Kenyan Experience." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstract

Background: Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in Africa, reports are scanty and
often disparate.
Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among
African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases (267 males, 336 females) of prolapsed intervertebral
disc over 11 years between January 1997 and December 2007 were analyzed for location, number of
prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions.
Results: Of the determined locations L4/5 was the commonest (42.3%), followed by L5/S1 (25.5%).
Seventy seven (20.9%) of the patients had multiple prolapsed disks. 1.4% were in the cervical region,
and only one in the thoracic. PID was commonest in the 31 – 50 year age group females (M: F is 1:1.26,
p=0.00), with mean age 40.90+13.80 years, (range between 11- 85 years).
Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females
and is associated with trauma.

Gakuu, C. M. KKHJ & PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2017.
Gakuu LN, Bundi PK, Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW. "Treatment and Outcome of Herniated intervertebral Disk in A Referral Hospital in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different outcomes. Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching hospital in Kenya. Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January 1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows. Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest. Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half of the study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively. Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.

Gakuu LN. "Surgical wound infections: their causes and management.Review. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):329-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):329-30. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59

Gakuu LN. "Avulsion of subscapularis muscle tendon leading to recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 1999;4(4):35-38. Abstract

Fifteen patients, ten males and five females, were identified as having recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder after trauma due to avulsion of the subscapularis muscle tendon from its humeral attachment. The usual mechanism of injury was traumatic hyperextension or external rotation of the abducted arm. The right arm was involved in 12 patients and the left arm in only three patients.

The presenting symptoms were pain and weakness of the affected shoulder. Physical examination showed reduction of the passive range of joint movement and tenderness on the anterior aspect at the shoulder at the level of the intertubercular groove and a reduced range of internal rotation of the shoulder. The diagnosis was suspected from the history, physical examination and radiographs and was finally confirmed by surgical exploration.

The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 45 years (mean 33 years). The dislocation was found to be due to a complete tear of the subscapularis tendon (12 patients) and partial tears in three patients, without fracture of the lesser tuberosity in any of the patients. The repair consisted of mobilization of the subscapularis muscle and its reinsertion into an osseous trough created in the humerus. The shoulder was splinted for six weeks in a Velpeau bandage before mobilization and physiotherapy. In two patients the subscapularis tendon was frayed and could not take sutures and therefore an allograft of tendo Achilles was used.

The patients have been followed up for an average of three years postoperatively. All have acceptable functional results but a reduced range of external rotation.

Keywords:Shoulder, recurrent dislocation, subscapularis tendon avulsion

Gakuu LN, Kabetu CE. "An overview on management of the traumatised elderly patient. .". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):12-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract

The elderly are predisposed to injuries due to consequences of ageing and presence of disease process commonly seen in the old people. Age-related deterioration of senses such as decrease in hearing capacity, presbyopia, changes in co-ordination, balance, motor strength and postural stability render the elderly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Diseases such as dementia, congestive cardiac failure, postural hypotension, osteoporosis and arthritis further contribute to compound problems of the elderly. Age and chronic factors further blunt the reserves to enable an elderly individual meet the demands of trauma. The challenge to the clinician is to be aware of the subtle changes and deviation from the norm that may suggest development of complications. With careful attention and appropriate physiological support the elderly patient has a good chance of survival. The primary condition must be assessed, necrotic tissues must be debrided by thorough surgical toileting, pus must be drained, wounds sutured and fractures must be set while cardiopulmonary activity must be monitored accurately. The patient should be re-assured, kept warm and adequate analgesia given to relieve pain. Intravascular volume and composition of extracellular fluid must be maintained. Nutritional support should be provided in amounts needed to meet the higher demands of trauma and preferably by oral feeding. Above all multidisciplinary approach to the traumatised elderly is mandatory involving surgeons, physicians, physiotherapists and other paramedical staff and relatives.

Gakuu LN, Kanyi SM. "Bennett's fracture: a direct volar surgical approach ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 1999;4(2):21-24. Abstract

From cadaver dissections of the recurrent motor branch of the median nerve, we determined the exact relationship of its terminal branches at the base of the thumb. This enabled us to surgically approach the first carpometacarpal joint directly on the volar aspect for management of Bennett's fractures in 18 consecutive patients.

As compared with the different surgical approaches advocated and commonly used, the direct volar approach affords clear direct exposure of the intra-articular fracture at the base of the thumb so aiding appropriate reduction and fixation of the fracture. The proposed approach is safe and requires minimal dissection or soft tissue resection. The results were excellent and no case of nerve injury was encountered.

Gakuu LN, Kingori JK. "EPIDURAL INJECTION USE FOR LOW BACK PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SCIATICA AT AN ORTHOPAEDIC CENTRE IN KENYA." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstract

Objective: To assess the effects of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with radiculopathy
(sciatica), by assessing reduction of pain at short term (3 weeks) and intermediate term (12 weeks).
Design: This was a prospective study done between August 2005 and July 2011 at Kikuyu Orthopaedic
and Rehabilitation Centre in Kenya involving 121 patients.
Methods: Patient selection was consecutive as the need for the epidural injection arose or was found
necessary. After the epidural injection, patients were followed up for 12 weeks.
Results: Of those followed up to the end, 58% reported significant pain reduction at 12 weeks. Four
patients had a repeat injection and two patients ended up being operated on.
Conclusion: Epidural steroid injection reduces pain in the majority of well selected patients with low
back pain associated with radiculopathy. This seems to be short lived though. There is need for this
patients to be followed up longer.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against selected phytopathogenic fungi." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(3):16-26. Abstract4-3-5.1.pdfWebsite

Over the years, management of plant pathogenic fungi has primarily relied on the use of synthetic
chemical fungicides. However, in the recent past, exploration for biologically active compounds from
plants with the aim of discovery and development of novel and eco-friendly biopesticides to combat
current and emerging plant pathogenic fungi has received increased interest. This study aimed at
extraction and characterization of Tagetes minuta essential oils (EOs) as well as evaluation of their
antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi namely: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani,
Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. niger. Essential oils were extracted using the steam distillation
method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by disc
diffusion method while gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for characterization
of the chemical components of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential
oils and constituting a mixture of monoterpenes (70%) and sesquiterpenes (30%) were identified in the
Eos. They included elixene and silphiperfol-6-ene, which are being reported for the first time in essential
oils of Tagetes minuta. The EOs of T. minuta exhibited potent antifungal activity against the studied
fungi with the highest growth inhibition observed in F. oxysporum and A. niger with mean inhibition
zones of 28.7mm after five days of incubation. Four out of the five test fungi fell within the category of
extremely sensitive (inhibition zone diameters ≥ 20mm) when subjected to the crude EOs. The minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs against the
fungi were in the ranges of 24 - 95mg/mL and 24 - 190mg/mL, respectively. This study thus lays down
significant groundwork for a more comprehensive study on the practical feasibility of using T. minuta
EOs as possible alternative to synthetic fungicides in the management of economically important
phytopathogenic fungi.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria." International Journal of Microbiology. 2016;2016:1-9. Abstracttagetes_2016.pdf

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis.The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevengertype apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to
mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively.The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83mm after 24 and
48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48mg/mL and 95–190mg/mL, respectively.These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria.

Gakuubi MM, Wanzala W, Wagacha JM, Dossaji SF. "Bioactive properties of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oils: A review." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(2):27-36. Abstract4-2-6.1_1.pdf

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) and its accruing products have a long worldwide history of human uses such as food, therapeutics and aromatherapy which are inherent in the plant’s unique chemical composition and bioactivities. In the recent past, T. minuta essential oils (EOs) have received great attention in research, and their phytochemistry, bioactivities and uses remain the focus of considerable scientific studies. The interest in EOs is largely due to increased demand by consumers for natural-based products such as additives, drugs and pesticides, whose global acceptability and safety is highly regarded compared to synthetic products. The purpose of this review is to document the existing value addition and evidence-based multipurpose potential and considerations of T. minuta as a new generation crop as provided for by in-depth scientific studies of its EOs. Among the bioactivities and therapeutic properties attributed to T. minuta EOs include: antihelminthic, carminative, arthropod repellency, sedative, weedicidal, antiseptic, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal, bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antiviral and other microbicidal properties against a wide range of plant, human and animal pathogens, pests and parasites. Oil of T. minuta is therefore a potentially useful agent for protecting food crops on farm and in storage and livestock, thereby enhancing food security and improving human livelihoods. Nevertheless, increased value addition and the need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of T. minuta EOs through in-depth scientific studies should be prioritized to globally position this plant as a new generation crop.

and Gakuubi MWAWJM 4. "Antifungal activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against selected Fusarium spp.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with
maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-
type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition
characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was
used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory …

Gakuya DW, Mbithi PMF, Mugambi JM, Maitho TE, Musimba NKR. "Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of albizia anthelmintica and maerua edulis against the nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. Kenya Veterinaria.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

Gakuya F, Ombui J, Maingi N, Muchemi G, Ogara WO, Soriguer RC, Alasaad S. "Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year.

Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, M. M, Nguta JM. "Ethnoveterinary medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal plants products in Veterinary Medicine in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35(2):67-76.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya EM, Kamau DM, Gakuu LN, Sang EK. "COMPARISON OF CLOSED FEMUR FRACTURE: SKELETAL TRACTION AND INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING COST-EFFECTIVENESS." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014;8:4-9. Abstract

Background: Fractures of the femur are common injuries affecting the productive age group. Skeletal
traction is the mainstay of treatment in Kenya, hence comparison with operative management, to determine which is more cost-effective. To our knowledge no similar study has been done in Africa.Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of skeletal traction compared to intramedullary nailing. Design: Prospective conventional sampling analytical study. Setting: Hospital based study in a referral and teaching institution - Kenyatta National Hospital, orthopaedic wards. Study population: Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital with diaphyseal femur fracture aged between 18 – 50 years. The study was done from October 2012 to May 2013. Materials and methods: A structured data collection sheet was used. It included the patient particulars, hospital stay and per diem cost, the type of injury, type of management and comparing the cost of
each, X-ray findings during treatment and at 3 months to assess for union. Data was represented in
form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared to Kshs 67,792 (US$798) for the traction group. In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union.
Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant
strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal traction, with a better outcome

Gakuya DW, Itonga SM, Mbaria JM, Muthee JK, Musau JK. "Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru-Central district of Kenya." Journal of Ethno pharmacology. 2013;145: 547-553.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13:208-213.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Ochung HA, Musembi JK, Ngesa TJ. "Preliminary Investigation of Suspected Plant Poisoning in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine farm, Kabete, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

An investigation on vegetation was carried out in one grazing paddock of the University of Nairobi, Veterinary Farm to establish the species of plants present and whether some were known to be poisonous. This investigation was carried out after reported cases of young dairy cattle manifesting signs of acute toxicity shortly after being grazed in this paddock. A check-list of the floristic composition of the site was exhaustively recorded and thirty two plant species were collected from the site. Five out of thirty two plants were suspected to be the possible cause of this poisoning as they have been reported before to have toxic effects. These were botanically identified as Ranunculus multifidus Forsk, Cassia didymobotrya Fres, Ricinus communis L., Datura stramonium L. and Momordica foetida Schum. It is concluded that some of these plants may be responsible for the poisoning and further studies on their level of toxicity and distribution in the farm needs to be determined.

Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi B, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(4):208-213.
Gakuya DW, Okoth MO, Muraya J, Nganga CJ, Muthee JK. "An outbreak of acute helminthosis in a sheep and goat farm in Machakos County.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Gakuya DW;, Ng'ang'a CJ;, Karanja DN;, Wabacha JK;, Mutune MN. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya and its implication for helminth control.". 2007.
Gakuya, F., Ombui, J., Heukelbach, J., Maingi, N., Muchemi, L., Ogara, W., Mijele, D., Alasaad S. "Knowledge of mange among Masai pastoralists in Kenya." Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE).. 2012;7(Issue 8 ).2012_knowledge_of_mange_among_masai_pastoralist_in_kenya.pdf
Galgallo A, Gatari M, Keskinen R, Esala M,... "Total and Extractable Trace Elements in Soil." 한국토양비료학회 학술 …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Although agriculture is the main economic activity in Sub Saharan Africa, this region still has the highest prevalence of malnutrition in the world. Its per capita food production has also been on the decline for the last two decades. The African soil resource is over utilized and …

Gall AM, Madadi V, Shisler JL, Mariñas BJ. The Safe Global Water Institute: An integrated, collaborative approach for improving drinking water and sanitation globally. USA: Water Environment Federation; 2013.
Galla JH. "Metabolic {Alkalosis}." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2000;11:369-375. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Gallagher MM, Obel OA, Camm JA. "Tachycardia-induced atrial myopathy: an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation?". 1997. Abstract

The atrial myocardium of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) is often abnormal in its histologic features and in its electrophysiologic properties. These abnormalities have been interpreted in some cases as the cause of AF and in others as a consequence of AF. We believe that both are the case. We will review the features of this atrial myopathy and discuss the likely mechanisms and consequences of the process.

Gallaher CM, Mwaniki D, Njenga M, Karanja NK, WinklerPrins AMGA. "Real or Perceived: The Environmental Health Risks of Urban Sack Gardening in Kibera Slums of Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces

Gallaher CM, Kerr JM, Njenga M, Karanja NK, WinklerPrins AMGA. "Urban agriculture, social capital, and food security in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society. 2013;30(3):389-404.
Galliard T, Phillips DR, Matthew JA. "Enzymic reactions of fatty acid hydroperoxides in extracts of potato tuber. II. Conversion of 9- and 13-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoic acids to monohydroxydienoic acid, epoxyhydroxy- and trihydroxymonoenoic acid derivatives." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;409(2):157-71. Abstract

1. Crude extracts and partially purified enzyme preparations from potato tubers catalyse, at pH 5-7, the conversion of linoleic acid hydroperoxides to a range of oxygenated fatty acid derivatives. 2. 9-D- and 13-L-hydroperoxide isomers are converted at similar rates to equivalent (isomeric) products. 3. The major products from the 13-hydroperoxide isomer were identified as the corresponding monohydroxydienoic acid derivative, threo-11-hydroxy-trans12,13-epoxy-octadec-cis9-enoic acid and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-octadec-trans10-enoic acid. The corresponding products from the 9-hydroperoxide were the monohydroxydienoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-octadec-12-enoic acid and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoic acid. 4. No separation of activities forming the different products was achieved by partial purification of enzyme extracts. 5. Product formation was unaffected by EDTA, CN-, sulphydryl reagents or glutathione but was reduced by boiling the extracts. 6. This system is compared with the 9-hydroperoxide-specific enzymic formation of divinyl ether derivatives by potato extracts.

Gallie BL, Chan HSL, White A, Gronsdahl P, Dimba EAO, Kimani K, Dimaras H. "Retinoblastoma.". 2013. Abstract

Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan.

Gallie BL, Chan HSL, White A, Gronsdahl P, Dimba EAO, Kimani K, Dimaras H. "Retinoblastoma.". 2013. Abstract

Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan.

Galukande E;, Mulindwa, H; Wurzinger MAO; SM; J, Wurzinger M;, Mwai J, Solkner J. "Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterization of a new cattle farming system."; 2009. Abstract

keeping different genotypes (Holstein-Friesians or their crosses and pure Ankole) is emerging in South Western Uganda. In this system the Ankole, cattle are being crossed with Holstein-Friesian and the two genotypes are being kept in separate herds on the same farm. This is in response to the rapidly growing population, new land policies that favour individual land ownership [1, 2] high demand of livestock products in the urban centres and improved rural infrastructure. As part of a larger research program that aims at evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of the new pastoral systems, a survey was undertaken of sixteen farmers selected from 3 sub-counties in Kiruhura District in South West Uganda. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farms. The 1st set was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, and the 2nd one was administered on a monthly basis for a period of the last 12 months. On each farm visit performance traits such as milk yield (MY), heart girth measurement (HG) and Body Condition Score (BCS) of the animals were recorded. Comparative MY, BCS and body weight performance for mature cows for the different genotypes are considered here. Majority (53.3%) of the farmers interviewed stated that they kept the two cattle types (genotypes) because the crossbreds gave them more marketable milk, while the Ankole provides security in case diseases or prolonged drought affected the crossbreds. Another group (19.9%) stated that they still prefer to keep Ankole cattle besides the crosses because they are hardy, while others (13.3%) stated that they kept Ankole for beef production because they were easier to sell off for this purpose and the crosses for milk production. Another 13.3% stated that the crossbreds were kept for income through milk sales and Ankole were kept for cultural reasons.

Galukande E;, Mulindwa HE;, Wurzinger M;, Mwai AO;, Sölkner J. "On-farm comparison of milk production and body condition of purebred Ankole and Crossbred Friesian–Ankole cattle in south western Uganda."; 2008. Abstract

Increasing land pressure due to the rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies in Uganda are changing the life styles of the hitherto extensive grazers of the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda. A production system where two separate herds are kept on one farm, a pure bred Ankole herd and a herd of Friesian - Ankole crosses is emerging. The Friesian-Ankole crosses are kept as a source of milk, most of which is sold to generate income. The Ankole are kept for cultural reasons, a buffer against shock in case of prolonged drought and disease outbreak and for income through sale of live animals. This study investigates the life cycle efficiency of the different genotypes on farm. Eighteen farmers have been selected and in each farm up to 30 animals have been selected per herd covering the complete age /sex range of the herd. During the selection the crossbred status was evaluated based on information from the farmer and phenotype. All selected animals were tagged. The animals are currently followed up on monthly intervals and this will last for a period of two years. During the visits body condition, tick count, health status, milk production of cows, growth parameters in young animals (weight approximated by the measurement of chest circumference) are recorded. Other information collected includes disease and parasite control measures (methods and costs involved), labour costs, calving dates, any supplementation, rainfall and temperature patterns. This paper discusses preliminary results on performance traits of the different genotypes for the first year of the study.

Gan Y, Njue C, Stobbe EH. "Evaluation of Selected Nonlinear Regression Models in Quantifying Seedling Emergence Rate of Spring Wheat.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

Fast and uniform seedling emergence increases yield potential of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in short-season areas. An accurate method of quantifying rate of seedling emergence is needed. In this study, we compared the relative effectiveness of the Gompertz, Logistic, and Weibull models in quantifying emergence rate of spring wheat. ‘Roblin’ wheat was grown in a growth room under five soil water potential: − 0.002, − 0.165, − 0.41, − 1.00, and − 1.45 MPa. Daily-recorded emergence data were fitted to each of the models. The analyses of stability and accuracy functions, residual sum of squares, and variance showed that the Weibull model was not appropriate in quantifying rate of emergence.The Gompertaz and Logistic models functioned in a similar way with great stability and accuracy in most cases. The Gompertz predictions most closely fitted the observed set of responses with residual points scattered around zero. For lognormally distributed emergence patterns common under field conditions, the Gompertz model provided the most appropriate characterization of emergence.

Ganatra FA, Kisumbi BK, Gathece LW. "Selection of posterior dental restoratives by dentists." JKDA. 2009;1(3):59-64.
Gangata H, Ntaba P, Akol P, Louw G. "The reliance on unclaimed cadavers for anatomical teaching by medical schools in {Africa}." Anatomical Sciences Education. 2010;3:174-183. AbstractWebsite

The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all the cadavers used for dissection in the United Kingdom are donated. Because the sources of cadavers used in Africa are not clearly known, a questionnaire to gather information on cadavers used at medical schools was designed from the relevant literature and was sent by electronic mail to 123 Anatomy lecturers in 23 African countries (48 medical schools). Fourteen lecturers from 14 medical schools in ten countries responded to the questionnaires. The results indicate that, in most countries, the cadavers are unclaimed bodies from the hospitals and prisons, and the bodies of dead bandits. In South Africa and Zimbabwe, the donations are mostly from the white community, and medical school in the Islamic country of Libya is importing cadavers from India. The lack of knowledge about body donation programes and firmly held cultural and religious burial traditions may explain the lack of bequests from black communities. The use of unclaimed bodies may disproportionally affect people who were homeless and poor, criminals, people with fewer social links, and social outcasts. The Anatomy lecturers felt that there should be broader national awareness programes for body donations, although the benefits of this could take decades to materialize. Anat Sci Educ, 2010. © 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

and Ganira, K.L. OKMMK’ura.PARW. "Teacher sustenance of emotional balance among children aged 4-6 with disability in Kenya: Addressing safety, actualization and independence." International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE).. 2016;3(1).
Ganira K, Odundo P, Kahiga R, Muriithi EM, Mwangi J. "Teacher Sustenance of Emotional Balance among Children aged 4-6 with Disability in Kenya: Addressing Safety, Actualization and Independence. ." International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE), Special Issue . 2016;3(1):948-955.
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Garba DGW, Oyieke FAO, EA M, LC, GS, Houmsou, RS, Darda, F, Chintem. "Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Anopheline Vectors of Malaria on the Highlands of Mambilla Plateau Northeast, Nigeria." Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017;1(1):PP 37-42.speciesdiversityandrelativeabundanceofanopheline-liatuetal_2.pdf
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
García JL, Fernandez N, Garcia-Villalon AL, Monge L, Gomez B, Dieguez G. "Cerebral reactive hyperaemia and arterial pressure in anaesthetized goats." Acta physiologica Scandinavica. 1995;153:355-363. Abstract

{The effects of arterial pressure on cerebral reactive hyperaemia were studied in anaesthetized goats measuring electromagnetically middle cerebral artery flow and performing arterial occlusions of 5-30 s. Under normotension (mean arterial pressure

Garcia-Knight MA, Nduati E, Hassan AS, Gambo F, Odera D, Etyang TJ, Hajj NJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC, Rowland-Jones SL. "Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0143043. Abstract

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

Gardner DG, Shoback DM. Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology. McGraw-Hill Medical New York:; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Garvie JM, Kemp FH. "The diagnosis of chronic intussusception in children." Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1945;20:73-80. AbstractWebsite

Images null

Gasper MA, Kunwar P, Itaya G, Lejarcegui N, Bosire R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Slyker J, Overbaugh J, Horton H, Sodora DL, John-Stewart G, Lohman-Payne B. "Natural killer cell and T-cell subset distributions and activation influence susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 infection." AIDS. 2014;28(8):1115-24. Abstract

To determine neonatal immunologic factors that correlate with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1.

GATARI MJ, Boman J. "Black carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa." Atmospheric Environment. 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports measurements of black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC)(TC= BC+ organic carbon) in the lower troposphere in Nairobi and the towns of Nanyuki and Meru in Kenya. The rural sites of Nanyuki and Meru are both located on the equator on the …

Gatari M, Boman J. Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2008. AbstractWebsite

Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray …

GATARI MJ. Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

Gatari M, Lavrich R, Preston B, Gaita S,... "Speciation of particulate carbonaceous species at an urban-background site in Nairobi, Kenya." EGU General …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Tropospheric aerosols have adverse implications on human health, climate, and visibility. Particles in combustion source emissions have complex physical and chemical characteristics. They regularly contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules …

GATARI MJ, Pettersson JBC, Kimani W,... "Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mt Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Aerosol samples were collected at an altitude of 3678 m on Mt Kenya in August 2001. A virtual impactor was used to collect particles in fine (aerodynamic diameter, da< 2.5 µm) and coarse (2.5 µm< da< 10 µm) size fractions. The samples were analyzed for particulate mass …

GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A. "Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Air pollutants from industrial and urban sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black …

Gatari M, Berhane Z, Ulmer L, Omanga E. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables. oa.las.ac.cn; 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge …

Gatari M, Wagner A, Boman J. "Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya." Science of the Total Environment. 2005. AbstractWebsite

Air pollution problems in major cities within the developing countries need to be studied. There are scanty measurements from the developing countries on airborne particles despite their adverse implications to human health, visibility and climate. One of the major sources of …

Gatari M, Ngo N, Ndiba P,... "Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study." EGU General Assembly …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the …

GATARI MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E,... "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya." … Research Part D …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Airborne black carbon (BC) particles have serious implications for human health and climate change and thus represent a prime target for mitigation policies. The sources of BC include vehicles burning diesel fuel, which are common in urban areas in low-income countries. The …

Gatari M, Boman J, Maina D. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2005. AbstractWebsite

An air pollution campaign was carried out in the town of Nanyuki at four different sites during July and August 1999. Nanyuki is situated on the equator on the northwestern slope of Mount Kenya at about 1930 m above sea level. The intention of the project was to …

GATARI MJ. "First WHO Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health: A Brief Report." Clean Air Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

The subject conference (documented in www. who. int) was organized by WHO in collaboration with WMO, CCAC, UNFCC, UNECE, The World Bank, UN-DESA and EU-DEVCO in Geneva, Switzerland from 30 October to 01 November 2018. The conference …

Gatari, M.J; Kinyua AM. "Projects Implementation In Africa.". 1994.
GATARI MJ. Studies Of Atmospheric Aerosols And Development Of An EDXRF Spectrometer In Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A, Janhäll S,... "Assessment of inorganic content of PM2. 5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam." Science of the total …. 2006. AbstractWebsite

Atmospheric aerosols from seven rural sites in northern Vietnam, east of Hanoi, were sampled and analyzed. The aim of the study was to evaluate trace elemental and black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM 2.5) and to investigate the influence of the …

GATARI MJ. Studies of tropospheric aerosols at selected sites in Kenya. Chalmers University of Technology; 2002. Abstract
n/a
GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Maina DM. "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in Kenya.". 1996.Website
GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R,... "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in kenya." … of Radioanalytical and …. 1996. AbstractWebsite

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations are of the order of 10− 4 to 10− 6 μg/m 3 for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was …

Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. "Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1978;38(2):303-7. Abstract

A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.

Gateri MW, Alfred OPERE, Wilson GITAU, Ndiwa NGAINAJ. "Domestic rainwater harvesting: a case study in Embu County, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):50-59. Abstractdomestic_rainwater_harvesting_a_case_study_in_embu_county_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

This study assessed probable water that could be harvested during rainy seasons over Embu County of Kenya. Monthly rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department while percentage distribution of household by household size, main roofing material, number of rooms in the main dwelling and per capita volume of water required was sourced from Kenya Integrated Household Budget of Survey (KIHBS). Minimum water demand per household was computed based on KIHBS. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 2009 population census was used to determine population and number of occupants in the main dwelling. Embu County receives bimodal rainfall during March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Rainfall is highly variable with 8190 and 7490 litres of harvested water during MAM and OND season respectively expected to last for approximately 43 days (MAM) while 39 days (OND) and thus not sufficient to satisfy minimum water demand levels for Embu population. The total potential harvestable water during MAM and OND accounted for 45.4 % and would go a long way in meeting water demands in the region. Notably, harvestable water was being used to supplement natural sources of water. Therefore, enhanced water harvesting during rainy season could provide an alternate source of domestic water.

Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
GATHAARA NV;, NGUGI JN. Gender, soil and water conservation in Machakos district, Kenya.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Gender mainstreaming is crucial in soil and water conservation initiatives. The existing technologies though, as designed, are expected to be gender neutral, lead to gender differences at the adoption stage. This was confirmed during a study conducte d in Kathekakai settlement scheme, Machakos district where despite both men and women participating in soil and water conservation initiatives, women’s efforts to adopt the recommended technologies were hampered by their limited access to authoritative infor ma- tion and lack of control over land. Women though playing major roles as farmers (64.6%), could not make key decisions on land u se. Previous reports indicate that the women in Machakos district contributed significantly to soil and water conservation efforts in the mid 1980’s leading to terracing of over 70% of the district. Gender mainstreaming efforts need to be enhanced for achievement o f sustainable and effective soil and water conservation for improved agricultural production and livelihoods

Gathagu TW, Agwata JF. "POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN MANAGING WATER RESOURCES IN KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Development Research. 2014;Vol. 4(Issue, 5):1048-1055. Abstractjournal_paper-ijdr.pdf

The important role that women play in the management of water resources has been recognized in
various parts of the world. This is because they play a significant role in accessing water for
various uses such as washing, cooking, watering of crops and livestock rearing. Their effective
participation in water management is however influenced by existing policy, institutional and
legal frameworks. In this study, the various policies that enhance women’s participation in water
resources management in Kajiado County of Kenya were evaluated from the perspective of
relevance, value and limitations. This was done with a view to suggesting practical measures to
ensure the women’s important and critical roles are properly captured in the proposed policies on
water resources management in the County and elsewhere in the country. The findings show that
although the existing policies, legal and institutional frameworks are fairly comprehensive in
addressing women’s roles in the management of water resources, the policies do not, however,
directly and adequately address women’s issues and concerns in water resources management in
the County.

Gathara D, Nyamai R, Were F, Mogoa W, Karumbi J, Kihuba E, Mwinga S, Aluvaala J, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Todd J, Allen E, English M. "Moving towards Routine Evaluation of Quality of Inpatient Pediatric Care in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2015. Abstractmoving_towards_routine_evaluation_of_quality_of_inpatient_pediatric_care_in_kenya.pdf

Background: Regular assessment of quality of care allows monitoring of progress towards system goals and identifies gaps that need to be addressed to promote better outcomes.We report efforts to initiate routine assessments in a low-income country in partnership with government.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey undertaken in 22 ‘internship training’ hospitals across Kenya that examined availability of essential resources and process of care based on review of 60 case-records per site focusing on the common childhood illnesses (pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea/ dehydration, malnutrition and meningitis).
Results: Availability of essential resources was 75% (45/61 items) or more in 8/22 hospitals. A total of 1298 (range 54–61) case records were reviewed. HIV testing remained suboptimal at 12% (95% CI 7–19). A routinely introduced structured pediatric admission record form improved documentation of core admission symptoms and signs (median score for signs 22/ 22 and 8/22 when form used and not used respectively). Correctness of penicillin and gentamicin dosing was above 85% but correctness of prescribed intravenous fluid or oral feed volumes for severe dehydration and malnutrition were 54% and 25% respectively. Introduction of Zinc for diarrhea has been relatively successful (66% cases) but use of artesunate for malaria remained rare. Exploratory analysis suggests considerable variability of the quality of care across hospitals.

Gathara D, Nyamai R, Were F, Mogoa W, Karumbi J, Kihuba E, Mwinga S, Aluvaala J, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Todd J, Allen E, English M. "Moving towards Routine Evaluation of Quality of Inpatient Pediatric Care in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):1-13.gathara_d_2015.pdf
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Gathara D, Opiyo N, Wagai J, Ntoburi S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Wamae A, Migiro S, Mogoa W, Wasunna A, Were F, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Quality of hospital care for sick newborns and severely malnourished children in Kenya: a two-year descriptive study in 8 hospitals." BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:307. Abstract

Given the high mortality associated with neonatal illnesses and severe malnutrition and the development of packages of interventions that provide similar challenges for service delivery mechanisms we set out to explore how well such services are provided in Kenya.

Gathara D;, Irimu G;, Kihara H;, Maina C;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Mwangi J;, Allen E;, English M. "Hospital outcomes for paediatric pneumonia and diarrhoea patients admitted in a tertiary hospital on weekdays versus weekends: a retrospective study.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Quality of patient care in hospitals has been shown to be inconsistent during weekends and night- time hours, and is often associated with reduced patient monitoring, poor antibiotic prescription practices and poor patient outcomes. Poorer care and outcomes are commonly attributed to decreased levels of staffing, supervision and expertise and poorer access to diagnostics. However, there are few studies examining this issue in low resource settings where mortality from common childhood illnesses is high and health care systems are weak. Methods: This study uses data from a retrospective cross-sectional study aimed at “ evaluating the uptake of best practice clinical guidelines in a tertiary hospital ” with a pre and post intervention approach that spanned the period 2005 to 2009. We evaluated a primary hypothesis that mortality for children with pneumonia and/or dehydration aged 2 – 59 months admitted on weekends differed from those admitted on weekdays. A secondary hypothesis that poor quality of care could be a mechanism for higher mortality was also explored. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mortality and the independent predictors of mortality. Results: Our analysis indicates that there is no difference in mortality on weekends compared to weekdays even after adjusting for the significant predictors of mortality (OR = 1.15; 95% CI 0.90 -1.45; p = 0.27). There were similarly no significant differences between weekends and weekdays for the quality of care indicators, however, there was an overall improvement in mortality and quality of care through the period of study. Conclusion: Mortality and the quality of care does not differ by the day of admission in a Kenyan tertiary hospital, however mortality remains high suggesting that continued efforts to improve care are warranted

Gathece L, Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kiragu J, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kigondu C. "Prevalence of domestic violence among clients seeking emergency department services in a private hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2004;17:8-17.
Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Wagaiyu EG. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385." East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. 2008. AbstractWebsite

According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.

gathece. "Oral Hygiene Status and gingival inflammation of Persons Living with HIV Attending Comprehensive Care Centre in Nairobi." International journal of innovative research and advanced studies. 2017.
Gathenya JM, Liniger HP, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK, Thomas D. "Problems of river-water management for a basin west of Mount Kenya: challenge to water resource planners.". 1993. Abstract

A case study was conducted in two reaches in the Naro Moru river basin, which extends from the humid western slopes of Mount Kenya to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau. The study involved measuring the amount of water abstracted from all abstraction points, as well as river discharge, for a period of eight months starting from November 1990. Results showed that the amount of water abstracted from each reach as a percentage of the available river inflow rose from 10% at the end of the wet season to over 60% at the end of the dry season. A survey of water permits revealed that legal abstractions constituted 30% of the amount abstracted during the wet season, but only 8% of the dry season abstractions. Communal water supply systems taking water for domestic use, for watering livestock and for irrigation accounted for over 90% of the water that was abstracted from the river during the period of study.

Gatheru AP. Blood requests, crossmatch and transfusion practices for elective surgery in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2012. Abstract

This study was carried out over a period of ten weeks between June and August 2011 at the KNH theatres. A total of 370 patients scheduled for elective surgery whose blood had been crossmatched prior to being taken to theatre were recruited into the study. Majority of requests in the study period were requests for whole blood while requests for other blood products were rarely made. Most surgical teams made requests for two units of blood for the adults for most surgical procedures. Cross-matching of one unit of blood per patient however predominated followed by cross-matching of two units per patient. Single unit transfusions for adult patients were the most common despite requests for two units being the majority. However in the category of children the average blood volume transfused was 18.9mllKg. The overall Cross-match to Transfusion ratio during the study period was 1.42. Most of the blood that was cross-matched (64.8%) was transfused of the patients was transfused to them. The mean estimated duration blood products were kept out of the cold chain was 17 minutes. The methods mainly used to reduce the need for pre-operative blood transfusions included use of diathermy, pre-operative hemodilution and use of hypotensive anesthesia. The main transfusion triggers were estimated blood loss, conjuctival pallour and change in haemodynamic status. In the study subjects above 14 years, the mean estimated blood loss triggering transfusion was 750 mls. The study established that all patients received peri-operative fluids with crystalloid infusions predominating. There was a highly significant relationship( P

Gathiaka K. "Peer effects in smallholder agricultural production in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(22):1-13.
Gathiaka JK. "Livestock farming and poverty reduction in smallholder farms in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):212-228.
Gathigi G. "Why sit-in exams are not the best assessment tools." Standard, April 17, 2014.
Gathigi G, Waititu E. " Coding for Development in the Silicon Savannah: The Emerging Role of Digital Technology in Kenya.". In: Re-Imagining Development Communication. Lexington : Lexington Books; 2012.

UoN Websites Search