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G
and G. Ouma., Omeny P.A KJ. "REMOTE SENSING APPLICATION ON EUTROPHICATION MONITORING IN KAVIRONDO GULF OF LAKE VICTORIA KENYA." Journal of African Meteorological Society. 2003;Vol.6 (No. 2):11-17.Eutrophication.pdf
G.H.N. N. supervision to Asiko, Grace Pollinating of Strawberries by stingless bees in Kenya . Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2012.
G.J.O. A. "Improving Artificial Insemination In Africa: Guideline and Recommendation.". In: Improving Artificial Insemination In Africa- Guideline and Recommendation. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna; 2005.
G.K. Kirui, Misra AK, O.M. Olanya, Friedman M, El-Bedewy R, Ewell PT. "Glycolakaloid content of some superior potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) clones and commercial cultivars." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2009;42(5):453-463.
G.Karanja, C.Wandera, Mensah A, G M. "Croto-edoxide and other constituents if the stem bark twigs of Croton Macrostachyus." Filoterapia. 1992;LXIII (1).
G.M N, M. O. "Human Factors as Determinants of AMT Adoptions in Structure of a Manufacturing Company." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2015;Volume: 2(Issue: 10 ): 286-298.43-1.pdf
G.M. N, J.M O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. 2015;Volume: 04 (Issue: 10 ):357-369.ijret20150410059.pdf
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Planned Organizational Change Consequent to Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption." International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences . 2015;Vol. 2(Issue 4):23-28.planned_organizational_change-496-2.pdf
G.M.N, P.K.O. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya. Istanbul, Turkey: International science index; 2015.
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Influence of Human Factors on the relationship between Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Organizational structure." International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences. 2015;Vol. 2(Issue 4 ):1-22.influence_of_human_factors-486.pdf
G.M.N, P.K.O. "Advanved Manufacturing Technology and Technical Labour in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovational Week. Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Size as Determinants of Organizational Structure." Researchjournali’s Journal of Technology Management . 2015;Vol. 2(issue. 4 ):1-26.2223.pdf
G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M, Mwabu G. "The NTA Estimates for Kenya: Policy implications of the life cycle and tax profiles.". In: IUSSP. Marrakech, Morocco; 2009.
G.N K. Strategies of Improving Soil Fertility and Productivity booklet. Edited by Mary Ngechu, The University of Nairobi; 1992.
G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
G.N. M, C.K K, W.O. O, S.O. A, P.U. M. "PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF NATURAL RIVER SAND WITH CRUSHED ROCK SAND IN CONCRETE PRODUCTION." Global Engineers & Technologists Review. 2013.abuodha.docx
G.N. M, S.I. S, M.N. W, A.A. A. "Role of abdominal ultrasound in evaluation of children with suspected upper gastrointestinal disease." East African Medical Journal . 2012;Vol. 89 (No. 6 ):June 2012.
G.O A, M.W O. "Abong.". In: African Journal of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9(8), 1667-1682. (www.adfand.net).; 2009. Abstract

n/a

G.O O, E.K G, R.J M. "DMARD use in rheumatoid arthritis: can we predict treatment response?" Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):50-58. Abstractdmard_use_in_rheumatoid.pdf

Abstract
Objective: To review the current and emerging predictors of treatment response by DMARD Sin Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients.Data source: Published original research work and reviews were searched in
English related to determinants of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis on DMARDS Study design: Only articles that emphasis on determinants of rheumatoid arthritis treatment response with DMARDS Data extraction: Online and library searches done.Data synthesis: Data added and summarized Conclusions: Treatment of RA has been based on the use of a group of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
(DMARDs), of which methotrexate is the most widely used. Although
comprehensive clinical experience exists for MTX and synthetic DMARDs, to date it has not been possible to preview correctly whether or not a patient will respond to treatment with these drugs. Predicting response to MTX and other DMARDs would allow the selection of patients based on their likelihood of response,
thus enabling individualized therapy and avoiding unnecessary adverse effects and elevated costs. Distinguishing responders from non-responders at treatment start as studies have failed to consistently
reproduce similar determinants. Variables possibly influencing drug effectiveness may be related to disease, patient, treatment, clinical or biological (genetic and non-genetic) factors. This study
seeks to review the current data regarding biomarkers of treatment response to DMARDS.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis, DMARDS, Determinants of treatmentresponse

G.O O, N.M N. "Policies on Opioid Analgesics Hinder Management of Severe Pain Conditions in Kenya." The Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya . 2008;18(3):113-115.
G.O.MAUMBA, N.M.Monyonko, J.O.MALO. "THE FLATNESS PROBLEM AS ANATURAL COSMOLOGICAL PHENOMENON." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED PHYSICS. 2008;4(2):161-169.
G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.". 2006.
G.O.Oyoo, F.Adelowo. "AfricanJournal ofRheumatology Systemic.". In: ISSN. Vol. 1.; 2013:. Abstractafrica_journal_rheumatology.pdf

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
infection is a worldwide burden whose
seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the
third most aff ected country in Africa.
HCV both a hepatotropic and lympho-
tropic infection is responsible for a great
number of hepatic and extra hepatic
disorders some of which are rheumatic
in nature. These rheumatologic mani-
festations though extensively studied
in western countries; there is little or no
data in sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: The study was conducted
with the aim to describe the musculo-
skeletal manifestations associated to
HCV infection in a hospital setting in
Cameroon.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Three hospitals in Cameroon:
the Douala General Hospital, a tertiary
referral hospital with a capacity of 320
beds in Douala, the largest city and
economic capital of Cameroon; the
University Teaching Hospital of the
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences of the university of Yaoundé
1, a 240 beds hospital in Yaoundé the
political capital of Cameroon and the
“Centre Médical de la Cathédrale”,
a private acceptable standard
Gastroenterology clinic also found in
Yaoundé.
Patients and methods: From February
to June 2009, we did a multicentric
cross-sectional study of patients from
the Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
and Internal medicine outpatient clinics
of three hospitals in Cameroon. Patients
with HIV or HBV infection and those on
antiviral treatment were excluded.
Results: Among 148 patients with HCV
infection identifi ed during the study
period, only 62 fulfi lled eligibility, 15
(24.2%) of whom had musculoskeletal
manifestations related to HCV, the
commonest of which were myalgia
9/62 (14.5%) , arthritis 6/62 (9.7%), bone
pain 6.4% (4/62), sicca syndrome 3/62
(4.8%), and Raynaud’s phenomenon
6/62 (9.7%). Among patients with
rheumatologic manifestations, 9/15
(60%), had rheumatologic symptoms at
HCV diagnosis and in 6/15 (40%). HCV
infection was discovered during routine
medical check-up. Musculoskeletal
manifestations were neither associat ed
with the genotype (p=0.17) nor with the
viral load (p>0.98).
Conclusion: Arthralgia is the most
common presenting feature of the
symptomatic disease. Musculoskeletal
manifestations may be confused with symptoms of common tropical infections, leading to delayed diagnosis
and treatment of HCV infection.
Key words: Hepatitis C Virus, Arthralgia,
Extra hepatic manifestations; Africa
Introduction
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection
which occurs worldwide has a higher
seroprevalence in Africa, estimated
at 5.3% compared to about 1.03%
in Europe1,2. Cameroon, the third
most affected country in Africa, has a
seroprevalence which varies from as low
as 0.6% to 4.8% in Pygmy groups and
blood donors, to as high as 13% in hospital
based studies4,5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
which is a single-stranded, spherical RNA enveloped fl avivirus, measuring 38 to 50
nm in diameter has multiple genotypes
and quasispecies classifi ed in six major
clades. This genetic diversity confers to
this virus a difference in pathogenicity,
disease severity, and response to treatment
with interferon3. Though considered a
hepatotropic virus, HCV’s lymphotropic
nature is responsible for a great number of
extra hepatic immune system disorders1.
About 40 to 70% of affected patients will
develop an extra hepatic manifestation
that can have a rheumatic nature

G.O.Oyoo, E. N. Ogola, E.N.Amayo. "Cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol. 2014;2(2)(1):1-17. Abstractcardiovascular_risk_factors-1.pdf

Background: Cardiovascular disease is
now acknowledged as a primary cause of
morbidity and mortality in patients with
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).
The risk of developing coronary artery
disease in these patients is four to eight
times higher than that in the normal
population. Prior to this study there was
no data regarding cardiovascular risk in
SLE patients in our setting.
Objective: To determine the prevalence
of selected cardiovascular risk factors
and carotid atherosclerosis in patients
with systemic lupus erythematosus at
Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional
survey carried out in patients with SLE
and age- and sex-matched controls at
the Kenyatta National Hospital. The SLE
patients underwent clinical assessment
of their blood pressure, weight, height,
waist and hip circumferences as well as
laboratory testing to determine their
fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid
pro le. In addition, measurement of
carotid Intima-Media Thickness (IMT)
and assessment for presence of carotid
plaque was done for the lupus patients.
The controls had similar clinical and
laboratory assessment done as for
patients. Carotid ultrasonography was
however not done for controls.
Results: Sixty six SLE patients and 66
healthy controls participated in this
study. Mean age of the patients was
35.9 years, with a female to male ratio
of 21:1 and median duration of illness
of two years. Hypertension prevalence
was 42.4% in the patients and 24.2%
in the controls (p=0.027), dyslipidemia
occurred in 74.2% of the patients and
62.1% of the controls (p=0.135) while
diabetes prevalence was 4.5% in patients
and 1.5% in controls (p=0.619). Obesity
by Body Mass Index (BMI) assessment
was found in 12.1% of patients and
21.2% of the controls (p=0.330) whereas
abdominal obesity (by waist: hip ratio)
occurred in 33.3% of patients and 24.2%
of controls (p=0.249). Mean carotid IMT in
SLE patients was 0.63mm (SD=0.15) with
9 (13.6%) patients having IMT readings
of 0.8mm and above. Carotid plaque was
detected in 15 (22.7%) patients. Carotid
IMT and BMI signi cantly correlated with
disease duration (p values= 0.006 and
0.021 respectively).
Conclusion: There was a high preva-
lence of atherosclerosis and selected
cardiovascular risk factors in this popu-
lation of SLE patients. Hypertension was
signi cantly more common in the lupus
patients than controls. Cardiovascular
risk assessment and appropriate treat-
ment of risk factors identi ed should be
enhanced in patients with SLE.
Key words: Systemic lupus erythemato-
sus, Cardiovascular risk factors, Carotid
intima-media thickness, Carotid

G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.". 2006.
G.O.Oyoo, A.A.Amayo, A.O.Oyunga. "Performance characteristics of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor tests in rheumatoid arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis at Kenyatta National Hospital." EAJP. 2014;1(1):23-27. Abstractperformance_characteristics.pdf

Background: The rheumatoid factor (RF) test has been the main serological test for
diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Reports of it’s low sensitivity and specificity led to the
introduction of anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti CCP) test, which was added to the
diagnostic criteria. The analytical method and cost of the anti CCP test limits its availability
in resource constrained environments.
Objective: To determine the analytical performance characteristics of anti CCP in patients
with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and undiffentiated arthritis (UA), and compare with those of RF.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methodology: The study subjects comprised 64 RA and 31 UA patients. Serum anti CCP
was measured using an automated immunoassay and 3rd generation anti-CCP test. RF was
determined using a qualitative particle agglutination method. Manufacturer cut-offs were
used for interpretation of results. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive
values were calculated and compared, for anti-CCP and RF tests.
Results: Anti CCP showed a higher sensitivity than RF (62.5% versus 50%). Specificity
was however higher with RF (90.3%) than anti-CCP (83.9%). RF also had a slightly higher
positive predictive value (91.4%) than anti-CCP (88.9%). Combining RF and anti-CCP tests
led to a slightly higher sensitivity and negative predictive values than those obtained with
RF alone but not specificity or positive predictive values.
Conclusion: Although the anti CCP test has shown better sensitivity than RF in RA, there
was slightly higher specificity and positive predictive value with RF compared with anti-
CCP. The findings show that the latex RF test is an effective test for initial evaluation of
patients with arthritis.

G.O.Oyoo, D.K.Katukui, J.Rajab. "Serum erythropoietin in patients with anaemia on HAART attending the Kenyatta National Hospital, Comprehensive Care Centre." EAJP. 2014;Vol. 1(1):2-6. Abstractserum_erythropoietin.pdf

Background: Anaemia is the leading haematological abnormality in HIV/AIDS and an
independent contributor to morbidity and mortality. HAART has been shown to be effective
in reversing anaemia in HIV/AIDS, however a significant proportion of patients remain
anaemic despite being on antiretroviral therapy. Deficiency of erythropoietin has been
demonstrated as a cause of anaemia in HIV infected HAART naïve patients. The levels of
erythropoietin have not been studied in anaemic patients who are on HAART.
Objectives: To describe serum EPO levels of HIV infected anaemic patients who have been
on HAART for more than six months.
Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.
Setting: The study was carried out at a national hospital HIV treatment and follow-up
outpatient facility: Comprehensive Care Centre, Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: A total of 196 HIV elisa positive HAART experienced patients with anaemia
visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre were consecutively recruited. They were evaluated
by total blood counts, CD4 count, documented WHO clinical stage and serum erythropoietin
levels. Serum erythropoietin levels were measured by IMMULITE 2000 Elisa method.
Accrued data was entered in SPSS version 17 and analyzed therein.
Results: A total of 196 HIV positive adult patients with anaemia and who had been on
HAART for more than six months were evaluated. A total of 181 (92.3%) were found to
have a deficient erythropoietin response to anaemia in HIV, (EPO < 500IU/L). In this study
Hb was the main predictor of erythropoietin response.
Conclusion: Erythropoietin deficiency is nearly universal in anaemic patients on HAART
for more than six months.

G.O.Oyoo, H.A.Nour, M. D. JOSHI. "PATTERNS OF KNEE, HIP AND HAND OSTEOARTHRITIS IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EOAJ. 2013;7(7):1-56. Abstractpatterns_of_knee_hip_and_hand-1.pdf

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic rheumatic disorders and is associated
with significant morbidity and disability. Few studies examined the spectrum of rheumatic diseases in sub-
Saharan Africa. Obesity is not only a risk factor for incidence of OA but also for the progression of the
disease.
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis as well
as obesity prevalence in the patients with established disease.
Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.
Methods: Patients with knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis were examined to describe the patterns of
osteoarthritis in 201 patients who fulfilled the ACR diagnostic criteria. Their body mass indices were also
studied to determine the prevalence of obesity in this cohort of patients.
Results: A total of 201 patients with knee, hip or hand osteoarthritis were studied. Of these participants,
77% had knee OA, 15% hip OA, 3% hand OA and 5% had combined knee and hip OA. Obese participants
were 41% and 32% were overweight. There were 89 (44.3%) participants with bilateral knee or hip disease
while 112(55.7%) had unilateral disease. Obesity was more common in participants with knee than in hip OA
(45.3% vs 10.3% respectively) P < 0.001. The bilateral disease was higher in obese (55.2%) and overweight
(44.6%) participants compared to participants with normal body mass indices (26.5%) P value < 0.007.
Conclusion: Knee OA was very common and the majority of the patients were overweight and obese.
Bilateral OA was more prevalent in obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight
participants. Obesity is an easily modifiable risk factor for knee OA so it can be made a valid target for
preventing as well as halting the progression of OA.
INTRODUCTION
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent of chronic
rheumatic disorders in the world (1). The prevalence
is increasing as populations are aging and epidemic
obesity is in the rise. OA is estimated to be the fourth
leading cause of disability in most countries worldwide
(2). Worldwide, around 10% of the population who
are 60 years or older have symptomatic problems
attributable to OA (3). Knee, hip, hand and spine
are typically the affected joints. Knee OA is the most
common form and it is associated with profound
clinical and public health burden (4). Risk factors
include obesity, joint injury, previous joint surgery and
occupational bending and lifting. Of these, obesity is
the most powerful and modifiable risk factor for the
development of OA (5). It has been shown that 24%
of surgical cases due to knee OA can be prevented if
overweight and obese reduce their weights by 5Kg or
until they keep their BMIs in the recommended range
(6). On the other hand, maintaining an ideal weight not
only reduces the onset of the disease but also alleviates
the pain, reduces the disability and improves the quality
of life (7,8). The access to modalities of treatments of
the established disease, particularly the surgical aspect
of it, is beyond the reach of the most of the people living
in the developing countries like Kenya. We do not have
local data on the magnitude of the disease in our set up
as well as the prevalence of obesity in this population
with the disease. For these reasons and because obesity
is modifiable risk factor, we examined patients with
specific joint osteoarthritis and determined the obesity
prevalence in a simple descriptive cross-sectional
hospital based study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects: Participants of this study were patients with
primary knee, hip and hand OA who were attending
the outpatient rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics in
Kenyatta National Hospital during the periods between
August and December 2012. A total of 2100 patients
with rheumatic diseases, (88%) from the orthopaedic
and rheumatology clinics (12%) were screened for
diagnostic label of knee, hip or hand OA confirmed
by ACR criteria. Of them, 210 (10%) patients were
eligible so 1890 (90%) patients were excluded. Nine
patients declined to give consent. In the final analysis,
201 patients were studied. Their consent was sought.
All procedures were in accordance with the institutional

G.O.Oyoo, E.Busulwa. "Solvent abuse: A case report.". 2006.
G.O.Oyoo, E. K. Genga. "When is the last time you looked for diff use infi ltrative lymphocytosis syndrome in HIV patients?" Afr J Rheumatol. 2014;2(2)(1):2-6. Abstractdiff_use_infi_ltrative.pdf

Background: Di use In ltrative
Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is
characterised by a persistent CD8+
lymphocytosis and lymphocytic
in ltration of various organs. The exact
prevalence isn’t known but some studies
have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and
appears to be more common in African
population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4 cell counts and survive
longer than those patients without DILS.
Most patients present with bilateral
parotid gland enlargement and features
of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites
of extra glandular involvement are the
lungs being the most common site,
followed by peripheral neuropathy and
liver. With the high incidence of HIV in
our population it is likely that DILS is
under diagnosed probably due to our
ignorance of this disease. Awareness of
its various presentations may bring to
light undiscovered patients with DILS.
Objective: To review pathogenesis,
diagnostic approach and current trends
in the management of di use interstitial
lymphocytic syndrome.
Data source:  Literature review of
relevant published literature from both
Africa and the rest of the world.
Data synthesis: Pathologically, under
light microscopy, DILS resembles the
focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s
syndrome, although it tends to be less
destructive of the glandular architecture
than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the
in ammatory in ltrate is composed
of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s
which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial
cysts are frequently observed in the
parotid glands of patients with DILS.
The variation in CD8+ count in the
course of HIV disease is less understood.
The variation in CD8+ lymphocytes is
implicated in the pathogenesis of a
number of clinical manifestations in HIV
diseases including Di use In ltrative
Lymphocytic Syndrome (DILS) and
HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis
syndrome. Parotid gland enlargement
in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware
that the pulmonary process associated
with DILS may mimic clinically and
radiographically the pneumonic process
caused by pneumocystis carinii. Other
manifestations of DILS to consider
include a severe form of peripheral
neuropathy; lymphocytic in ltration of
the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis;
and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.
Management of DILS is determined
by the severity of glandular and extra
glandular features. Data on therapeutic
trials are lacking although there are
isolated reports of good response to
antiretroviral and steroid therapy.
Conclusion: DILS, a subset of HIV
disease manifestation, may present as
parotid gland swellings. In general, an
HIV patient presenting with DILS has a
better prognosis than a patient with HIV
alone. With the high incidence of HIV
in our population it is likely that DILS is
under diagnosed probably due to our
ignorance of this disease. Awareness of
its various presentations may bring to
light undiscovered patients with DILS.
Clinicians should watch for the possible
transformation into B-cell lymphoma.
There is still paucity of data about
this disease from pathophysiology to
treatment to studies correlating the
plasma viral load with CD8+ lymphocyte
count in patients with HIV disease.

G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Non-Compressive myelopathy: case report.". 2006.
G.Okeyo MUMBA, N.Maonga M, Malo.J.Otieno. "CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE FROM A NON CLASSICAL SPACE-TIME STATE. .". 2011. Abstract

Topological methods are used to study the creation of the universe from the initial hot state.It is found that the universe emerges from the initial compact stste with a finite size to an initial symmetric state and later evolves along the lines of the inflationary scenario to its asymmetric global minimum.The tunneling probability from this compactified state to a classical state(observable universe)rapidly approaches unity at very high temperatures where the particle masses are dominated by radiationThis inicates that the inital hot state is necessary for spontaneous quantum tunneling occur.
The bg bang singularity observed in the standard cosmological model is absent in this model.The result agrees to some extent with that that of refence for where a cosmological model is suggested in which the universe is spontaneosly created from nothing.It is this nothing that we interprete as the 'non classical space -time state' or 'instanton' in this paper.

G.W. K. "Haemophilia and Allied Disorders in Kenya.". In: International Haemophilia congress 1980. Bonn, Germany ; 1982.
G.W. K. "The Acute Leukaemias (Review article) ." EAMJ. 1986;(63):756.
Gabriel MN, Muasya I, Mwangi, John. MEAMLG. "Examining the Influence of Drug Abuse in Learning Institutions in Kenya Academic Article." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2016;3:28-33. Abstract
n/a
Gabriel Herscu AK. "Retrocecal appendix location and perforation at presentation." The American surgeon. 2006;72:890-3. Abstract
n/a
Gabriel M. N., Muasya MMOIJMJ, Andati G. "Examining the Influence of Drug Abuse in Learning Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Education. 2016;3:28-33. Abstract
n/a
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E. G. Periodontal Aspect of Dentine Sensitivity and its Management. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES Volume 4 No 2 June / July 2003 Pg 198.". In: AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Macigo FG1, Gathece LW1, Guthua SW, Njeru EN, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. The influence of oral hygiene practices on the risk of oral leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal. in press. Dec 2005.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Macigo FG1, Gathece LW1, Guthua SW, Njeru EN, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. The influence of oral hygiene practices on the risk of oral leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal. in press. Dec 2005.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Munyao J, Gathece LW.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Jalil RA, Ashley FP, Wilson RF, Wagaiyu EG.Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA in resting and stimulated whole saliva of children aged 12-14 years and the relationship with plaque accu.". In: J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu EG, Chindia ML. Behcet's syndrome presenting with chronic periodontitis: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):596-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):596-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Behcet's syndrome is a disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, ocular lesions and skin lesions. Although cases of this syndrome have been reported almost worldwide, the literature did not reveal any reports from this region. Management of this disorder is mainly palliative. However several treatment regimens have been tried. Following are some of the treatments considered effective. Azathioprine, corticosteroids, chlorambucil, transfusions of fresh blood or plasma and fibrinolytic therapy with phenformin and ethyloestrenol. The importance of multi-disciplinary management of such patients is emphasized.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Ashley F.P., Usiskin L.A., Wilson R.F and Wagaiyu E.G. The relationship between irregularity of the incisor teeth, plaque and gingivitis: a study in a group of school children aged 11-14 years. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS 20: pg. 65-72, 1998.". In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E.G., Mulli, T.K. , Ngatia, E.M., Macigo, F.G., Gathece, L.W. and Mutara, L.N. Oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi, Kenya. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. Vol. 5 No.2 June/July 2004.". In: AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. Vol. 5 No.2 June/July 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu E.G and Wagaiyu C.K. Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in National Youth Service Trainees, EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 69:pg 31-33 1992.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):31-3. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. The prevalence of juvenile periodontitis was studied in a group of young adults aged 18 to 26 years from the National Youth Service. The study group consisted of a random sample of 350 trainees, 250 males and 100 females. The subjects were examined for plaque scores, gingivitis and pocket depths. Radiographs were used to show bone loss and confirm diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. Only one subject was diagnosed as having juvenile periodontitis. This represents a prevalence of 0.28% which falls within the range of published prevalence of 0.1% to 3.4% among young adults.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu E.G, Ashley F.P, Mouthbreathing, lip seal and upper lip coverage and their relation to gingival Inflammation in 11-14 year old school children, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY Vol. 18 page 698 - 702 October 1991.". In: J Clin Periodontol. 1991 Oct;18(9):698-702. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Periodontology, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The gingival health of 201 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years was assessed at 6 sites on all the incisor and first molar teeth by recording separately the presence or absence of redness and bleeding on probing. Crowding of the incisor teeth was recorded as labio-lingual displacement and mesio-distal overlap. A 2nd examiner recorded the presence or absence of plaque at these sites and assessed mouthbreathing, lipseal and upper lip coverage of the maxillary incisors. Mouthbreathing, increased lip separation and decreased upper lip coverage at rest were all associated with higher levels of plaque and gingival inflammation. Multivariate analysis indicated that this association was statistically significant for mouthbreathing and lip coverage but increased lip separation was not independently related to plaque and gingivitis. The relationship of mouthbreathing and decreased upper lip coverage with gingivitis was most evident in the upper anterior segment and was still evident after covariate analysis to take account of variations due to gender, overcrowding and amount of plaque. However, allowance for these factors also suggested that the influence of mouthbreathing was restricted to palatal sites, whereas lip coverage influenced gingival inflammation at both palatal and labial sites.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Jahil R A, Ashley F P Wilson R.F. Wagaiyu E.G Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, .". In: J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, United Medical School of Guy's Hospital, London, UK. Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Mutara L.N., Ngatia E.M., Macigo F.G., Gathece L.W., Wagaiyu E.G., and Mulli T.K. Oral Health Seeking Behaviour among the elderly (45-80 years) in Kenya. JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES.Vol. 5 No 2. June/July 2004.". In: JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS. "Wagaiyu EG, Macigo FG and Muniu EM. Pattern of bone loss in dry mandibles of individuals who died before 1957. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 82 No. 10 pg 509-513. 2005.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):509-13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Periodontology/Community and Preventive Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To map out the pattern of periodontal disease in individuals who died before 1957 and were not exposed to formal dental services. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Museums of Kenya. SUBJECTS: The skeletons of people who died before independence are preserved at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi. Sixty four out of the 170 dry mandibles stored at the Museum were assessed for periodontal bone loss using a calibrated ruler. RESULTS: All the 64 mandibles assessed were of individuals who died before 1957. Two thousand two hundred and seventy four sites were examined. Most of the subjects were adults aged 30-45 years and the age range was 18-80 years. Majority of the mandibles examined were of the ethnic group from Central Kenya. Of the teeth examined, premolars and molars were the teeth most frequently preserved intact in the sockets. The total mean bone loss for all teeth was 2.51 (SD 1.15) with a range of 0.85-5.80. When the different sites were examined, values for bone loss were 2.59 for mesial surfaces; 2.55 buccal surfaces; 2.38 for distal surfaces. Three categories were identified as follows:- 70% of the individuals had minimal or no bone loss, 26.5% had 3-4 mm or moderate bone loss and 3.5% had >5 mm bone loss or advanced bone loss. Further analysis showed that when bone loss of >3 mm was examined, only 28.12% of the individuals were in this group, 10.93% had >4 mm bone loss and 3.12% had 5 mm or more bone loss. The first molars were the teeth most commonly affected by bone loss of 3mm or more followed by second molars then the premolars. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of individuals mainly from Central Kenya, the bone loss pattern showed that only a small number had experienced periodontal destruction as recorded by bone loss levels. Three groups were identified; those who had no or minimal destruction, those who had experienced moderate destruction and those where obvious bone destruction was evident. Thus susceptibility to periodontal disease is evident in a small proportion of individuals even in populations not exposed to modern diet and formal dental services. Periodontal destruction seems to affect a fraction of the population even when older populations are examined, thus it would save on resources both human and physical if these susceptible individuals could be identified early and treatment provided.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E.G. and Kaimenyi, J.T. Frequency of Alveolar Osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Dental Outpatient EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 66 No.10 pg.: 658-662 Oct. 1989.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):658-62. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of alveolar osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), most affected age group and the reasons for underlying extractions. Out of 8,393 extractions 273 (3.3%) developed alveolar osteitis. 98.5% of the teeth that developed alveolar osteitis were molars and premolars. 52% of the patients that developed alveolar osteitis were females and 48% were males. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. The percentage distribution of alveolar osteitis according to age groups 10-19 year, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and 60-69 years were 6.2%, 53.1%, 23.8%, 5.5%, 4.8% and 2.9% respectively. On the average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and pattern of development of a alveolar osteitis at KNH was similar to that reported in developed countries.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Nzioka B.M, Nyaga J.K., Wagaiyu E.G The relationship between tooth brushing frequency and personal hygiene habits in teenagers. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 70, No.7 pg. 445 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):445-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. A survey of 904, 14-17 year old school children from secondary schools around Nairobi was done to find out if there was any relationship between toothbrushing frequency and personal hygiene habits. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously in class. Female students brushed their teeth more often than the male students. 62.2% of the females and 50.1% of the males brushed their teeth more than once a day. Of those students who brushed their teeth more than once a day, 52% bathed daily, 22% used perfumes/deodorants daily and 50.1% always washed their hands after visiting the lavatory. No relationship was found between washing of hair and toothbrushing frequency. 69.7% males and 53.2% females gave toothache and tooth decay as the main reasons for mouth care. Those who brushed their teeth more frequently also visited the medical doctor regularly for routine check-ups. These findings indicated that toothbrushing was closely related to personal hygiene habits.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E.G. and Chindia, M.L. Behcet.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. The prevalence of juvenile periodontitis was studied in a group of young adults aged 18 to 26 years from the National Youth Service. The study group consisted of a random sample of 350 trainees, 250 males and 100 females. The subjects were examined for plaque scores, gingivitis and pocket depths. Radiographs were used to show bone loss and confirm diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. Only one subject was diagnosed as having juvenile periodontitis. This represents a prevalence of 0.28% which falls within the range of published prevalence of 0.1% to 3.4% among young adults.
Gachago MM. "Ocular Manifestations Of Diabetes Mellitus.". In: KNH/UON 3rd International Scientific Conference: Diabetes Symposium. Kenyatta National Hospital/ University of Nairobi; 2015.
Gachago MM, MM K, SA M. "Knowledge level on glaucoma among glaucoma patients attending clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2013;17(2):61-66.
Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Gachago MM. "Crosslinking In Keratoconus; Sharing Our Kenyan Experience.". In: Tenwek Mission Hospital Annual Scientific Symposium. Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet, Kenya; 2015.
Gachahi MW, Ngaruiya B, Kimani GN. "SMASSE trained teacher characteristics and primary school pupil achievement in mathematics and science." IIJARER. 2014;2(7)(vol 2(7)2360-7866):152-159.
Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.. 2014;17(2):25-34. Abstract

A simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, accurate, precise and fast high performance liquid
chromatographic method for the determination of antihypertensive drugs amlodipine,
valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide singly or in combination was developed and
validated. Separation of the analytes was achieved on a Hypersil C-18 (250 mm × 4.6
mm, 5 μm) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-KH2PO4 pH 3.0-
water (75:6:19 % v/v/v) delivered at 1 ml/min, UV detection at 229 nm and 40 oC
column temperature. The precision of the method was demonstrated through
repeatability (coefficient of variation = 0.298-0.724) as well as intermediate precision
(coefficient of variation = 0.435-1.412). The detector response was linear over the 25-
150 % range with R2 ≥ 0.99 for each of the three analytes. The limit of detection for
hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan and amlodipine were 10.72, 21.20 and 14.45 ng, while
the limits of quantification were 35.76, 71.23 and 48.16 ng, respectively. The method
showed satisfactory robustness and accuracy with a recovery of 99.7-100.6 %. The
method was applied in the assay of 6 commercial products containing drugs under
study. The results obtained revealed quality problems among the samples analyzed.

Gachango E, Shibairo SI, Kabira J, Chemining'wa GN, Demo P. "Effects of light intensity on quality of potato seed tubers.". 2008. Abstract

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes (Tigoni, Asante and Dutch Robyjn) were evaluated for quality under three light intensities, 612.2 kW (diffused), 1376 kW (direct) and 8 kW (dark) for 12 weeks. Tuber stored in dark conditions had a lower weight loss than tubers stored in direct light conditions. Dutch Robyjn lost the lowest weight (4.49%) while Asante lost the highest (13.90%) mean weight. Tigoni in the dark had the highest number (9.25) of sprouts. Tubers in the dark developed long (46.25mm) etiolated sprouts as opposed to the short (10.50mm) firm sprouts observed in tubers subjected to the diffused light. High sprout vigor score (2.42) was observed in Asante while Dutch Robyjn had the lowest (1.00) score. Nevertheless, all the tubers in the three light intensities had 100% sprouted tubers after the 12 weeks of storage. Potato tuber moth incidence was higher in percentage in the direct and diffused light than in the dark storage. No incidence of rotting was reported for the 12 weeks of storage. It is therefore suggested that farmers should adopt storage of potato seed tubers in diffused light (612.2 – 1000 kW) store to allow formation of short firm sprouts and reduce weight loss.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, Magana J, Bulimo W. Sequence Analysis of the Neuraminidase (NA) Gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya.. Istanbul, Turkey.; 2012. Abstract

n/a

Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, James S, Ng’ayo M, Magana J, Bulimo W. "Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya." Virus Genes. 2011:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Although the important role of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus in virulence and replication is well-established, the knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Kenya and Africa is scanty. This study analysed the NS gene of 31 isolates from Kenya in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya. A comparison with the vaccine strain and viruses isolated elsewhere in Africa was also made. The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein, NS1 of the viruses from this study and the vaccine strain revealed 18 differences. Conversely, the nuclear export protein (NEP) of the isolates in this study had 11 differences from the vaccine strain. Analysis of the NS1 protein showed only one fixed amino acid change I123V which is one of the characteristics of clade 7 viruses. In the NEP, the amino acid at position 77 was the most mutable with 9 (39%) of all mutations seen in this protein. A mutation A115T which is a characteristic of clade 5 viruses was noted in the isolates from Lagos, Nigeria. The study shows a substantial number of mutations in the NS gene that has not been reported elsewhere and gives a glimpse of the evolution of this gene in the region.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. Origins, Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Kenya: A Bayesian Coalescent Analysis. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: An influenza pandemic caused by a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. The spread of influenza is tradi¬tionally tracked by epidemiological data; however, this approach gives lit¬tle insight into the different viral circulating vari¬ants. Genome sequencing is emerging as a surveillance tool for evolutionary and phylogenetic mapping, and to explore the origins, molecular epidemiology, and genetic diversity of epidemic/pandemic viruses. Objective: To determine the origins, molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Kenyan influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.Methodology: A total of 40 influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses isolated between July 2009 and August 2010 were selected. The eight segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting gene segments were concatenated and these genomes used for subsequent analysis. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach implemented in the BEAST package v1.7.4 was used to reconstruct the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) sequences, time the introduction of infection in the country, rates of substitution and estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. Results: The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences. However, local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide and were sustained by multiple introductions generating complex spatial patterns. Often, the local isolates clustered with isolates from the United Kingdom than with isolates from other countries. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, two months before the first laboratory confirmed case. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 X 10-3 substitutions/site/year and fast population growths characterized the population dynamics. Conclusions: Adaptive evolution and viral migration seem to play a vital role in shaping the evolutionary dynamics of local A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Continuous monitoring is thus essential.

Gachara HN, Munjuri MG. "INNOVATION CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(6):717-738.innovation_challenges.pdf
Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016:-. Abstractwhole_genome_of_pandemic_h1n1_paper.pdfWebsite

Abstract An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 × 10− 3 substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the \{UK\} and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

Gachene CKK;, Gicheru PT;, Mbuvi JP. "Temporal variability of crust strength and thickness as influenced by tillage methods and soil management practices in semi arid areas of Kenya, p. 59-76."; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted in a semi arid area of Kenya to determine the effects of tillage methods and soil management practices on crust strength and thickness during the 1998/1999 cropping seasons. Conventional and minimum tillage methods, surface mulch, incorporated mulch and goat manure were studied. Crust strength and thickness were measured at sowing, mid season and harvest. The results obtained indicate that there were large seasonal changes in the field measurement of crust strength and thickness over the two seasons. There were significant differences in crust strength and thickness between sampling times within the treatments. There was a good relationship between crust strength and thickness at R2 = 0.46. All the soil management practices and tillage methods resulted into a decrease of crust strength and thickness with time. Minimum tillage however had stronger crusts than conventional tillage at. Crust thickness was significantly influenced by tillage methods and the soil management practices.

Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Gachene CKK, Kimaru G. "Soil fertility and land productivity.". 2003.
Gachene CKK;, Klingspor P;, Oduor AR. Use of cover crops to improve soil productivity: preliminary studies using tropical velvet bean.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Initial observations of a two-phase trial on the use of Mucuna deeringianum [M. deeringiana] to improve soil productivity are presented. In phase one, 42 seeds were sown at Kabete, Kenya, in October 1990 with 89% germination rate. By September 1991, 4 kg of beans had been harvested. The second phase studied the effects of M. deeringiana on improving crop cover and reducing soil loss at Mbooni and Kabete, resp. Initial observations show that the crop preformed fairly well, providing a cover of up to 25cm uncompressed thickness. Treatments on the runoff plots at Kabete include: bare ground (control), M. deeringiana; maize; the two crops intercropped and sown at the same time; intercropping with M. deeringiana sown one week after the maize; or intercropped with M. deeringiana sown two weeks after the maize. The highest soil loss was found on the bare plot (65 t/ha), followed by the intercropped plot with two weeks between sowing (50 t/ha). Soil loss was lowest in runoff plots with a pure stand of M. deeringiana (11 t/ha). Intercropping and sown at the same time provided highest percentage cover.

Gachene CKK;, Barber RG. "Kenya Soil Survey and Department of Soil Science."; 1983.
Gachene CKK. "Nutrient losses in eroded soil material from some Kenyan soils."; 1989. Abstract

Nutrient loss is one of the factors which causes productivity decline in soils when erosion occurs. This paper gives preliminary results on nutrient losses in eroded soil material in relation to original soil material of some commonly occurring soils in Kenya. Results showed that nutrient losses in eroded soil materials are quite high as indicated by the enrichment ratios of 1.0 for all the nine Kenyan soils studied. Soil conservation measures are recommended

Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Anyika F;, Makau F. "Incorporation of green manure cover crops in maize based cropping system in semi -arid and sub-humid environments of Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

The study involved two experiments; the first experiment was at Machakos Farmers Training Centre (semi-arid) while the second was at Kabete Campus Field Station (sub-humid). The aim of the first experiment was to assess the effect of different residue management practices using green manure cover crop (GMCC) on maize yield. The treatments, which were repeated during the subsequent seasons were: maize without fertiliser, maize with fertiliser, maize intercropped with Lima, bean (Phaseolus lunatus), maize+Sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca) and maize+Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens). The biomass obtained was either incorporated or left as surface mulch or removed during the subsequent seasons. The second experiment aimed at assessing the effect of short-duration fallows of green manure cover crops on maize yield. The species planted during the fallow period were Mucuna pruriens, Purple vetch (Vicia benghalensis) and Crotalaria ochroleuca. Two additional plots were planted with a pure stand of maize, with or without fertiliser. The biomass obtained after the fallow period was either incorporated in the soil, removed or left as surface mulch during the subsequent season when all the plots were planted with maize. Biomass accumulation during the first season of the first experiment ranged from 2.8 to 5.9, 5.6 to 18.5 and 11.5 to 20.9 t DM ha-I for P. lunatus, C. ochroleuca and M. pruriens respectively. Maize grain yields were generally higher in the incorporation followed by mulching. The removal treatment had the lowest yield. However, in seasons of low rainfall, the trend especially for mucuna changed, the mulching treatment gave the highest grain yield (4.01 t ha-I) followed by the incorporation treatment (1.90 t ha-I) and the removal treatment gave the lowest yield (1.51 t ha-I). The increase in yields in the mulched plots was attributed to soil moisture conservation. Biomass accumulation for the short duration fallows ranged from 2.0 to 15.6, 11.2 to 18.0 and 15.6 to 20.0 t DM ha-l for' V. benghalensis, C. ochroleuca and M. pruriens, respectively. Maize grain yield after residue incorporation was higher than from maize+fertiliser plots although no fertiliser had been applied in the former plots. Incorporating V. benghalensis and C. ochroleuca more than doubled the yields when compared with the control. Yield increments of 16 to 58% compensated loss of yields during green manuring.

Gachene CKK;, Mbuvi JP;, Linner J;, Jarvis N. "Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions."; 2000. Abstract

Observations on crop response to soil water content were made over a 2-year period from 1991 to 1992 on 3m by 10m plots at Kabete, Kel1ya. The total anmial rainfall was 948 and 1125mm in 1991 aind 1992 respectively with 101 and 90 rainy days respectively. Two plots, each replicat¬ed two times were cropped to continu~us maize (Zea mays L.) for four seasons ahd were either fertilized or non-fertilized' Due to the more vigorous crop growth] in the fertilized plots, a higher rate of soil water depletion was noted than in non-fer¬tilized plots at both 20cm and 50cm depth. Crop water stress index values also confirmed this observation. The CWSI taken on 3.4.92 were 630 and 813 for fertilized and non-fertilized crop respectively. The difference in soil water content between fertilized and non-fertilized crops was more pronounced at 50cm depth indicating that the former crop had a well developed root system in the subsoil. In particular, most of the available water was left unuti¬lized during the growing period of 1992 short-rains in the non-fertilized plots. During the four seasons, the fertilized crop generally reached tasselling two to two and a half weeks earlier than the non-fertilized crop. Average maximum crop height, LAI and maize grain and above-ground dry matter yields during the four seasons were 245cm, 5.08, 5555.6 kg and 12,110.7 respec¬tively for fertilized crop. The correspond¬ing figures for non-fertilized crop were 191 em, 3.44, 3305.6 kg ha-l and 6,623.4 kg ha-l.

Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle

Gachene CKK, Gicheru PT. "Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Bondo Area.". 1981.
Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Gachene CKK, Michieka DO, Rachilo JR. "Soils of Busia area.". 1982.
Gachene CKK;, Mbuvi JP;, Linner J;, Jarvis N. "Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions."; 2000. Abstract

Observations on crop response to soil water content were made over a 2-year period from 1991 to 1992 on 3m by 10m plots at Kabete, Kel1ya. The total anmial rainfall was 948 and 1125mm in 1991 aind 1992 respectively with 101 and 90 rainy days respectively. Two plots, each replicat¬ed two times were cropped to continu~us maize (Zea mays L.) for four seasons ahd were either fertilized or non-fertilized' Due to the more vigorous crop growth] in the fertilized plots, a higher rate of soil water depletion was noted than in non-fer¬tilized plots at both 20cm and 50cm depth. Crop water stress index values also confirmed this observation. The CWSI taken on 3.4.92 were 630 and 813 for fertilized and non-fertilized crop respectively. The difference in soil water content between fertilized and non-fertilized crops was more pronounced at 50cm depth indicating that the former crop had a well developed root system in the subsoil. In particular, most of the available water was left unuti¬lized during the growing period of 1992 short-rains in the non-fertilized plots. During the four seasons, the fertilized crop generally reached tasselling two to two and a half weeks earlier than the non-fertilized crop. Average maximum crop height, LAI and maize grain and above-ground dry matter yields during the four seasons were 245cm, 5.08, 5555.6 kg and 12,110.7 respec¬tively for fertilized crop. The correspond¬ing figures for non-fertilized crop were 191 em, 3.44, 3305.6 kg ha-l and 6,623.4 kg ha-l.

Gachene CKK;, Gicheru PT;, Mbuvi JP. "Temporal variability of crust strength and thickness as influenced by tillage methods and soil management practices in semi arid areas of Kenya, p. 59-76."; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted in a semi arid area of Kenya to determine the effects of tillage methods and soil management practices on crust strength and thickness during the 1998/1999 cropping seasons. Conventional and minimum tillage methods, surface mulch, incorporated mulch and goat manure were studied. Crust strength and thickness were measured at sowing, mid season and harvest. The results obtained indicate that there were large seasonal changes in the field measurement of crust strength and thickness over the two seasons. There were significant differences in crust strength and thickness between sampling times within the treatments. There was a good relationship between crust strength and thickness at R2 = 0.46. All the soil management practices and tillage methods resulted into a decrease of crust strength and thickness with time. Minimum tillage however had stronger crusts than conventional tillage at. Crust thickness was significantly influenced by tillage methods and the soil management practices.

Gachene CKK;, Palm CA;, Mureithi JG. "Legume cover crops for soil fertility improvement in the highlands of eastern Africa region. Report of an AHI workshop."; 2000. Abstract

This report reviews work on legume cover crops in eastern Africa and provides a summary of recommendations of the appropriate germplasm, management and posible niches for these plants in farming systems. It briefly identifies various reseasons for the lack of adoption of LCC in farming sysytems. The focus is primarily on herbaceous legume cover plants that attain maximum biomass in less than 12 months.

Gachene CKK;, Jarvis N;, Linner H;, Mbuvi JP. "Soil erosion effects on productivity of a humic nitisol."; 2000. Abstract

This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the effect of accelerated erosion on soil productivity of a humic nitisol at Kabete, Kenya. Twenty runoff plots which had been subjected to varying levels of ero¬sion for four seasons (from 1991 to 1992) were planted with maize during the 1993 long-rains. Ten of the plots were cropped with maize under fertilized conditions while the rest were cropped with maize under non-fertilized conditions. There was very little change in soil physi¬cal properties following erosion. However, there was a decrease in percentage volu¬metric water content after four seasons at pressure heads between - 100cm to - 1500 em. Differences in %C, %N and available P between the least and most eroded plots were significant at the 0.01 probability level. Maize grain and above-ground dry matter yields and crop height were always greater in the least eroded plots compared to the more eroded plots in both fertilized and non-fertilized crops. These crop para¬meters were highly and negatively correlat¬ed with cumulative soil loss. Relative to the least eroded plot, there was a decline in maize grain yields of 214 kg ha-l cm-l of topsoil lost. Plant height was reduced 34cm per cm of soil lost for the first 2.5cm of topsoil.

Gachene CKK, Makau M, Haru H. "Soil moisture extraction by different legume cover crops.". 1997.
Gachene, C K K; Mureithi JG. Lost and reclaimed: A case study of gully rehabilitation in central Kenya highlands using low-cost measures.; 2004. Abstract

Gully control and reclamation activities using low-cost measures were carried out in early March 2001 at Gatanga division, Kenya. The study area was selected on the basis of previous work carried out in farmers fields by the Legume Research Network Project (LRNP). The project’s main objective is to introduce green manure legume species that perform well in different agro ecological zones of Kenya mainly for the purpose of soil fertility improvement and erosion control in smallhold farms. Area studied is characterized by a mean annual rainfall of about 1100 mm with a bimodal distribution, deep red soils, steep slopes and intensive landuse. Field activities were carried out in one of the farms which had literally been abandoned due to gully erosion. The length of the gully was 130 m with an average width and depth of 1.62 and 1.4 m, respectively. Work involved planting of grasses (mainly Brachira humidocola) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on the floor and sides of the gully. In addition ‘macro-contour lines’ were constructed in the farm which involved planting lines of mucuna, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) along the terrace embankments. Through photographs taken over a 3 year period, evidence is given to show that the gully has completely healed and that the farm has been brought back to productivity.

Gachene CKK. "Soils of Bondo area.". 1986.
Gacheru PK, ABONG' GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CM. "Cyanogenic Content, Aflatoxin Level and Quality of Dried Cassava Chips and Flour Sold in Nairobi and Coastal Regions of Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2015;3(3):197-206.gacheru_2015_cyanogenic_content_cassava_chips__flour.pdf

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