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Wanja ND, Agnèse J-F, Ford AGP, Day JJ, Ndiwa TC, Turner GF, Getahun A. Identifying and conserving Tilapiine cichlid species in the twenty-first century. Springer; 2021.
omari HK, Makokha, Abdalla S. Arabic for all. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
omari HK, Makokha M, Masoud A, Abdalla S. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance Publishers Ltd; 2020.
Alfred Mitema. Genetic Diversity of the Deadly Kenyan Aspergillus flavus Population. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2019.
Otieno DJ, Akinyi B, Rege JEO. Empowering Early Career Professionals for Effective Leadership of Agricultural Institutions: Experiences from a Leadership Mentoring Project in Eastern and Southern Africa. Nairobi: Institute for People, Innovations and Change in Organizations – Eastern Africa (PICO-EA); 2018.
Awori MN. I AM-healing health and happiness. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2018.
Awori MN. I AM- the meaning of life. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2017.
Angu C, Muthama JN, Mutai BK. The Interconnection among Aerosols, Urbanization and Weather. Lambert Academic Publishing; ISBN-10:3330026537; 2017.
Andreassen BA, Ndohvu JB,(Eds) TB. Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA. The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bonn, Germany: IPBES; 2016.2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
Matula PD, Wanjala G, Ankoma. Instructional Supervision. Nairobi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Wanjala G, Phylister D. Matula, Ankomah YA. Instructional Supervision: A Text for the M.Ed. Degree Programme of the University of Nairobi. Nairobi: CODL: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Ogecha J, Kisera JK, Ariga S. Integrated Beanfly Management in East Africa: Beanfly Management on Common Beans in Kenya. London: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.
Field CB, Aalst MV, Aalst MV, Opondo M, Poloczanska E, Pörtner H-O, Redsteer MH. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Volume 1, Global and Sectoral Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. USA: IPCC; 2014.

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. [WGI AR5 2.2, 6.3, 10.3-6, 10.9] Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems (Figure TS.1). The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation. [INSERT FIGURE TS.1 HERE Figure TS.1: Climate-related hazards, exposure, and vulnerability interact to produce risk. Changes in both the climate system (left) and development processes including adaptation and mitigation (right) are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability. [19.2, Figure 19-1]] Section A of this summary characterizes observed impacts, vulnerability and exposure, and responses to date. Section B examines the range of future risks and potential benefits across sectors and regions, highlighting where choices matter for reducing risks through mitigation and adaptation. Section C considers principles for effective adaptation and the broader interactions among adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. Box TS.1 introduces the context of the WGII AR5, and Box TS.2 defines central concepts. To accurately convey the degree of certainty in key findings, the report relies on the consistent use of calibrated uncertainty language, introduced in Box TS.3. Chapter references in square brackets indicate support for findings, paragraphs of findings, figures, and tables in this summary.

Amolo M. BRP 314 N ew religious movement in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
Amolo M. BRP 318 : History of Christianity. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. Environmental Geoinformatics : Monitoring and Management.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

There is no doubt that today, perhaps more than ever before, humanity faces a myriad of complex and demanding challenges. These include natural resource depletion and environmental degradation, food and water insecurity, energy shortages, diminishing biodiversity, increasing losses from natural disasters, and climate change with its associated potentially devastating consequences, such as rising sea levels. These human-induced and natural impacts on the environment need to be well understood in order to develop informed policies, decisions, and remedial measures to mitigate current and future negative impacts. To achieve this, continuous monitoring and management of the environment to acquire data that can be soundly and rigorously analyzed to provide information about its current state and changing patterns, and thereby allow predictions of possible future impacts, are essential. Developing pragmatic and sustainable solutions to address these and many other similar challenges requires the use of geodata and the application of geoinformatics. This book presents the concepts and applications of geoinformatics, a multidisciplinary field that has at its core different technologies that support the acquisition, analysis and visualization of geodata for environmental monitoring and management. We depart from the 4D to the 5D data paradigm, which defines geodata accurately, consistently, rapidly and completely, in order to be useful without any restrictions in space, time or scale to represent a truly global dimension of the digital Earth. The book also features the state-of-the-art discussion of Web-GIS. The concepts and applications of geoinformatics presented in this book will be of benefit to decision-makers across a wide range of fields, including those at environmental agencies, in the emergency services, public health and epidemiology, crime mapping, environmental management agencies, tourist industry, market analysis and e-commerce, or mineral exploration, among many others. The title and subtitle of this textbook convey a distinct message. Monitoring -the passive part in the subtitle - refers to observation and data acquisition, whereas management - the active component - stands for operation and performance. The topic is our environment, which is intimately related to geoinformatics. The overall message is: all the mentioned elements do interact and must not be separated. Hans-Peter B ahr, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c., Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Aketch NO, Masibo M, Olago DO. Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources: A natural Outlook-Geoenvironmental Resources and Hazards..; 2013. Abstract

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

Okeyo AM, Ibrahim MNM;, Ali, A; Bhuiyan AKFH;, Choudhury MP;, Sarker SC;, Islam F;. Morphometry and performance of Black Bengal goats at the rural community level in Bangladesh.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

Data on morphometrics and performance of 106 Black Bengal goats were collected through an in-depth monitoring survey conducted in 73 families of Gangatia, Borachala and Pachpai villages of Bhaluka Upazila, Mymensingh, Bangladesh using a structured

Maundu P, Bosibori E, Kibet S, Morimoto Y, Odubo A, Kapeta B, Muiruri P, Adeka R, Ombonya J. Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage: a practical guide to documenting traditional foodways. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.
Mwaliwa HC, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya. Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Jerono P, Hillary S, Andrew C, O.N. J. A Unified Orthography for Kalenjin Languages of Kenya. South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Keesbury J, Onyango-Ouma W, Undie C-C, Maternowska C, Mugisha F, Kahega E, Askew I. “A review and evaluation of multi-sectoral response services (‘one-stop centers‘) for gender-based violence in Kenya and Zambia.”. Nairobi: Population Council; 2012.2012rh_sgbv_oscreveval.pdf
Atoh. F. Analysis of Dholuo Nouns: The Semantic Field Approach. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller; 2011.
Rukwaro RW, Ayonga JN, Anunda, Musungu T(2011). Development control frameworks in Kenya.. Nairobi, Kenya: Published report by (AAK/BAF); 2011.
A. K. . Developmental Defects of Enamel.. Saarbrucken,: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Saarbrucken,; 2011.
A K. Developmental Defects of Enamel. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2011.
Mwimali BJ, et al. The East Africa Court of Justice Law Digest: 2005 -2011. East African Law Society; 2011.
A. K. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Saarbrucken; 2011.
A. K. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Saarbrucken; 2011.
A K. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2011.
Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
Onjala J, Atieno R, Jama M. Report on the Status of Pastoralists. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies; 2010.
Branthomme A, Bunning C, Kamerlaczyk S, Rodas R., Anyango SO, Situma C. Integrated Natural Resources Assessment Kenya: field manual . Rome: FAO; 2009.
Agwanda" "A, Bocquier' "P, Khasakhala" "A, Owuor" "S. A Socio-Demographic Survey of Nairobi. Dakar, Senegal: CODESSRIA; 2009.
Ndiba PK, Axe L, Jahan K, Ramanujachary V. XRF measurement of heavy metals in highway marking beads..; 2009.Website
Atoh F, L. K. Introduction to Morphology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
. AAA, Ayot.M.R. Principles of Teaching and Communication. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Nairobi ; 2007.
Abinya ONA, Abwao HO, Bird P, Baraza R, BYAKIKA B, Kodwavwalla Y. Experience with breast cancer in a single oncology clinic in Nairobi.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2006.
Amiri S. M wongozo wa Kif o Kisimani. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2006.
C.O.N K, Anne N. Chosing a Spouse. In Kassim A (2005) True Love Waits(Eds). Nairobi: BARA manual ; 2005.
Subbo W, et al. Gender Training Manual. Nairobi: Catholic Secretariat; 2005.training_manual.pdf
F.G M, Anne N. Educational Policy and Planning. NAIROBI: KTTC-VVOB; 2004.
…, Kinyua AM, Nderitu SK, Agola JO, MANGALA MJ. Indoor radon levels in coastal and rift valley regions of Kenya. IAEA-CN-91/56 401-404; 2004. Abstract
…, Kinyua AM, Nderitu SK, Agola JO, MANGALA MJ. Indoor radon (222Rn) levels in coastal and rift valley regions of Kenya.; 2003. AbstractWebsite

[en] Measurements of indoor radon levels by electret technique in Coastal and Rift Valley Region of Kenya are reported. The results indicate a large variation in the concentrations (5-704 Bq m-3) and that remedial action is necessary in some dwellings. The geological …

…, Kinyua AM, Nderitu SK, Agola JO, MANGALA MJ. Indoor radon ({sup 222} Rn) levels in coastal and rift valley regions of Kenya.; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Measurements of indoor radon levels by electret technique in Coastal and Rift Valley Region of Kenya are reported. The results indicate a large variation in the concentrations (5-704 Bq m {sup-3}) and that remedial action is necessary in some dwellings. The geological …

Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Mitullah WV, Alila PO, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Ikiara GK, Aura - Samanta ZO, Sen RK, C P. Industrialisation and Development: The Kenyan Experience.; 2001.Website
Mburu J, Abu-Saʻad Iʻil;. The influence of settlement on substance use and abuse among nomadic population in Israel and Kenya.; 2001. AbstractWebsite

This book provides an overview of how settlement processes among nomadic and semi-nomadic populations can result in social and cultural disruption of traditional life. Based on a study among the Negev Bedouin Arab tribes in Israel and the Maasai tribes in Kenya, it focuses, in particular, on the influence of settlement processes on substance use and abuse. The study is the first to provide numbers of users, types of substances, volumes, and frequencies of substance use. Substance use, particularly of alcohol and drugs, represents a new phenomenon in the Bedouin society. New social environments and conflicting sets of values and behavioral norms, which are far from traditional, are persuading factors behind the new trend of substance use. Among the Maasai, the settlement status is a predominating factor in shaping their lifestyle. It greatly influences the availability of substance, the pattern of substance use and their attitude towards it. Although there was no evidence of any hard drug type use among the Maasai, the use of substance is an increasing trend among them. The results may be useful for the formulation of policies and practices related to improving the settlement and living conditions of nomads and semi-nomads, keeping particular attention to the substance use and abuse policies and programs.

Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Nyamongo I, Ikamari LDE, Ateng T. Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Population Studies and Research Institute; 2001.
Ocholla-Ayayo, Oucho, J.O. and Crush J, Elias H, Ayiemba, Odhiambo J. Population and Development in Kenya..; 2000.Website
Hamilton SR, Aaltonen LA, for on Cancer IAR, Organization WH, others. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system. Vol. 48. IARC press Lyon:; 2000. AbstractWebsite
Oni EA, Ayoade JO, Owolabi IE. Advances in Geodesy and Geophysics Research in Africa.; 1998.Website
Abagi O, Odipo G. Access, Quality and Efficiency in Education in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR).; 1997.
Awuondo CO. Syracuse memos.; 1995.Website
Mbuthia DEM, Timmamy DR, Amiri DS. Swahili Drama, -a study module for distance learning students . Nairobi: Departmment of Educational Studies,U.o N..; 1994.
Nzomo M, Adhiambo-Oduol J, Kabira WM. Democratic Change in Africa: Women's Perspective.; 1993.Website
Abate A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN. Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands..; 1989.Website
Abate A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN. Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands..; 1989.Website
Ochoro WEO, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Awiti LM, Makanda DW, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Awiti LM, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Ochoro WEO, Makanda DW, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Makanda DW, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Ochoro WEO, Awiti LM, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Kabira WM, Adagala K. Kenyan oral literature : a selection.; 1985.Website
Kabira WM, Adagala K. Kenyan oral literature : a selection.; 1985.Website
Kabira WM, Adagala K. Kenyan oral narratives.; 1985.Website
Book Chapter
Wambui K, Muiru N, Amatsimbi M. "The Kenya Media: A Brief History.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Ayiemba EHO. "Marriage and Family Patterns.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis, Nairobi. Nairobi: UNFPA; Forthcoming.
Amatsimbi M, Wambui K. "Media Veterans in Kenya: Archival Records.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Owakah F, Aswani DR. "African Ontology: It’s Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: Reflections of African Societies and Development: Perspectives from African Philosophers.; Submitted.
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Onyambu CK, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Osiemo SK, Mutala TM. "Anaphylactic Reactions in Radiology Procedures.". In: Asthma. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Awuor OL, Edward MK. "Harnessing the Potential of Underutilized Aquatic Bioresource for Food and Nutritional Security in Kenya.". In: Food Security and Safety. Springer; 2021:. Abstract
Onyambu DCK, Aywak DAA, Osiemo DS, Mutala DTM. "Anaphylactic reactions in radiology procedures.". In: Asthma. Intechopen; 2020.
Jeneby F, Badrus A, Taib H, Alluso A, Odiemo L, Otanga H. "Best practices in reaching ‘hidden’ populations and harm reduction service provision.". In: The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle. New York: Emerald Publishing Company; 2020.
A K, Folayan MO, Sabbah W, El Tantawi M, Ramos-Gomez F. "Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries.". In: Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA.; 2020.
A M. "Fungal Biomass Load and Aspergillus flavus in a Controlled Environment.". In: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass.; 2020.
Aabid A. Ahmed, Vasileios Margaritis, Mendelsohn A, and Hellen Kariuki. "The Impact of Palliative Care on Health Status in HIV-Positive Children.". In: Challenges in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1. Chapter 11. London : Print ISBN: 978-93-89816-80-8, eBook ISBN: 978-93-89816-81-5; 2020.
Amugune BK, Otieno-Omutoko L. "An African Perspective of Benefits in Social Science Research.". In: Social Science Research Ethics in Africa.Research Ethics Forum, vol 7. Nortjé N., Visagie R., Wessels J. (eds). Cham : Springer; 2019.
Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Opere A, Omwoyo A, Mueni P, Arango M. "Impact of Climate change in Eastern Africa.". In: Hydrology and water resources management in Arid, Semi-arid and Tropical Regions. DOI. 10.4018/978-1-7998-0163-4.ch010.; 2019.
A.W N, J.A O, D.O O, S C. "Khat (Catha edulis) Addiction, effects on general body health and interventional remedial measures.". In: Drug Abuse: Addiction and Recovery Volume 1 Chapter 4. Open access e-books; 2019.
J. NG, M.M G, P.B G, T.W G, A N. "Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic school going children in Kibera slum, Kenya.". In: Theory and applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology . India: Book publisher international; 2019.book_chapter_-__theory_and_applications_of_microbiology_and_biotechnology_vol._2.pdf
Sabiiti G, et al. "Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change over Uganda.". In: Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~ 1km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011-2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth.

A. K, Folayan. MO. "A compendium on Oral health of children around the world – Early childhood caries.". In: A compendium on Oral health of children around the world – Early childhood caries. New York: Nova Biomedical Publishers; 2018.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
Adeola O, Meru AK, Kinoti MW. "Kenya’s blooming flower industry: enhancing global competitiveness.". In: Africa’s Competitiveness in the Global Economy. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2018.
Ebrahim YH, Mvusi S, Adams A. "Selby Mvusi (1929 - 1967): Historical perspective.". In: Selby Mvusi and beyond. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Gaitho; PR, Awino; ZB, R.K. K. "Strategic leadership and Service Delivery in African Context: Ethical Practices Influence the Relationship?". In: International Journal for Innovation Education and Research Papers.; 2018.
Phiri IA, et al. "Climate Change and Food Security: A Challenge for African Christianity.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Alsanius BW, Kosiba AH, Onyango CM, Mogren L. "Produce quality and safety.". In: Rooftop Urban Agriculture. New York: Springer; 2017.
Phiri IA, et al. "Profile of African Christianity at Home and in the West.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
A. K, SG. D. "Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry.". In: Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House; 2017.
T O, A K. "“The Triplex Mundus as a Global Trope in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s Rosa Mistika.” .". In: Contemporary African Societies and Cultures. Seoul: Dahae Publishing Co.Ltd; 2017.
Agwanda A, A K. "Age schedules of Out Migrants and their implications for County development.". In: Rural Urban Migration and Urban Rural Linkages: The case of Western Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung ; 2016.
Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Efficacy of a capsular polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2016.
Ambuko J. "Advances in Ethylene Signal Transduction in Fruits and Vegetables.". In: Postharvest Ripening Physiology of Crops. CRC Press; 2016:. Abstract
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2015.
Rao, K.P.C., Sridhar, G., Mulwa, J.K, Kilavi, M.N., Esilaba, A., Athanasiadis, I. N., Valdivia RO. "Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Agricultural Systems in East Africa.". In: Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: pp. 75-124. World Scientific Publishing; 2015.
Asingo PO. "Party Strengths, Partisan Identities and Voter Mobilization in the Kenya Elections of 2013.". In: New Constitution, Same Old Challenges: Reflections on Kenya’s 2013 General Elections. Nairobi: SID; 2015.New Constititution, Same Old Challenges
Abong' GO, Kabira J, Okoth MW, Ogolla JA, Ouma J. "Potential of processing potato flakes from popular Kenyan potato varieties.". In: CAB e Books.; 2015.
A. HASHIM. "). Bonding through Faith: Enhancing Cohesion and Integration Values in the Islamic Religious Education Curricula for Primary and Secondary Schools.". In: Mainstreaming National Cohesion and Integration in Kenya’s Educational Curriculum. Nairobi: National Cohesion and Integration Commission in partnership with the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development; 2014.bonding_through_faith.pdf
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 1 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 10 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 11 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 13 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 6 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 7 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 8 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Clet Wandui Masiga, Abdalla Mohamed, Sarah Osama, Abigail Ngugi, Dan Kiambi, Santie de Villiers, Ngugi K, Mugoya C, Rasha Ali. "Enhanced Utilization of Biotechnology Research and Development Innovations in Eastern and Central Africa for Agro-ecological Intensification.". In: Enhanced Utilization of BiotechnologyResearch and Development Innovationsin Eastern and Central Africafor Agro-ecological Intensification. Entebe: Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA); 2014.masiga_et_al_2014_enhanced_use_of_biotechnology_in_eca.pdf
Katko TS, Hukka JJ, A MD, Nyangeri EN. "Water Services and Cooperation.". In: Global Water: Issues and Insights (P231-237). Austriani National University Press (ANU).; 2014.
Owakah F, Aswani RD. "African Ontology: Its Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: UNESCO-Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS):African Cultures, History, and Civilizations. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.
Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Abong' GO, Kabira JN. "The current status of the potato value chain in Kenya.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Abong' GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing b-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent .". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Nguhiu-Mwangi DJ, Aleri DJW, Mogoa DEGM, Mbithi PPMF. "Indicators of Poor Welfare in Dairy Cows Within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in the Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights from Veterinary Medicine. InTech; 2013. Abstract

Animal welfare lacks a good universal definition and a satisfactory distinction from the term “well being”. However, a consensual definition is essential for practical, legislative and scientific purposes. Without a clear definition, animal welfare cannot be effectively studied or conclusively assessed to provide remedial measures to its violation [1-3]. Animal welfare is therefore defined as the ability of an animal to interact or cope comfortably with its environment, resulting in satisfaction of both its physical and mental state [4-6]. This satisfaction enhances expression of normal behavioural patterns by the animal [7,8].

In the context of welfare, “environment” refers to internal factors (within the animal) and external factors (in the animal’s physical environment) to which the animal responds with its physiological and psychological systems [6,9]. In contrast, animal “well being” is defined as the animal’s perception of its state in trying to cope with its environment [1,5]. Concisely, animal “well-being” refers to the current state of the animal, but animal welfare is a more general term referring to past, present and future implications of the animal’s state [10].

The assessment of animal welfare is base on the provisions of five freedoms, which include:

Freedom from hunger and thirst, availed through provision of ready access to water and a diet to maintain health and vigour,

Freedom from pain, injury and disease, availed through disease prevention and treatment,

Freedom from fear and distress, availed through avoidance of conditions that cause mental suffering,

Freedom to have normal behaviour patterns, availed through provision of sufficient space and appropriate physical structures,

Freedom from thermal or physical discomfort, availed through provision of a comfortable environment.

Knowledge of animal physiology, animal behavior and animal needs based on the five freedoms is paramount in assessing as well as enforcing animal welfare. Animals need to be provided with amble comfort related to these five freedoms. They should be kept in housing or environments that will minimize adverse climatic variations or exposures to extremes of cold or heat, rain, strong continuous winds and direct solar exposures. Appropriate conditions minimizing trauma, development of lesions and disease outbreaks are essential. Continuous availability of water and provision of adequate wholesome feeds, which consist of balanced constituent rations supplying specific nutritional needs to the body, is required. Animals should be provided with housing conditions and environments that allow them to display natural behavior such as unhindered movement, free expression of oestrus or heat symptoms necessary for mating or insemination in order to have continued sustainable reproduction, social relationships that include animal-to-animal and animal-to-human cordial interactions; and finally minimizing or preventing any causes of suffering as much as possible [11].

Smallholder dairy farming occupies a vast proportion of agricultural production and the main livelihood of the people in most developing (third world) countries particularly in Africa, Asia and South America. In Kenya, smallholder zero-grazing dairy units contribute about 80% of the national commercial dairy herd [12] and over 70% of all the marketed milk [13-16]. Each of the Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units has 2 to 10 milking cows most of which are exotic breeds (Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey or crosses of these exotic breeds). Some smallholder farmers, who have better financial resources, manage to have up to 20 or more cows. The cows are raised on small plots of land measuring between 0.25 to 2 acres. Only few smallholder farmers would have land measuring a maximum of 5 acres. The Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units are unique because they have varied designs and management practices. They vary in housing designs, nutritional and management protocol from unit to unit to the extent that they can correctly be referred to as zero-grazing “subunits” that are devoid of a consistent production system. The nutritional regimes and management practices not only vary from unit to unit, but also within the same unit from time to time [17]. The cows in these units are invariably zero-grazed [13,18] and have sub-optimal production [14,18,19], which is attributed to a number of constraints such as inadequate feeding, poor nutrition, substandard animal husbandry, lack of proper dairy farming facilities that include inadequate space to move and interact freely. All these factors predispose the cows to diseases and other stressful conditions [14,20,21].

A high number of smallholder zero-grazing dairy units are concentrated in the peri-urban areas owing to availability of ready market for milk and milk products among city and town residents [13,18]. The high and rapid population growth in developing countries has led to a reduction of agricultural lands that support the livelihood of the people. This has triggered a shift from fewer large-scale farms to numerous intensified smallholder production units in an endeavor to maximize economic profits [22]. The resulting low income following land subdivision to smallholder enterprises, affects the livelihood of majority of the citizens in the involved countries [16,21]. The low income poses financial challenges that make it difficult to afford adequate dairy farming facilities, hence the progressively deteriorating husbandry standards that precipitate stressful conditions, which further exacerbate poor welfare of the dairy cattle in these smallholder units. These interacting multiple factors, cause a vicious circle of events that eventually have negative effects on physiology, behavior, disease susceptibility and productivity of the dairy cows [23,24]. The welfare of food animals has become a major concern to consumers of animal products in many parts of the world. Consumers of products such as meat and meat products, milk and eggs are demanding to know how the animals from which these products have been obtained are handled with respect to animal welfare ethics [25,26].

Dairy cattle housing should provide the animal with protection from harsh environmental extremes [27]. Good housing systems are those that are well designed for ease of management and maintenance at all times [27-29]. It is proposed that all confinement for animals should be constructed and operated to meet the legal requirements for protection of the animal as well as maintain high quality animal products [30]. Good animal housing systems are those that enhance provision of all the five freedoms that an animal should have to satisfy its welfare [28,31]. If these basic needs cannot be met in the animal house, then health, welfare and production of the animal will be compromised. These concerns are particularly critical in the smallholder zero-grazing systems, in which dairy cows are confined throughout their growth and production life. Naturally, cattle are grazing animals and therefore pasture-grazing is a more welfare-friendly system because it allows free expression of normal animal behavior compared to the restricted indoor zero-grazing systems. Conversely, high yielding dairy cows may not get all their nutritional demands from grazing only, and this may compromise their welfare with regard to nutrition. This means that both zero-grazing and pasture-grazing systems have positive and negative effects on the welfare of dairy cattle [32]. However, zero-grazing systems demand more articulate precision in design, construction and management because they have a higher inclination to compromising welfare of the housed dairy cattle. Although pasture-grazing allows free expression of normal cattle behavior and provides sufficient comfortable lying space, the pasture forage has lower nutritional value than the high plane feeding of the zero-grazing units and therefore cattle in pastures may spent long hours grazing depending on the quality and amount of forage in the pasture, hence less time resting, which influences the resting aspect of welfare negatively [33]. In comparison, indoor housing systems provide high level feeding and increase intake rates, thus fulfilling nutritional requirements faster, reducing eating times, leaving more time for cattle to rest and ruminate [34]. However, indoor housing systems have limited space allowance, which increases competitive aggressive behavior within the herd [35], restriction of natural foraging behavior and opportunity to feed selectively [36], negative effects on the cow comfort [33], and high incidence of diseases such as lameness and mastitis [37,38]. All these factors in the indoor housing have adverse effects on the welfare of cattle. In Kenya, the practice of zero-grazing dairy production is inevitable owing to the reduced land sizes. Hence, the importance of drawing reliable direct indicators of poor welfare existing in these zero-grazing systems in order to introduce corrective remedial measures, particularly in relation to designing of the construction of welfare-acceptable and cow-comfortable zero-grazing units no matter how simple or cheap.

Improvements of animal welfare may be achieved through (a) assessment of animal welfare, (b) identification of risk factors potentially leading to welfare problems and (c), interventions in response to the risk factors. Improvements can be enhanced by directly dealing with the risk factors of animal welfare within the farming unit. Therefore, there must be good reliable way of measuring or assessing whether or not poor animal welfare exists within the practiced farming systems. In this process the animal based parameters help us to identify the animal’s response to the system, and therefore indicating the negative impact of the potential risk factors existing within the farming system [39]. Traditionally, farm animal welfare assessment has focused on the measurement of resources provided to the animal such as housing-and-housing design criteria [40,41]. Although such indirect resource-based welfare assessment criteria are quick, easy and have some degree of reliability, basing the welfare verdict solely on their findings may not necessarily mean that the welfare of the animals is good or poor. Other husbandry aspects that affect animal welfare are management practices and the human-animal relationship, but their measurement may be more difficult. However, the provision of good management and environmental resources does not necessarily result in a high standard of animal welfare. Direct animal-level parameters such as health or behavior can be taken as indicators of the animals’ feelings and a measure of bodily state of the animal. These are more reliable because they indicate how the animal has been affected by some factors existing within the proximate environment or housing system of the animal and how it has responded to these factors. Welfare assessment should therefore be based primarily on such animal-related parameters. In practice, resource or management-based parameters should also be included in an on-farm assessment protocol when closely correlated to animal-associated measurements and because they can form the basis for the identification of causes of welfare problems [39]. It is however challenging to select and develop reliable and at the same time feasible measurements for on-farm assessment protocols. Attempts to create an operational welfare assessment protocol primarily relying on animal-related parameters have mainly been made with regard to dairy cows [42-45].

Animal-level indices for on-farm welfare assessment can be divided into ethological or behavioural and pathological or health parameters; physiological indicators are mostly unavailable for feasibility reasons. Ethological parameters include individual animal behavior, animal-to-animal interaction, human-animal interaction, agonistic behavior and other abnormal behavior. The commonest animal health indicators of cattle welfare are lameness, external body injuries, disease incidence, body condition score and body cleanliness. The main welfare health problem in cattle is lameness, particularly caused by lesions resulting from disruptions of the horn of the claw predisposed by factors such as concrete floors, zero-grazing systems and uncomfortable stalls [45,46]. One of the main shortcomings that exacerbates welfare problems of lameness in cattle and this would even be more prevalent in zero-grazing systems in developing countries, is the lack of valid and reliable lameness diagnostic methods. There is generally lack of sensitive methods of recognizing early change in the gait of lame cattle [44,47,48]. The most reliable and sensitive way of detecting early changes in gait for diagnosis of lameness is the use of automated gait-scoring computer aided systems, which are very scarcely used all over the world [49]. Moreover, these automated facilities are expensively unaffordable to the poor smallholder farmers in developing countries such as Kenya. Claw disorders particularly those related to laminitis are highly prevalent in smallholder zero-grazing dairy units and subunits in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya and probably in other parts of Kenya with similar production systems [50]. These have been found to be highly associated with housing and management factors within the zero-grazing units [17,50]. This high prevalence of claw lesions together with a high prevalence of injuries or signs of injuries in specific parts of the body as well as soiling and body condition scores of dairy cows in the smallholder zero-grazing units in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya [51,52] was thought to be reliable indicators of the state of welfare of dairy cattle particularly when correlated with the prevailing zero-grazing conditions.

Parameters used to assess animal welfare should be able to inform us about the state of welfare. Three requirements are essential for parameters or indicators used to assess animal welfare. These include: “validity”, which asks the question, “what does the parameter in consideration tell us about the animal’s welfare state?”; “reliability”, which considers inter-observer reliability and asks the question, “do different observers see the same thing?” and the third requirement is “feasibility”, which considers the practical aspects of doing the recordings, asking the questions, “how easy is it to record the parameter?, how long does it take to assess the parameter?, and what equipment is needed for measuring the parameter?” [39].

There is a high likelihood among farmers with zero-grazed dairy cows to focus more on whatever it takes to cause their cows produce as much milk as possible at the expense of the health and welfare considerations of the animal. High milk yielding cows often develop a compromise of energy-balance deficits, which infringes on their welfare. As a result of energy deficit stress, these dairy cows become easily susceptible to metabolic and reproductive problems [53]. The uniqueness of the zero-grazing systems in Kenya which consists of subunits that are inconsistently varied in designs, in feeding regimes in relation to feed types, quality and quantity, as well as substandard management practices makes them a rich source of information on management of welfare of cattle. Information acquired from studies in these smallholder zero-grazing subunits will serve to demonstrate how animal-level parameters can be useful in indicating the welfare state of the dairy cattle and how these indicators are associated with the housing design, feeding and management practices in these varied and substandard zero-grazing units and generally suggest possible remedial welfare improvement measures.

The intent of this paper is to present the results from two studies carried out at different times with collection of data from some of the zero-grazing units in the same area but looking at separate objectives. These studies dealt with assessment of the state of welfare of dairy cattle in those units and the prevalent risk factors for poor welfare. In particular, it was planned 1) to determine the role of claw lesions in predicting the welfare of zero-grazed dairy cows with respect to housing designs, floor type, feeding and management practices in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi Kenya; 2) and to determine the role of body injuries, body soiling and body condition scores in predicting the welfare of zero-grazed dairy cows with respect to housing designs, floor type, feeding and management practices in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi Kenya.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mbithi PMF. "Indicators of Poor Welfare in Dairy Cows Within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in the Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights from Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Rita Pay. Intech; 2013.
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Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

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The impact of Human Immune Deficiency/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is evident in the rising numbers of those orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Apart from death, millions of children live in households with sick and dying members. These Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) affected by HIV/AIDS are stigmatized, isolated, discriminated against, disinherited and often deprived of basic education and care. This study was carried out in Kadibo Division, Kisumu District. Systematic random sampling was used. The sampling frame consisted of all the households with OVCs supported by various Community Based Organizations (CBOs) . A total of 111 households were interviewed and nutritional assessment for 322 children was done. The study was designed to assist CBOs improve their effectiveness in provision of optimal nutritional care for OVCs. Data collection applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. Pearson’s product correlation moment was applied to determine the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Probit regression model was developed from the independent and dependent dichotomous variables.

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Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Kihara J, Mukalama J, Ayuke FO, Njoroge S, Waswa B, Okeyo J, Koala S, Bationo A. "Crop and Soil response to tillage and crop residue application in a tropical Ferralsol in Sub-humid Western Kenya.". In: In: Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Kihara, J., Adolwa, I., Vanlauwe, B., Saidou, K. (Eds), Lessons learned from long-term soil fertility management experiments in Africa, 3:41-57. Springer; 2012. Abstract

Conservation agriculture (CA) offers an opportunity to reverse prevailing land degradation and consequent loss of productivity often occasioned by intensive soil tillage in cropping systems in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A long term experiment was established in Nyabeda Western Kenya in 2003 to evaluate the effect of tillage and crop residue application on maize and soybean yields, and on soil properties. The experiment was set up as a split-split-split plot design with four replicates and involved a factorial combination of tillage system (reduced and conventional tillage), cropping system (continuous cereal, soybean-maize rotation and intercropping), crop residue – maize stover – management (plus and minus crop residue) and nitrogen (N) application. Results showed that tillage infl uenced performance
of maize although signifi cant tillage effects were observed in only 5 out of the 15 seasons analyzed. Overall average maize grain yields were 2.9 ton ha −1 in reduced tillage and 3.6 ton ha −1 in conventional tillage systems. Application of crop residue increased seasonal maize grain yield in reduced tillage (340 kg ha −1 ) and in conventional tillage (240 kg ha −1 ), but the only signifi cant crop residue (CR) effect was observed in season 10. Differences in maize yields between the two systems were attributed to phosphorus availability as it was demonstrated that application of crop residue in the reduced tillage resulted in better availability of P than without crop residue application. Under the rotation system, signifi cant tillage effects were observed in 6 of the 15 seasons with greater maize yield in conventional than in reduced tillage system. Soybean yields under reduced tillage were comparable to those from conventional tillage with the good performance of soybean in reduced tillage being related to the effect of its canopy on soil evaporation, and or to changes in microbial diversity and soil structure. For both the conventional and reduced tillage systems, legume
benefi ts on succeeding maize were observed with similar maize yields being observed between maize monocropping and maize rotated with soybean. Reduced tillage improved soil aggregation with greater aggregate mean weight diameters being observed in this system than in conventional tillage. Tests for biological activity showed that the application of crop residue increased termite abundance in both
reduced and conventional tillage systems. The results from this study indicate the importance of long term trials in better understanding the benefi cial effects of conservation agriculture on soil productivity.

Keywords Reduced tillage • Rotation • Soybean • Soil aggregation • Soil organisms

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