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Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Vincent OM, Nyak DM. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):56-60 .
Ali FA, Ongeri BO. "Impact of refugee influx in east African Community-An exploratory analysis." Global Journal of Contemporary Research in Accounting, Auditing and Business Ethics. 2019;GJCRA .
Alibiri OA. "Incidence of HIV among initially HIV negative pregnant women in Kenya." Lambert Academic Publishers, Saarbrücken, Germany. 2013;(ISBN 978-3-659-44198-1.). Abstract

Background: Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) counseling and testing provides an entry point to comprehensive HIV/AIDS management. In Africa, most women attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics are counseled and tested for HIV only once; during the initial visit and yet there is documented evidence of seroconversion later in pregnancy. Failure to repeat the test leaves a gap in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT).
Purpose: To identify the incidence of HIV seroconversion in pregnancy among initially HIV negative pregnant women.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among initially HIV negative women later in pregnancy. To describe the factors associated with seroconversion among initially HIV negative women later in pregnancy. To discuss factors that influence HIV repeat counseling and testing among initially HIV negative pregnant women.
Study site: Kakamega Provincial General Hospital ANC clinics and antenatal ward (ANW).
Study design: A descriptive cross sectional study was employed.
Sampling and sample size: Three hundred and two pregnant women as per Fisher’s formula who on initial testing were HIV negative, revisiting ANC clinics or presenting in latent phase of labor at the ANW were systematically sampled for the study.
Data collection: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Respondents were retested to identify their HIV seroconversion status.
Data analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used for data analysis. Descriptive data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; frequency tables were generated, measures of central tendency calculated. Associations between variables were sought using chi square and significance tests. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Among 302 women retested, 225 (74%) were married with a mean age of 24.6±5.4 years. Ninety three (30.8%) of these were house wives. Nine women (2.98%) who were retested turned HIV positive. Only 9 (2.98%) thought it was not necessary to repeat HIV testing 4 (44%) arguing that they tested HIV negative during their last test. For those who thought it was necessary to repeat testing, 91 (31.1%) thought it was part of self care. There was significant difference between women with multiple sex partners and those who did not have multiple sex partners in so far as HIV seroconversion was concerned χ2 =14.532; p = 0.008. those with multiple sex partners were almost 11 times more likely to seroconvert as compared with those without multiple sex partners (OR 95% C.I: 10.769; 2.419 – 47.942).
Conclusion: HIV seroconversion of 2.98% was clinically significant considering the fact that these women risk passing on the virus to their infants and their partners. It was realized that women still engage in risky sexual behaviors despite acknowledging that they have been taught on the need to avoid risky sexual behaviors. The government needs to strengthen repeat counseling and testing of pregnant women later in pregnancy in line with the Ministry’s new policy guidelines and aim at giving health messages which will foster behavior change so that the women avoid risky sexual behavior.

Alice K. Charles, William M. Muiru DMJKW & W. "Distribution of Common Maize Diseases and Molecular Characterization of Maize Streak Virus in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(5).
Aligianis IA, Johnson CA, Gissen P, Chen D, Hampshire D, Hoffmann K, Maina EN, Morgan NV, Tee L, Morton J, Ainsworth JR, Horn D, Rosser E, Cole TRP, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Fieggen K, Clayton-Smith J, Mégarbané A, Shield JP, Newbury-Ecob R, Dobyns WB, Graham JM, Kjaer KW, Warburg M, Bond J, Trembath RC, Harris LW, Takai Y, Mundlos S, Tannahill D, Woods GC, Maher ER. "Mutations of the catalytic subunit of RAB3GAP cause Warburg Micro syndrome." Nat. Genet.. 2005;37(3):221-3. Abstract

Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM1) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities of the eye and central nervous system and by microgenitalia. We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator of the Rab3 pathway implicated in exocytic release of neurotransmitters and hormones, in 12 families with Micro syndrome. We hypothesize that the underlying pathogenesis of Micro syndrome is a failure of exocytic release of ocular and neurodevelopmental trophic factors.

Aligianis IA, Johnson CA, Gissen P, Chen D, Hampshire D, Hoffmann K, Maina EN, Morgan NV, Tee L, Morton J, others. "Mutations of the catalytic subunit of RAB3GAP cause Warburg Micro syndrome." Nature genetics. 2005;37:221-224. Abstract
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Alila PO. "Local Communicty Social Systems and Human Security." A. Kumssa et al (eds). Conflict and Human Security in Africa: Kenya in Perspective, Macmillan, 2011; 2012. Abstract
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Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Alila PO, Njoka JM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." Nairobi. ILO/IPEC 2009,ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2012. Abstract
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Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Alison C. Roxby1*, Alison L. Drake2 FO-O10 JK7 BR2 DM7 JN 4 N. "Effects of Valacyclovir on Markers of Disease Progression in Postpartum Women Co-Infected with HIV-1 and Herpes Simplex Virus-2.". 2012. Abstractplosone

Objective: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-
pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.
Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of Kenyan women participating in a randomized clinical trial of HSV-2
suppression. Pregnant HIV-1-seropositive, HSV-2-seropositive women who were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (WHO
stage 1–2, CD4.250 cells/ml) were randomized to either 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo twice daily from 34 weeks gestation
through 12 months postpartum. Women received zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child
HIV-1 transmission. HIV-1 progression markers, including CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, were measured serially.
Multivariate linear regression was used to compare progression markers between study arms.
Results: Of 148 women randomized, 136 (92%) completed 12 months of postpartum follow-up. While adjusted mean CD4
count at 12 months (565 cells/ml placebo arm, 638 cells/ml valacyclovir arm) increased from antenatal levels in both arms, the
mean CD4 count increase was 73 cells/ml higher in the valacyclovir arm than placebo arm (p = 0.03). Mean increase in CD4
count was 154 cells/ml in the valacyclovir arm, almost double the increase of 78 cells/ml in the placebo arm. At 12 months,
adjusted HIV-1 RNA levels in the placebo arm increased by 0.66 log10 copies/ml from baseline, and increased by only 0.21
log10 copies/ml in the valacyclovir arm (0.40 log10 copies/ml difference, p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Women randomized to valacyclovir suppressive therapy during pregnancy and postpartum had greater
increases in CD4 counts and smaller increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than women in the placebo arm. Valacyclovir
suppression during pregnancy and breastfeeding may improve outcomes and delay antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1/HSV-
2 co-infected women.

Alkizim FO, Kimani JM, Otieno ES, Thairu K. "In vivo study on the effect of African black tea extract on wound healing." International journal of Medical and Health Research. 2020;6(6):67-74.
Allen RG, Gichuki FN, Rosenzweig C. "CO2‐Induced Climatic Changes and Irrigation‐Water Requirements.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

Effects of CO2‐induced climatic changes on irrigation‐water requirements (IR) in the Great Plains region were evaluated using results of global atmospheric‐circulation models with a water balance‐IR model. Increases were predicted for evapotranspiration Et due to predicted increases in air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed under doubled concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (2×CO2). Predicted increases in humidity under the 2×CO2 scenarios and shifting of crop life cycles to months with lower levels of solar radiation moderated predicted increases in Et. Increases in irrigation requirements were caused primarily by increases in evaporative demands and changes in precipitation patterns. Increases in net seasonal IR for alfalfa were larger due to predicted increases in length of frost‐free growing seasons and higher evaporative demands as compared to winter wheat and corn. Decreases or only modest increases in seasonal irrigation requirements were projected under 2×CO2 scenarios for com and winter wheat due to reductions in length of crop life cycles and projected increases in bulk stomatal resistances.

Aloo PA, Anam RO, Mwangi JN. "Metazoan parasites of some commercially important fish along the Kenyan coast.". 2000. Abstract

The parasitic fauna of some commercial fish species along the Kenyan coast was investigated at four localities between August 2001 and March 2002. The study was carried out to establish the extent of parasitisation of different fish species and quantify the relationship between the parasites and their fish hosts. Fish samples were collected once a month from four landing beaches. Sixteen fish species were examined out of which only eight were infested with ecto-and endo parasites. The infested fish species included: the rabbitfish (Siganus sutor), the mackerels (Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus commerson and Rastrelliger kanarguta), parrot fish (Leptoscarus vagiensis), sardine (Sardinella gibbosa), tuna (Thunnus sp.) and needle fish (Hemiramphus far). Of the eight species, Si. sutor was most infested with parasites while Sardinella and Leptoscarus were primarily infested wit h ectoparasites (isopods). Intensity of infestation increased with age (size), especially in Si. sutor, where very young fish had a low infestation rate, while adults were heavily infested (P < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the intensity of infestation between sexes in Si. sutor (P > 0.05).

Aloyo A, Kinuthia DA, sine KA, Mulaku M, A G. " Risk factors for Insulin Prescription Errors in a Public Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drug Safety ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;41(14):14.
Alphayo L, Wasonga OV, Odadi WO, Ngugi RK. "Differences of Soil Properties between Planned and Unplanned Grazing Sites in Semi-Arid Pastoral Rangelands of Northern Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2016;5. Abstract
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Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alsanius BW, Kosiba AH, Onyango CM, Mogren L. "Produce quality and safety.". In: Rooftop Urban Agriculture. New York: Springer; 2017.
Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Afendi FM, Kiboi SK, Kanaya S. "Systems biology in the context of big data and networks." BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
Alubale EA, Simila HO, Amisi SK, Kisumbi BK, others. "Indications for initial placement and replacement of amalgam and composite restorations.". 2011. Abstract
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Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya . 2018;23(3):89-94.
Aluisio AR, Bosire R, Betz B, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Male Partner Participation in Antenatal Clinic Services is Associated with Improved HIV-free survival Among Infants in Nairobi, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

This prospective study investigated the relationship between male antenatal clinics (ANC) involvement and infant HIV-free survival.

Alukwe GH, Ngugi PK, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Corporate Governance Challenge to Regulation Compliance by Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Co- Operative Societies in Kenya." Corporate Governance Challenge to Regulation Compliance by Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Co- Operative Societies in Kenya. 2015;5(3).alukhwe_ngugi_ogollah_orwa_corporate_governance_publication_2015.pdf
Alulu J, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Ochieng J. "Drivers of transformations in smallholder indigenous vegetable value chains in western Kenya: Evolution of contract farming." Journal of Business and Economics. 2020;22(6):151-165.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Development of an oral biosensor for salivary amylase using a monodispersed silver for signal amplification.". In: Analytical Biochemistry, 340(1), 136-144, (2005). Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch, A. O., Sadik, O. A., Bedi, G. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of protein amylase in human saliva is described. A novel design and the preparation of amylase antibodies and antigens, essential for the development of the biosensor, are reported. The biosensor sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary antibody (or antigen) self-assembled onto Au-electrode via covalent attachment. Molecular recognition between the immobilized antibody and the salivary amylase proteins was monitored via an electroactive indicator (e.g., K3Fe(CN)(6)) or a monodispersed silver layer present in solution or electrochemically deposited onto the solid electrode. This electroactive indicator was oxidized or reduced and the resulting current change provided the analytical information about the concentration of the salivary proteins. The limit of detection of 1.57 pg/ml was obtained, in comparison to detection limits of 4.95 pg/ml obtained using potassium ferrocyanide as the redox probe and 10 ng/ml obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was tested against cystatin antibodies and was found to be less than 2.26%.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Metal Enhanced Detection of Salivary Proteins, Bacillus Globigii and Novel Reagents for Biosensing & Metal Sensing, PhD Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, New York.". In: Binghamton University Library. Binghamton University, USA; 2007. Abstract
The major objective of this research was to develop novel biosensors for detection of the salivary proteins amylase and histatin. Consequently, we report on the development of a label-free electrochemical biosensor based on a new Ab-Ag sensor platform which utilizes metal-enhanced electrochemical detection (MED) for the determination of histatin and amylase. The MED immunosensor exhibits remarkable sensitivity with detection limits of 0.63 pg/ml and 1.57pg/ml for histatin and amylase respectively. The MED biosensor exhibits better sensitivity than ELISA or UPAC (an optical based immunosensor). The MED biosensor concept has been extended for the detection of Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly B. globigii) spores, the biological warfare agent simulant of Bacillus anthracis This is probably the first report on the application of silver nanoparticles as redox probes in the detection of a biological warfare agent (BWA). A detection limit of 760 spores/ml, well below the infectious dose of Bacillus pathogens, is achieved.The second part of this study is dedicated to the development of a new class of fluorescent imaging agents.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "SCH 403 - Electrochemistry ODL Module.". In: Electrochimica Acta, Accepted for publication (2009). University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Samuel K. Kallavi and Austin Aluoch The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Stability indicating ion-pair HPLC method for the determination of risedronate in a commercial formulation.". In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 27(17), 2799-2813 (2004). Taylor & Francis, Colchester, ROYAUME-UNI (1996) (Revue); 2004. Abstract
Aluoch, A., Tatini, R., Parsons, D. M., Sadik, O. A. A simple, rapid, and reproducible analytical procedure has been developed for the assay of risedronate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on ion-pair liquid chromatography with UV detection. 2 Separation is performed on an Eclipse XDB C-18 (4.6 x 150 mm(2), 3.5 mum particles) column, using 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate as counter-ion in the mobile phase. The proposed method was extensively validated according to ICH guidelines for the assay determination. A linear relationship was found in the concentration range studied from 50 to 150 mug risedronate sodium per 25 muL injection. The method precision was below 1.2% relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 9). The mean recovery of risedronate from commercial tablets was found to be in the range of 99.3-100.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of risedronate were found to be 30 and 100 ng, respectively. Since the method is stability indicating, it is also well suited for shelf-life studies of risedronate pharmaceutical preparations.
Aluoch JR, JM M. "Platelet function in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Nairobi.". 1996. Abstract

From July 1990 to January 1991 we studied platelet functions in 55 indigenous Kenyan patients (23 males and 32 females) with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in steady state (SCASS) and in 20 (11 males and 9 females) SCA patients in vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis (VSCC). A control group of 50 healthy (23 males and 27 females) individuals matched for age and sex was also studied. Platelet aggregation time to ADP in SCASS (57.2 +/- 39.1) and in VSCC (31 +/- 11.1) were more prolonged (p < 0.05) compared to controls (12.7 +/- 5.2). It was also significantly more prolonged (p < 0.05) in VSCC than in SCASS. Platelet adhesiveness time was 31.1 +/- 13.7 seconds in SCASS, 30.9 +/- 11.1 in VSCC, and 37.7 +/- 13.0 in controls and was significantly lower in both SCA groups (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. Clot retraction was 52.8 +/- 6.9 in SCASS, 53.6 +/- 10.7 in VSCC, and 45.9 +/- 8 in controls and was significantly higher in both SCA groups than in controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. We conclude that platelet function is deranged in indigenous Kenyan patients with SCA.

ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responder 2nd Edition,.". In: Department of Homeland Security, Guide 101-06 , 2nd Edition (June 2007). Homeland Security, USA; 2007. Abstract
A. A. Fatah, R. D. Arcilesi, T. Chekol, C. H. Lattin, O. A. Sadik, A. Aluoch, The primary purpose of the Guide for the Selection of Biological Agent Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders is to provide emergency first responders with information to aid them in the selection and utilization of BA detection equipment. The guide is intended to be more practical than technical and provides information on a variety of factors to be considered when purchasing detection equipment, including, but not limited to, sensitivity, specificity, startup and response times, power requirements, cost, durability, and portability
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical techniques.". In: Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 24, Issue 9, 15 May 2009, Pages 2749-2765. Biosensors and Bioelectronics; 2009. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Austin O. Aluoch, Ailing Zhou The use of nanoscale materials (e.g. nanoparticles, nanowires, & nanorods) for electrochemical biosensing has seen explosive growth in recent years following the discovery of carbon nanotubes by Suomo Ijima in 1991. Although the resulting label-free sensors could potentially simplify the molecular recognition process; there are several important hurdles to be overcome. These include issues of validating the biosensor on statistically large population of real samples rather than the commonly reported relatively short synthetic oligonucleotides, pristine laboratory standards or bioreagents; multiplexing the sensors to accommodate high-throughput, multianalyte detection as well as application in complex clinical and environmental samples. This article reviews the status of biomolecular recognition using electrochemical detection by analyzing the trends, limitations, challenges and commercial devices in the field of electrochemical biosensors. It provides a survey of recent advances in electrochemical biosensors including integrated microelectrode arrays with microfluidic technologies, commercial multiplex electrochemical biosensors, aptamer-based sensors, and metal-enhanced electrochemical detection (MED), with limits of detection in the attomole range. Novel applications are also reviewed for cancer monitoring, detection of food pathogens, as well as recent advances in electrochemical glucose biosensors
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Structure and Important Recommendations of the Fink Report: An African Perspective.". In: Bk 1,2,3 and 4 Published by Longhorn Publishers. University of Bradford; 2011.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Bioactive Compounds from some Kenyan Ethnomedicinal Plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata,.". In: Phytochemistry Reviews, 1,311-323 (2002). Springer; 2002. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Novel electrochemical oral biosensor for histatin.". In: Sensor Letters, 3(2), 161-163 (2005). American Scientific Publishers; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch A. O., Amrute, K., Sadik, O. A. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of saliva protein histatin is described. The biosensor-sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary histatin antibody self-assembled onto a gold quartz crystal by covalent attachment. The biospecific interaction between the immobilized histatin antibody and histatin antigen was monitored via a novel electroactive indicator, silver monodispersed on the gold surface. The silver is oxidized or reduced and the resulting peak currents provide analytical information about the concentrations of the salivary proteins. A detection limit of 0.626 pg/ml was obtained
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Identification and Quantitation of Bacillus globigii using Metal Enhanced Electrochemical Detection and Capillary Biosensor.". In: Analytical Chemistry. Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
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ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Smart Electrochemical Biosensors: From advanced materials to ultrasensitive devices.". In: Electrochimica Acta, Accepted for publication (2009). Elecro-chimica Acta; 2010. Abstract
Omowunmi A. Sadik, Samuel K. Kallavi and Austin Aluoch The specificity, simplicity, and inherent miniaturization afforded by advances in modern electronics have allowed electrochemical sensors to rival the most advanced optical protocols. One major obstacle in implementing electrochemistry for studying biomolecular reaction is its inadequate sensitivity. Recent reports however showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and devices. This work focuses on our recent work, based on metal-enhanced electrochemical detection, and those of others in combining advanced nanomaterials with electrochemistry for the development of smart sensors for proteins, nucleic acids, drugs and cancer cells
Alusala DN;, Estambale B. "Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria to prevent low birth weight in newborns in a cohort of pregnant women from a malaria endemic area.". 2009. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the patterns of low birth weight in newborns of a cohort of mothers given intermittent presumptive treatment (IPT) for malaria prevention in a malaria endemic area of Kenya. DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective cohort study. SETTING: Got Agulu Health Centre in Usigu Division, Bondo District, Nyanza Province. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women of all parities attending antenatal care services. Only women who gave informed consent for themselves and their newborns after birth were eligible to participate in the study. RESULTS: Parity was highly predictive of birth weight in the study subjects. Primigravidae and secondigravidae had a significantly lower mean birth weight (2952g) than women of higher gravidity (3214g) p-value <0.0001. Regardless of IPT administration, women who became positive for malaria infection at any point during pregnancy delivered 73.7% of the LBW infants. There was no significant difference in mean birth weights between primigravidae and multigravidae who had parasitaemia at baseline and at delivery (means 2906g and 3062g respectively, p=0.11). However, there was a significant difference between the parasitaemia negative primigravidae and multigravidae at baseline and at delivery (means 2952g and 3204g respectively, p=0.006). Infection with helminths did not have an effect on birth weight. Overall, low birth weight was observed in 9% of the newborns and was most commonly found in primigravidae and secondigravidae (14.8% and 13.1% respectively). CONCLUSION: Although many factors have been known to play a role in the causation of low birth weight (LBW <2500g), parity status and malaria infection in malaria endemic areas still play a major role regardless of IPT administration.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2016;(100):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design: Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data. Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals. Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures: Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results: All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented. Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249 (54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%), respectively.
Conclusions: Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aluvaala J, Okello D, Murithi G, Wafula L, Wanjala L, Isika N, Wasunna A, Were F, Nyamai R, English M. "Delivery outcomes and patterns of morbidity and mortality for neonatal admissions in five Kenyan hospitals." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2015;(61):255-259. Abstractdelivery_outcomes_and_patterns_of_morbidity_and_mortality_for_neonatal_admissions_in_five_kenyan_hospitals.pdf

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in neonatal and maternity units of five Kenyan district public hospitals. Data for 1 year were obtained: 3999 maternal and 1836 neonatal records plus tallies of maternal deaths, deliveries and stillbirths. There were 40 maternal deaths [maternal mortality ratio: 276 per 100 000 live births, 95% confidence interval (CI): 197–376]. Fresh stillbirths ranged from 11 to 43 per 1000 births. A fifth (19%, 263 of 1384, 95% CI: 11–30%) of the admitted neonates died. Compared with normal birth weight, odds of death were significantly higher in all of the low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) categories, with the highest odds for the extremely LBW (<1000 g) category (odds ratio: 59, 95% CI: 21–158, p<0.01). The observed maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality call for implementation of the continuum of care approach to intervention delivery with particular emphasis on LBW babies.

Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya.". 2014;10(306423):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya..pdf

Objective
An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design
Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data.
Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals.
Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures
Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results
All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented.
Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249
(54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses
exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for
penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and
gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%),
respectively.
Conclusions
Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "Jig-shape static aeroelastic wing design problem: a decoupled approach." Journal of aircraft. 2002;39:1061-1066. Abstract

THE design of modern, high-speed performance aerospace vehicles is characterized by
unprecedented levels of multidisciplinary interactions of a number of technical disciplines
such as structures, aerodynamics, controls engineering, and manufacturing. These
disciplines, among others, can impose considerable constraints on the dynamic stability and
controls performance margins required for ight safety. One of the many phenomenathat
exists in complex aircraft design is aeroelasticity: the study of the mutual interaction among …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Peltz R. "Stochastic approach to optimal aerodynamic shape design." Journal of Aircraft. 1996;33:956-961. Abstract

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) has be-gun to play an increasingly important
role in the aircraft industry because of its ability to produce detailed insights into complex
flow phenomena and its ease of parameterization, which can help identify the cause of weak
aerodynamic performance. Some of the earlier uses of CFD in the design process were
based on the cut-and-try approach. Here the designer iteratively modifies and evaluates a
design. 1 While considerable gains in aerodynamic performance can be achieved by this …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Marconi F, Siclari M. "Stochastic optimization applied to CFD shape design.". In: 12th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1995:. Abstract

Simulated Annealing (SA), a stochastic optimization method, is applied to aerodynamic
shape design in which at least one CFD solve is required for each evaluation of the
objective function. A simple, short algorithm, SA is used as an outer loop and calls the CFD
solvers. It is found that objective functions which involve CFD in shape design, have small-
scale roughness due to discretization errors and incomplete convergence. SA is more robust
than the gradient-based methods, in the sense that the roughness creates difficulties for …

Alzaraa A, Chaudhry S. "An unusually long appendix in a child: a case report." Cases Journal. 2009;2:7398. AbstractWebsite

Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency, but its diagnosis in children can be a challenge to the treating surgeon. PMID: 19829951

AM K, WO O. "Exploring the intricacies of contemporary PhD research process." East Afri Med J. 2015;2015; 92 (6): 308-314(2015; 92 (6): 308-314):2015; 92 (6): 308-314.
AM K. "Managing dental fluorosis: Traditional healer versus clinic approaches." JSM Dent. 2017;2017; 5(2): 1085(2017; 5(2): 1085):2017; 5(2): 1085.
AM J, CAZ J, AEB H, JA O’o. "Bilateral Ligation of the Anterior Branch of the Hypogastric Artery in Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage Secondary to Septic Abortion (Case Report)." J Gynecol Obstet. 2021;3(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Hemorrhage is the main cause of Maternal Mortality (MM) (27%) followed by hypertensive disorders and sepsis (12%). Septic abortion is considered an intermediate risk factor for the development of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH). The algorithm for the management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony that includes systematic pelvic devascularization has been described, but this management is really planned for resolution of the pregnancy after the 20th week of gestation, since an HMO due to abortion is un usual. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient who self-medicates a prostaglandin analog at 2 months of pregnancy, achieving only a threat of abortion, goes to the emergency room 3 months later with a diagnosis of septic shock, USG and MRI are performed with altered results, only of hepatomegaly, delayed abortion of 8 weeks of evolution and gestational trophoblastic disease. Emergency MVA was performed due to profuse bleeding, placement of a Bakri balloon and clamping of the uterine arteries without results, for which an emergency exploratory laparotomy (LAPE) was performed with ligation of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, being a successful procedure, without the need for Obstetric Hysterectomy (HO). The patient is managed in intensive care and in the end the diagnosis of TSG is ruled out. Bilateral Hypogastric Artery Ligation (BHAL) in the case of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH) secondary to delivery or cesarean section is commonly used, however it is not a technique to report when bleeding is secondary to abortion. In these cases, it is also a viable, successful, fertility-preserving surgical procedure, and an alternative to Obstetric Hysterectomy (OH) when other less invasive methods such as uterine artery clamping or Bakri balloon have failed.

AM K. "Global disparity in childhood dental caries: is there a remedy? ." East Afr Med J, . 2013;90(1):: 1-6.
AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
AM K. "Raising the awareness of infant oral mutilation - the myths and the facts." Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;2015; 6:S137-8(2015; 6:S137-8):2015; 6:S137-8.
AM G. "Pedagogical Integration of ICT: An Evaluation of Programmes and Software usage for teaching and learning in selected institutions in Kenya.". In: The Academic Conference in the School of Continuing and Distance Education 2013. Kikuyu Campus; 2013. Abstract

Abstract
The paper is based on the findings the Panafrican Research Agenda The purpose of the Panafrican Research Agenda on the Pedagogical Integration of ICT was to contribute to the broadening of knowledge of ICT usage in learning institutions. The research project aimed at enabling stakeholders better understand how the pedagogical integration of ICT can improve the quality of teaching and learning in Africa. This paper therefore presents an analysis of data collected in 10 Kenyan institutions. The paper focuses on the programmes and software usage and the impact on teaching and learning. It aims at exploring in detail the current impact of ICT usage in schools exploring the computer programmes, software and packages used in teaching and learning. A multi -case approach was used where by ten institutions were selected using similar procedures to allow comparison between the cases. The study used a mixed method approach. This approach borrows from diverse methodologies and facilitates triangulation of data. For every indicator understudy, information was gathered using three different questionnaires and directed interview schedules: The educator questionnaire for teachers, the administrative questionnaire for institutional heads the learner interview schedule and the parent’s interview schedule. The questionnaires and interviews were followed by focus group discussions with the respondents. The interviews and discussions were recorded while the videotaped classroom observations later encoded and analyzed. Data was then validated by a national team before it was uploaded to the Panafrican observatory. The findings presented in this paper are based on data uploaded on the Panafrican Research Agenda Observatory
.
Keywords: ICT in education, pedagogical integration,

AM K, F C. "Applying Bayesian model to predict socio-demographic and occlusal determinats of early childhood caries (ECC)." Brazilian Research in Paed Dent Intergr Clin.. 2017;2017; 17(1): e3452(2017; 17(1): e3452):2017; 17(1): e3452.
AM K, IA O. "A fatal case of infant oral mutilation." Contemp Clin Dent. 2021;2021; 12:76-80(2021; 12:76-80):2021; 12:76-80.
AM K, TJ M. "Bilateral second premolars agenesis together with a unilateral canine radiculomegaly." Contemp Clin Dent. 2017;2017; 8(2017; 8):2017; 8.
AM K. "Paediatric oral health and climate change." Edorium J Dent. 2019;2019; 7:(2019; 7:):2019; 7:.
AM K. "Renaissance or dimming hope – the dilemma of managing multi-surface dental carious lesions in primary dentition using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)." Brazilian Res Paediatr Dent Integrated Clin. 2014;2014; 14(1): 65-69(2014; 14(1): 65-69):2014; 14(1): 65-69.
Ama, N.O. and Oucho JO. "A Multivariate Approach to Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Migrants and Refugees in Botswana." The Journal of Family Welfare . 2007;53(2):26-42.
Ama, N.O. and Oucho JO. "Access to Reproductive Health Services among Immigrants and Refugees in Botswana." The Journal of Family Welfare . 2008;54(1):47-61.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.; 2018. Abstractjournal.pone_.0199357.pdfWebsite

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and vegetation cover, and its implications for malaria risks in Baringo County, Kenya. Remotely sensed temperature, rainfall, and vegetation data for the period 2004–2015 were used. Poisson regression was used to model the association between malaria cases and climatic and environmental factors for the period 2009–2012, this being the period for which all datasets overlapped. A strong positive relationship was observed between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and monthly total precipitation. There was a strong negative relationship between NDVI and minimum temperature. The total monthly rainfall (between 94 -181mm), average monthly minimum temperatures (between 16–21°C) and mean monthly NDVI values lower than 0.35 were significantly associated with malaria incidence rates. Results suggests that a combination of climatic and vegetation greenness thresholds need to be met for malaria incidence to be significantly increased in the county. Planning for malaria control can therefore be enhanced by incorporating these factors in malaria risk mapping.

AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Precipitation of abstinence in nordiazepam- and diazepam-dependent dogs. McNicholas LF, Martin WR, Sloan JW, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr;245(1):221-4.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr;245(1):221-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Dogs were made dependent on p.o. administered diazepam (24 or 36 mg/kg/day) or nordiazepam (18 mg/kg/day). Flumazenil (2, 6 or 18 mg/kg) administered p.o. once a week according to a Latin Square design precipitated abstinence in both groups of dogs. Abstinence was evaluated using a Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale (NPAS) of various signs of abstinence and by counting seizure episodes. Flumazenil caused dose-related increases in the NPAS scores of both diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs; the slopes of the two dose-response lines were not different. Both groups of dogs also had both clonic and tonic-clonic seizures after flumazenil administration. CGS-8216 (2, 6 or 18 mg/kg) administered p.o. did not cause a dose-related elevation in NPAS scores for either group of dogs but clonic and tonic-clonic seizures were seen. Thus, flumazenil precipitates the benzodiazepine abstinence syndrome, as evidenced by tremors, tachypnea and other signs, including seizures, whereas CGS-8216 may have some selectivity in precipitating seizures without other signs of abstinence.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Precipitated abstinence in orally dosed benzodiazepine-dependent dogs. Martin WR, Sloan JW, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Nov;255(2):744-55.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Nov;255(2):744-55. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
The ability of graded doses of flumazenil (2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg) and a lactose placebo to precipitate abstinence was studied in dogs treated chronically with diazepam, nordiazepam, flunitrazepam, alprazolam, oxazepam, halazepam and lorazepam by oral dosing. A scale comprised of 10 precipitated abstinence signs, the Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale, was developed, which yielded linear flumazenil log-dose response lines with significant slopes in dogs dependent on diazepam, nordiazepam and flunitrazepam. The effects of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg of flumazenil in otherwise drug naive dogs were studied. In naive dogs, the most prominent effect of flumazenil was to reduce activity. All benzodiazepines studied produced dependence that was characterized by signs of precipitated abstinence; however, the intensity and quality of abstinence varied from one benzodiazepine to another. Precipitated abstinence in dogs treated chronically with diazepam and flunitrazepam was characterized by a dose-related increase in clonic convulsions and Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale scores. This pattern differed from that seen in nordiazepam- and alprazolam-dependent dogs, which showed a comparable flumazenil dose-related increase in clonic convulsion but only a modest increase in Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale scores. Oxazepam and lorazepam produced dependence that was less intense than that seen with the other benzodiazepines. Plasma levels of the benzodiazepines and their metabolites were repeatedly determined after single doses and during addiction cycles. Nordiazepam accumulated in diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs and alpha-OH alprazolam accumulated in alprazolam-dependent dogs. Other drugs and metabolites did not. These observations suggest that: 1) different benzodiazepines or their metabolites produce different types of physical dependence, suggesting that they or their metabolites have different mechanisms and sites of action; 2) plasma cumulation of the benzodiazepines or their active metabolites is an important factor in the genesis of physical dependence; and 3) metabolism of benzodiazepines plays an important role in their dependence-producing capacity, and because of differences in the way species metabolize benzodiazepines, the type of dependence produced in different species may differ.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Flumazenil oral absorption in dogs. Wala E, McNicholas LF, Sloan JW, Martin WR.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Aug;30(4):945-8.". In: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Aug;30(4):945-8. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Flumazenil is rapidly absorbed after oral or gastric fistula administration to the dog reaching peak plasma concentrations in about an hour. Plasma level decrease rapidly thereafter reaching barely detectable levels by four hours. The onset of signs of flumazenil precipitated abstinence in diazepam-dependent dogs is well correlated with the rise of flumazenil plasma levels, however, precipitated abstinence seizures occur when plasma levels have markedly decreased. Oral dosing is a more efficient way of administering flumazenil than gastric fistula dosing.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Effect of the chronic dose of diazepam on the intensity and characteristics of the precipitated abstinence syndrome in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
The ability of different chronic doses of diazepam to produce dependence was studied in groups of six dogs who received diazepam p.o. (0.05625, 0.225, 0.5625, 4.5, 9 or 36 mg/kg/day) every 8 hr. After 5 to 6 weeks of stabilization, the intensity of precipitated abstinence was measured by benzodiazepine-precipitated abstinence scores (BPAS) after the p.o. administration of graded doses of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.66, 2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg or a placebo). A modified Latin square design was used. Dogs receiving the two lowest stabilization doses of diazepam showed only liminal signs of precipitated abstinence even with 72 mg/kg of flumazenil. The intensity of the precipitated abstinence syndrome increased with the stabilization dose of diazepam. There was also a dose-related increase in BPAS for increasing doses of flumazenil for all doses of diazepam except the 9-mg/kg/day dose. Not only were quantitative differences observed in precipitated abstinence signs for different levels of diazepam dependence, but the pattern of abstinence signs differed also. Dogs dependent on high doses of diazepam were more sensitive to flumazenil than those dependent on lower doses. Furthermore, seizure activity was seen only in dogs dependent on 9 and 36 mg/kg/day of diazepam. BPAS increased linearly with plasma and brain total and free levels of the sum of diazepam and its metabolites (oxazepam and nordiazepam), but not with free plasma and brain levels of diazepam.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "The comparative binding characteristics of nicotinic ligands and their pharmacology. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Bostwick M, Hook R, Wala E. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May;30(1):255-67.". In: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May;30(1):255-67. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Five drugs [(-)- and (+)-nicotine, (-)-lobeline, (-)-anabasine and (-)-cytisine] were infused IV into the urethane-pentobarbital anesthetized rat. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, minute and tidal volume, which appeared to be largely centrally mediated, were studied. Each of these compounds produced different pharmacologic profiles. The nature of these dissimilarities is not readily explained on the basis of pharmacokinetic considerations suggesting that the drugs have different mechanisms of action. Binding data obtained with these compounds using the rat brain P2 preparation also show differences. (-)-Lobeline and (-)-anabasine, like the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine and hexamethonium, bind predominantly to low affinity sites with KDs in the micromolar range whereas (-)-cytisine binds only to a single high affinity site with a KD in the nanomolar range. Further, the binding patterns of these drugs are different from (-)- and (+)-nicotine which bind to both high and low affinity sites but differ from each other in binding characteristics. Thus the binding data are consistent with the pharmacologic data in suggesting that the drugs have different modes of action and support the concept that the low affinity site has an important role in the central nervous system action of these compounds.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Chronic administration of and dependence on halazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E, Dickey KM. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64.". In: Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
produced physical dependence which was revealed by a flumazenil precipitated abstinence syndrome and measured by the Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale score (NPAS) (McNicholas et al., 1988; Sloan et al., 1990). This abstinence as measured by the NPAS score was more severe in diazepam- and halazepam-dependent than in nordiazepam-dependent dogs whereas the incidence of precipitated clonic seizures was greater in the diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent than in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that in the dog the major conversion of halazepam, like diazepam, was to nordiazepam and an oxazepam conjugate. Appreciable quantities of oxazepam, 3-OH halazepam and its conjugated metabolite were also identified in plasma. The NPAS score obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs, however, was greater than the NPAS score obtained in nordiazepam-dependent dogs who had nordiazepam plasma levels over three times higher than those obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Further, the precipitated abstinence observed in the halazepam-, diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs differed in qualitative as well as in quantitative aspects including marked differences in the time course of abstinence signs. These data argue that the different dependencies produced by halazepam, diazepam and nordiazepam are not due solely to either the parent compound or to a single metabolite but most likely to their combined effects.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
Amato R, Miotto O, Woodrow C, Almagro-Garcia J, Sinha I, Campino S, Mead D, Drury E, Kekre M, Sanders M, Amambua-Ngwa A, Amaratunga C, Amenga-Etego L, Anderson TJC, Andrianaranjaka V, Apinjoh T, Ashley E, Auburn S, Awandare GA, Baraka V, Barry A, Boni MF, Borrmann S, Teun Bousema, Branch O, Bull PC, Chotivanich K, Conway DJ, Craig A, Day NP, Djimdé A, Dolecek C, Dondorp AM, Drakeley C, Duffy P, Echeverri-Garcia DF, Egwang TG, Fairhurst RM, Faiz MA, Fanello CI, Hien TT, Hodgson A, Imwong M, Ishengoma D, Lim P, Lon C, Marfurt J, Marsh K, Mayxay M, Mobegi V, Mokuolu O, Montgomery J, Mueller I, Kyaw MP, Newton PN, Nosten F, Noviyanti R, Nzila A, Ocholla H, Oduro A, Onyamboko M, Ouedraogo J-B, Phyo AP, Plowe CV, Price RN, Pukrittayakamee S, Randrianarivelojosia M, Ringwald P, Ruiz L, Saunders D, Shayo A, Siba P, Takala-Harrison S, Thanh T-NN, Thathy V, Verra F, White NJ, Htut Y, Cornelius VJ, Giacomantonio R, Muddyman D, Henrichs C, Malangone C, Jyothi D, Pearson RD, Rayner JC, McVean G, Rockett K, Miles A, Vauterin P, Jeffery B, Manske M, Stalker J, MacInnis B, Kwiatkowski DP,, J.N Kiiru. "Genomic epidemiology of the current wave of artemisinin resistant malaria." bioRxiv. 2015. AbstractWebsite

Artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum is advancing across Southeast Asia in a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non‐synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino‐acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of standing variation that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions.

Amatsimbi M, Wambui K. "Media Veterans in Kenya: Archival Records.". In: Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya . University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
and Amatsimbi WKM. "Media Developments and Uses in the Colonial Era.". In: The Media in Kenya: Evolution, Effects and Challenges. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2011.
Amayio DG, Abong GO, Okoth MW. "A Review of Occurrence of Glycoalkaloids in Potato and Potato Products." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):196-202.omayio_2016a_a_review_glycoalkaloids_potato_prducts.pdf
Amayo EO. "Neurological letter from Kenya." Practical neurology . 2006;6:261-262.
Amayo EO, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Vaghela V. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(12):180-183. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, prospective study. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85 (8.96) years and of the females was 55.68 (8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97 (6.06) micromol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64 (4.41) micromol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably. CONCLUSION: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.

Amayo EO. Clinical manifestation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome in adults as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1988. Abstract

50 confirmed AIDS patients admitted in the medical wards between March to December, 1987 were studied. Male to female ratio was 1:5:1. The mean age was 31 - 7 years. Females had an earlier peak at 21 - 25 years as compared to the males at 26 - 30 years. The commonest risk factor was heterosexual contact with multiple partners in 80% of the cases. The patients were of low socio-economic status. The commonest general signs and symptoms were unexplained weight loss in 92%, fever in 66% and generalized lymphnode enlargement in 24% of the cases. In the gastrointestinal system the cornnonestsigns and symptoms were oral thrush 66%, chronicdiarrhoea 60% and dysphagia in 50%, of the cases. 46% of the patients had chronic cough. The most significant radiological finding in the abnormalchest x-ray was pleural effussion in 50% of the cases. The central nervous system was involved in 36% of cases with meningitis being the commonest sign accounting for 28% of all the central nervous system signs.10% of the cases had Kaposi's sarcoma on histology of which 60% were of the aggressive form. The commonest skin manifestation was maculo-papular pruritic skin rash 56% of all the patients had hemoglobin less than 10g.dl.

Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Cyclosporin monitoring in Kenya: External Quality Assurance Performance." Proc XVI ICC. 1996:506.
Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Therapeutic Drug monitoring – The Kenyan experience." Proc XVI ICC . 1996:109.
Ambale 1. CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):102-108.
Ambale CA, Sinei KA, Amugune BK, Oluka MN. "Accessibility of medicines used in the management of substance use disorders in selected hospitals in Nairobi." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2017;6(2):102-108.
Ambetsa MO, Makori JO, Osanjo GO, Oluka M, Maitai CK, Guantai AN, McClelland S, Okalebo FA. "Incidence and Risk Factors of Renal Dysfunction in Patients on Nevirapine-Based Regimens at a Referral Hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(2):48-58. Abstract2015_-_incidence_of_risk_factors_of_renal_dysfunction--nevirapine.pdf

Introduction: Nevirapine-based regimens are the most commonly used ART in Kenya. There is little literature on the renal toxicity of NNRTIS in Kenyan settings. Some studies in Asia have demonstrated an association of NNRTIs and renal toxicity. Given that NNRTIs may cause renal toxicity, clinical studies on their contribution to the same are required.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for renal dysfunction in HIV adult patients on Nevirapine based regimens.

Methodology: The design was a descriptive (right censored arm) hospital based retrospective cohort study carried out at a national referral hospital. Ethical approval was obtained. The study population was patients on Nevirapine based regimens seen between May and August, 2014. Convenient sampling was used to recruit 241 patients. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Patients with eGFR < 50ml/min/1.73m2 were considered to have renal dysfunction. Data obtained by the patient interviews and abstraction of patient files and was analyzed using STATA software. Ordered Logistic regression was used to identify covariates that determine the severity of renal dysfunction.

Results: The incidence of renal dysfunction was 4.3% (95% C.I, 1.68-6.94).Five (2.1%) patients had a low eGFR at baseline, while ten (8.3%) patients had elevated serum creatinine (above 120μg/l). None of the patients developed severe renal dysfunction. Seventy (32%) and ten (4.6%) had mild and moderate renal dysfunction respectively. The females had a higher risk of developing renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 0.48 (95% C.I 0.24-1.04; p=0.04). Alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 1.84 (95% C.I 1.01-3.29; p=0.04). All fifteen patients with a BMI of over 18.5 had elevated eGFR of below 50ml/min/1.73m.2Patients who had been initiated on stavudine based regimens had the highest incidence of renal dysfunction.

Conclusion: Routine eGFR calculations should be done at each clinical visit. Early detection of risk factors and systematic screening should be advocated for improved patient care.

Key Words: Body Mass Index, Renal dysfunction, Stavudine, Nevirapine

Ambetsa MO, Oluka MN, Okalebo FA, Mulwa NC, Fadare J, Godman B. "One-day out-patient prescribing patterns at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(2):96-101.ambetsa_et_al._prescribing_patterns-1593-5636-1-pb.pdf
Ambetsa MO, Makori JO, Osanjo GO, Oluka MN, Maitai CK, Guantai AN, McClelland S, Okalebo FA. "Incidence and Risk Factors of Renal Dysfunction in Patients on Nevirapine-Based Regimens at a Referral Hospital in Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2015;4(2):48-58. Abstractambetsa_et_al_2015.pdf

Introduction: Nevirapine-based regimens are the most commonly used ART in Kenya. There is little literature on the renal toxicity of NNRTIS in Kenyan settings. Some studies in Asia have demonstrated an association of NNRTIs and renal toxicity. Given that NNRTIs may cause renal toxicity, clinical studies on their contribution to the same are required.
Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for renal dysfunction in HIV adult patients on Nevirapine based regimens.
Methodology: The design was a descriptive (right censored arm) hospital based retrospective cohort study carried out at a national referral hospital. Ethical approval was obtained. The study population was patients on Nevirapine based regimens seen between May and August, 2014. Convenient sampling was used to recruit 241 patients. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Patients with eGFR < 50ml/min/1.73m2 were considered to have renal dysfunction. Data obtained by the patient interviews and abstraction of patient files and was analyzed using STATA software. Ordered Logistic regression was used to identify covariates that determine the severity of renal dysfunction.
Results: The incidence of renal dysfunction was 4.3% (95% C.I, 1.68-6.94).Five (2.1%) patients had a low eGFR at baseline, while ten (8.3%) patients had elevated serum creatinine (above 120μg/l). None of the patients developed severe renal dysfunction. Seventy (32%) and ten (4.6%) had mild and moderate renal dysfunction respectively. The females had a higher risk of developing renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 0.48 (95% C.I 0.24-1.04; p=0.04). Alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of renal dysfunction (adjusted O.R 1.84 (95% C.I 1.01-3.29; p=0.04). All fifteen patients with a BMI of over 18.5 had elevated eGFR of below 50ml/min/1.73m2. Patients who had been initiated on stavudine based regimens had the highest incidence of renal dysfunction.
Conclusion: Routine eGFR calculations should be done at each clinical visit. Early detection of risk factors and systematic screening should be advocated for improved patient care.
Key Words: Body Mass Index, Renal dysfunction, Stavudine, Nevirapine

Ambole A, Musango JK, Buyana K, Ogot M, Anditi C, Mwau B, Kovacic Z, Smit S, Lwasa S, Nsangi G, others. "Mediating household energy transitions through co-design in urban Kenya, Uganda and South Africa." Energy Research & Social Science. 2019;55:208-217. Abstract

Approaches to providing sustainable energy in cities have generated considerable interest in academic and policy circles. The development of this body of work, however, has not shed much light on the modes of intermediation that are needed to reconfigure urban energy systems towards sustainability in energy-poor countries. This paper focuses on the role of academics as knowledge intermediaries who can trigger cross-sector collaborations around innovations for a sustainable energy transition in African cities. The research presented here was generated by an interdisciplinary research team made up of partners in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. The research partners set out to better understand how sustainable energy transitions can be achieved through collaborative efforts between community members, experts and policy actors in the three countries. This paper provides evidence-based reflections on how the research partners used participatory methods to facilitate solution co-design and knowledge co-production over a period of two years under the Leading Integrated Research for Agenda 2030 in Africa (LIRA 2030) program. A key knowledge outcome of the research partnership is an improved understanding of how transdisciplinary research across the sub-region can be used to unearth the socio-spatial, cultural and political dimensions of energy in relation to other urban services such as health and housing. Based on this understanding, the paper proposes transdisciplinary co-design as a promising approach to providing sustainable energy in urban informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ambrose SH, Kyule MD. "The evolution of modern human behavior in East Africa.". In: International Council of African Museums. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2004. Abstract

Genetic evidence suggests an African origin for modern human ANATOMY, and archaeological evidence suggests a subSaharan African origin for modern
human BEHAVIOR. Testing the latter hypothesis requires a reliable, precise and accurate chronology for the first appearance of innovations considered hallmarks of the origin of modern human behavior, including ground bone tools, art, ornamanentation, sophisticated stone tool technologies and resource exploitation patterns, and systematic trade over long distances. These innovations are conventionally associated with the transition from the Middle to the Later Stone Age. This transition may be earlier than the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in N. Africa and W. Eurasia, but this is difficult to prove because most chronometric techniques that can be used in this time range (40-100,000 years ago) are highly unreliable, particularly radiocarbon dating.

Advances in techniques of radiogenic argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) by single crystal laser fusion dating of volcanic tephra make it possible to obtain accurate and precise dates on eruptions as young as 2000 years old. The central and southern Rift Valley regions of Kenya have many Middle and early Later Stone Age sites with stratified volcanics. The primary sources of traded obsidian are in the central Rift and the southern Rift sites often have excellent bone preservation. Several archaeological sites with multiple stratified volcanic horizons have now been sampled in both areas of the Rift. In the southern Rift, test excavations have been conducted at four sites that have MSA and/or early horizons. Each site has two to four volcanic layers stratified within the archaeological deposits. Argon dating will be performed by Dr. Alan Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, USA. Amino acid racemization of ostrich eggshell provides an additional means of dating archaeological sites. Dr. Gifford Miller of the University of Colorado, Boulder, has dated the top of an 8-meter thick Early LSA to MSA sequence to 32,000 BP. The shell also produced a radiocarbon date of 29,975 BP. The MSA/LSA transition occurs approximately 7 meters below this date, and one meter below a volcanic ash. The late MSA and transitional horizons have high frequencies of traded obsidian. The results of chronometric dating on the tephra from the transitional industries at two of these sites should make it possible to test the hypothesis for an east African origin for modern human behavior.

We thank the Office of the President for research clearance, the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, the University of Illinois Graduate College and Research Board, and the National Museums of Kenya, for financial and/or logistical support for this research.

Ambrose SH, Kyule MD, Muia M. "MSA, MSA/LSA and LSA sites in the south of Narok District of Kenya.". In: The Middle Stone Age of East Africa and Modern Human Origins conference. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya (17-21, July) and National Museums of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; 2005.
Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ. "Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley." Journal of Human Evolution . 2004;44:737-742. AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

Ambrose SH, Deino A, Mwanzia D. Kyule, Steele I, Williams MAJ. "The emergence of modern human behavior during the Late Middle Stone Age in the Kenya Rift Valley.". In: Paleoanthropology Society Meetings. Adam’s Mark Hotel, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A; 2002. Abstract

Archaeological evidence suggests modern human behavior patterns emerged during the late Middle Stone Age (MSA) and early Later Stone Age (LSA) in Africa between 50 and 100 ka. Sites of this age are scarce and their chronologies are ambiguous. We report on excavations at new archaeological sites in the central and southern Kenya Rift Valley that contain late MSA and early LSA occurrences with stratified volcanic ashes (tephra) that are being dated by the 40Ar/39Ar technique and chemically fingerprinted for regional tephrostratigraphic correlation. Obsidian artifacts are being sourced to study mobility and interaction patterns.Marmonet Drift (GtJi15) is located in the Naivasha-Nakuru basin close to the main obsidian sources. Four main MSA horizons and twelve tephra are stratified in a 21 m paleosol sequence. Assemblages from the three earliest horizons contain radial cores and faceted platform flakes. The youngest horizon contains retouched points and has the most distant obsidian sources.Sites on the western margin of the southern Rift are 60-90 km from the major central Rift obsidian sources. Ntuka River 4 (Norikiushin, GvJh12) contains a 2.5 m sequence with large obsidian backed ‘‘microliths’’, blades with faceted platforms and points from radial cores, stratified above and between two tephra. Ntuka River 3 (Ntumot, GvJh11) contains a 9 m sequence with two stratified tephra. Obsidian bifacial points and narrow backed microliths are stratified 1-3 m below the lowest tephra. Three major LSA horizons lie 3-5 m above this tephra. The youngest LSA is dated 29,975 bp. In the central and southern Rift the highest frequencies of non-local lithic raw materials occur in the youngest MSA and in MSA/LSA occurrences. Lithic source distance data indicate increased range size and/or intensification of regional exchange networks. Dramatic changes in socio-territorial organization may have accompanied the MSA/LSA transition. Supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS-0113565) and the L.S. B. Leakey Foundation.

Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . 2002;Supplement 34.:37.
Ambrose SH, Kyule MD, Muia M, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya." Society for American Anthropology. 2000:33.
Ambuko J. "Advances in Ethylene Signal Transduction in Fruits and Vegetables.". In: Postharvest Ripening Physiology of Crops. CRC Press; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "Response of'Apple'mango fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene as affected by agro-ecological zone and maturity stage.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): IV 1111.; 2014:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Githiga RW, Hutchnison MJ, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-MCP treatments in mango fruits.". In: II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007.; 2012:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Karithi E, M. Hutchinson, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room." Acta Horticulturae . 2018:193-197.abstract.pdf
Ambuko J, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, others. "Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems.". In: RUFORUM Fourth Biennial Conference, Maputo, Mozambique, 19-25 July 2014. RUFORUM; 2014:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, others. "The CoolbotTM: a low-cost cold storage alternative for smallholders in developing countries.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Zanol GC, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H. "Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in hot air preconditioning mediated alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruits." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5:319. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Muoki P, Nyikal RA, Owino W, Angelone-Alasaad S, Ateka EM, Atieno L, Buruchara RA, Chemining'wa G, Policy UNQ. "Specifications for Artisanal Aluminum Cookware in Nairobi.". 1997. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A Comparative Evaluation of Quality and Sensory Characteristics of 'Apple' Mango Fruits produced under Different Agro-ecological zones in Kenya." Acta Horticulturae. 2016; 10(10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1120.66):1120.66.
Ambuko J, Yumbya MP, Shibairo S, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1–methylcyclopropene in purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) as affected by dosage and maturity stage." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2014;4:126-137. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Shibairo SI, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in Purple Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) Fruits as Affected by Dosage and Maturity Stage.". In: HORTSCIENCE. Vol. 48. AMER SOC HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 113 S WEST ST, STE 200, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2013:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A comparative evaluation of quality and sensory characteristics of'Apple'mango fruits produced under different agro-ecological zones in Kenya.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): 1120.; 2014:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Chemining'wa G, Mwachoni E, Hansen B, Wasilwa L, Owino W, Nenguwo N. "Cold chain management in horticultural crops value chains: options for smallholder farmers in Africa.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Maloba S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, others. "Application of off-season flower induction chemicals to address seasonality in mango fruiting and the associated postharvest losses.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H, others. "A comparative evaluation of postharvest quality attributes of two banana (Musa spp) varieties as affected by preharvest production conditions." Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto). 2013;5:170-178. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Chemining’wa GN, Owino WO, Mwachoni E. "Preservation of postharvest quality of leafy amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) vegetables using evaporative cooling." Journal of Food Quality. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Itoh F, Nakamura K, Gemma H. "Effect of seasonal variation, cultivar and production system on some postharvest characteristics of the banana.". In: IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains-The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712.; 2006:. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, ITOH F, NAKAMURA K, Gemma H. "Postharvest characteristics of bananas cultivated under low chemical and conventional production systems in Ecuador." Tropical Agriculture and Development. 2008;52:43-49. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Chemining'wa GN, Mwachoni E, Wanjiru F, Owino WO, Nenguwo N, others. "Evaporative cooling technologies: simple and effective cooling alternatives for smallholder horticultural farmers.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Amecha SC, Njue PN. "Agile Risk Management as a Solution to the Failure of Kenyan Public Projects." American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 2021;6(3):35-40.
Amenya HA, Thoithi GN, Thaiyah AG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK. "In vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of the aqueous and chloroformic extracts of Rapanea melanophloeos (L) Mez." Kenya veterinarian. 2013;35(2).
Amenya HZ, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN, Gathumbi PK. "A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in Ratsb." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;Volume 2016(Article ID 7403087, 10 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7403087).
Amenya HZ, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN. "Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats." Jpounal of ethnopharmacology. 2014;154(3 july):593-599.
Amenya HA, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN. "In vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of the aqueous and chloroformic extracts of Rapanea melanophloeos (L) Mez." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2012;35(2):77-85.
Amenya HZ, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN. "Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015.
Ameyaw MM, Regateiro F, Li T, Liu X, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Thornton N, Folayan GO, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, Price-Evans DA, McLeod HL. "MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity." Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11(3):217-21. Abstract

P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin.

Amiga KK, Kola BO. "Graphics display unit for simulation on personal computers." African Journal of Science & Technology, Series A. 1995;11(1):29-33.
Amiga KK, Kola BO. Development of a computer graphics interface. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya National Association of Physicists; 1988.
Amimo JO, El Zowalaty ME, Githae D, Wamalwa M, Djikeng A, Nasrallah GK. "Metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of the fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2016;161(4):887-897.
Amimo JO, Wakhungu JW, Inyangala BO, Mosi RO. "The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Dairy cattle production in Kenya has been growing into an important agricultural sector, but it still faces numerous difficulties in environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to identify significant non-genetic effects on milk production to give advices for farm management and estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk traits. Data consisting of 4475 lactation records from 10 large-scale Ayrshire herds collected from 1980 to 2005 were used to evaluate effects of non-genetic factors and determine genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends of 305 d milk yield (305d MY). The data analyses using least square techniques of Proc GLM of SAS identified significant sources of variation by herd, parity and year of calving on 305d MY. The overall mean for 305d MY was 3009.8 ±1098 kg, with the corresponding heritability and repeatability estimates of 0.12 ±0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.01 respectively. Genetic trend for 305d MY was -2.1 kg/yr and statistically significant (P<0.01) indicating annual decrease in breeding values over the study period. The high variation as indicated by both large standard errors and low heritabilities of the milk trait indicate that much improvement in this trait could be achieved through improved management. The negative annual genetic changes in milk yield observed could largely be due to ineffective breeding strategies both at herd and national level.

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