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Ayiemba EHO. "Fertility and Development .". 1989.Website
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Characteristics .". 1986.Website
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Getao K. "The El Farol Bar Problem Approach to Resource Allocation in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks.". In: International Conference on Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational Grids.". In: International ICT Workshop on Application of ICT in Enhancing Higher Learning Education. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2004.
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Multiagent Systems for Bandwidth Optimization in Wireless Grids.". In: 2nd Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC06. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2006.
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Okello-Odongo W, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology. 2014;Volume 03(Issue 02).
Ayienga E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Multi Agent Systems for Efficient Quality of Service Routing in Grids." European Research Consortium on Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM) News. 2004;59:40-41.
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Multiagent Systems for Grid Network Resource Allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees.". In: 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2005.
Ayienga EM, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Odongo O. "Game Theory and Learning at the Medium Access Control Layer for Distributed Radio Resource Sharing in Random Access Wireless Networks.". In: 6th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART). Barcelona, Spain; 2013.
Ayienga E, Opiyo E, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowe A. Multiagent Systems for Grid Network Resource Allocation with Quality of Service guarantees. 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries. August 9-12, 2005, pp. 181-186, Makerere University Kampala, Uganda; 2005. Abstract

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Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Odongo WO, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning.". 2014. Abstract
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Ayienga EM. "Using Multi-Agent Systems for Efficient Network Resource Allocation with Quality of Service Guarantees in Computational GRIDs.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 124-138. VLIR; 2004.
Ayieyo P, Rambo C, Ndiritu A. "Financial Effect of Labour Related Risks on Completion of PPP Projects. Advances in social sciences research journal.volume 7(10):122-130.". 2021. Abstract

Efficient management of construction works should focus its attention on utilizing labour, equipment, and raw materials in the right way. Besides, they claim that responsible parties should evaluate labour productivity continuously and that cost control measures should be developed. Low productivity witnessed in construction is linked to internal challenges including disputes, abandonment of projects, excess budget, and time overlaps. The objective of the study was to determine the financial effect of labour related risks on completion of PPP projects. A descriptive survey design was used with simple random sampling targeting 85 members of the management team at the completed Sondu-Miriu Power project. The participants were administered with questionnaire which were sent by mail (in some cases) and selected participants encouraged to respond. Data obtained was analysed through SPSS platform using descriptive statistics and Pearson Moment correlation as inferential statistics. The study found that labour related risks in construction PPP projects included failure by employees and experts to complete assigned tasks, injuries and deaths, changing labour demands during the project as well as cases of go slow. Construction labour related risks affected the financial cost, time and quality of work performed in the construction project. The study concludes that labour related risks have a financial effect on completion of PPP projects such that as the risks increase, the financial cost increases. The study recommends that more focus should be placed on the identification and recruitment of project staff as well task allocation.

Ayisi RK, Thuita FM, NJERU E, Wakoli AB. "Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding for six months in a peri urban settlement of Kangemi. A qualitative approach." European International Journal of Science and tecnology. 2013;2(10):53-60.
Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA. "Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(10):591-5. Abstract

Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism.

Aymara Llanque, Johanna Jacobi TTSMCSATLFF. "Transformations towards food sustainability using the participatory Food Sustainability Assessment Framework ." Social Innovation. 2021;695(5):2021-03-04.
Ayoma M, Oboko RO. "M-Learning Support Services for Corporate Learning." International Journal of Societal Applications of Computer Science. 2013;2(3):210-215 .
Ayonga NJ(2008). "Managing Land use conflicts at the rural urban interface. Managing Ethiopian cities in an era of Rapid urbanization. pp 28-43. ISBN 978-90-5972-267-5. .". In: . In Van Dijk, M.P and J.Fransen (Eds). IHS, Netherlands.: Eburon academic publishers; 2008.
Ayonga NJ(2007). "Managing Land use Conflicts at the Rural Urban Interface; the case of Ethiopia and Kenya. .". In: International Conference on Managing Ethiopian Cities in the 21st Century. Ethiopian civil college, Addis Ababa; 2007.
Ayonga DSODJ&. "Rural-Urban Dualism and Ineffective Land Use Control Instruments at the Rural- Urban Interface.". In: Africa Habitat. Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal; 2009. Abstract

Abstract

Hitherto, land use planning in Kenya was practiced in the colonial urban areas and the scheduled highlands but not in the African markets and rural reserves. This then created favorable land use patterns in the European settlements and unfavorable land use patterns in the African settlements. In the recent times, efforts have been made to introduce land use planning in the former African settlements in order to harmonize land use patterns in the country. However, effective land use planning within the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface has proved futile. Hence, the favorable spatial patterns in the former African settlements can still be observed during the era of post-colonial Kenya. This paper seek answers to the following question: why would land use control instruments which are fairly effective in the former European settlements become ineffective in the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface? Arising from the review of literature, it is concluded that overtime, the colonial settlements and the African settlements land use economies evolved to what can be considered as two composite land use systems. The two land use systems have variations in land use objectives, legal provisions, institutional frameworks and land delivery models. The variations in components between the former African rural land use systems and those of the colonial urban and scheduled areas system were not harmonized. Therefore, the European settlement area specific land use control instruments could not be effective in the former African land use system where the rural-urban interface is located.

Key words: rural-urban dualism ineffective control instruments, rural-urban interface

Ayonga, N J. R.W. R&(2021). "Dual Spatial Patterns, In-optimal Legal Framework and how they affect Land Use Planning in Kenya: Evidence from the Planning statutes. ." Journal of African Habitat Review. 2021; (15(4). (Forthcoming.).
Ayonga DSODJ&. "Theoretical Underpinnings of Urban Sprawl; In search of a Universal Theory of the 21st Century Urban Management Challenge.". In: Africa Habitat. Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal; 2009. Abstract

Urban sprawl is a phenomenon which characterizes all urban spaces both in MDCs and LDCs. Managing the problems associated with urban sprawl, especially in LDCs, is, however, mind boggling, hence, the very reason why the theme of the world urban forum held in 2008 in Beijing city, China, read: cities without sprawl. In order to manage urban sprawl in a sustainable way, there is need to understand the factors which bring it about. In an effort to contribute to that understanding, this paper seeks answers to the questions: Do patterns of urban sprawl occur the same way in every city both in MDCs and LDCs? In other words, can urban sprawl be explained by use of a single and universal theory? The review of literature has established that patterns of peri-urban formation vary depending on the city-rural relationship at the rural-urban interface. In countries where the urban land use system is integrated with that of the rural, peri-urban formation takes the form of invasion and succession along the city-rural continuum. In countries where the rural and urban land use systems are dichotomized, peri-urban dichotomy. It is concluded, however, that there is no single theory to explain all forms of urban sprawl. The general consensus; however, is that urban sprawl is undesirable. A framework to predetermining desirable/ optimum patterns of peri-urban formation is conceptualized in this paper. What constitutes a universal theory that informs a desirable/optimum model is also conceptualized in this paper and termed here in as the integrated politico-social-economic optimizing model.

Key words: theoretical underpinings, urban sprawl, universal theory, management challenge, urban fringe.

Ayonga Jeremiah, Kiilu Faith OS(2017). "Effects of Informal Land Development on the Urban Environment: A case Study of Langas in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya." Africa HABITAT Review. 2017;11(11)(ISSN 2519-78512.):pp 1085-1090.
Ayub M. "Language Policy and Planning in Urban Kenya." VDM Publishers, Saarbrucken, Germany; 2010. Abstract
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Ayugi, Mary Evelyn; Odera O; OGO; AE; ON; AC. "Factors Affecting Performance of Trade Unions in Kenya .". 2013.Website
Ayugi JW, Ogeng'o JA, Macharia IM. "Pattern of congenital neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population." Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.. 2010;74(1):64-6. Abstract

The distribution of congenital neck masses varies between countries and is important in diagnosis and treatment modalities. Data from Africa is scarce, and altogether absent from Kenya.

Ayugi JW, Ogeng'o JA, Macharia IM, Olabu BO. "Pattern of acquired neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population." Int J Oral maxillofacial Surg. 2011;40(4):384-387.
Ayugi J, OGENGO J, Macharia I, Olabu B. "Pattern of acquired neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population." Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40(4):384-7. Abstract

Acquired paediatric neck masses constitute a diagnostic challenge. Their pattern is important in formulating management protocol. Reports from developing countries including Kenya are scarce. This study describes the causes, location, clinical features and gender distribution of these masses in a Kenyan paediatric population. This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in a regional Eastern and Central African referral centre in Kenya. Children aged 16 years and below with neck masses, who presented to various clinics and wards in a 5 month period were examined. One hundred and eighty four of 235 masses (78%) were acquired. Inflammatory cases were the most common (64%), followed by malignant neoplasm (32%). The most common inflammatory cases were abscesses, reactive lymphadenopathy and tuberculous adenitis. They mainly involved upper cervical and submandibular lymph nodes and were more prevalent in those aged less than 4 years. Lymphomas were the most common malignant masses (42%). Malignant masses were widespread in location; non-tender, and most frequent in those aged 4-8 years. In conclusion, inflammatory conditions consistent with upper airway infection cause most acquired paediatric neck masses, but malignant neoplasms constitute a significant proportion. Prudent management of infection and early confirmation of diagnosis are recommended.

Ayuke FO;, Karanja NK;, Wickama J;, Awiti A;, Hella J. "Soil fauna community structure across land manage ment systems of Kenya and Tanzania.".; 2007.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Bunyasi SW. "Evaluating effect of mixtures of organic resources on nutrient release patterns and uptake by maize.". In: In: Bationo, A., Waswa B., Kihara, J., Kimetu, J. (Eds). Advances in Integrated Soil Fertility Research in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities, 79: 833-844 . Springer Publishers; 2007. Abstract

To supplement high costs of inorganic fertilizers, smallholder farmers in the tropics are likely to increase the use of appropriate plant residues as an alternative source of plant nutrients especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To maximize benefit accrued from these materials, synchronizing nutrient release patterns of the materials with crop’s nutrient requirements need to be understood. Consequently, this study was undertaken to: (1) evaluate the effect of plant residues on mineralization and N-release patterns, (2) evaluate the N release patterns of mixtures of low and high quality organic materials and synchrony with maize uptake. Incubation studies were established for 12 weeks using six selected plant residues: which included Leucaena leucocephala, Croton macrostachyus, Calliandra calothyrsus, Tithonia diversifolia, Sorghum bicolor and rice (Oryza sativa) husks. Soil samples were taken at 2 weeks interval for ammonium nitrogen (NH+4 -N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO−3 -N) determination. The organic residues differed in their chemical composition and this was found to influence mineralization rates and nitrogen release patterns. Two distinctive NO−3 -N + NH+4 N release patterns were observed over the incubation period. L. leucocephala, C. macrostachyus, C. calothyrsus, T. diversifolia had a net N release throughout while S. bicolor and rice husks (O. sativa) had a significant N immobilization. Nitrogen-release was best correlated with C:N ratio (r2= –0.84 to –0.90) for most of the sampling periods. Polyphenol:N ratio also had a significantly high
correlation with cumulative N mineralized (r2 = –0.65 to –0.95). Two organic resource with contrasting C:N and PP:N ratios i.e. C. macrostachyus and O. sativa were selected for use and in depth effect of mixing high quality C. macrostachyus (Cm) and low quality O. sativa (Os) at different ratios on mineralization N release patterns. Agronomic effectiveness of the best mixture, which was based on N release, was measured using maize as the test crop in a glasshouse experiment. The dynamics of N-mineralization of the various mixture of C. macrostachyus (Cm) and O. sativa (Os) were in general not significantly different from those predicted from the O. sativa and C. macrostachyus treatments alone with the exception of the ¾ Cm + ¼ Os which gave significant N immobilization at 6–8 weeks and the ¼ Cm+¾Os which enhanced N mineralization at 2
and 12 weeks respectively. Addition of plant residues significantly increased maize biomass in the glasshouse with potted mixtures of plant residues giving the highest maize dry matter yield and N uptake.

Key words: Agronomic effectiveness, chemical composition, mineralization, nutrient release, nutrient uptake,
organic resources

Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Awiti A. "Soil Macrofauna in soils under differing levels of disturbance and land use intensity in Kakamega District, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal (In Press). 2013;78(1):63-75.
Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "An assessment of Soil Fertility Management strategies in Agroecosystems (biomass transfer technology) on Belowground Biodiversity-Soil macrofauna biomass.". In: proceedings of the 8th Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility and Programme African Network meeting. Arusha, Tanzania; 2001. Abstract

During 1997 short rains (Oct 1997-Feb 1998), a study was undertaken to assess how biomass transfer within
agroecosystem influence soil biodiversity (soil macrofauna biomass). This was part of a larger experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna are related to the quality of organic residues used. Leaf biomass of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia [Hemseley) A. Grey) biomass and senna (Senna spectabilis D.C. & H.S. Irwin) biomass at 5 t ha -1 dry weight were incorporated into the soil and these were compared with the control without any input and fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha-1 from urea and triple super phosphate (TSP). Macrofauna biomass (fresh weight), was monitored in soil monoliths (25cm x 25cm x 30cm) at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. Addition of organic residues increased faunal biomass substantially over the fertilized and unfertilized controls. Whereas senna increased total biomass by 45% and tithonia by 49%, the two organic residues did not differ significantly between them. Addition of either senna or tithonia significantly increased earthworm biomass by 390% over no input control. Even though termite biomass increased by 160% in senna and 120% in tithonia over no input control, F test was not significant because of high variability between replications of the same treatment. Fertilizer use did not change biomass of termites and earthworms. This study shows that: (1) addition of organic residues significantly increase faunal biomass indicating a likelihood that soil invertebrate functions can be manipulated by external inputs of organic residues (2) under arable land use system characterized by low amount, range and diversity of food resources, quality of organic residues do not play a significant role in influencing foraging behaviour of soil invertebrates. It therefore remains to be demonstrated whether mixing litter of organic residues of different quality may change this foraging behaviour and consequently the invertebrate functions in agroecosystem.

Key words: Biomass transfer, macrofauna, biomass, earthworms, termites

Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM, Vanlauwe B, de Goede RGM, Six J, Csuzdi C, Brussaard L. "Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2011;148:148-154. Abstract

Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the subhumid
to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic richness decreased in the direction fallow > high-C soil > low-C soil and earthworm abundance was higher in fallow than under continuous crop production. Termite abundance was not significantly different between fallow and high and low-C treatments and termite taxonomic richness was higher in fallow soil than in the two cropping systems. We concluded that fewer species of earthworms and termites were favored under agricultural management that led to lower soil C. Results indicated that the soil disturbance induced by continuous crop production was more detrimental to earthworms than to termites, when compared to the fallow.
Keywords: Soil biodiversity, Earthworms, Termites, Agriculture, Crop management, Soil carbon, Climate

Ayuke FO. Diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna in relation to quality of organic residues. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University; 2000. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used.
The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest.
A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out.
Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population.
Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role.
Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna and (4) high quality residues can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on soil mineral nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate N) and maize yields in western Kenya.". In: proceedings of the 8th Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility and Programme African Network meeting. Arusha, Tanzania; 2001. Abstract

The effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil mineral N and maize yields were evaluated in a Kandiudalfic Eutrodox soil of western Kenya. Leaf biomass of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia [Hemseley] A. Grey) and senna (Senna spectabilis D.C. & H.S. Irwin) at 5 t ha-1 dry weight were incorporated into the soil and compared with the response obtained from control without any input and fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha-1 from urea and triple super phosphate (TSP). Soil mineral (inorganic), N, was measured at the beginning of the trial and subsequently at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after applying the treatments. Maize grain and stover yields were estimated at harvest. Total inorganic nitrogen in the soil at the beginning of the season was at a similar level in all treatments. It increased rapidly after applying the materials and at the onset of rains for all treatments probably because of rapid nitrogen mineralisation in all treatments. After four weeks, inorganic nitrogen decreased progressively until end of the experiment in all the treatments. The highest contribution of mineral N to the soil by the organic residues was noted at four weeks stage and this was significantly higher with tithonia than senna. This could be due to rapid N mineralization by these residues. Senna treatment that had the lowest mineral N during the first weeks of the trial, showed that N mineralization was slow with the mineral N reaching highest level at four-week stage. However, it is interesting to note that while soil N under tithonia was statistically higher than in senna at four weeks, it was higher under senna at later stage observations. Thus tithonia decomposed completely in about four weeks, while senna was still mineralizing at 8 weeks. Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. The study indicates that high quality residues such as tithonia can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

Keywords: Biomass transfer, Tithonia diversifolia, Senna spectabilis, mineral nitrogen, maize yield.

Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Wickama J, Awiti A, Hella J. Soil fauna community structure across land management systems of Kenya and Tanzania. Kigali, Rwanda; 2007. Abstract

Changes in soil fauna communities were studied across land use systems in parts of Lake Victoria basin in Kenya and Tanzania. The study sites included primary forest, secondary forest, plantation forest, fallow and arable lands under different cropping systems and intensity, with cultivation in some systems ranging from one to more than 40 years. In Kenya, a total of 47 species were recorded across the land use systems while in Tanzania, a total of 36 species were recorded of which 25 species were unique to the forest soils. Isopterans were the most abundant of the total macrofauna groups observed across the two benchmark sites, constituting between 38 and 46%. Forest disturbance, cultivation and higher levels of intensification had a substantial effect on macrofauna diversity. This study has demonstrated that macofauna species and their density declined, particularly when natural forest was disturbed, cleared or cultivated, and when agro-chemicals were applied in the cropping systems.

Key words: Community structure, diversity, land use system, soil fauna

Ayuke FO. Biodiversity of soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure in West and East African cropping systems, as related to organic resource management, crop rotation and tillage. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen University; 2010. Abstract

Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termites are important components of the soil ecosystem and, as ecosystem engineers, they influence formation and maintenance of the soil structure and regulate soil processes. Despite advances made in understanding the links between soil macrofauna and agricultural productivity, this component of biodiversity is still very much a “black box”. In this thesis, I proposed to link soil biodiversity to soil functioning through the diversity of the soil structures produced by ‘ecosystem engineers’ like earthworms and termites, i.e. organisms, which physically modify and create habitats for other soil organisms and plant roots. This study aimed at providing an understanding of the link between soil macrofauna and crop management practices on soil aggregation and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics as this is key to the improvement and the management of infertile or degrading soils.
The methodological approach used in this study involved assessment of:
1. How agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones.
2. The influence of soil macrofauna on soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa as influenced by management practices.
3. How management practices (e.g. tillage and use of organic inputs) influence macrofauna-induced biogenic structures in East and West African soils.
4. Disclosing farmers’ knowledge and perception on the roles of termites in Western Kenya.

In chapter 2, I examined how agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones. This study, conducted in 12 long-term agricultural field trials of Eastern and Western Africa, provides new insights on diversity of earthworms and termites in SSA, since it is the first time that a study like this is done on this scale. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. High soil C was considered to reflect relatively favorable conditions, and low soil C less favourable conditions for soil macrofauna. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled.
I have shown that earthworm and termite diversity and abundance were low in fallow, high-C and low-C agricultural treatments in 12 long-term trial fields across the sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones in Eastern and Western Africa. This is in contrast to most typical native or undisturbed forest ecosystems of the tropical zones. Environmental variables contributed 42% and 25% of variation observed in earthworm and termite taxonomic abundance, respectively. Earthworm and termite taxa were less abundant in the relatively cooler, wetter and more clayey sites characteristic of Eastern Africa, compared to the warmer, drier and more sandy sites in West Africa. Continuous crop production has significant negative effects on earthworm-, but little effect on termite diversity, as compared to long-term fallow, and agricultural management resulting in high soil C increases earthworm and termite diversity as compared to low-C soil. I conclude that fewer species of earthworms and termites are favored under agricultural management that leads to lower soil C. Results indicate that soil disturbance that goes with continuous crop production is more detrimental to earthworms than to termites as compared to fallow.

In chapter 3, a broad regional study was conducted to examine how management intensity affects soil macrofauna, and how macrofauna in turn influence soil aggregation in agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa.
My study has shown that macrofauna, especially earthworms, and to a smaller extent termites, are important drivers of stable soil aggregation, in conjunction with climate, soil organic C content and soil texture in sub-Saharan agroecosystems. However, the beneficial impact of earthworms and termites on soil aggregation is reduced with increasing management intensity and associated soil disturbance due to cultivation. I suggest that this knowledge is important in designing agricultural management systems aimed at increasing long-term soil fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

In chapter 4, a long-term trial at Kabete, Kenya was selected to examine in detail the interactive effects of organic and inorganic fertilizerson soil macrofauna diversity and soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in arable cropping systems. Differently managed arable systems were compared to a long-term green fallow system representing a relatively undisturbed reference.
Application of manure in combination with fertilizer significantly improved aggregate stability and C and N stabilization in arable soil. Furthermore, manure-fertilizer application enhanced earthworm diversity and biomass. Significant correlations between the amount and C and N contents of aggregate fractions and whole soil C and N were observed with earthworm parameters (Shannon diversity index, abundance and biomass), but not with termite parameters. Factor and regression analyses showed that earthworms had a profound effect on aggregation, C and N stabilization in whole soil and in aggregate fractions, whereas contributions of termites were limited. Therefore, my results indicate that long-term application of manure in combination with fertilizer result in higher earthworm Shannon diversity and biomass, which leads to improved soil aggregation and enhanced C and N stabilization within this more stable soil structure. These practices therefore result in the dual benefits of improving soil physical and chemical properties. In contrast, no significant improvements in soil aggregation and C and N stabilization were found when organic inputs were applied in the form of maize stover as compared to the no-input control, irrespective of fertilizer addition. Under the conditions studied, earthworms were more important drivers of aggregate stability and C and N stabilization in aggregate fractions, but termites less so.

In chapter 5, a micromorphological approach was used to describe and quantify macrofauna-induced biogenic structures in undisturbed soil samples (i.e. thin sections) from long-term field experiments in East and West Africa. Management systems differing in tillage intensity and with or without organic amendments (manure/crop residue) were compared.
My study has shown the soil management practices tillage type and addition of organic inputs influence soil fauna activities with a significant impact on soil structure and hence soil physical properties. Among the management practices assessed across two agroecological zones, fallowing, conservation tillage plus residue application (in East Africa) and hand-hoeing plus manure (in West Africa) enhanced biogenic soil structure formation, resulting in a well developed soil structure and a continuous pore system through many faunal channels. By contrast, intensive tillage and absence of organic inputs resulted in soil with less biogenic soil structural features and was, therefore, prone to slaking.

Chapter 6 describes farmers’ knowledge on the occurrence and behavior of termites, their perception of the importance of termites in their cropping systems and the management of termite activities in their farm fields in Nyabeda, Western Kenya. Being the main actors in environmental conservation or degradation, farmers’ knowledge and perception can enrich scientific understanding of the ecology and sustainable management of termites under different agroecological conditions.
My research has shown that farmers in Nyabeda were aware of the existence of termites, their activities and nesting habits and had local names for termites that they frequently encountered. Geographic location explained 23% of the variance in farmers’ perception and management of termites, whereas socio-economic variables explained only 5%. Ninety percent of the farmers perceived termites as pests and maize was rated as the most susceptible crop to termite attack, especially during the flowering/tasseling stage and in wet periods. More than 88% of the farmers used control measures against termites, further indicating a lack of awareness or appreciation of the beneficial effects often ascribed to termites with respect to soil properties in crop production. There is an urgent need for more research to assess the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts of termites on crop yields, as well as to get an understanding of the effects of different termite control strategies used by farmers on agroecosystem functions.

Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Muya EM, Musombi BK, Mungatu J, Nyamasyo GHN. "Macrofauna diversity and abundance across different land use systems in Embu, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11 (2):371-384. Abstract

This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna of various land use systems in Embu, Kenya (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, tea, napier, and maize). Each was sampled for
macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall traps). Thirty four (34) genera/species of soil macrofauna were recorded, the highest number (27) being observed in napier. Majority of these genera/species being Coleoptera. Rényi diversity profile indicated that in terms of
species richness (α at 0), maize was the richest of all the land use systems, but plantation forest the least. It
was however not possible to clearly order or rank the land use system in terms of diversity because of the
bias of each of the two diversity indices as indicated by the numerous crossings observed for the diversity
profiles/curves. Shannon index of diversity (α = 1) indicated that coffee was the most diverse of the land
use systems followed by plantation forest > natural forest > napier > maize > tea, while fallow/pasture was
the least diverse (Figure 1). On the other hand, Simpson’s diversity (α = 2) indicated that plantation
forest was the most diverse followed by fallowed by coffee > natural forest > napier > maize >tea >
fallow/pasture. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species
distribution followed by natural forest and coffee > napier > tea > maize but least even in the
fallow/pasture. Hymenoptera were most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 45% of the
total followed by Isoptera (39%), Coleoptera (6%), Oligochaeta (5%), Orthoptera (3%) and Arenae (2%). The other groups that comprised of Hemiptera, Diptera, Phasmidae and Blattelidae each constituted
<1% of the total marofauna recorded. Highest macrofauna density (1566) was recorded in the napier
followed by fallow (1356) > coffee (1170) > natural forest (1110) > tea (755), but lowest in plantation
forest (309), although analysis of variance indicated no significant variation among the land use systems. This study however, demonstrates that quantitative changes in diversity and density of soil fauna communities occur when various land use systems are subjected to varying levels of intensification. These changes appear to be associated with management practices such as use of agrochemicals, consequent destruction of nesting habitats, modification of soil microclimate within habitats, removal of substrate, low diversity and availability of food sources for the associated macrofauna groups. The significant correlations
between some soil macrofauna groups with selected soil chemical properties shows that, soil chemical
characteristics may indirectly play a role in influencing the density, distribution and structure of macrofauna
communities.

Key words: Macrofauna; diversity; abundance; land use systems.

Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Ayuke FO, Rao MR, Swift MJ, Opondo-Mbai ML. "Impact of soil fertility management strategies on diversity and populations of soil macrofauna in agroecosystem." East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal. 2003;69(2):131-137. Abstract

The role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well appreciated. The scope, however, of their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to assess how soil fertility management strategies within an Agroforestry system affect soil biodiversity (macrofauna diversity and populations). The study was conducted on-farm during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) Tithonia diversifolia biomass at 5 t ha1 dry weight and (4) Senna spectabilis at 5 t ha1 dry weight. Riparian natural forest and a 6-year grassland fallow were assessed and used as reference standards. Macrofauna diversity and populations were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) at the beginning of the season, 6 weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. Faunal diversity was assessed using the Shannon-Wiener index of diversity (H′). Data were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) in a split-plot design and treatment differences evaluated using least significance difference (LSD) at P=0.05. Macrofauna diversity and populations of most of the macrofauna groups were significantly higher under natural forest (H′ = 2.31) than in all the other treatments (each H′ = < 1). Although the 2 organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna significantly increased earthworm population by 400% and tithonia by 240% over the no input control. Even though termite population increased by 145% in senna and 118% in tithonia over the control, the increase was not significant because of high variability between replications of the same treatment. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or population of termites and earthworms. The study indicates that: (1) short-term addition of organic residues do not significantly increase faunal diversity, (2) Soil invertebrates fauna populations can be manipulated by external additions of organic residues such as senna and (3) Changes in land use systems, especially those that reduce the amount, range and diversity of food resources for macrofauna bring about instability in below ground biodiversity. There is therefore need to clearly define the conditions in which such impairment is critically important to agricultural production and sustainability and to determine what management interventions may be made to alleviate or ameliorate problems resulting from loss of diversity.

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Diversity, abundance and function fauna in relation in relation to quality of organic residues.". In: Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) and African Research Network (AfNet) workshops. Kampala, Uganda; 1999. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used. The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out. Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population. Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna population hence activity.

Ayuke FO, Brussaard L, Vanlauwe B, Six J, Lelei DK, Kibunja C, Pulleman MM. "Ayuke, F.O., Brussaard, L., Vanlauwe, B., Six, J., Lelei, D.K., Kibunja, C., Pulleman, M.M. (2011). Soil fertility management: impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation." Applied Soil Ecology. 2011;48:53-62. Abstract

Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil
quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little
is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna diversity on
soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in tropical arable cropping systems. A study was conducted in a
long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya, to investigate the effects of organic inputs (maize stover or
manure) and inorganic fertilizers on soil macrofauna abundance, biomass and taxonomic diversity, water
stable aggregation, whole soil and aggregate-associated organic C and N, as well as the relations between
these variables. Differently managed arable systems were compared to a long-term green fallow system
representing a relatively undisturbed reference.
Fallowing, and application of farm yard manure (FYM) in combination with fertilizer, significantly
enhanced earthworm diversity and biomass as well as aggregate stability and C and N pools in the top
15cm of the soil. Earthworm abundance significantly negatively correlated with the percentage of total
macroaggregates and microaggregates within macroaggregates, but all earthworm parameters positively
correlated with whole soil and aggregate associated C and N, unlike termite parameters. Factor analysis
showed that 35.3% of the total sample variation in aggregation and C and N in total soil and aggregate
fractions was explained by earthworm parameters, and 25.5% by termite parameters. Multiple regression
analysis confirmed this outcome.
The negative correlation between earthworm abundance and total macroaggregates and microaggregates
within macroaggregate could be linked to the presence of high numbers of Nematogenia lacuum
in the arable treatments without organic amendments, an endogeic species that feeds on excrements of
other larger epigeic worms and produces small excrements. Under the conditions studied, differences
in earthworm abundance, biomass and diversity were more important drivers of management-induced
changes in aggregate stability and soil C and N pools than differences in termite populations.
Keywords: Earthworm, Termite, Taxonomic richness, Soil organic matter, Carbon, Nitrogen, Soil aggregate fraction

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Soil fertility management strategies in agroecosystem and implication on Soil Macrofauna diversity and populations.". In: Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) Proceedings of the 18th Conference and End of the Millennium Celebrations . Mombasa, Kenya; 2001. Abstract

Soil fauna functions in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations are well appreciated. However the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to assess how soil fertility management strategies within an Agroforestry system affect soil biodiversity (macrofauna diversity and populations). The study was conducted on farm during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) Tithonia diversifolia biomass at 5 t ha1 dry weight and (4) Senna spectabilis at 5 t ha1 dry weight. Riparian natural forest and a six-year grassland fallow were assessed and used as reference standards. Macrofauna diversity and populations were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) at the beginning of the season, 6 weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. Faunal diversity was assessed using the Shannon-Wiener index of diversity (H′). Data were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) in a split-plot design and treatment differences evaluated using least significance difference (LSD) at P=0.05. Macrofauna diversity and populations of most of the macrofauna groups were significantly higher under natural forest (H′ = 2.31) than in all the other treatments (each H′ = < 1). Although the 2 organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna significantly increased earthworm population by 400% and tithonia by 240% over the no input control. Even though termite population increased by 145% in senna and 118% in tithonia over the control, the increase was not significant because of high variability between replications of the same treatment. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or population of termites and earthworms. The study indicates that: (1) short-term addition of organic residues do not significantly increase faunal diversity, (2) Soil invertebrates fauna populations can be manipulated by external additions of organic residues such as senna and (3) Changes in land use systems, especially those that reduce the amount, range and diversity of food resources for macrofauna bring about instability in below ground biodiversity. There is therefore need to clearly define the conditions in which such impairment is critically important to agricultural production and sustainability and to determine what management interventions may be made to alleviate or ameliorate problems resulting from loss of diversity.

Key words: Biodiversity, macrofauna, population, Tithonia diversifolia, Senna spectabilis

Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuo PO, Abinya NA, JOSHI MD, Lore W. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". 1993. Abstractcardiovascular_features_in_adolescents_and_adults_with_sickle_cell_anaemia.pdfWebsite

Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function

Ayuya, J.M., Mangi, N., Gichanga J. "Cattle gastrointestinal helminths on some farms in Njabini area of Kinangop Division, Nyandarua District, Kenya.". In: 24th Inter Norden Sheep Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 1993.
Ayuyo IO, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basi." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):1-23.
Aywak AA. The Radiological Manifestations Of Burkitt's Lymphoma At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1992. Abstract

The radiological features of Burkitt's Lymphoma were
assessed in 49 children with a histological diagnosis of
Burkitt's lymphoma admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital
Paediatric wards. The commonest radiological findings were
associated with abdominal lymphomas seen in 65.2% of the
cases. The least findings were associated with cervical
adenopathy seen in 3.3% and a similar number had pleural
effusion. Disease extent on radiological evaluation was
greater than as assessed clinically alone. For instance,
while 20 cases were clinically found to have disease confined
to the facial bones, on radiological evaluation 5 of the 20
cases were found to have Burkitt's Lymphoma deposits in the
abdominal viscera besides the facial lesions. The age
range was 2-14 years with the incidence falling rapidly after
10 years. The male female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Peak
incidence was at 5 - 7 years. The highest incidence was found
among tribes residing in endemic malarial areas. The Luo had
the highest incidence with 19 cases (38.8%) followed by the
Luhya with 11 cases (22.4%).

Azer SA, Eizenberg N. "Do we need dissection in an integrated problem-based learning medical course? {Perceptions} of first- and second-year students." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:173-180. AbstractWebsite

Background The introduction of a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the School of Medicine of the University of Melbourne has necessitated a reduction in the number of lectures and limited the use of dissection in teaching anatomy. In the new curriculum, students learn the anatomy of different body systems using PBL tutorials, practical classes, pre-dissected specimens, computer-aided learning multimedia and a few dissection classes. The aims of this study are: (1) to assess the views of first- and second-year medical students on the importance of dissection in learning about the anatomy, (2) to assess if students’ views have been affected by demographic variables such as gender, academic background and being a local or an international student, and (3) to assess which educational tools helped them most in learning the anatomy and whether dissection sessions have helped them in better understanding anatomy. Methods First- and second-year students enrolled in the medical course participated in this study. Students were asked to fill out a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Data was analysed using Mann–Whitney’s U test, Wilcoxon’s signed-ranks or the calculation of the Chi-square value. Results The response rates were 89% for both first- and second-year students. Compared to second-year students, first-year students perceived dissection to be important for deep understanding of anatomy (P {\textless} 0.001), making learning interesting (P {\textless} 0.001) and introducing them to emergency procedures (P {\textless} 0.001). Further, they preferred dissection over any other approach (P {\textless} 0.001). First-year students ranked dissection (44%), textbooks (23%), computer-aided learning (CAL), multimedia (10%), self-directed learning (6%) and lectures (5%) as the most valuable resources for learning anatomy, whereas second-year students found textbooks (38%), dissection (18%), pre-dissected specimens (11%), self-directed learning (9%), lectures (7%) and CAL programs (7%) as most useful. Neither of the groups showed a significant preference for pre-dissected specimens, CAL multimedia or lectures over dissection. Conclusions Both first- and second-year students, regardless of their gender, academic background, or citizenship felt that the time devoted to dissection classes were not adequate. Students agreed that dissection deepened their understanding of anatomical structures, provided them with a three-dimensional perspective of structures and helped them recall what they learnt. Although their perception about the importance of dissection changed as they progressed in the course, good anatomy textbooks were perceived as an excellent resource for learning anatomy. Interestingly, innovations used in teaching anatomy, such as interactive multimedia resources, have not replaced students’ perceptions about the importance of dissection.

Aziz AM, McKenzie JC, Wilson JS, Cowie RJ, Ayeni SA, Dunn BK. "The human cadaver in the age of biomedical informatics." The Anatomical Record. 2002;269:20-32. Abstract

Major national and international critiques of the medical curriculum in the 1980s noted the following significant flaws: (1) over-reliance on learning by rote memory, (2) insufficient exercise in analysis and synthesis/conceptualization, and (3) failure to connect the basic and clinical aspects of training. It was argued that the invention of computers and related imaging techniques called to question the traditional instruction based on the faculty-centered didactic lecture. In the ensuing reform, which adopted case-based, small group, problem-based learning, time allotted to anatomical instruction was severely truncated. Many programs replaced dissection with prosections and computer-based learning. We argue that cadaver dissection is still necessary for (1) establishing the primacy of the patient, (2) apprehension of the multidimensional body, (3) touch-mediated perception of the cadaver/patient, (4) anatomical variability, (5) learning the basic language of medicine, (6) competence in diagnostic imaging, (7) cadaver/patient-centered computer-assisted learning, (8) peer group learning, (9) training for the medical specialties. Cadaver-based anatomical education is a prerequisite of optimal training for the use of biomedical informatics. When connected to dissection, medical informatics can expedite and enhance preparation for a patient-based medical profession. Actual dissection is equally necessary for acquisition of scientific skills and for a communicative, moral, ethical, and humanistic approach to patient care. Anat Rec (New Anat) 269:20-32, 2002.

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