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Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Disaster Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Since time immemorial, natural disasters have continued to plague the history of mankind. They have varied in type, frequency, coverage and severity ranging from earthquakes, landslides, droughts, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc. Over the last century, the frequency, severity and impact of natural disasters has increased substantially.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Remote Sensing.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Remote sensing is defined as the art, science and technology through which the characteristics of object features/targets either on, above or even below the earth’s surface are identified, measured and analyzed without direct contact existing between the sensors and the targets or events being observed, see e.g., (Jensen 2009; Lillesand et al. 2010; Richards 1994; Murai 1999) etc.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Web GIS and Mapping.". 2013. Abstract

The Internet and web-based technology has dramatically influenced the access to and dissemination of information among communities, locally and globally. This is no less true in the domain of geographic information systems (GIS) which have traditionally been constrained in terms of information access and the communities that use them. Geospatial data has traditionally been captured and managed within individual and separate organizational databases with access by a limited number of expert users. Now, with the integrated use of the web, not just geospatial data, but also the functionality of GIS can be accessed globally by citizens and non-experts.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Spatial Analysis .". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Optical Remote Sensing.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Satellite Environmental Sensing.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Protection and Conservation of Animals and Vegetation.". 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Pollution.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

There exist various definitions to the word pollution depending on one’s jurisdiction and the laws of a particular country. Springer (1977, see references therein) looks at the meaningful concept of defining pollution in international law by posing the questions: “What are you talking about when you are talking about pollution? What is pollution? How would you define it if you are going to remove the concept of damage from it?” These questions are not easily answerable and as Springer (1977) acknowledges, the term pollution is a word whose precise meaning in law, particularly international law, is not easily discerned Springer (1977). It has been used in a wide variety of contexts, from international conventions to pessimistic speeches about the state of the environment, to describe different levels and kinds of man-induced changes in the natural world Springer (1977).

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EA, W GS. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.". 2009. Abstract

To document the histopathological pattern and distribution of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplastic lesions of the oral mucosa diagnosed at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital over a 14 year period. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, histopathology laboratory, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 oral biopsies were accessioned in the oral diagnostic histopathological Laboratory registry over a period of 14 years from March 1991 to December 2005. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty three cases were histopathologically diagnosed as reactive inflammatory hyperplasias of the oral mucosa. This constituted 10.6% of the total oral biopsy specimens analysed during this period. Fibrous epulis was the most common histological sub-type with 129 cases (38.7%) followed by pyogenic granuloma with 94 (28.3%) cases. Six (1.8%) cases were peripheral giant cell granuloma and three cases (0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age distribution ranged from 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years) with a peak at 20-29 years. Gender distribution showed that 107 (32%) cases occurred in males and 226 (68%) cases females. Similar trends were observed in most of the histological sub-types. Fibrous epulis occurred in 41 male (31.8%) cases and in 88 (68.2%) females with an age range of 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years). As for the pyogenic granuloma, 26 (27.7%) lesions occurred in males and 68 (72.3%) in females with an age range of 2 to 75 years (mean = 30.1 years). Among all the histopathological sub-types it was shown that 223 (67.0%) cases were fibrous, 104 (31.2%) vascular and six (1.8%) peripheral giant cell granuloma. Gingival lesions were the most common with 257 (77.2%) cases followed by 28 (8.4%) in the tongue, 16 (4.8%) lips, 15 (4.5%) cheek, six (1.8%) palate and the rest on the floor of the mouth and other mucosal sites. The duration of these lesions was recorded in 182 (54.7%) cases and ranged from 1 week to 16 years (mean = 1.8 years). Only 15 (4.5%) cases were reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia (RLIHs) of the oral mucosa was 10.6% with fibrous epulis and pyogenic granuloma having been the most common histopathological sub-types predominantly affecting females. Although RLIHs are distinguished on clinical or histopatholocal grounds, it is important to appreciate that they are variations of the same basic process

Awange D, A. WK, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, W. GS. "Reactive Localised Inflamatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Mucosa." East African Medical journal. 2009.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "The Global Positioning System.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The Global Positioning System or GPS is the oldest and most widely used GNSS system, and as such will be extensively discussed in this and the next chapter. The development of GPS satellites dates from the 1960s.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EO, Guthua SW. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa." East African medical journal. 2009;86. Abstract
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Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Land Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Land provides the base upon which social, cultural and economic activities are undertaken and as such is of significant importance in environmental monitoring. Social, cultural and economic activities have to be planned and managed in such a way that the sustainable use of land resources is enhanced. Sustainable land use ensures that economic and socio-cultural activities do not benefit at the expense of the environment (see Sect.28.5). Monitoring of changes in land through indicators could help in policy formulation and management issues for the betterment of the environment. Some of the vital indicators for land management include vegetation, soil quality and health, biosolids and waste disposed on land, land evaluation, land use planning, contaminated land, integrity of the food supply chain, mine closure completion criteria, and catchment management, in particular water balance, salinity, eutrophication, and riparian/wetland vegetation. This Chapter presents the possibility of using geoinformatics to enhance the monitoring of some of these indicators.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children – a review of seventy cases.". 2009.Website
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Surveying and Geodesy.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Although the environment has remained at the forefront of scientific interest for well over four decades (e.g., Lein (2012)), it is not until this decade that remote sensing of the environment using geodetic methods started gaining momentum. This has largely been fuelled by the launching and modernization of satellites that enable the environment to be measured, mapped, and modelled.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Marine and Coastal Resources.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Weather, Climate and Global Warming.". 2013. Abstract

In order to fully appreciate the contribution of geoinformatics in monitoring climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate, on one hand, and climate variability and climate change, on the other hand, is essential. Burroughs (2007) points out that weather is what is happening to the atmosphere at any given time (i.e., what one gets), whereas climate is what would be expected to occur at any given time of the year based on statistics built up over many years (i.e., what one expects).

Awange DO. "Angioneurotic Oedema.". 1991.Website
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of GIS.". 2013.Website
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Microwave Remote Sensing.". 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. Environmental Geoinformatics : Monitoring and Management.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

There is no doubt that today, perhaps more than ever before, humanity faces a myriad of complex and demanding challenges. These include natural resource depletion and environmental degradation, food and water insecurity, energy shortages, diminishing biodiversity, increasing losses from natural disasters, and climate change with its associated potentially devastating consequences, such as rising sea levels. These human-induced and natural impacts on the environment need to be well understood in order to develop informed policies, decisions, and remedial measures to mitigate current and future negative impacts. To achieve this, continuous monitoring and management of the environment to acquire data that can be soundly and rigorously analyzed to provide information about its current state and changing patterns, and thereby allow predictions of possible future impacts, are essential. Developing pragmatic and sustainable solutions to address these and many other similar challenges requires the use of geodata and the application of geoinformatics. This book presents the concepts and applications of geoinformatics, a multidisciplinary field that has at its core different technologies that support the acquisition, analysis and visualization of geodata for environmental monitoring and management. We depart from the 4D to the 5D data paradigm, which defines geodata accurately, consistently, rapidly and completely, in order to be useful without any restrictions in space, time or scale to represent a truly global dimension of the digital Earth. The book also features the state-of-the-art discussion of Web-GIS. The concepts and applications of geoinformatics presented in this book will be of benefit to decision-makers across a wide range of fields, including those at environmental agencies, in the emergency services, public health and epidemiology, crime mapping, environmental management agencies, tourist industry, market analysis and e-commerce, or mineral exploration, among many others. The title and subtitle of this textbook convey a distinct message. Monitoring -the passive part in the subtitle - refers to observation and data acquisition, whereas management - the active component - stands for operation and performance. The topic is our environment, which is intimately related to geoinformatics. The overall message is: all the mentioned elements do interact and must not be separated. Hans-Peter B ahr, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c., Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Surveying and Surveillance.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

In this section, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative data that could be collected using GNSS satellites, and in so doing, attempt to answer the question “what can GNSS satellites deliver that is of use to environmental monitoring?” The observed parameters necessary for environmental monitoring vary, depending upon the indicators being assessed.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Impact Assessment.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined by Munn (1979) as the need to identify and predict the impact on the environment and on man’s health and well-being of legislative proposals, policies, programs, projects, and operational procedures, and to interpret and communicate information about the impact.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Modernization of GNSS.". 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Geodata and Geoinformatics.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the characteristics of and possibilities in using geodata is premised on proper comprehension of the underlying concepts of space, time and scale, contextualized within the Earth’s framework. Although these concepts are used in everyday parlance, often without much afterthought, they are not trivial at all. For instance, looking back throughout the entire history of mankind, the concepts of space and time have been the subject of animated philosophical, religious and scientific debates. In this section, we attempt to present a background of each of these dimensions of geodata, both independently and collectively, as well as highlight their relevance in influencing the character of geodata.

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children–a review of seventy cases.". 2009. Abstract
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Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Maps in Environmental Monitoring.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Water Resources.". 2013. Abstract

Fresh water is one of the basic necessities without which human beings cannot survive since water is key to the sustainability of all kinds of lifeforms. Water has multiple uses namely; nutritional, domestic, recreational, navigational, waste disposal and ecological as it is a habitat for living and non-living organisms (biodiversity) etc. And, because it is indispensable to different sectors including manufacturing, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife survival, tourism and hydroelectric power generation, it is a vital factor of economic production. For many countries, most freshwater endowments encompass surface waters, groundwater, wetlands and glaciers.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Data Models and Structure.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

By convention, data in the real world is deemed to exist in a continuous or analogue form usually in three dimensional space as discussed in Sect. 2.1. Such data needs to be digitized or made discrete before it can be input and processed by a digital computer. A GIS database can be viewed as an abstraction of reality. To convert object features observed or measured in the real world into the digital realm in a GIS database it is necessary to structure the data appropriately. Four (4) different generic types of primitive object features can be distinguished, namely: point features (0-D), line features (1-D), area features/polygons (2-D), and surface features (3-D). Incidentally, when surface features are captured in a discrete or non-continuous manner, this is then referred to as 2.5D. In general, an object feature is defined by three (3) properties in GIS, namely: position, attributes and relationship with other features referred to as topology.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Digital Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

One of the most fundamental developments in the history of photogrammetry has been the transition from analytical to digital photogrammetry. This was realized in the early 1990s through softcopy-based systems or Digital Photogrammetric Workstations (DPWs). Today, on the one hand, initial applications of digital photogrammetry in performing routine and operational procedures, such as aerial triangulation and map revision, as well as in generating geospatial datasets, including digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital orthophotos, have been essentially standardized. On the other hand, system development in automated feature extraction for diverse geospatial features have been continually improved and refined.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Like in many other disciplines, there is no universally accepted definition of the term photogrammetry. The Manual of Photogrammetry (2003) defines photogrammetry as the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic (EM) radiant energy and other phenomena. Notably, the extracted information could be of a geometric, physical, semantic or even temporal nature, although in many photogrammetric applications the geometric information is more relevant. Other popular definitions of this non-contact discipline are given e.g., in Moffit and Mikhail (1980),Wolf (1980),Kraus (1994), Schenk (2005) etc. In a very broad sense, and from a network design point of view, (Fraser 2000) reckons that a photogrammetric system is one that meets the following basic requirements:

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Image Interpretation and Analysis.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The interpretation and analysis of remote sensing imagery involves the identification and/or measurement of various targets or objects in an image in order to extract useful information about them. More specifically, this seeks to extract qualitative (thematic) and quantitative (metric) information from remote sensing data. Qualitative information provides descriptive data about earth surface features like structure, characteristics, quality, condition, relationship of and between objects.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Input of GIS Data.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Precisely because of the expensive cost of GIS data capture and the fact that the procedures involved in this are also fairly time consuming, the sources for GIS data should always be carefully analyzed before selection in order to suit specific GIS application(s). There are many possible sources for GIS data available today. The criteria for assessing the most appropriate sources for GIS data include firstly, collecting only the necessary data and secondly, for cost effectiveness, accepting the minimum data quality that will get the specific GIS job to be successfully accomplished. Moreover, where geospatial data needs to be integrated, it is important that the various sources be critically examined for compatibility.

Awange JL, Forootan E, Kusche J, Kiema JBK, Omondi PA, Heck B, Fleming K, Ohanya SO, Goncalves RM. "Understanding the decline of water storage across the Ramser-Lake Naivasha using satellite-based methods." Advances in Water Resources. 2013;60:7-23.
Awas E, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycones from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). 2016;11(3):136-141. Abstract

Phytochemical investigation of surface exudates of the leaves of Gardenia ternifolia resulted to
characterization of four flavonoids; 3,5,3′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (1), 5,7-trihydroxy-4′-
methoxyflavone (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone (3), 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) and two
tritepenoids; β-sitosterol (6) and stigmasterol (7). Compound 1 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with
IC50 = 40.3± 1.55 μΜ. The rest of the flavonoids showed minimal activities with IC50 values of 75.5±1.75,
89±0.22, 94±0.11 μΜ for 2-4, respectively. The antioxidant activities of 1 was substantially lower than the
standard, quercetin (IC50 = 20.1±1.34 M). Methoxylation of quercetin at 7 and 4′-position in 1 substantially
reduced antioxidant potential. Lack of oxygenation at 3′ position, as observed for kaempferol derivatives was
responsible for further reduction in the radical scavenging potential as observed for 2 and 3. Furthermore,
methylation of 3-OH position in kaempferol derivatives further reduced the antioxidant activities as exhibited by
3 with an oxygenation pattern similar to 2 except for the methylation at 3-position. The results of this study are
consistent with previous findings that revealed that flavonols, exhibited better anti-oxidant activities as
compared to 3-methoxyflavones. Acetylation of 3 at the 5 and 7 positions resulting to 3,4′dimethoxy-5,7-
diacetylflavone (5), substantially reduced the activity of this compound. The triterpenoids exhibited were
inactive as expected.
Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Gardenia ternifolia, surface exudates

Awele BSJ&. Practising IP Law in Kenya and Africa. Lusaka, Zambia.; Forthcoming.
AWGikonyo N. "Preaching and drinking wine: A necessity for transformational leaders in effective schools." International Journal for Education and Research. 2015;2.
Awili H, Gitao C, Muchemi G. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Keny." Hindawi BioMed Research International. 2020;Volume 2020, Article ID 8578172,: 6 pages.
Awili HO, Gitao GC, Muchemi GM, Muchemi GM. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Kenya." Hindawi BioMed Research International . 2020;2020:6.
Awino ZB. "An Empirical Study Of Top Management Team Diversity, And Performance In The Service Industry.". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
Awino ZB, M MJ. "Business Process Outsourcing Strategy And Performance Of Kenyan State Corporations." Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS). 2014;5(7):37-43.
Awino ZB, Jemimah MM, Oeba LK. "Strategic Planning, Planning Outcomes and Organizational Performance – An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Research Journal in Organizational Psychology and Educational Studies. 2013;1(5):266-271.
Awino ZB, Kariuki PM. "Firm strategy, Business Environment and the Relationship Between Firm Level Factors and Performance." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;2(1):77-98.
Awino ZB, Lorika J, K'Obonyo P. "Effectiveness of the Value Chain Strategy in the Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):93-100.
Awino ZB. "Top Management Team Diversity, Quality Decisions And Organizational Performance In The Service Industry .". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
Awino ZB, Muchara M, Oeba LK. "To tal Quality and Competitive Advantage of Firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management.. 2011.
Awino ZB, Nkirote C. "Bottlenecks in the Execution of Kenya Vision 2030 Strategy: An Empirical Study ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(3):505-512.
Awino ZB, Muchemi AW, Ogutu M. "Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):82-92 .
Awino ZB. "Strategic Planning, Planning outcomes and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Kenya .". In: International Conference and Carnival on Management System (InCaMs). Hotel Seri Malaysia, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia; 2012.
Awino ZB, Maina M, Ogutu M, Oeba LK. "Total Quality and Competitive advantage of firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(4):521-532.
Awino ZB. "Strategic Planning and Competitive Advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." Business and Management Horizons. 2013;1(1):191-204.
Awino ZB, Wamalwa RW. "Challenges Facing the Implementation of Differentiation Strategy in the Operations of the Mumias Sugar company Limited.". In: AIBUMA 2010 Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi-Kenya; 2010.
Awino ZB, GITURO WAINAINA. "An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Best Practices in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Volume 1(12):26-31.
Awiti AO, Okoth OS, Aila FO, Okelo S, Odera O, Ogutu M. "Effect of airport expansion on business opportunities in Kisumu." International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences. 2013;3(2). Abstracteffect_of_airport_expansion_on_business_opportunities_in_kisumu.pdf

The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of airport expansion on business opportunities. The study location was in Kisumu, Kenya and the population was 11,132 businesses comprising of wholesalers, retailers, hoteliers, car hires, bankers and beach management units. Systematic sampling was employed to select 100 wholesalers and retailers while a census was conducted for the 30 hotels, 22 car hires, 25 banks and 8 beach management units respectively. Semi structured survey questionnaires were utilized to
collect primary data. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the results indicate that the airport expansion has led to: increased visitors and tourist visits; increased sales of both wholesale and retail trade and increased number of financial institutions. The study concludes that despite the airport expansion creating relatively meaningful benefits to the business community, the facility has not been fully utilized to create maximum businessopportunities in Kisumu.

Keywords: Business opportunities, airport expansion, Kisumu

Awiti LM, Odada JEO, Manundu CM, Ochoro WEO, Makanda DW, Kabando RM. Incentives for increased agricultural production. A case study of Kenya's sugar industry..; 1986.Website
Awiti UO, Ekström AM, Ilako F. "Reasoning and deciding PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy among women living with HIV in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

This study explores type identities among rural and urban slum women on antiretroviral therapies who become pregnant. Narrative structuring was chosen to develop type narratives that illustrate how rural and urban women handle their HIV-infection and how they reason and decide about PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy and childbirth. Women in rural areas described their lives as 'secure and family controlled'. This gave the women security and predictability in life, but also meant that it was difficult to keep secrets about HIV infection. For women in the urban slum area the narratives were a tale of the uncertain and hard to predict reality in the slum, but also about self-reliance and decisiveness. They portrayed themselves as 'vulnerable and striving to survive' thus managing a tough situation without long-term solutions. We conclude that pregnancy poses different social challenges in rural and urban areas affecting how women choose to manage their adherence to PMTCT, which is also affected by HIV stigma and lack of disclosure

Awiti J. "A Multilevel Analysis of Prenatal Care and Birth Weight: The Case of Kenya and Tazania.". In: Biannual Research Workshop. Arusha Tanzania; 2012.
Awiti JO. "A Multilevel Analysis of Prenatal Care and Birth Weight in Kenya." Health Economics Review. 2014;4(1).
Awiti J, Mutua J, Nyaga R, Muthaka D. " Institutions and Service Delivery: The Case of Services Funded the Constituencies Development Fund in Kenya .". In: African Economic Research Consortium.; 2011.
Awiti J. Essays on Health Determinants in Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 2012.
Awitia AO, Walsha MG, Shepherd KD, Kinyamario J. "Soil condition classification using infrared spectroscopy: A proposition for assessment of soil condition along a tropical forest-cropland chronosequence.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Soil fertility depletion in smallholder agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa presents a formidable challenge both for food production and environmental sustainability. A critical constraint to managing soils in sub-Saharan Africa is poor targeting of soil management interventions. This is partly due to lack of diagnostic tools for screening soil condition that would lead to a robust and repeatable spatially explicit case definition of poor soil condition. The objectives of this study were to: (i) evaluate the ability of near infrared spectroscopy to detect changes in soil properties across a forest-cropland chronosequence; and (ii) develop a heuristic scheme for the application of infrared spectroscopy as a tool for case definition and diagnostic screening of soil condition for agricultural and environmental management. Soil reflectance was measured for 582 topsoil samples collected from forest-cropland chronosequence age classes namely; forest, recently converted, RC (17 years) and historically converted, HC (ca.70 years). 130 randomly selected samples were used to calibrate soil properties to soil reflectance using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). 64 randomly selected samples were withheld for validation. A proportional odds logistic model was applied to chronosequence age classes and 10 principal components of spectral reflectance to determine three soil condition classes namely; “good”, “average” and “poor” for 194 samples. Discriminant analysis was applied to classify the remaining 388 “unknown” samples into soil condition classes using the 194 samples as a training set. Validation r2 values were: total C, 0.91; total N, 0.90; effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), 0.90; exchangeable Ca, 0.85; clay content, 0.77; silt content, 0.77 exchangeable Mg, 0.76; soil pH, 0.72; and K, 0.64. A spectral based definition of “good”, “average” and “poor” soil condition classes provided a basis for an explicitly quantitative case definition of poor or degraded soils. Estimates of probabilities of membership of a sample in a spectral soil condition class presents an approach for probabilistic risk-based assessments of soil condition over large spatial scales. The study concludes that reflectance spectroscopy is rapid and offers the possibility for major efficiency and cost saving, permitting spectral case definition to define poor or degraded soils, leading to better targeting of management interventions.

Awori MN, Mehta NP, Kebba N, Mutie JM. "Possible impairment of surgical decision making and confounded outcome in Fontan surgery by Nakata Index." African Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Since cardiac structuring dimensions inform surgical decisions making, Z-score systematic error impairs surgical decision making and confounds outcome measurement, hence a similar error may affect the Nakata index. In this study, PubMed was searched using the terms: “pulmonary,” “artery,” “size,” “Nakata,” “Fontan,” and “outcome”. Studies that did not describe the outcome of the Fontan procedure and the size of the branch pulmonary arteries were excluded. Outcome measures of interest, in relation to BPA size, included: Operative mortality, Fontan “take-down”, length of ICU stay, pleural effusions and functional capacity. The results revealed that of 116 papers retrieved, 9 were included representing 1,042 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Six out of 9 papers representing 645 (61.9%) patients reported that BPA size had no relationship with the outcome of the Fontan procedure; while 2 out of 9 papers representing 366 (35.1%) patients found that BPA size did affect the outcome. One paper representing 31 (3%) patients was unable to find any relationship. All the papers that concluded that there was no relationship labelled normal sized BPAs as small because of a systematic error introduced by the Nakata index. Papers that found a relationship did not use the Nakata index. Thus, Nakata index systematic error may impair surgical decision making and confound outcome measurement in Fontan surgery. In addition, continued use of the Fontan index may have similar implications for other congenital heart lesions.

Awori MN, Leong W, Artrip JH, O'Donnell C. "Tetralogy of Fallot repair: optimal z-score use for transannular patch insertion." European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2013;43:483-486. Abstracttetralogy_of_fallot_repair_optimal_z-score_use_for_transannula.pdf

Transannular patching is used to relieve significant pulmonary annular stenosis during tetralogy of Fallot repair. Although recent literature has focused on the deleterious effects of pulmonary regurgitation, inadequate relief of stenosis may increase postoperative mortality and the re-intervention rate. Patching criteria based on pulmonary annular z-scores are ambiguous because of the use of varied z-score data sets. This study aimed to generate data that could be used to optimize z-score use for patch insertion. A retrospective review was made of medical records of patients who had a valve-sparing repair of tetralogy of Fallot between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. In a selected group in which the residual gradient was confined to the pulmonary valve, the post-repair peak pressure gradient was determined by trans-thoracic echocardiography and was correlated with the intra-operative pulmonary valve annulus (PVA) diameter z-score. Regression analysis was used to examine this relationship. Data from 46 patients with valve-sparing repair were reviewed; the median age and median weight were 6.5 months and 6.6 kg, respectively; the 30-day mortality was 2.2%. Analysis of these data implies that 25% of the time, all patients with a PVA z-score of -1.3 would have a PVA gradient ≥30 mmHg. Criteria that recommend a transannular patch insertion only when the PVA diameter z-score is significantly smaller than -1.3 (e.g. -3) may result in a significant number of patients with an unacceptable post-repair PVA gradient.

Awori MN, Mehta NP, Mitema FO, Kebba N. "Optimal use of z-scores to preserve the pulmonary valve annulus during repair of tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9:285-288. Abstract
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Awori MN. I AM- the meaning of life. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2017.
Awori M, Mohamed A, Mohammed N. "Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):96-98.shunts-sapas-utilisation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
Awori MN, khan Mohamed MN, Mohamed AA. "Utility of the Bidirectional Glenn Shunt." Annals of African Surgery. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bi-directional Glenn Shunts (BDGS) form part of the surgical strategy used to treat CHD; no data exists on BDGS usage in the study locality. Methods: A 7-year retrospective, descriptive study was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012. Results: Eleven BDGS were performed on 11 patients; 63.6% had tricuspid atresia, 27.3% had double outlet right ventricle and 9.1% had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum.

Conclusion: Further studies are warranted to identify factors contributing to the late performance of BDGS, poor post-operative follow-up and failure to perform FC.

Awori MN. "Reply to Yurekli et al." European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2013;Advanced access published 24th May 2013(Advanced access published 24th May 2013):1.reply_yurekli_et_al_awori_m_eur_j_cardiothor_2013.pdf
Awori KO, Saidi SH, Kiptoon DK. "Acute acalculous cholecystitis in an outpatient setting.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) typically affects hospitalized patients with critical illness. Outpatient AAC is reported to occur in elderly males with cardiovascular comorbidities. We report the presentation of acute acalculous cholecystitis in two young African men admitted for the first time within days of each other. They reported short histories of right upper abdominal pain and had tender gallbladders. Sonography revealed gallbladder wall thickening. Open cholecystectomy and histology confirmed AAC.The postoperative outcome was excellent. Recognition of AAC in a subset of young male patients presenting de novo with right upper quadrant pain is stressed. Cholecystectomy has good prognosis in these cases.

Awori KO. Assessment of the outcome of lower limb amputations as seen in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2004. Abstract

This study was designed to assess the outcome of lower limb amputations as managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital. A prospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between July 1st, 2003 and June 30th, 2004 was performed. Data on the management and outcome were collected using questionnaires administered to the patients while admitted and in the follow-up clinics. The main outcome measures were the duration of hospital stay, duration of wound healing, need for operative revision, need to convert to a higher amputation level, degree of mobility and the thirty-day postoperative mortality. A total of74 patients (46 males) underwent 77 lower limb amputations. The mean age at operation was 44.4 years (range 7 months - 96 years). Ninety one percent were major amputations; 42 AKA ( 3 bilateral), 24 BKA and 4 hip disarticulations. Open amputations comprised 23% of the total. Extremity gangrene due to peripheral vascular diseases was the main indication for amputation (55%). Anaemia was the most common co-morbid condition (27%) followed by diabetes (18%), while stump infection was the commonest complication (33%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 13.5%. The healing rate for BKA was significantly less than for AKA, with a 21% rate of eventual conversion of BKA to AKA. Most of the patients (70%) were ambulating on crutches The average duration of hospital stay was 29.3 days. There was no patient who was using a prosthetic limb during the study period.

Awori MN. I AM-healing health and happiness. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2018.
Awori M, Mutwiri R, Mutunga W, Jowi S, Peninan K, Mang’usu O. "Neonatal Ebstein’s Anomaly: Surgical Decision Making." Annals of African Surgery. 2018;15(1):40-43.ebsteins_anomaly-case_report-surgical_decision_making-awori-_2018.pdf
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Mwangi J, Mjahid H, Oloo P. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):100-103.risk_scores-euroscore_validation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
Awori M, Mehta N, Kebba N, Makori. E. "Adding Blood to St Thomas Solution Does Not Improve Mortality in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery; A Meta-analysis of a Homogenous Population." Annals of African Surgery. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Background: Cardioplegia is the gold standard for providing ideal operating conditions while effecting myocardial protection. Some studies suggest that adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution improves efficacy; this is generally accepted as true. However, the few meta-analyses conducted on children have pooled heterogeneous populations; this raises concern about the validity of their conclusions. Methods: PUBMED, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched systematically until March 2019 using the search terms “cardioplegia”; “myocardial protection”; “pediatric” “pediatric”; “children”; “infants”; “neonates”. Full text articles were examined if abstracts revealed that the studies possibly contained a blood cardioplegia arm and a crystalloid cardioplegia arm. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they had a 4:1 blood cardioplegia arm and a St Thomas solution arm. Meta-analysis was performed using Meta-Mar software. Results: The search retrieved 423 articles; 5 were included in the meta-analysis, representing 324 patients. The risk ratio for operative mortality was 0.77(95% CI 0.24–2.5; p=0.66). Little evidence was seen of heterogeneity of the pooled patients. Conclusion: Adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution did not improve in-hospital operative mortality; this may have implications for blood cardioplegia use.

Awori MN, Finucane K, Gentles TL. "Optimal Normative Pediatric Cardiac Structure Dimensions for Clinical Use." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2011;2(1):85-89.normative_data_abstract.png
Awori KO, Saidi SH, Kiptoon DK. "Acute acalculous cholecystitis in an outpatient setting.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) typically affects hospitalized patients with critical illness. Outpatient AAC is reported to occur in elderly males with cardiovascular comorbidities. We report the presentation of acute acalculous cholecystitis in two young African men admitted for the first time within days of each other. They reported short histories of right upper abdominal pain and had tender gallbladders. Sonography revealed gallbladder wall thickening. Open cholecystectomy and histology confirmed AAC.The postoperative outcome was excellent. Recognition of AAC in a subset of young male patients presenting de novo with right upper quadrant pain is stressed. Cholecystectomy has good prognosis in these cases.

Awori K, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili. "Does The Pattern Of Innervation Of Brachialis By The Musculocutaneous Nerve Influence The Presence Or Absence Of The Radial Nerve Contribution?" Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):142-144. Abstract

The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution by the radial nerve however ranges from 30 to 100%. It is not clear if the presence or patterns of supply to this muscle by either nerve are interdependent. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of innervation of brachialis by the nusculocutaneous nerve and relate it to the presence and contribution from the radial nerve. Fifty seven arms (25 male and 4 female); 29 right and 28 left from formalin-fixed adult cadavers were used. The pattern of musculocutaneous branch to brachialis was recorded based on the classification by Yang et al. into either type I or II. The presence and number of branches by the radial nerve to the same muscle were determined and related to the pattern from brachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied brachialis in all (100%) of the cases while the radial nerve did so in 33 arms (57.9%). Type I was the predominant pattern in both left and right arms (91.2%) with no correlation between the type of innervation by musculocutaneous nerve and the radial nerve contribution.

Awori MN, Jani PG. "Surgical implications of abdominal pain in patients presenting to the Kenyatta National Hospital casualty department with abdominal pain.". 2005. Abstract

To determine the local aetiological spectrum of surgically relevant causes of abdominal pain. A prospective descriptive study was carried out. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya during the month of October 2002. Patients aged 13 years and older presenting to the casualty department with abdominal pain were followed through the hospital system to determine whether they would undergo laparotomy and, in those cases who underwent laparotomy, to determine the nature of the pathology found at laparatomy. Abdominal pain was a presenting complaint in 1557 (16.7%) of patients presenting to the casualty department during the study period. Abdominal pain accounted for 17.9% (398 out of 2225 patients) of all admissions via the casualty department. Laparotomy was performed on 68 (4.4%) of patients who presented with abdominal pain to the casualty department. In female patients presenting with abdominal pain, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis was 65.3% and 16.3% respectively. The incidence of neoplasia found at laparatomy, for abdominal pain, on patients admitted to the general surgical ward was 3.0%. The incidence of neoplasia, as a cause of abdominal pain resulting in laparatomy was 3.3%. The results highlight the fact, with respects to abdominal pain, that there are significant differences between the disease patterns in different geographical locations. Assuming the converse could adversely affect the management of patients with abdominal pain locally

Awori MN, Mehta NP, Mitema FO, Kebba N. "Optimal Z-score use in surgical decision-making in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2017;8:385-388. Abstract
n/a
Awori, K.O. PGANG. "Pattern of innervation of the upper gluteus maximus: Implication in prosthetic hip dislocation." The Annals of African Surgery. 2011;5 (2):1-8.
Awori RM, Ng'ang'a PN, Nyongesa LN, Amugune NO. "approved with reservations.". 2016.
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Use of Z-Scores to Preserve the Pulmonary Valve Annulus During Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9(3):285-288.tet_z-score_of_tap_use_-awori-2018.pdf
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Z-Score Use in Surgical Decision-Making in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2017;8(3):385-388.pa-ivs_optimal_z_score_use_in_decision_making_awori_2017.pdf
Awori KO, Ating’a JEO. "Early outcome of vascular lower limb amputations at a National Referral Hospital in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Majority of lower limb amputations performed in the African setting have been reported to be mainly due to trauma and neoplasms. These affect mainly young
and therefore, fit individuals with lower risks of complications. Recent local studies show an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases including peripheral vascular diseases.
These are associated with higher rates of both systemic and amputation stump-related complications. There is however little published data in Africa on the outcomes of vascular lower
limb amputations.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the early outcome of vascular lower limb amputations.
DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study, conducted between July 2003 and June 2004.
SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
SUBJECTS: All patients with gangrene of the lower limb due to occlusive peripheral vascular disease not caused by trauma or inappropriate limb splintage who were amputated at Kenyatta
National Hospital during the study period were included.
OUTCOME MEASURES: These included the wound healing time, number of stump revisions, number of conversions to a higher
amputation level, the thirty-day post-operative mortality and the hospitalization period.
CONCLUSION: While the findings of this study compare with other series, the prolonged hospital stay is of concern considering the younger average age of the patients.

Awuondo CO. Syracuse memos.; 1995.Website
Awuor V, Odipo G, Agwanda A. "Age schedules of intra-provincial migration in Kenya." African Population Studies . 2018;32(2):4356-4375.
Awuor JB. "Our universe: a physics Perspective on its structure and Destiny.". 2011. AbstractOur universe: a physics Perspective on its structure and Destiny

One of the greatest strengths of the human consciousness is the ability to conjure up plausible concepts, models and logical schemes on the relational unity of our reality. This is achieved on the basis of innate processes that rationalize the objectivity of our perceptions. The sum total of our diverse perceptions on the manifestations of reality is what we refer to as our universe. . Our current understanding of the universe is no doubt a cumulative summary of what has been accrued from efforts of many peoples over thousands of years through observations and rigorous testing of ideas. In this article we present some aspects of the ongoing human endeavors on the establishment of reliability codes for the reconciliation between observational evidences and mental abstractions about physical reality. These efforts have over the ages evolved into a body of knowledge that is today known as physics. As such, physics provides a perspective on the compliance of our thoughts and imaginations with the relational principles of the universe that are presumed to underlie all the structures of nature as well as the fabrics of our perceptions on physical reality,

Awuor OB, Zipporah O, Ooko J. "The Effect of Managerial Ownership on Stock Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4:279-290. Abstract
n/a
Awuor Y, Oboko R. "Automatic Assessment of Online Discussions Using Text Mining." International Journal of Machine Learning & Applications. 2011;1(1):2-11.
AWUOR OGACHOALEX, JOHN ONYATTA, Marina M, Domtau DL, OKOTH OBILAJORIM. "INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON SOME OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF Cu2ZnSnS4 DEPOSITED BY CZT CO-ELECTRODEPOSITION COUPLED WITH CHEMICAL BATH TECHNIQUE ." World Scientific. 2018;Volume 25(Issue 03).
Awuor OL, Edward MK. "Harnessing the Potential of Underutilized Aquatic Bioresource for Food and Nutritional Security in Kenya.". In: Food Security and Safety. Springer; 2021:. Abstract
n/a
Awuor CY. The prevalence and some clinical characteristics of bacterial infections in preterm neonates having respiratory distress at Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1990. Abstract

Fifty eight preterm neonates having respiratory distress within the
first forty eight hours of life were studied. Seven had positive
blood cultures for bacteria giving a prevalence rate for infection
of 12.1%.
Nineteen infants (32.8%) were suspected to have sepsis based on
clinical and laboratory criteria .. The remaining thirty two (56%)
had no evidence of sepsis.
These infants were studied with respect to their maternal antenatal
clinic attendances, maternal fever, duration of rupture of
membranes, Iiquor characteristics and mode of del ivery. Al so
studied were their clinical examination findings, degree of
respiratory distress, hematological, radiological and
bacteriological characteristics.
Seventy six percent (76%) of the mothers were below 25 years (age
range 15-45 years). A majori ty of the mothers (65.5%) attended
antenatal clinics. Twenty eight (42.2%) of the mothers had
ruptured membranes for less than eleven hours before delivery while
13 (22.4%) and 17 (29.4%) had ruptured membranes between eleven and
twenty four hours, and for greater than 24 hours respectively.
Forty six infants (79.3%) were delivered in clear liquor; of these
6 (13.1%) had positive bacterial cultures. Seven infants (12.1%)
delivered in offensive liquor had suspected infection. Of the five
(8.6%) delivered in meconium stained liquor, two had some evidence
of infection.
Spontaneous vertex delivery was the commonest mode of delivery in
all the three groups of infants; occurring in 5 (71%) of the
infants with proven sepsis, 14 (73.7%) of the infants with

suspected sepsis and 24 (75%) of those with no sepsis. None of
the infants delivered by caesarian section had confirmed sepsis.
Infants del ivered by breech extraction had either suspected or
confirmed sepsis.Maternal fever and infant Apgar scores did not
appear to affect the outcome of the infants in this study.
On hematology the ratio of immature to total polymorphs
correlated best with sepsis as higher values of more than 0.2 were
seen mainl y in infants with confirmed sepsis. Total whi te cell
counts were also useful since normal range of counts were only seen
in infants with no evidence of sepsis.
Infant chest radiology helped eliminate other causes of
respiratory distress like pneumothorax, congenital heart disease
and lung collapse. None of the infants with confirmed sepsis had
normal radiological findings.
The orqanisms isolated were of high virulence and multipleantibiotic
resistance. Amikacin and cefotaxin enjoyed higher
sensitivity rates of 71.4% and 88.8% respectively.

Axt J, Abdallah F AGHLLMMNMJEJ, Ndung'u J, Njuguna F NOPTUWO'NJAJLHN 3rd.AOKR. "Wilms tumor survival in Kenya." J Pediatr Surg.. 2013;48(6):1254-1262.
Ayah R, Joshi MD, Wanjiru R, Njau EK, Otieno CF, Njeru EK, Mutai KK. "A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings have important implications for NCD prevention and care. For this rapidly growing youthful urban slum population policy makers need to focus their attention on strategies that address not just communicable diseases but non communicable diseases as well.

Ayah R, JOSHI MD, Wanjiru R, Njau EK, Otieno CF, Njeru EK, Mutai KK. "A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2013;13(20):371.
Ayah R, Joshi MD, Wanjiru R, Njau EK, Otieno CF, Njeru EK, Mutai KK. "A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings have important implications for NCD prevention and care. For this rapidly growing youthful urban slum population policy makers need to focus their attention on strategies that address not just communicable diseases but non communicable diseases as well.

Ayah R, Oluoch-Aridi J. Early results of improved management of CHWs: Lessons from MVP sites in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Montreux, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Ayah R, Joshi MD, Wanjiru R, Njau EK, Otieno CF, Njeru EK, Mutai KK. "A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high levels of physical activity were also reported. Findings have important implications for NCD prevention and care. For this rapidly growing youthful urban slum population policy makers need to focus their attention on strategies that address not just communicable diseases but non communicable diseases as well.

Ayah R;, Ngugi E. "Impact of user fees in health.". 1997. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the local aetiological spectrum of surgically relevant causes of abdominal pain. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study was carried out. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya during the month of October 2002. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 13 years and older presenting to the casualty department with abdominal pain were followed through the hospital system to determine whether they would undergo laparotomy and, in those cases who underwent laparotomy, to determine the nature of the pathology found at laparatomy. RESULTS: Abdominal pain was a presenting complaint in 1557 (16.7%) of patients presenting to the casualty department during the study period. Abdominal pain accounted for 17.9% (398 out of 2225 patients) of all admissions via the casualty department. Laparotomy was performed on 68 (4.4%) of patients who presented with abdominal pain to the casualty department. In female patients presenting with abdominal pain, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis was 65.3% and 16.3% respectively. The incidence of neoplasia found at laparatomy, for abdominal pain, on patients admitted to the general surgical ward was 3.0%. The incidence of neoplasia, as a cause of abdominal pain resulting in laparatomy was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the fact, with respects to abdominal pain, that there are significant differences between the disease patterns in different geographical locations. Assuming the converse could adversely affect the management of patients with abdominal pain locally.

Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Ayah R, Joshi MD, Wanjiru R, Njau EK, Otieno FC, Njeru E, Mutai KK. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya. . Melbourne, Australia; 2013.
AYAKO MSANANGWECATHLEEN. "Christian Religious Education Secondary School pupils'course books- Form 1 to 4: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
Aydın ME, Kaya AH, Kopuz C, Demir MT, Çorumlu U, Dagcinar A. "Bilateral origin of superior cerebellar arteries from the posterior cerebral arteries, and clues to its embryologic basis." Anatomy & Cell Biology. 2011;44:164-167. AbstractWebsite

The superior cerebellar artery is the most consistent branch of the basilar artery and arises near the bifurcation of the basilar artery. A bilateral origin of the superior cerebellar arteries from the posterior cerebral arteries has been rarely reported in the literature. Reporting variations in brain vessels is important for neurosurgeons to safely and confidently treat pathologies in this region. We report on a specimen with a bilateral origin to the superior cerebellar artery from the posterior cerebral artery and discuss the embryogenesis of this rare variation.

Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Aduda BO. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Coated Glass Slides." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012;2(3):67-72. Abstract

Undoped and nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films of 400 nm thick deposited by spray pyrolysis were structurally and optically characterized. The effect of substrate temperature on the optical properties of the films was also investigated. Structural studies of the films were undertaken by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum analysis was used to confirm the presence of nitrogen atoms in the film after doping. The optical properties such as refractive index (n), energy band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (Eu) were determined from spectrophotometric measurements of reflectance and transmittance for both undoped and doped films. The Undoped films had an energy band gap of 3.25 eV while the doped films had band gap of 2.90 eV. The Urbach energy increased from 1.00 eV for undoped films to 1.04 eV for the nitrogen-doped films. The reduction in energy band gap and increase in Urbach energy was attributed to the introduction of nitrogen impurity tail states on either the conduction band or the valence band of the titanium dioxide.

Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opondo C, Opiyo N, Migiro S, Wamae A, Mogoa W, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines and Improve Admission Paediatric Care in Kenyan District Hospitals: A Cluster Randomised Trial.". 2011;8(4):19. Abstract

Abstract
Background:In developing countries referral of severely ill children from primary care to district hospitals is common, but hospital care is often of poor quality. However, strategies to change multiple paediatric care practices in rural hospitals have rarely been evaluated.
MethodsandFindings:This cluster randomized trial was conducted in eight rural Kenyan district hospitals, four of which were randomly assigned to a full intervention aimed at improving quality of clinical care (evidence-based guidelines, training, job aides, local facilitation, supervision, and face-to-face feedback; n = 4) and the remaining four to control intervention (guidelines, didactic training, job aides, and written feedback; n = 4). Prespecified structure, process, and outcome indicators were measured at baseline and during three and five 6-monthly surveys in control and intervention hospitals, respectively. Primary outcomes were process of care measures, assessed at 18 months postbaseline. In both groups performance improved from baseline. Completion of admission assessment tasks was higher in intervention sites at 18 months (mean = 0.94 versus 0.65, adjusted difference 0.54 [95% confidence interval 0.05–0.29]). Uptake of guideline recommended therapeutic practices was also higher within intervention hospitals: adoption of once daily gentamicin (89.2% versus 74.4%; 17.1% [8.04%–26.1%]); loading dose quinine (91.9% versus 66.7%, 26.3% [23.66% to 56.3%]); and adequate prescriptions of intravenous fluids for severe dehydration (67.2% versus 40.6%; 29.9% [10.9%–48.9%]). The proportion of children receiving inappropriate doses of drugs in intervention hospitals was lower (quinine dose .40 mg/ kg/day; 1.0% versus 7.5%; 26.5% [212.9% to 0.20%]), and inadequate gentamicin dose (2.2% versus 9.0%; 26.8% [211.9% to 21.6%]).
Conclusions:Specific efforts are needed to improve hospital care in developing countries. A full, multifaceted intervention was associated with greater changes in practice spanning multiple, high mortality conditions in rural Kenyan hospitals than a partial intervention, providing one model for bridging the evidence to practice gap and improving admission care in similar settings.

Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Controlled Texturing of Aluminum Sheet for Solar Energy Applications." Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry,. 2015;5:458-466. AbstractJournal Article Website

Aluminum sheets were polished to reduce ruggedness and then textured in varying acid-ethanol
concentration etchant to form pores. The textured surface was characterized structurally by using
X-ray diffraction (XRD) which revealed aluminum crystallographic planes (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0)
and (3 1 1). Its morphology was studied by using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning
electron microscope (SEM) that confirmed purity of aluminum sheet to be 99.66% at. Reflectance
of textured and plain aluminum sheet was analyzed by spectrophotometric measurements which
showed that texturing reduced the reflectance of the polished surface by 26% in the UV-VIS-NIR
spectrum of solar radiation. With reduced reflectance of the textured aluminum sheet, it was applicable
for solar radiation absorption.
Keywords
Aluminum, Texturing, Reflectance, Solar Energy, Electro-Polishing

Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Aduda BO, Jain PK. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer.". 2012. AbstractPerformance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer

In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis and thermally annealed at 400 oC. The films were characterized as deposited (no annealing) as well as after annealing. Optical studies showed that the energy band gap of the films was lowered from 3.25 eV to 2.90 eV on Nitrogen (N2) doping. The reduction in energy band gap was attributed to the introduction of N2 impurity states on the bands (conduction band and or valence band). The effect of N2 doping of Titanium Dioxide window layer on the efficiency of the ETA TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy solar cell was investigated using a conventional current-voltage (I-V) technique. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) increased from 1.06% for the solar cell with undoped films to 1.32% for the solar cell with N2-doped films. The increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency on doping was attributed to increased light absorption due to the Nitrogen doping.

AYIEKO MRONGANYANTONY. "Ong.". In: East African Medical Journal. Academic Journals; 2005. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
AYIEKO MRONGANYANTONY. "Ong.". In: East African Medical Journal. Academic Journals; 2005. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opondo C, Opiyo N, Migiro S, Wamae A, Mogoa W, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "A multifaceted intervention to implement guidelines and improve admission paediatric care in Kenyan district hospitals: a cluster randomised trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(4):e1001018. Abstract

In developing countries referral of severely ill children from primary care to district hospitals is common, but hospital care is often of poor quality. However, strategies to change multiple paediatric care practices in rural hospitals have rarely been evaluated.

Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

A composite thin film consisting of TiO2 (binder), uniformly mixed CuFeMnO4 paint (solar absorber)
was coated on textured aluminum sheets by dip coating. The film’s elemental analysis was done using energy
dispersive x-ray (EDX) and the surface of the film characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical
properties of the TiO2/CuFeMnO4 composite film were also studied using computerized double beam solid-spec
3700 DUV Shimadzu Spectrophotometer. Reflectance was obtained by spectrophotometric measurements, and
thermal emmittance was determined using heat flux- based technique respectively. Reflectance measurement values
less than 0.03 in the solar wavelength (290 nm < λ < 2500 nm) and low thermal emmittance less than 0.016 for
temperatures between 24°C and 100°C were obtained.
Keywords: CuFeMnO4 paint, TiO2- bound, reflectance, thermal emmittance, solar thermal

Ayieko CO, R. J. Musembi, A. A. Ogacho, B. O. Aduda, B. M. Muthoka, P. K. Jain. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15.
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