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Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Arunga S, Wiafe G, Habtamu E, Onyango J, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu V, Burton M. "The impact of microbial keratitis on quality of life in Uganda." BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2019;4(1):e000351. AbstractWebsite

Background: Microbial keratitis (MK) is a frequent cause of sight loss in sub-Saharan Africa. However, no studies have formally measured its impact on quality of life (QoL) in this context.
Methods: As part of a nested case-control design for risk factors of MK, we recruited patients presenting with MK at two eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018 and unaffected individuals, individually matched for sex, age and location. QoL was measured using WHO Health-Related and Vision-Related QoL tools (at presentation and 3 months after start of treatment in cases). Mean QoL scores for both groups were compared. Factors associated with QoL among the cases were analysed in a linear regression model.
Results: 215 case-controls pairs were enrolled. The presentation QoL scores for the cases ranged from 20 to 65 points. The lowest QoL was visual symptom domain; mean 20.7 (95% CI 18.8 to 22.7) and the highest was psychosocial domain; mean 65.6 (95% CI 62.5 to 68.8). At 3 months, QoL scores for the patients ranged from 80 to 90 points while scores for the controls ranged from 90 to 100. The mean QoL scores of the cases were lower than controls across all domains. Determinants of QoL among the cases at 3 months included visual acuity at 3 months and history of eye loss.
Conclusion: MK severely reduces QoL in the acute phase. With treatment and healing, QoL subsequently improves. Despite this improvement, QoL of someone affected by MK (even with normal vision) remains lower than unaffected controls.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arvelo W, Gura Z, Amwayi S, Omolo J, Ongore D. "Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: A strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity." Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 2015;Volume 5(Issue 1):Pages 33-39.
Asaala EO. "Genetically Modified Foods; a panacea or a health hazard to the food crisis in Africa." University of Nairobi Law Journal . 2005;2.
Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asande LK, Indieka AS, Adero MO, Kiboi S, Amugune NO. "In vitro Regeneration of pigeon pea using leaf explants." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(2):191-201.
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Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Weiss NS, Mbori-Ngacha D, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding is associated with decreased pneumonia incidence among HIV-exposed, uninfected Kenyan infants." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2809-15. Abstract

HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher infectious disease morbidity and mortality than unexposed infants. We determined the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia, a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide, in a cohort of HEU infants. Identifying predictors of pneumonia among HEU infants may enable early identification of those at highest risk.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

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Ascroft J, Ruigu G. "Does Extension Create Poverty in Kenya." East African Journal . 1972;9(3).
Aseey AA, Mwabora JM. Poverty as a factor in determining Education achievement in Kenya: A case Study of Nyanza and Coast Provinces in Kenya. Lake Naivasha County Club, 28-30 September, 2011; 2012.
Aseey AA, Mwabora JM. "Poverty as a factor in determining Education achievement in Kenya." the Journal of the Institute of International Education, New York. 2013.
Aseta FB, Mwachaka PM, Odula PO, Malek A. "Histomorphological changes in the cornea of the rat following monocular eyelid closure." Anatomy, an international journal of experimental and clinical anatomy . 2016;10(2):87-93.cornea.pdf
Aseto SA, Moronge JM. "‘Waste Management Practices in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of University of Nairobi, Kenya'." The International Journal of Development Dialogue. 2017;Volume 2(Issue No. 1):pp 54-67.
Asfaw A;, Dauro D;, Kimani PM. "Decentralized participatory bean breeding in southern Ethiopia."; 2006. Abstract

In order to utilize farmers' knowledge on the crop and the environment, and to fit the crop to the specific needs and uses of farmers' communities, a four cycle decentralized participatory bean breeding was conducted in two locations in Sidama zone of the southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region. Forty four farmers selectors representing the community evaluated and then selected bean lines on-stations, the initial diverse germplasm pool of 147 lines at first selection cycle. In the following three cropping seasons, the farmers evaluated their selected lines on their farms and retained promising lines at the end of each selection cycle according to their own selection criteria. Their selections were evaluated by neighboring non-selector farmers (farmer-evaluators) using selection criteria set by farmer selectors. Group selection by selector farmers was attempted at cycle-4 on all individually selected lines grown on communal plots. The farmers effectively evaluated and selected bean lines that gave increased yield on their farm and met their specific preferences among large number of advanced lines. The farmers retained more large seeded beans as compared to small and medium seeded beans indicating that there is a shift in preference to large seeded beans in the region from their previously well-acquainted small red seed type. Bean lines selected by farmer following decentralized individual selection were farmer-specific except certain lines selected in common by some farmers. This lack of common selection to all farmers implies farmers' diverse preference for bean germplasm. In the selection process the farmers used growth habit, plant height, pod load, pod length, pod clearance from the base, early maturity, seed color, seed size and seed yield as selection criteria to retain or reject the bean lines. Seed color and seed yield were their decision making criteria whereas the rest were descriptor criteria to select good cultivars. The selection process indicated that farmers were capable of making significant contribution in identification of cultivars acceptable to them within a relatively short period. Moreover, the result suggests that conducting decentralized participatory individual selection and then participatory group selection with all farmer-selectors on all individually selection lines grown on communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their selection criteria can improve variety development and increase the chance of adoption of new varieties by other farmers in a community.

Asfaw A;, Kimani PM. "Estimation of genetic parameters for some quantitative traits in large seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) lines by factorial analysis of generation means."; 2005. Abstract

Understanding the nature of gene action in the breeding materials is helpful for breeders in formulating breeding strategy. In order to understand the type of gene actions operating in the breeding materials, six generation means (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) from two crosses among large seeded bean lines grown at Awassa 2002 were used to estimate the genetic effects of some quantitative traits. The result revealed that for seed yield (gm/plant), pods/plant and pod length additive genetic model was not sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for the expression of these traits. Epistatic effects contributed to the inheritance of these traits in the two crosses used. For seeds/pod and plant height epistatic gene effect was present in one of the two crosses. The nature of epistasis operating in the inheritance of seed yield (gm/plant), pods/plant, pod length, and plant height is duplicate type whereas it is complimentary type for seeds/ pod. This indicates that particular allelic combinations at several loci determine the performance of these traits. Thus, population improvement and gamete selection breeding methods may help to improve these traits. Realized heterosis (over mid-parent) was observed for seed yield(gm/plant), pods/plant and plant height in one of the two crosses with no inbreeding effect in F2 indicating that the heterosis is largely caused by non-allelic interaction even though over dominance was also observed. Pods/plant could be an important trait for plant selection in segregating generations as it revealed a significant positive correlation and high direct effect with seed yield.

Ashton N. "Neurological and humoral control of blood pressure." Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2007;8:221-226. AbstractWebsite

Blood must be maintained under pressure to overcome the resistance offered by blood vessels, and thus ensure an adequate rate of flow to metabolizing tissues. If pressure is too low, the flow of blood cannot deliver sufficient oxygen; if it is too high, damage occurs to the blood vessels and organs. Hence, blood pressure is regulated around a ‘set point’. Pressure in the arterial system is regulated on a minute-to-minute basis by the autonomic nervous system and in the long term by a number of hormones that act on the kidney. High-pressure sensors (baroreceptors) are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, which monitor pressure generated by the beating heart. Afferent fibres of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal and vagus, respectively) project into the cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata. Parasympathetic vagal tone acts to slow heart rate and thus cardiac output, whereas sympathetic tone increases both force and rate of contraction, as well as stimulating vasoconstriction of blood vessels to increase resistance. Long-term regulation of blood pressure depends on the maintenance of blood volume. This is achieved by the combined actions of the renin–angiotensin system, aldosterone and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which act on the kidney to promote retention of sodium and water. Blood volume is reduced by atrial natriuretic peptide, which causes diuresis and natriuresis. Together, the nervous and endocrine systems act to correct fluctuations in blood pressure and ensure that it is maintained at an appropriate level.

ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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Asiema JK. "Gender Equity, Gender Equality and the Legal Process: The Kenyan Experience”." Journal of the University of Iowa College of Law, Volume 10, Number 2, Fall 2000. 2000.
Asiligwa BI, Omwenga EI. "A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya." International Journal of computer Applications. 2016;144(1). AbstractFull Text Link

Analogous to the motorists’ roadmap that shows roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region, A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period, industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted. This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya about the adoption of e-payments. A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from these analyses have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Asiligwa BI, Omwenga EI. "A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2016;144(1):8-18. Abstractasiligwa-2016-ijca-910062.pdfJournal Website

Analogous to the Motorists roadmap that shows the roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region [1]. A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For Over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts have failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted.
This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya on the adoption of e-payments.
A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from this analysis have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Asilla WJ. "The use of controlled electronic communication to enhance visibility and impact; a case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Association of Commonwealth Universities. Southern Sun, Elangeni, Durban South Africa; 2008.mr._asilla.pdf
Asingo PO. "Party Strengths, Partisan Identities and Voter Mobilization in the Kenya Elections of 2013.". In: New Constitution, Same Old Challenges: Reflections on Kenya’s 2013 General Elections. Nairobi: SID; 2015.New Constititution, Same Old Challenges
Asingo, Patrick O. "The Institutional and Organizational Structure of Public Road Transport in Kenya." IPAR Discussion Paper. 2004;No. 050.
Asingo PO. "Privatization of Water Services in Kenyan Local Authorities: Governance and Policy Issues.". In: Decentralization and Devolution in Kenya: New Approaches. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2008.
Asingo PO. "Balancing Political and Religious Allegiances: The Impact of Political Cross-pressures of Kenya's 2010 Constitutional Referendum." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;VI(1):6-25.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
Asingo PO. "The Political Economy of Transition in Kenya.". In: Politics of Transition in Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation; 2003.Politics of Transition in Kenya
Asingo PO. "Policy Salience and Voter Turnout: An Analysis of Contemporary US Presidential Elections." Baker Center Journal of Applied Public Policy . 2008;2(1(Fall)):52-67 .policy salience.pdf
Asingo, Patrick O, Mitullah, Winnie V. "Implementing Road Transport Safety Measures in Kenya: Policy Issues and Challenges." IDS Working Paper . 2007;No. 545.road safety policies.pdf
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
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Hazan L, Hernández Rodriguez OA, Bhorat A'adE, Miyazaki K, Tao B, Heyrman R, group(EM Wafula AESOPS. "A double-blind, dose-response study of the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children and adolescents with hypertension." Hypertension. 2010;55(6):1323-30. Abstract

The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children with hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure measured at or above the 95th percentile (90th percentile for patients with diabetes, glomerular kidney disease, or family history of hypertension) for age, gender, and height while off any antihypertensive medication. The active treatment phase was conducted in 2 periods, with 2 cohorts in each period (cohort A, 62% white; cohort B, 100% Black). In period 1, patients stratified by weight received low-dose (2.5 or 5 mg) or high-dose (20 or 40 mg) olmesartan medoxomil daily for 3 weeks. In period 2, patients maintained their olmesartan medoxomil dose or initiated placebo washout for an additional 2 weeks. Period 1 efficacy results showed a dose-dependent, statistically significant reduction in seated trough systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both cohorts, with mean blood pressure reductions numerically smaller in cohort B than in cohort A. The olmesartan medoxomil dose response remained statistically significant when adjusted for body weight. In period 2, blood pressure control decreased in those patients switching to placebo, whereas patients continuing to receive olmesartan medoxomil therapy maintained consistent blood pressure reduction. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to study medication. Olmesartan medoxomil was safe and efficacious in children with hypertension, resulting in significant blood pressure reductions.

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Assey RJ, Balemba OB, Owiti GO, Wango EO. "Prenatal Ovarian Follicular Development In The Zebu (Bos Indicus).". 2003.
Ast, G; Channa TPSTS;. "Urban housing & community development Course.". 1981.
Astère Bararyenya, Bode A. Olukolu, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Ekaya W, Jan Low, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula TOL. "Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato." BMC Plant Biology . 2020;20(1):1-16.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Socializing the Young in The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press." Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teacher's Guide Book I. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1985.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Syllabus for Forms I-IV. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Education (KIE).". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1988.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Let the Factory Close in Our Secret Lives. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1996.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Widowing and Remarriage. East Africa in Transition. Nairobi.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2004.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupil's Book II. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1987.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupils Book III. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1987.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teachers Guide Book IV. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1989.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. ""The Role of Oral Literature in the Preservation of the Environment.". In: A KOLA publication. Elsevier; 2006.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupil's Book I. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1985.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teachers Integrated English: Pupil's Book IV. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1988.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Transition from the Standpoint of Oral Literature in East Africa in Transition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2002.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "The Paradox of the Lowly. The Nairobi Journal of Literature Nairobi.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2005.
Ateka EM;, Njeru RW, Kibaru AG;, Kimenju JW;, Barg E;, Gibson RW;, Veten HJ. "Farmers' knowledge and management of sweet potato virus disease in Kenya."; 2001.
Ateka EM, Kimenju JW. "Studies On The Interaction Between Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) And Meloidogyne Spp. In Potato.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

A survey was undertaken to determine population density of Meloidogyne juveniles (J2) in 90 fields randomly selected from three potato-producing districts in Kenya namely Nyeri, Meru and Nyandarua. Mean nematode densities were highest (45) in samples collected from Nyeri and Nyandarua and lowest (31) in soil samples collected from Meru. The reaction of 15 potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita was determined under greenhouse conditions. Plants were inoculated with 6000 eggs and second-stage juveniles each. Highly significant (P=0.01) differences were observed between the cultivars. Galling index was highest (5.5) in cv. KP93739.26 and lowest (1.9) in cv. Nyayo. All cultivars supported nematode reproduction with the highest (5.0) egg mass index being recorded in cultivars KP93739.26, Kerr's Pink, Desiree CIP-800048, KP92633.26 and B53. No cultivar exhibited immunity. The relationship between infection by root-knot nematodes and severity of bacterial wilt in three potato cultivars with varying levels of resistance to bacterial wilt namely Asante CIP 381381.20 (susceptible), B53 (moderately susceptible), and Kenya Dhamana (resistant), was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Bacterial wilt was more severe in plants infected with both pathogens as compared to plants infected with Ralstonia solanacearum alone.

Ateka EM, Mwang'ombe AW, Kimenju JW. "Reaction of potato c~lt!vars ,to ralston!~ solana cearumin Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

A survey of bactenal wilt (BW) incidence was carried out in three potato producing districts of Kenya, namely, Nyeri, Nyandarua, and Meru in 1997. The survey was carried out in 30 randomly selected farms in each district. Incidence of BW was highest (18.8%) in Nyeri district, intermediate (16.7%) in Meru and lowest (10.4%) in . Nyandarua. A significant and negative correlation (p=O.05; r = -0.34) between bacterial wilt incidence and altitude was observed. Fifteen potato cultivars, Nyayo, Desiree CIP-800048, Roslin Tana, Kerrs pinkLB-5, Golof (Dutch Robjin), B53, Tigoni CIP-381381.13, Rutuku CIP-720097, AsanteCIP-381381.20, Kenya DhamanaCIP- 800228, Mauritius Clone (89•016), .: KP93739.26, KP92633.26, and Cruza148 CIP-72011 were subsequently evaluated for their reaction to Ralstonia solanacearum in artificial and natural infections in the greenhouse and in the field. Although none of the cultivars appeared resistant, there were significant (p=0.05) differencesir bacterial wilt incidence and severity among the cultivars. Cultivars Kenya Dhamana, Mauritius and Cruza(Cllt- 720118) had low bacterial wilt severity and incidence and were rated tolerant, whereas the other cultivars were rated moderately susceptible or very susceptible.

Ateto OP, Chepkonga DS. "Trade Union Officials' Perception of their Effectiveness in Industrial Dispute Resolution." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):15.
Atibu FS, Gichaga FJ. "Study of Red Clay Highway Embankments with Reference to Collapse and cracking." Kenya Journal of Sciences. . 1996;10 (2):41-83.
Atieno R. "“Institutional Arrangements and the Performance of Small-Scale Clothing Enterprises in Kenya: Enhancing their role in Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction”.". In: New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies for Africa-Institutional and Local Perspectives. African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 13 ; 2009.
Atieno R. ""The Role of Rural Access Roads on the Development of Private Trade: Some Evidence From Maize Marketing in Kenya".". In: 9th World Congress on Transport Research. Seoul, Korea; 2001.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. ""Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism,. SAIIA Occasional Paper No. 16; 2008.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "A Systems Approach in the Study of Environmental Factors.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "Globalisation, Government Policy and Access to Labour Markets in Kenya: Implications for Poverty Reduction.". In: UNU-WIDER Conference on “The Impact of Globalisation on the Poor in Africa”. Johannesburg, South Africa; 2005.
Atieno R. "“Women and Girls”.". In: State of Kenya Population 2011. National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2011.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Determinants of Poverty: Lessons from Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal.". In: Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: UNU-WIDER project workshop on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Concepts, Measurements and Impacts. Helsinki, Finland; 2008.
Atieno R. "Formal and Informal Institutions." AERC Research Paper, number 111; 2001. Abstract

Atieno R, Mitullah WV. "“Migration Labour Markets and Development: Inward Migration to North and West Africa”." Working Paper, International Labour Organisation, . 2010;Geneva, 2010.
Atieno R. "“Explaining Female Labour Force Participation: The Case of Kenya’s Informal Sector and the Effect of the Economic Crisis”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2010.
Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J. "Influence of coating application methods on the postharvest quality of cassava." International journal of food science. 2019;2019. Abstract
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Atieno R, Kanyinga K. "“The Revitalisation of Kenya Cooperative Creameries (KCC): The Politics of Policy Reforms in the Dairy Sector in Kenya”." Future Agricultures Working Paper. IDS, Sussex, Future Agricultures Consortium. 2007.
Atieno LV, Moturi CA, Wagacha PW, Orwa DO, Ogutu JO, Wausi A. "Successful Implementation of Digital Village Projects: A Factor to Economic Empowerment at the Community Level.". In: 3rd African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: AIBUMA; 2012. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Atieno R, Teal F. "“Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya’s Informal Sector in the 1990s”.". In: Informal Sector in a Globalised Era. Icfai University Press; 2007.
Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J. "Influence of Coating Application Methods on the Postharvest Quality of Cassava." International Journal of Food Science. 2019;2019:1-16.abstract.pdf
Atieno LV, Moturi CA. "Implementation of Digital Village Projects in Developing Countries - Case of Kenya." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2014;4(5):793-807.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. "“Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Fanele and SAIIA; 2010.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Secondary Crop Choices among Small-Scale Farmers.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Agricultural Market Liberalisation, Private Trade and Incomes: Implications for Poverty Reduction in Rural Kenya”.". In: Understanding Poverty and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, at the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University. University of Oxford, UK; 2002.
Atieno L, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, Owino W, others. "Effect of edible coatings on shelf life and quality of cassava roots.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
n/a
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Poverty and Food Security Problems in Kenya. Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Financial Access and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies conference on Economic Development in Africa. University of Oxford, UK; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”." United Nations University (UNU)/WIDER Research Paper. 2009;No. 2009/06.
Atieno R. "4. “Government Policy and Female Labour Force Participation in Kenya”.". In: International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Boston, USA; 2009.
Atieno R, Shem AO. "“The Role of Social Policy in Development: Health, Water and Sanitation in East Africa”.". In: Social Policy in Sub-saharan African Context: In search of an Inclusive Development. UNRISD and Palgrave; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Occupational Distribution of Women in the Labour Market in Kenya”.". In: Annual IAFFE Conference. Barcelona, Spain; 2012.
Atieno A’o D, Oyoo WS, Ogangu JI, den Paul VB, Bbosa NB, Odongo MV, Angoe WG, Henrik K, Peter N-K. "Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River Catchment, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2.(1):18-32.
Atieno R. "“Linkages and Business Competition in Kenya’s Metal Products Sub sector”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, others. "Effect of Surface Coatings on the Shelf life and Quality of Cassava." Journal of Food Research. 2018;7:46-60. Abstract
n/a
Atieno R. "“Financial Services and the Performance of Micro and Small Scale Clothing Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: Industrialising Africa in the Era of Globalisation: Challenges to Clothing and Footwear. University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Secondary Crop Choices among small-scale Tea growers in the Belgut Division of Kericho District of Western Kenya. Paper submitted to University of Nairobi for Publication in the Journal Hekima.". In: Paper submitted to University of Nairobi for Publication in the Journal Hekima. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R, Benjamin Okech, Mitullah WV. "“Understanding the Business Systems in Kenya: Firm Response to Changing Market Environment in the Metal Products Sector”.". In: Regional workshop on Business Systems in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
Atieno R, Barako D, Bokea C. "“Innovation and Financial Access: The Role of M-pesa”. .". In: Kenya: Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press,; 2010.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity and Poverty in the Nyando district of Kenya, in preparation.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "The Limits of Policy Success: The Case of the Dairy Sector in Kenya.". In: workshop for the World Development Report, by the Future Agricultures Consortium at the IDS, Sussex, UK. IDS, Sussex, UK; 2007.
Atieno R, Onjala J, Jama M. "Do think tanks benefit from APRM work? Kenya’s Experience.". In: in Gruzd Steven (ed) Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Johannesburg: Jacana Media (Pty) and South African Institute of International Studies; 2010.
Atieno R. "Financial Access and Microfinance Development in Kenya”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2011.
Atieno R. "“Kenya”.". In: Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity, Country Case Studies. United Nations Industrial Development Strategy; 2011.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Environmental Considerations and the Changing Patterns of Diseases in Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography.". In: Paper submitted for publication in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno R. "“Financial Access and Microfinance Development in Kenya”.". In: conference on Economic Development in Africa at the Centre for the Study of African Economies University of Oxford, UK. University of Oxford, UK; 2009.
Atieno R. "“Gender, Institutions, Access to Finance and the Development of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya: Lessons for the Global Economic Crisis”.". In: International Association For Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Hangzhou, China; 2011.
Atieno R. "“The Financial System”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Yeda R, Wu YJ, Coghi P, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Four Prenylflavone Derivatives with Antiplasmodial Activities from the Stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya." Molecules. 2017;22(9):1514. AbstractMolecules

Description
Four new flavones with modified prenyl groups, namely (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1), purleptone (2),(E)-5-hydroxyanhydrotephrostachin (3), and terpurlepflavone (4), along with seven known compounds (5–11), were isolated from the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya, a widely used medicinal plant. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric evidence. Some of the isolated compounds showed antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive D6 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1) being the most active, IC 50 1.7±0.1 μM, with relatively low cytotoxicity, IC 50> 21 μM, against four cell-lines. View Full-Text

Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Kamau E, Yenesew A. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:28-31.
Atinga JEO, Otsyeno FMT. "Unusual Bones Articulating With the Pelvic Girdle." The Annals of African Surgery, . 2010;6. Abstract

We report a case of a 44 year old man who presented with right gluteal pain following trivial trauma, associated with unusual bones, with all the characteristics of clavicles articulating with the pelvic girdle. The pain on that side was completely relieved by excision of the bone.

Atinga JE, Kireti VM. "Osgood Schlatter disease: An Audit Profile of 35 Adolescents." The Annals of African Surgery, . 2010;6. Abstract

Background
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of anterior knee pain in the adolescent. Treatment is usually conservative with surgery reserved for those who do not respond to this treatment. There is little published work regarding the experience with the disease in our local set up. This series documents the experience with 35 adolescents treated for the disease.

Design
Case series

Subjects
Thirty five adolescents with clinical and radiological diagnoses of Osgood-Schlatter disease at Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospitals, between 2001and 2007.

Method
Patients were evaluated for demographics, knee involvement, activities associated with pain and treatment outcome

Results
There were 28 males and 7 females, aged 10 to 16 years (mean 12.8 years). Thirteen had bilateral knee involvement. Twenty two were involved in active sports while the rest had constant pain and unable to sit or kneel. A family history of the disease was documented in one case. Thirty adolescents responded well to the conservative treatment. In the five adolescents who underwent surgery, the patella tendon was edematous with thickening of the tendon sheath and neovascularisation. All the operated adolescents returned to active sports with 6 weeks after the surgery.

Conclusion
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a self-limiting condition in majority of adolescents. Surgery when indicated has an excellent outcome.

Ating’a JEO, KO A. "Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: Occasional Publication Number 3 2003. pp 21-32. E Afr Med J; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.

Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Atoh F. "Reading Dholuo: Spelling Patterns, Orthography and Word Patterns.". In: National Conference on Early Grade Learning. Nakuru; 2009.
Atoh F. "Moi and Music Performance in Public and Private Universities: the case of University of Nairobi.". In: Music in Kenya: Development, Management, Composition and Performance: A Tribute to Daniel T. Arap Moi. Nakuru: Kabarak University; 2010.
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Atoh F. "Poetic Aspects of the Kenyan Patriotic Music During the Moi Era .". In: Music in Kenya: Development, Management, Composition and Performance: A Tribute to Daniel T. Arap Moi. Nakuru: Kabarak University; 2010.
Atoh FO. "Exploring the New Ohangla Music in the Context of Urbanization: The Search for Relevance for Sustainability. .". In: International Conference on Refocusing Music and Performing Arts for Sustainable Development . Kabarak University ; Submitted.
Atoh F, L. K. Introduction to Morphology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
Atoh F. "Arthur Mudogo Kemoli (1945-): The Path of a Musical Giant.". In: A Biography of Kenyan Musicians Vol. I. Nairobi: Government Press; 2010.
Atoh. F. Analysis of Dholuo Nouns: The Semantic Field Approach. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller; 2011.
Atonya SC. Mapping Geological Structures in Western Mutomo, Kitui County: A Remote Sensing approach. Karanja FN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Atsango EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L. "Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses." Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2020;Vol. 7,( No. 1 January).use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf
Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Atwell RB, Buoro IB, Boreham PF. "Variation in protein concentrations in acute and chronic ascites in Dirofilaria immitis-infected dogs.". 1996. Abstract

Microfilaremic dogs, developing ascites acutely following a reaction to diethylcarbamazine therapy, had similar protein concentrations in their ascitic fluid and plasma. In contrast, in dogs chronically infected with Dirofilaria immitis, the protein concentrations of ascitic fluid were found to be significantly lower than plasma protein concentrations. The acute development of ascites in such dogs is associated with high ascitic protein levels.

Atwoli L, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Post traumatic stress disorder among Mau Mau concentration camp survivors in Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

A decade before Kenya's independence in 1963 thousands of 'Mau Mau' fighters were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps where many underwent torture and inhuman treatment. No studies have been done to establish the presence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric morbidity among the survivors of those concentration camps. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric morbidity and associated factors among the Mau Mau Concentration Camp survivors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive study of all consecutive concentration camp survivors included in the study. SETTING: Mau Mau War Veterans' Association (MMWVA) headquarters at Mwea House, Nairobi, Kenya Human Rights Commission headquarters in Nairobi, Tumaini House (Venue of MMWVA elections, 2005) and the MMWVA branch office in Kajiado District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and eighty one Mau Mau Concentration Camp Survivors who gave consent to participate in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime and Current PTSD, IES-R score and other Psychiatric Morbidity as measured using the SCID and the IES-R. RESULTS: A DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of current PTSD was made in 65.7% of the survivors. Current PTSD was associated with higher IES-R scores and older age, lower income, non-Catholic religion, larger household size, older age at incarceration, greater length of incarceration, incarceration in two or more camps, experiencing other traumatic events, family history of mental illness and having other psychiatric illness. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to other former Prisoners of War (POWs) elsewhere, these survivors suffer high PTSD prevalence rates and a special veterans' service is recommended to address this problem and its associated factors among these and other veterans in Kenya.

Aucha JK, Wandiga SO, bong’o DA, Madadi VO, Osoro EM. "Organochlorine pesticides in air and soil from nairobi and mount kenya region, kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2017;10((7)2):5-11.
Aucha JK, Wandiga SO, Abong’o DA, Madadi VO, Osoro EM. "OrganochlorinePesticides Residue Levels in Airand Soilfrom Nairobiand Mount Kenyaregions, Kenya." Researchgate. 2004. AbstractFull text link

Thestudy investigates the organochlorine pesticides residue level in air and soilat
sites in Nairobi and Mount Kenya regions, Kenya. Air and soil samples from four sites were
collected and analysed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) using gas
chromatography equipped with electron capture detector and confirmed using GC/MS. The
targeted pesticides were α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH (lindane), α-endosulfan, βendosulfan and
Endosulfansulfate.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Decentralization for rural development. In: African Administrative Studies, No.32 (Chitere, P.O. and Monya, J.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1993.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Farmer participation in sugarcane production in the Mumias Sugar scheme, western Kenya. African Crop Science Journal.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "District Focus for Rural Development in Kenya: Its Limitations as a Decentralization and participatory Planning Strategy and Prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.46.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Bura Irrigation Settlement Project: A Socio-economic survey, IDS Consultancy Report (Ruigu, G. Alila, P. and Chitere, P.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1984.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Choice of methods of farmer contact. In: Agricultural Administration, Vol. 11 (3).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Sampling of small-scale farmers for involvement in farm adoption studies. In: Eastern African Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 23.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1993.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of their Performance and prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.49.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The Provincial Administration in Kenya: A study of its characteristics and potential for sustainment under devolved system of government. IPAR DP 074.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The women.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Working with Rural Communities, University of Nairobi Press (Chitere, P.O. and Mutiso, R. eds.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Community Development: Its Theoretical Conceptions and Historical Background and Practice with Empasis on Africa. Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi (Chitere, P.O., ed.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Matatu industry in Kenya: A study of the performance of its owners, workers and their associations and potential for improvement, IPAR DP No.55.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The Mumias Sugar Scheme in Kenya: A study of farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Extension education and farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
Augustus ON, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Analysis of the Use of Mass Media during Commuication Campaigns for Mental Health in Nairobi County." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 2).
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. "Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine." Environ. Health Perspect.. 1985;62:105-8. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Autrup H, Seremet T, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. "Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1987;47(13):3430-3. Abstract

Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.

Avci E, Fossett D, Aslan M, Attar A, Egemen N. "Surgical anatomy of the superior cerebellar artery." Turkish Neurosurgery. 2001;11:95-100. AbstractWebsite
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Avery K, Barham C, Berrisford R, Blazeby J, Blencowe N, Donovan J, Elliott J, Falk S, Goldin R, Hanna G, Hollowood A, Metcalfe C, Noble S, Sanders G, Streets C, Titcomb D, Wheatley T. "Understanding surgical interventions in {RCTs}: the need for better methodology." The Lancet. 2013;381:27-28. AbstractWebsite
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Avery" "L, Crockett" "M, Kihara" "A, Murila" "F, Njoroge" "P. Enhancing maternal health, Global Engagement in action - Highlights from the Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): . Canada: Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): ; 2012.
Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

Awad O, Ochieng SJ, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "Chronic anaemia causes degenerative changes in trophoblast cells of the rat placenta." Anatomy . 2017;11(2). Abstractchronic_anaemia_causes_degenerative_changes.pdfWebsite

Objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. There are few studies on effects of anaemia on the
structure of trophoblastic cells which are important in placental function. These data are important for understanding the
function and disorders of the placenta. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural cellular changes associated
with iron deficiency anaemia in rat placenta.
Methods: Forty-nine female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The
experimental group was rendered anaemic by removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days, and the placentas
were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and 21. For light microscopy, five cubic millimeter segments were fixed in 10%
buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut,
deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. For transmission electron microscopy, 1 mm3 sections were fixed in
2.5% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde, post fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in propylene
and embedded in epon resin. Ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate were examined with JEOL electron
microscope.
Results: Cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and giant trophoblastic cells of placentas of anaemic rats showed cytoplasmic
and nuclear vacuolation with loss of cell margins. In addition, there was atrophy of microvilli on the cell surface, as well
nuclear chromatolysis, nucleolar degeneration and appearance of dark bodies.
Conclusion: Chronic anaemia causes trophoblastic cell degeneration. This may undermine the functional integrity of the
cells and constitute part of the mechanism for poor fetal outcome.

Awan, HR; Adala HS. "Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.". 1990. Abstract

A case is described of an 8 year old child who presented with Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus involving the left eye. He had a positive history of pulmonary tuberculosis, repeated hospital admissions and blood transfusion. He was confirmed to have Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. During the course of his followup, he developed cotton-wool spots and perivasculitis in the right eye. The mother was found to be seropositive while the father was seronegative

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Spatial Analysis .". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Optical Remote Sensing.". 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Web GIS and Mapping.". 2013. Abstract

The Internet and web-based technology has dramatically influenced the access to and dissemination of information among communities, locally and globally. This is no less true in the domain of geographic information systems (GIS) which have traditionally been constrained in terms of information access and the communities that use them. Geospatial data has traditionally been captured and managed within individual and separate organizational databases with access by a limited number of expert users. Now, with the integrated use of the web, not just geospatial data, but also the functionality of GIS can be accessed globally by citizens and non-experts.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Satellite Environmental Sensing.". 2013.

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