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Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Amimo JO, Raev SA, Chepngeno J, Mainga AO, Guo Y, Saif L, Vlasova AN. "Rotavirus Interactions With Host Intestinal Epithelial Cells." . Frontiers in immunology. 2021;12.
Amimo JO, El Zowalaty ME, Githae D, Wamalwa M, Djikeng A, Nasrallah GK. "Metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of the fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2016;161(4):887-897.
Amimo JO, Wakhungu JW, Inyangala BO, Mosi RO. "The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Dairy cattle production in Kenya has been growing into an important agricultural sector, but it still faces numerous difficulties in environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to identify significant non-genetic effects on milk production to give advices for farm management and estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk traits. Data consisting of 4475 lactation records from 10 large-scale Ayrshire herds collected from 1980 to 2005 were used to evaluate effects of non-genetic factors and determine genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends of 305 d milk yield (305d MY). The data analyses using least square techniques of Proc GLM of SAS identified significant sources of variation by herd, parity and year of calving on 305d MY. The overall mean for 305d MY was 3009.8 ±1098 kg, with the corresponding heritability and repeatability estimates of 0.12 ±0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.01 respectively. Genetic trend for 305d MY was -2.1 kg/yr and statistically significant (P<0.01) indicating annual decrease in breeding values over the study period. The high variation as indicated by both large standard errors and low heritabilities of the milk trait indicate that much improvement in this trait could be achieved through improved management. The negative annual genetic changes in milk yield observed could largely be due to ineffective breeding strategies both at herd and national level.

Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso sub-counties, Western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2016:DOI 10.1007/s11250-016-1164-9.
Amimo" "JO, Okoth" "E, Jung'a" "JO, Ogara" "WO, Njahira" "MN, Wang" "Q, Vlavosa" "AN, Saif" "LJ, Djikeng" "A. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of kobuviruses and astroviruese in asymptomatic local pigs in East Africa." Arch Virol. 2013;10:00705-0013.
Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Journal of chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11. Abstractscan0013.pdf

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014. Abstract

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amiri S. "Natija ya Mapuza.". In: Kopo la Mwisho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP Ltd; 2011.
Amiri S, Timamy R. "Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(9):1-181.
Amiri S. "Alidhani kapata.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
Amiri S, Timamy R. "“ Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee ”." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;8(8):1-12.
Amiri S. "Naye Huyo M ’ me Mwenzangu.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
Amiri S. M wongozo wa Kif o Kisimani. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2006.
Amiri S, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "“ A Thema t ic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupo na ; A Swahili/Islamic Perspective ”." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(28):8-15.
Amiri S. "Pwaguzi.". In: Mayai Waziri wa Maradhi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2004.
Amisi SK, Wilson VP, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre-extraction photographs in the selection of artificial teeth.". 2010. Abstract
n/a
Amisi SK, Wilson VJ, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre extraction photographs in selection of artificial teeth." JKDA. 2010;1(4):114-119.
Amisi SK, Wilson VP, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre-extraction photographs in the selection of artificial teeth.". 2010. Abstract

To explore the validity of using pre-extraction facial photographs in the selection of artificial anterior denture teeth. Design: A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting: Faculty of Dentistry and WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Health, University of the Western Cape, Republic of South Africa Materials and Method: A convenient sample of thirty (30) dentate subjects, with sound healthy six (6) permanent maxillary anterior teeth, was used. Five (5) facial photographs of different views and sizes were taken for each subject. The principal investigator measured and compared actual and photographic dimensions ofthe maxillary anterior tooth widths, inter-iris distance and inner-canthal distance. The shapes of each subject's face, and maxillary central incisor, were traced on the full face anterior photograph and compared. Results: The central incisor tooth width calculated from full-face anterior view photographs of portrait (5' x 7') or postcard (4'x 6') size had an accuracy of between +0.2smm and + 1 mm when compared to actual tooth widths. Comparison of an individual's tooth and face shape found that sixteen (16) subjects (53.3%) had a face shape that was similar to their maxillary central incisor shape. Anterior tooth widths wii found to be greater in males than females. Conclusion: Photographs are reliable pre-extraction records when used during selection of artificial anterior tooth size and shape. Anterior full-face views of size 4'x6' and s'x?' can be used to calculate maxillary central incisor width to an accuracy of within 1 mm. The application of photographs during anterior tooth selection is limited by their availability.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Women in Economic Activities - Laikipia District in Women and Development in Kenya - Laikipia District by G. Were, C. Suda and J. Olenja eds. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Gender Violence Knows no Cultural, Class or Educational Boundaries, presented at Gender and Diversity Brown Bag Series.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Amolo EJA, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Credit Enhancement and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." Journal of Finance & Banking Studies. 2020;9(4):47-57.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Imperialism, Nationalism and Communalism; The Lessons of India in Proceedings of Seminar Commerating the Birth Centenary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Nairobi.". In: Published by Were Press.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "The Struggle for Survival Amongst Rural Women in Kenya: Deference to Culture vs Socio-Economic Needs Ph.D dissertation, Northeastern University, Hope Lewis, Chairman.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "A History of the Agricultural Society of Kenya 1901 - 1996 to be published by News Pack Series, Nairobi.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo M. BRP 314 N ew religious movement in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Troubled to Death in Religion and Health by Kinot, H.W. and Getui, M. (eds.) Transafric Press, Nairobi.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "“Colonial Policy and Urban Health in Nairobi” in Azania, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa Vol XXXVI – XXXVII – 2001 – 2002 by Andrew Burton (ed) British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi.".; 2002. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "History of West Africa to 1800. University of Nairobi Press.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1988. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Land and Property ownership for Women in Kenya, presented at UN Women's Day Panel. Discussion, UN New York, March 4th.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Amolo EJA;, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Contingent capital and performance of hydroelectric energy projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science . 2020;9(4):134-142.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Labour Metropolitan Capital and the Colonial State.". In: Transafrican Journal of History Vol. 19, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Gender and Diversity Institute's Models for Change Collaboration with Institutions in Kenya and Costa Rica, Conference Paper AAUW International Symposium, Washington D.C.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Women in Economic Activities - Siaya District in Women and Development in Kenya - Siaya District, by G. Were, C. Suda and J. Olenja, eds. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Preventive Health and Colonial African Urban.". In: Policies in Nairobi in African Urban Quarterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers, April.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Trade Unionism and Colonial Authority; A Case Study of Sierra Leone, 1930-1945.". In: Transafrican Journal of History, Vol VII Nos. 1and 2, 1979.; 1979. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "A Case for Inheritance. In More Modern African Stories. Charles R. Larson (editor). Fontana Books, Great Britain.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Towards the Definition of a British Colonial Labour Policy, Makerere Historical.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Rural African Women and Technology Literacy: Case Study in Uganda and Kenya. Paper Presented at Panel Discussion, AWID conference in Guadalajara, Mexico.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "With N. Senkomago: Themes in East African History.". In: University of Nairobi Press.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Proverty, Health and Race in a Colonial Setting: The Case of Maternal and Child Welfare Services.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amolo M. BRP 318 : History of Christianity. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "“Public Health Policy in an Urban Setting: The Case of Maternal and Child Welfare in the First Ten Years of Moi’s Rule”, Proceedings of African Health and Illness Conference at University of Texas in Austin, USA.".; 2005. Abstract

Colonial Health Policies were characterized by strict racial segregation .  This described  residence, services and consequently the levels of health and the causes of death among the different races.  On the eve of independence , health services were  amalgamated  and the first post colonial government declared its intention of ensuing equality of services  for all and therefore greatly improved health and well being for those who had suffered discrimination before, namely Africans and poor Asians. This paper explores the policies and challenges of health delivery in the first fifteen years of post colonial rule, in   Nairobi, Kenya.  It bases its arguments from  data drawn  from and examination of maternal and child welfare policies and their implementations.  The central  argument is that intentions were laudable.  But  by the end of  Kenyatta’s regime the challenges  faced by the government were beginning to impact negatively on maternal and child welfare programmes in Nairobi.

Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

Amornkul, P.N; Vandenhoudt OMJONRVVMH; F; D. "HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among individuals aged 13-34 years in rural western.". 2009. Abstract

To estimate HIV prevalence and characterize risk factors among young adults in Asembo, rural western Kenya. Community-based cross-sectional survey. From a demographic surveillance system, we selected a random sample of residents aged 13-34 years, who were contacted at home and invited to a nearby mobile study site. Consent procedures for non-emancipated minors required assent and parental consent. From October 2003 - April 2004, consenting participants were interviewed on risk behavior and tested for HIV and HSV-2. HIV voluntary counseling and testing was offered. Of 2606 eligible residents, 1822 (70%) enrolled. Primary reasons for refusal included not wanting blood taken, not wanting to learn HIV status, and partner/parental objection. Females comprised 53% of 1762 participants providing blood. Adjusted HIV prevalence was 15.4% overall: 20.5% among females and 10.2% among males. HIV prevalence was highest in women aged 25-29 years (36.5%) and men aged 30-34 years (41.1%). HSV-2 prevalence was 40.0% overall: 53% among females, 25.8% among males. In multivariate models stratified by gender and marital status, HIV infection was strongly associated with age, higher number of sex partners, widowhood, and HSV-2 seropositivity. Asembo has extremely high HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, and probable high incidence, among young adults. Further research on circumstances around HIV acquisition in young women and novel prevention strategies (vaccines, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, HSV-2 prevention, etc.) are urgently needed.

Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Ampt FH, Mudogo C  , P G, Lim MSC, Manguro G, Chersich M, W J, Temmerman M, Laini M, Comrie-Thomson L, Stoové M, Agius PA, Hellard M, L'Engle K, S L. "WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017388.
Amriika, V M. "The Poetics of Journeying and the Dilemma of Baggage in Moyez Vassanji’s No New Land and Amriika” J-STEM, J." ournal of Science, Technology and Education,. 2008;Vol. 2 Nos. 1&2, (ISSN. 1991-2889. ):Pp. 219-226.
Amthor F, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1989;280:72-96. AbstractWebsite

Rabbit retinal ganglion cells with concentric receptive fields were intracellularly recorded and stained in the isolated superfused eyecup preparation to relate specific physiological response properties to dendritic morphology. Concentric ganglion cells, as traditionally defined, were those that had On or Off centers with antagonistic surrounds but lacked complex response properties such as direction or orientation selectivity. Concentric cells were classified into different groups by extracellular recordings of their On- or Off-center response sign, excitatory receptive field center size, linearity of spatial summation, and brisk vs. sluggish and transient vs. sustained responses to step changes in light intensity. The cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity during intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for histological analysis. Twenty-three concentric ganglion cells were recovered and morphometrically analyzed. Their physiological response properties were found to be related to a number of underlying two- and three-dimensional attributes of the cell's dendritic branching patterns. The dendrites of all 20 brisk concentric cells and two of the three sluggish cells were found to ramify narrowly in either the proximal or distal half of the inner plexiform layer, corresponding to whether they are On center or Off center, respectively. One of the sluggish concentric cells was found to have a more complex, partially bistratified ramification. Physiologically identified brisk-sustained-linear, brisk-transient-nonlinear, brisk-transient-linear, and at least two classes of sluggish concentric ganglion cells were stained. Each of these physiological classes appears to exhibit a distinct and identifiable dendritic branching pattern.

Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with complex receptive fields." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1989;280:97-121. Abstract

Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an isolated superfused rabbit eyecup preparation. Cells were first classified by their characteristic extracellular responses to manually controlled stimuli similar to those which have been used in previous in vivo studies. Ganglion cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity by intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for staining. Twenty-two ganglion cells, which included members of all the major classes mentioned above, were recovered from the visual streak or near periphery. All recovered cells were drawn in camera lucida from flat-mounted retinas and entered into a computer as two-dimensional stick figures; nearly all were three-dimensionally reconstructed to determine the level and manner of dendritic ramification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The location of ganglion cell dendrites in sublaminar regions of the IPL was found to be consistent with the hypothesis of a division of the IPL into excitatory On (proximal) and Off (distal) sublaminae, with some qualifications for particular classes. Each of the complex receptive field ganglion cell classes exhibited a distinctive three-dimensional dendritic arborization pattern uniquely associated with that physiological class.

Amthor FR, Takahashi ES, Oyster CW. "Morphologies of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with complex receptive fields." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1989;280:97-121. Abstract

Ganglion cells that had complex receptive field properties, namely, On-Off and On direction-selective cells, orientation-selective cells, local edge detectors, and uniformity detectors (suppressed by contrast cells) were recorded in an isolated superfused rabbit eyecup preparation. Cells were first classified by their characteristic extracellular responses to manually controlled stimuli similar to those which have been used in previous in vivo studies. Ganglion cells were then impaled, confirmed in identity by intracellular recording, and iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase for staining. Twenty-two ganglion cells, which included members of all the major classes mentioned above, were recovered from the visual streak or near periphery. All recovered cells were drawn in camera lucida from flat-mounted retinas and entered into a computer as two-dimensional stick figures; nearly all were three-dimensionally reconstructed to determine the level and manner of dendritic ramification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The location of ganglion cell dendrites in sublaminar regions of the IPL was found to be consistent with the hypothesis of a division of the IPL into excitatory On (proximal) and Off (distal) sublaminae, with some qualifications for particular classes. Each of the complex receptive field ganglion cell classes exhibited a distinctive three-dimensional dendritic arborization pattern uniquely associated with that physiological class.

Amugune, N.O., Anyango B, Mukiama TK. "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean. ." African Crop Science Journal. 2011;19( 3):137-147.
Amugune BK, Otieno-Omutoko L. "An African Perspective of Benefits in Social Science Research.". In: Social Science Research Ethics in Africa.Research Ethics Forum, vol 7. Nortjé N., Visagie R., Wessels J. (eds). Cham : Springer; 2019.
Amugune BK, Matu EN, Kirira PG, Kigondu EVM, Moindi E. "Antimicrobial activity of organic total extracts of three Kenyan Medicinal plants." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2012;1(1):14-18.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. ". Liquid chromatographic separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2006;58(10) (supp/1 ):105.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
Amugune NO, Gopalan HNB, Bytebier B. "Leaf disc regeneration of passion fruit." African Crop Science Journal. 1993;1(2):99-104.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, L.K.Omosa, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectras sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2013;16 :61-68.amugune_et_al.pdf
Amugune NO, B Anyango B, Mukiama TK. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean.; 2011.
Amugune BK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "In Vitro Screening of Ten Selected Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in Vihiga County, Kenya for Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity. ." Int. J of Med Plants and Nat Prod. (IJMPNP) 3(2):37-44. 2017;3(2):37-44.
Amugune BK, Thoiti GN, Mwangi JW, Omosa LK, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." 3. 2013;16(1026-552X):61-68.alectra_sessiliflora.pdf
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
Amugune NO. "Professor Jenesio I. Kinyamario.". 2011.
Amugune NO, B Anyango B, Mukiama TK. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean.; 2011.
Amugune BK, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. Measuring drug prices in low and middle income countries. The Kenya Report:. Bellagio, Italy; 2001.
Amugune BK, Karimi PN, Bururia JM, Odhiambo PA, Museve GO. "Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae collected from patients with wounds at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2009;12(2):42-45.
Amugune BK, Verster GC. "Knowledge and attitude of postgraduate students in Kenya on ethics in mental health research. ." S Afr J Bioethics Law . 2016;9(2):65-68.
Amuti TM, Butt F, Otieno BO, Ogeng'o JA. "The relation of the extracranial spinal accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein. Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction." Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction. 2018;12(2):108-111. Abstract

The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) exhibits variant anatomy in its relation to the internal jugular vein (IJV) as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). These variations are important in locating the nerve during surgical neck procedures to avoid its inadvertent injury. These variations, however, are not conserved among different populations and data from the Kenyan setting are partly elucidated. This study, therefore, aims to determine the variant anatomical relationship of the SAN to the SCM and IJV in a select Kenyan population. Forty cadaveric necks were studied bilaterally during routine dissection and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Means and modes were calculated for the point of entry of the SAN into the posterior triangle of the neck as well as for its relation to the SCM. Side variations for both of these were analyzed using Student's t -test. Data relating the SAN to the IJV were represented in percentages and side variations were analyzed using the chi-square test. The SAN point of entry into the posterior triangle of the neck was 5.38 cm (3.501-8.008 cm) on the left side and 5.637 cm (3.504-9.173 cm) on the right side ( p  = 0.785) from the mastoid process. The nerve perforated the SCM in four cases (10%) on the left side and in eight cases (20%) on the right ( p  = 0.253). The SAN lay predominantly medial to the IJV on both sides of the neck, 87.5% on the left side of the neck versus 82.5% on the right ( p  = 0.831). In conclusion, the variant relation of the SAN to the IJV and SCM as observed in this setting is an important consideration during radical neck procedures and node biopsies.

Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, MK & Nyamongo IK. "Health seeking behaviour of mothers of under-five-year old children in the slum communities of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Anthropology and Medicine Vol. 13(1): 25-40. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract

Prompt and appropriate health seeking is critical in the management of childhood illnesses. This paper examines the health seeking behaviour in under-five child morbidity. It explores in detail actions taken by 28 mothers when their children become sick. Sixty-two in-depth interviews with mothers were conducted from four study communities. The mothers were identified from a demographic surveillance system. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The study shows that mothers classify childhood illnesses into four main categories: (1) not serious—coughs, colds, diarrhoea; (2) serious but not life-threatening—malaria; (3) sudden and serious—pneumonia; and (4) chronic and therefore not requiring immediate action—malnutrition, tuberculosis, chronic coughs. This classification is reflected in the actions taken and time it takes to act. Shops are used as the first source of healthcare, and when the care moves out of the home, private health facilities are used more compared to public health facilities, while even fewer mothers consult traditional healers. Consequently we conclude that there is a need to train mothers to recognize potentially life-threatening conditions and to seek appropriate treatment promptly. Drug vendors should be involved in intervention programs because they reach many mothers at the critical time of health seeking.

Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Amzati GS, Djikeng A, Odongo DO, Nimpaye H, Sibeko KP, Muhigwa J-BB, Madder M, Kirschvink N, Marcotty T. "Genetic and antigenic variation of the bovine tick-borne pathogen Theileria parva in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa." Parasit Vectors. 2019;12(1):588. Abstract

Theileria parva causes East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. A live immunisation approach using the infection and treatment method (ITM) provides a strong long-term strain-restricted immunity. However, it typically induces a tick-transmissible carrier state in cattle and may lead to spread of antigenically distinct parasites. Thus, understanding the genetic composition of T. parva is needed prior to the use of the ITM vaccine in new areas. This study examined the sequence diversity and the evolutionary and biogeographical dynamics of T. parva within the African Great Lakes region to better understand the epidemiology of ECF and to assure vaccine safety. Genetic analyses were performed using sequences of two antigen-coding genes, Tp1 and Tp2, generated among 119 T. parva samples collected from cattle in four agro-ecological zones of DRC and Burundi.

Amzati GS, Pelle R, Muhigwa J-BB, Kanduma EG, Djikeng A, Madder M, Kirschvink N, Marcotty T. "Mitochondrial phylogeography and population structure of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in the African Great Lakes region." Parasites & vectors. 2018;11:1-19. Abstract
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AN S, A K, Benki-Nugent S, Chebet D GL, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC. "Caregivers’ report of HIV-associated oral manifestations among HIV-unexposed, exposed, and infected Kenyan children." Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;2021;00:1-8.(2021;00:1-8.):2021;00:1-8.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of Effluent Contaminated River Water on Testicular Histology of Mice." . Sch J Agric Vet Sci. 2016;3(6):411-415.
AN P, KW O, MI I, JA O'o. "SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1):20-23. Abstract

SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY Anne Pulei, Kevin Ongeti, Martin Inyimili, Julius Ogeng’o
Correspondence: Dr. Anne Naipanoi Pulei, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. P.O. Box 30197 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Email: anmunkush@yahoo.com
SUMMARY
Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4% and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.
Key words: Profunda brachii arteries, variations.

AN P, PA M, KW O, J K, Omondi O. "Unilateral spontaneous tubal twin ectopic pregnancy: a rare occurrence." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6:819-823.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
An-Na'im A. "‘Are Local Norms and Practices Fences or Pathways? The Example of Women’s Property Rights’.". In: Cultural Transformation and Human Rights in Africa. London: Zed Books; 2002.
Ananga AA, E CE, Ochieng JW, Kumar S, Kambiranda D, Vasanthaiah H, Tsolova V, Senwo Z, F KF, Anike FN. "Prospects for Transgenic and Molecular Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus).". In: Oilseeds. INTECH; 2012.2012_oilseeds_by_intech_june_2012.pdf
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Ananga AA, Georgiev V, Ochieng JW, Phills B, Tsolova V. "Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries.". In: The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive. INTECH; 2013.2013_anthocyanins_by_intech.pdf
Ananga AO, Cebert E, Soliman K, Kantety R, Konan K, Ochieng JW. "Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD Loci associated with blackleg resistance." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology . 2008;7(9):1287-1293.2008_ananga_et_al_ajb.pdf
Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected.
RESULTS:
The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively.
CONCLUSION:
The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck

Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(5):244-7. Abstract

To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans.

Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
and NNH, Gichuki NN. "Effects of plant structure on butterfly diversity in Mt. Marsabit Forest, northern Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2010;(48):304-312.
and AOTA, Odipo G. "The Issue of non-numeric Responses to Questions on Desired family Size." Population Association of Kenya, Occasional Publication . 2003;(3):21-32.
and DMC,. JM. "Innovation Hubs and Small and Medium Enterprises in Africa: A Critical Review of Issues.". In: African Development Bank Annual Meeting. Revised version presented at the African Intern. Nairobi; 2011.
and CRM, Kinyamario JI. "Growth response of woody species to elephant foraging in Mwea National Reserve, Kenya." Afr. J. Ecol.. 2009;47:598-605.
and FJK, Anne.A. A. "The role of information communication and technology (ICT) on poverty reduction amongst the businesswomen in Marakwet west district, Kenya." Hekima biannual Journal of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2011.
and KLW, Kibera F. " “Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects”. ." Fountain. Journal of Faculty of Education. 2011:117-129.
and AA, Bocquier P. "An Event History Analysis of Factors influencing entry into Parenthood in Nairobi." : African Population Studies . 2004;19(2):42-62. AbstractWebsite

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and GKN, Mochoge BO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
with and SH, Brouder A-M. " `Food Safety Requirements and Food Exports from Developing Countries: The Case of Fish Exports from Kenya to the European Union’ ." American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Submitted;82(5) Number 5, :1159-1169.
and AA, Odipo G. "Drivers of migration in East African Community.". In: the Regional meting of The Research Consortium Migration out of Poverty.; 2011.
Andago A, Imungi J, Mwangi A, Lamuka P, Ruth Nduati. "Developemnt of a bovine blood enriched porridge flour for alleviation of anaemia among young children in Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;39:73-83.
Andang’o HA, Ouma JO, Muthama NJ, Opere AO, Hezron A’o A. "Investigating the Homogeneity of Monthly Rainfall Records in Kenya." J. Meteorol. 2016;9:48-54. Abstractinvestigating_the_homogeneity_of_monthly_rainfall_records_in_kenya.pdfJ. Meteorol

Homogenization of climate data is of major importance because non-climatic factors make avail-able data unrepresentative of the actual climate variation, and thus the conclusions of climatic and hydrological studies are potentially biased. A great deal of effort has been made to develop proce-dures to identify and remove non-climatic in-homogeneities. This paper first reviews several widely used statistical techniques then applies statistical simulation approach to precipitation data from different monitoring stations located in Kenya (1950-2006).
Analyses were carried out on several rainfall series in the 12 climatic zones of Kenya. The results of both the Standard Normal Homogeneity Tests (SNHT) and the Buishand Range Test (BR) tests show that, at the 5% significance level, the monthly series have statistically significant trend.
Findings from the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) showed that all the monthly rain-fall records from the selected synoptic stations were useful and hence could be used for any further analysis. From the Buishand Range (BR) Test done, seven out of the twelve stations were useful while the rest of the stations were doubtful. From the results of the Tests performed it is clear that the Buishand Range (BR) Test was able to detect breaks at the beginning middle and the end of the series. This method was thus recommended for homogeneity testing.
Promising results from the case study open new research perspectives on the homogenization of the Kenyan climate data time series.

Andanje M, Gitonga ER. "Leisure sports participation patterns of post – graduate students. The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Educational Research and development. 2009;4(2):111-117.
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Andayi V, Migosi J. "Influence of Farmer Knowledge and Skills on Performance of Fish Farming in Kwanza Constituency, Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2018;6(8):35-39.
Anderson TR, Slotkin TA. "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(16):1469-74.
ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Process For Building A Kiswahili Corpus From The World Wide Web.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 148-152. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Process For Building A Kiswahili Corpus From The World Wide Web.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 148-152. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
Anderson TR, Slotkin TA. "Maturation of the adrenal medulla--IV. Effects of morphine." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(16):1469-74.
Andersson M, De Benoist B, Rogers L. "Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: salt iodisation and iodine status." Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;24:1-11. AbstractWebsite
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ANDETO WANAMBISITHOMAS. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON THE FAMILY AS A UNIT. NAIROBI: JKUAT; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of this research is to get to the knowledge of how divorce affects the family according to the Kenyan society. It looks at the family’s life, living habits and through this, point out a few highlights of how the family is affected by divorce.
The target population is the whole Kenyan society regardless of race, religion and sex.
The data gathered will be analyzed using tables, pie charts, graphs among others. The results from this study will provide an insight on divorce among Kenyans.

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Costabile G, Isert L, Ndakala AJ, Derese S, Merkel OM. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles for effective treatment of breast cancer: Preparation, physicochemical characterization, and antitumor activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(2):232. AbstractPharmaceutics

Description
β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andollo AA. Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya. C.M. DR, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Andollo AA, M RC, F. M. "Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2013;VOL III, 2013 (ISBN: 978-9966-1570-3-4).
Andreassen BA, Ndohvu JB,(Eds) TB. Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Berezovskiy AA, Waga DD. Nannoplankton and Mollusks from Eocene deposits from Krivoy Rog iron-ore deposit..; 2003.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DDO. "Calcareous nannofossils from the Paleogene deposits of the Northern Forecaucasus (Russia) and South-Eastern Part of Great Donbas (Ukraine)." International Journal of Algae. 2012;14(1. 80):93-106.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Suprun IS, Waga DD. A comparison analysis of the Paleogene calcareous nannofossils from the Ukrainian Carpathians and Zeravshan region of Tajikistan.. Lviv, Ukraine: Institute of Geological Sciences of the NAS of Ukraine (IGS NAS of Ukraine); 2014.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleogene sediments of the Crimea-Caucasus region (southern Ukraine and Russia). Paris, France: French Congress on Stratigraphy; 2010.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Paleocene-Eocene calcareous nannofossil biozonation of the Northern Precaucasus region. Tbilisi, Georgia; 2010.
Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
Andrew B. "‘“Sitting on her Husband’s Back with Her Hands in His Pockets”: Trends in Judicial Decision-Making on Marital Property in Kenya’.". In: The International Survey of Family Law. Bristol: Jordan Publishing; 2002.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Kong'ani LNS. "Towards Replacing Kerosene with Bioethanol in Developing Countries: A Review.". In: Conference on the Status of African Women. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol Optical Depth Patterns Associated with Urbanization and Weather in Nairobi and Lamu." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2015;8(3):26-40.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong'ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Aywak AA, Mwanda OW, Adamali NE.Radiological features of Burkitt's lymphoma.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Aug;(8 Suppl):S104-10.; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic radiology investigations play important roles in the management of Burkitt's Lymphoma. OBJECTIVES: To document the various radiological manifestations of Burkitt's lymphoma as seen in patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study of Burkitt's Lymphoma cases admitted to the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat Wards. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All histological proven cases of BL had the following documented; Age sex, tribe, geographical (province) of origin, full medical evaluation results, presenting site of tumour, radiological findings and results of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound occipital frontal view of the skull X-ray. computerised tomography, myelography and orthopantomograms. RESULTS: In the period between April 1991 and March 1992 this study registered 49 patients age range 2 to 14 years. These were males 34 (69%) and females 15 (31%). The commonest radiological findings was associate with intra abdominal lymphoma seen in 65.2% of the cases, the least findings associated with cervical adenopathy and pleural effusion each 3.3% of cases. Twenty (41%) of the disease was clinically confined to the facial area while radiologically 25% of these were demonstrated to extend to the abdomen as well. CONCLUSION: Disease extent on radiological examination was found to be more extensive compared to clinical evaluation alone. The observation emphasised the role of radiological investigation in the management of lymphomas in this setting.East Afr Med J. 2004 Aug;(8 Suppl):S104-10. PMID: 15617420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

ANGELINE MRSCHEPHIRCHIR, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Dr. James Mwaura, Anne Mwikali Mawia, Angeline Chepchirchir Relationship Between Male Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. National Nurses Association of Kenya; 2008.
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Aywak AA, Masesa JV.Comparison of sonography with venography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):304-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):304-11.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the findings of venous sonography with contrast venography in the detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Fifty five limbs in 44 patients with clinical suspicion of DVT were evaluated during the seven months study period (October 2002-April 2003). The ethics committee in the institution granted approval for the study and participants gave written informed consent. INTERVENTION: Venous sonography in which a three step protocol involving B-mode gray scale compression sonography, colour and colour Doppler sonography was obtained after contrast venography in patients with clinical suspicion of DVT. The ultrasound examination was done within 24 hours of the contrast venogram. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of venous sonography was 88.9%, specificity 91.8% and accuracy 90.9%. Considering only DVT above the calf, the sensitivity improved to 100%. An alternative diagnosis was found by ultrasound in 48.6% of the negative for DVT cases. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of venous sonography as done locally is high and comparable to that in developed countries. We recommend that for patients with clinical suspicion of DVT, venous sonography be done as the initial imaging investigation and venography be reserved for those patients with equivocal or inadequate sonography results. PMID: 17886423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Nguku SW, Wanyoike-Gichuhi J, Aywak AA.Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score. PMID: 16771106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ANGELINE MRSCHEPHIRCHIR, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Dr. James Mwaura, Anne Mwikali Mawia, Angeline Chepchirchir Relationship Between Male Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. National Nurses Association of Kenya; 2008.
Angeline Anyona Aywak, Mutala TM, Ndaiga P, Onyambu C, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.Website
Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FMJMCWBWP. "Postharvest Practices of Maize Farmers in Kaiti District, Kenya and the Impact of Hermetic Storage on Populations of Aspergillus Spp. and Aflatoxin Contamination.". 2016. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

Aflatoxin contamination in maize by Aspergillus spp. is a major problem causing
food, income and health concerns. A study was carried out in Kaiti District in Lower Eastern
Kenya to evaluate the effect of three months storage of maize in triple-layer hermetic
(PICS™) bags on the population of Aspergillus spp. and levels of aflatoxin. Postharvest
practices by maize farmers including time of harvesting, drying and storage methods were
obtained with a questionnaire. Aspergillus spp. in soil and maize were isolated by serial …

Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FBMJMCWWP. "Assessment of Farmers Maize Production Practices and Effect of Triple-Layer Hermetic Storage on the Population of Fusarium Spp. and Fumonisin Contamination.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

Fumonisin contamination of maize by Fusarium spp. is a major risk in food security, human
and animal health. A study was carried out in Kaiti District, Makueni County in Kenya, to
assess the effectiveness of triple-layer hermetic (PICS™) bags in the management of
Fusarium spp. and fumonisin contamination of stored maize grains. Maize production
practices including scale of production, methods of land preparation, variety grown and
storage methods were obtained with a questionnaire. Fusarium spp. in soil and maize …

Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Analysis and Spectral Imaging Approaches to Disease Diagnostics: Forays into Malaria and Cancer.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).". 2018;(Published Online: 03 June 2019). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo DW, Dehayem-Massop A. "Developments in Medical Elementology and Spectral Diagnostics of Disease via Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Trace Spectroanalytics and Imaging Towards Applications in Nanomedicine.". In: First Pan-African Summer School in Nanomedicine. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Angeyo, H.K, Mukhono, P.M, Musyoka, D., Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Trace Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis by Multivariate Chemometric Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Applied to Malaria and Radiogeothermic Diagnostics.". In: RIAO/OPTILAS 2013 VIII Iberoamerican Conference on Optics and XI Latin-american Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)." AIP Conference Proceedings 2109. 2019;2019(1). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angeyo KH, Mukhono PM, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, Kaduki KA. "Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2013;87. Abstract

We exploited multivariate chemometric methods to reduce the spectral complexity and to retrieve trace heavy metal analyte concentration signatures directly from the LIBS spectra as well as, to extract their latent characteristics in two important environmental samples i.e. soils and rocks from a geothermal field lying in a high background radiation area (HBRA). As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ti were modeled for direct trace (quantitative) analysis using partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). PLS performed better in soils than in rocks; the use of ANN improved the accuracies in rocks because ANNs are more robust than PLS at modeling spectral non-linearities and correcting matrix effects. The predicted trace metal profiles together with atomic and molecular signatures acquired using single ablation in the 200–545 nm spectral range were utilized to successfully classify and identify the soils and rocks with regard to whether they were derived from (i) a high background radiation area (HBRA)-geothermal, (ii) HBRA-non-geothermal or (iii) normal background radiation area (NBRA)-geothermal field using principal components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA).

Angeyo KH, Patel JP, Mangala JM, Narayana DGS. "Measurement of trace element levels in Kenyan cigarettes with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique." Journal of trace and microprobe techniques. 1998;16:233-246. Abstract
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Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki. "Development of Laser Education and Research Towards Biophotonics at Nairobi.". In: 12th International conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Angeyoa KH, Garib S, Mustapha AO, Mangala JM. "Feasibility for direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and scattering analysis of complex matrix liquids by partial least squares.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The greatest challenge to material characterization by XRF technique is encountered in direct trace analysis of complex matrices. We exploited partial least squares (PLS) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry to rapidly (200 s) analyze lubricating oils. The PLS–EDXRFS method affords non-invasive quality assurance (QA) analysis of complex matrix liquids as it gave optimistic results for both heavy- and low-Z metal additives. Scatter peaks may further be used for QA characterization via the light elements.

Angima, C., A M. "Nature of fraud and its effects in the medical insurance sector in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(2):33-44.

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