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Mwanyumba PM, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS, Wahome RG, Wakhungu JW. "Participatory anaylsis of the farming system and resources in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya: A Livestock perspective." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;22.
Okitoi LO, Kabuage LW, Muinga RW, Badamana MS. "The potential of morning and afternoon supplementation of scavenging chickens on diets with varying energy and protein levels.". 2009. Abstract

The effects of supplementing different diets with varying levels of energy and protein either in the morning or afternoon were assessed. 384 scavenging indigenous chickens aged 14 weeks were allocated to four treatment diets: 1: Positive control (commercial diet); 2: High energy (3062 kcal/kg DM), high protein (224 g/kg DM) (HEHP); 3: Low energy (2378 kcal/kg DM), high protein (218 g/kgDM) (LEHP); 4: Low energy, Low protein (LELP). The supplements were offered in the morning and afternoon. Results showed that both pre-lay scavenging pullets and adult hens that received supplemental diets with high protein levels (HEHP and LEHP) both in the morning and afternoon ate more supplemental feed during the afternoon hours. Supplemental energy intake by scavenging pullets was higher in the morning than in afternoon while the reverse was true for adult scavenging hens. The mean supplemental crude protein intake was higher for both pullets and hens in the afternoon. Scavenging indigenous pullets consumed 11.7% more supplemental crude protein in the afternoon while hens consumed 12.4% more supplemental crude protein in the afternoon. Supplemental lysine, tryptophan and methionine + cystine intakes were higher for scavenging pullets in the afternoon and the same case for adult scavenging hens in the morning and afternoon. Egg production and weights were higher for hens supplemented with HEHP and LEHP compared to those receiving commercial diet (CD), and those supplemented with LELP diets both in the morning and afternoon. Feed cost was higher in pre-lay pullets supplemented with commercial diets (same levels of energy and protein in morning and afternoon) than with HEHP and LEHP diets mainly due to the higher price of commercial feed compared to that of ingredients found locally. The study suggests that offering a supplement of commercial diet (same level of energy and protein) for growing scavenging pullets followed by a high energy and high protein supplement during the laying period may increase feed intake, nutrient intake, egg production and egg weights

Badamana. MS;, Wanyoike MM. "The Potential Of Noncommercial Feeds In Dairy Animals.".; 1989.
Wakhungu JW, Badamana MS, Olukoye GA. "Productivity of Indigenous and Exotic Cattle on Kenya Ranches.". 2006. Abstract

A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) and Oljorai were analyzed by the least squares fixed effects model procedures. The least squares means of productivity component traits of each breed were imputed in PRY model to derive feed energy efficiency (FEE) index and carry out sensitivity analyses. The respective FEE indices were 137, 106, 100, 86, 82, 79, 78, and 65 aggregate value off take per unit of feed energy requirements for NSS Sahiwal, Deloraine Ayrshire, Deloraine Sahiwal, Elkarama Sahiwal, Ilkerin Sahiwal, Elkarama Boran, Oljorai Boran and Ilkerin small East African Zebu. The sensitivity showed that survival and reproductive (fitness) traits of the indigenous cattle were lower than for exotic cattle indicating better adaptability of indigenous cattle. The sensitivity values of milk yield, mature weight and mature age were at near optimal levels for the ranch environments, except for Deloraine Ayrshire and Elkarama Boran. The results suggest that fitness traits and rate of genetic progress by selection in production traits could be further enhanced by improving environmental management on the ranches. The implications on development strategies of indigenous and exotic cattle are also discussed.

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