Bio

DR. OPERE ALFRED OWUOR CV

Publications


2018

Siderius, C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D.  2018.  Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa. Earth's Future. 6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

2017

Karuri, HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P.  2017.  Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables. Tropical Plant Pathology. 42(1):1-12. Abstractplant_parasitic_nematode_assemblages_associated_with_sweet_potato_in_kenya_and_their_relationship_with_environmental_variables.pdfSpringerLink

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Omwoyo, AM, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Onwonga R.  2017.  Simulating Streamflow in Response to Climate Change in The Upper Ewaso Ngiro Catchment, Kenya. Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 1(2):12-29. Abstract

The study simulated streamflow response under changing climate for Ewaso Ngiro river in Upper Ewaso
Ngiro Catchment (UENC), using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Data from National Centre
for Meteorological research (CNRM) model of Co-Ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment
(CORDEX) was used to generate climate change scenarios (temperature and rainfall) for representative
concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 from 2021-2080 relative to the baseline 1976-2005. SWAT
model was set up using historical daily rainfall and temperature data, soils, Digital Elevation Model and
land cover map, and calibrated against observed streamflow. Decreasing trend in historical rainfall and
streamflow was observed while increasing trend was observed for temperature. Projections indicated
increasing trend in temperature in both RCPs, with RCP 8.5 having higher increase (1.1-2.60 C) than
RCP 4.5 (1.0-1.70 C). Rainfall was found to increase from March-November, and decreased in
December-February in all scenarios. Change in total annual rainfall ranged from 0.1-18.5% in 20212050
and 1.2-18.7% in 2051-2080, which corresponded to increase in streamflow of 20.9-23.6% and
21.2-28.2% respectively. Streamflow in March-May decreased (-26 to -10%) in all scenarios and
increased in June-February (9-114%). This was found contrary to streamflow patterns simulated in
neighboring catchments where studies indicate increasing streamflow trend in March-May. Streamflow
response was found to be sensitive to changes in rainfall, thus emphasis should be put on water
conservation and catchment management including protection of headwater forests through agroforestry,
afforestation and reforestation.
Key words: Climate change, Streamflow, Simulation, Upper Ewaso Ngiro Catchment

2016

Rwigi, S, Muthama NJ, Opere A, Opijah FJ.  2016.  Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate. J. Meteorol. 9:2-12. AbstractJ. Meteorol

Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.

Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Andang’o, HA, Ouma JO, Muthama NJ, Opere AO, Hezron A’o A.  2016.  Investigating the Homogeneity of Monthly Rainfall Records in Kenya. J. Meteorol. 9:48-54.. Abstractinvestigating_the_homogeneity_of_monthly_rainfall_records_in_kenya.pdfJ. Meteorol

Homogenization of climate data is of major importance because non-climatic factors make avail-able data unrepresentative of the actual climate variation, and thus the conclusions of climatic and hydrological studies are potentially biased. A great deal of effort has been made to develop proce-dures to identify and remove non-climatic in-homogeneities. This paper first reviews several widely used statistical techniques then applies statistical simulation approach to precipitation data from different monitoring stations located in Kenya (1950-2006).
Analyses were carried out on several rainfall series in the 12 climatic zones of Kenya. The results of both the Standard Normal Homogeneity Tests (SNHT) and the Buishand Range Test (BR) tests show that, at the 5% significance level, the monthly series have statistically significant trend.
Findings from the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) showed that all the monthly rain-fall records from the selected synoptic stations were useful and hence could be used for any further analysis. From the Buishand Range (BR) Test done, seven out of the twelve stations were useful while the rest of the stations were doubtful. From the results of the Tests performed it is clear that the Buishand Range (BR) Test was able to detect breaks at the beginning middle and the end of the series. This method was thus recommended for homogeneity testing.
Promising results from the case study open new research perspectives on the homogenization of the Kenyan climate data time series.

Rwigi, SK, Muthama JN, Opere AO, Opijah FJ, Gichuki FN.  2016.  imulated Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Yields over the Sondu Basin in Kenya . International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 4(8):160-172. AbstractInternational Journal for Innovation Education and Research

Potential impacts of climate change on surface water yields over the Sondu River basin in the western region of Kenya were analysed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model with climate input data obtained from the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) model. Daily time step regional climate scenarios at a spatial grid resolution of 0.44˚ over the Eastern Africa region were matched to the Sondu river basin and used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model. Analysis of historical and projected rainfall over the basin strongly indicated that the climate of the area will significantly change with wetter climates being experienced by 2030 and beyond. Projected monthly rainfall distribution shows increasing trends in the relatively dry DJF and SON seasons while showing decreasing trends in the relatively wet MAM and JJA seasons. Potential changes in water yields resulting from climate change were computed by comparing simulated yields under climate change scenarios with those simulated under baseline conditions.

There was evidence of substantial increases in water yields ranging between 88% and 110% of the baseline yields by 2030 and 2050 respectively. Although simulated water yields are subject to further verification from observed values, this study has provided useful information about potential changes in water yields as a result of climate change over the Sondu River basin and in similar basins in this region

Keywords: Simulated Impacts; Climate Change; Water Yields; Sondu Basin; Kenya

WAMBUI, MBOTEBETH, Opere A, Gathiga JM, Karanja FK.  2016.  ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY IN LAKE NAKURU, KENYA, 23-11-2016. , Nairobi: University of Nairobi AbstractDepartment of Meteorology

Hydrological systems are potentially very sensitive to changes in climate. Recently, attention has been mainly drawn to the rising global temperatures; however, over the past century, human livelihoods have substantially been directly affected by changes in the regional hydrological balance. Lake Nakuru is one example of a hydrological system which has seen its water levels increasing since September 2010 during the beginning of the short rains making it the first lake in the Rift Valley bursting its banks, leading to decreased electrical conductivity levels as a result of water dilution. All flamingos left the lake, initially settling in the Lake Oloidien a small alkaline lake south of Lake Naivasha and Lake Bogoria. The increased water levels led to change in aquatic life and biodiversity, including submersion of habitats adjoining the lake and have therefore had major ecological implications on the lake and its environs.
This study, therefore, assesses the impacts of the increased water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, owing to climate change and climate variability. The study focused on reviewing and analysing observed climatic records from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department, especially temperature, precipitation and evaporation of Lake Nakuru in order to assess how climate variability and climate change has contributed to the increased lake levels, monitoring and reviewing information on the state of past and present records of the lesser flamingo and phytoplankton communities of Lake Nakuru was undertaken, with the data sets obtained from the Kenya Wildlife Service and National Museums of Kenya database. Several methods were employed in order to determine the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), and also for the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, trend analysis and the Pearson's correlation analysis was used to correlate the changes in lake conductivity to changes in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model lntercomparison Project Phase 5 (CM1P5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, precipitation and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to assess the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance.
It was observed that there was an increase in the mean annual precipitation during the study period (2009 to 2014) which caused the increase in the lake's surface area from a low area of 31.8 km2 in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km2 in Sept 2013, indicating an increase of 22.9 km2 (71.92% surface area increase). Mean conductivity of the lake also decreased leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed causing them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was observed implying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently demonstrated th&t the phytoplankton density could be a significant predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation observed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake.
It is projected that there would be an increase in temperatures, precipitation and evaporation for the period 20 I 7 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increase in surface area and depth by the year 2 I 00 due to increased precipitation thereby affecting the populations of the lesser . flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will change as wel I during the projected period.
Recommendation.s that can be taken to contribute to the country's biodiversity resources, specifically in Lake Nakuru through climate change mitigation and appropriate adaptations have been provided. They include: In order to assess the variability in climate, continuous monitoring and analysing meteorological parameters in the lake basin is suggested; government policy on illegal water abstractions and massive afforestation of indigenous trees need to be enforced in order to enhance precipitation regularity so as to sustainably utilize and manage Lake Nakuru 's waters; Climate vulnerability assessments need to be carried out in order to come up with mitigations and adaptations measures unique to Lake Nakuru basin to inform the measures that need to be taken in order to minimize the negative impacts of climate vulnerability/change, and exploit the beneficial ones.

2015

Kirui, JW, Muthama JN, Opere AO, Ngaina JURI:N.  2015.  Influence of climate change on smallholder dairy productivity: A case of Kosirai, Kenya, and Namayumba, Uganda. Academe Research Journals. Abstractngaina_influence_of_climate_change_on_smallholder_dairy_productivity.pdf

Climate change influences dairy productivity in East Africa through impacts on fodder production and supply, livestock disease outbreak and water availability for livestock. This study assessed the influence of climate change on smallholder dairy farming in Kosirai, Nandi District of Kenya and Namayumba in Wakiso District of Uganda, in support of climate-smart agricultural practices. Observed (1973-2009) and model output (1950-2100) climate data comprising rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature and household survey were used. A simple random sampling technique, time series analysis, and descriptive statistics were used to achieve the objectives of the study. Mean rainfall in the two sites had progressively decreased over the last ten years. Conversely, there was a systematic rise in both the minimum and maximum temperature, both in historical and projected period in the two sites.

The weather variables namely rainfall, maximum and the minimum temperature had a positive correlation with fodder production and supply. Likewise, milk production that mainly depended on rainfed forages also correlated with the supply of feeds. There was increased milk production and supply during the wet season as compared to the dry spells. Climate change was linked to the emergence and rise of both the vector born and viral diseases in the two sites. There was a significant rise in outbreaks of foot and mouth disease and tick-borne diseases in Namayumba area. In Kosirai, there was an increase in outbreaks of tick-borne. The study recommended that dairy farmers be empowered to prepare effectively to climate change through adaptation and mitigation of the effect of extreme climate change. Farmers should also invest in the production and conservation of fodder for their dairy production.

Gateri, MW, Alfred OPERE, Wilson GITAU, Ndiwa NGAINAJ.  2015.  Domestic rainwater harvesting: a case study in Embu County, Kenya. Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2(1):50-59. Abstractdomestic_rainwater_harvesting_a_case_study_in_embu_county_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

This study assessed probable water that could be harvested during rainy seasons over Embu County of Kenya. Monthly rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department while percentage distribution of household by household size, main roofing material, number of rooms in the main dwelling and per capita volume of water required was sourced from Kenya Integrated Household Budget of Survey (KIHBS). Minimum water demand per household was computed based on KIHBS. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 2009 population census was used to determine population and number of occupants in the main dwelling. Embu County receives bimodal rainfall during March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Rainfall is highly variable with 8190 and 7490 litres of harvested water during MAM and OND season respectively expected to last for approximately 43 days (MAM) while 39 days (OND) and thus not sufficient to satisfy minimum water demand levels for Embu population. The total potential harvestable water during MAM and OND accounted for 45.4 % and would go a long way in meeting water demands in the region. Notably, harvestable water was being used to supplement natural sources of water. Therefore, enhanced water harvesting during rainy season could provide an alternate source of domestic water.

Ngaina, JN, Opere A, Ininda JM, Muthama N.  2015.  Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Deep Convective Clouds Over Equatorial East Africa. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. AbstractThe SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

Deep convective clouds (DCCs) associated with tropical convection, are significant sources of precipitation in Equatorial East Africa. The DCCs play a fundamental role in hydrological and energy cycle. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with detailed bin-resolved microphysics are used to explore the diurnal variation of DCCs under maritime/clean and continental/polluted conditions. The sign and magnitude of the Twomey effect, droplet dispersion effect, cloud thickness effect, Cloud Optical Depth (COD) susceptibility to aerosol perturbations, and aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation is evaluated. Twomey effect emerges as dominant in total COD susceptibility to aerosol perturbations. The dispersion effect is positive and accounts for 3-10% of the total COD susceptibility at nighttime, with greater influence on heavier drizzling clouds. The cloud thickness effect is positive (negative) for a moderate/heavy drizzling (light thickness) clouds. The cloud thickness effect results in 5-22% of the nighttime total cloud susceptibility. Cloud microphysical properties and accumulated total precipitation show a complex relationship under varied aerosol conditions. The mean of core updraft and maximal vertical velocity increased (decreased) under low (high) CCN scenarios. Overall, the total COD susceptibility ranges from 0.28-0.53 at night; an increase in aerosol concentration enhances COD, especially with heavier precipitation and in a clean environment. During the daytime, the range of magnitude of each effect is more variable owing to cloud thinning and decoupling. The ratio of the magnitude of cloud thickness effect to that of the Twomey effect depends on cloud thickness and base height in unperturbed clouds while the response of precipitation to increase in aerosol concentration was non-monotonic.

2014

Ndiwa, NGAINAJ, James N, Francis M, Kipkoech MB, Owuor OA.  2014.  Flood Forecasting over Lower Nzoia Sub-Basin in Kenya. Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 1(1):25-31. Abstractflood_forecasting_over_lower_nzoia_sub-basin_in_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Real time flood forecasting is one of the most effective non- structural measures for flood management. In this study, Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is used with Probability Distributed Moisture model (PDM) to forecast flood events over Nzoia sub-basin. The performance of four variations of EnKF (state updating, parameter updating, dual (state parameter) and dual (parameter-state) updating) were evaluated using the Root Mean Square (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-hour lead time forecasts. In 1EE01 gauging station, RMSE and CoE values was 30m3/s and 0.70 while 1EF01 station had RMSE and CoE values of 50m3/s and 0.82 respectively. For the state variables, standard deviation of 1.1, 0.32, 0.21 and 0.05 were found for recharge, surface storage, groundwater storage and storage respectively while for the PDM parameters, standard deviation of 4.0, 0.2 and 0.2 were found for maximum store capacity, exponent of recharge function and ground recharge time respectively. Parameter updating performed better in terms of RMSE and CoE and thus potential of improving flood forecasting to enable management of flood related risk on real time basis over the sub-basin.
Key Words: Discharge, rainfall, Ensemble Kalman Filter, flood forecasting, rainfall-runoff model.

2011

Opere, AO.  2011.  Hydrologic analysis for river Nyando using SWAT. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.. 8:1765-1797.opere_hess-abstract.pdf

2010

O, DROPEREALFRED.  2010.  OPEN AND DISTANT LEARNING MATERIALS WRITTEN & REVIEWED: 1. SMR 103: Quantitative methods & Computer Applications I 2. SMR 309: Hydrometeorology I 3. SMR 307: Thermodynamics & Cloud Physics. University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2010.  S.O. Wandiga, M. Opondo, D. Olago, A. Githeko, F. Githui, M. Marshall, T. Downs, A. Opere, P.Z. Yanda, R. Kangalawe, R. Kabumbuli, E. Kirumira, J. Kathuri, E. Apindi, L. Olaka, L. Ogallo, G. Ouma, C. Oludhe, P. Mugambi, R. Sigalla, R. Nanyunja, T. Baguma . Grignon, F., and Marpeu, H., (eds), L. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

2009

DANIEL OLAGO_1, ALFREDOPERE_2 JUSTUSBARONGO_1&.  2009.  Holocene palaeohydrology, groundwater and climate change in the lake basins of the Central Kenya Rift. , Nairobi: Department of Meteorology, University of Nairobi
Ch, SWMODOAGFGMM •TDAOO • • • •.  2009.  Vulnerability to epidemic malaria in the highlands of Lake Victoria basin: the role of climate change/variability, hydrology and socio-economic factors. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009. 2009(99):473-497.
Opere A.O., Mkhandi, WSP.  2009.  Homogeneity testing for peak discharge in catchments in the equatorial Nile basins. Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 3(3):13-20.

2008

O, DROPEREALFRED.  2008.  UNEP 2008. Beekman H.E., Abu-Zeid K., Afouda A., Hughes S., Kane A., Kulindwa K.A., Odada E.O., Opere Alfred., Oyebande L. and Saayman, I.C. : . University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

2007

O, DROPEREALFRED.  2007.  Methodology for Flood Risk scenarios for Burundi. Workshop on WFP & ICPAC Consultant mission on . University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2007.  Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region . Join Africa-Asia workshop on Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change, a UNEP draft report, Huahin, Thailand; 16-18 October 2007. University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2007.  Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region: Workshop on Africa. University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2007.  Ndetei, C.J. , Opere, A.O. and Mutua F.M. (2007): Flood frequency analysis in Lake Victoria basin based on tail behaviour of distributions. Journal of KMS, vol., pp.44-54. ISSN 1995-9834.. University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2007.  Daniel Olago, Michael Marshall, Shem O. Wandiga*, Maggie Opondo, Pius Z. Yanda, Richard Kangalawe, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Alfred Opere, Robert Kabumbuli, Edward Kirumira, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Eugene Apindi, Faith Githui,James Kathuri, Lydia Ola. University of Nairobi. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

2006

b c A.O. Opere a, *, MWSP.  2006.  At site flood frequency analysis for the Nile Equatorial basins. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth . 2006(31):919-927.opere_jpce-abstract.pdf
Kevin Pietersen, Hans BeekmanAllali Abdelkader, HGAOEOTADLLS.  2006.  Africa Environment Outlook2 (AEO2). http://www.unep.org/dewa/Africa/publications/AEO-2/content/076.htm.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2006.  Africa Global Change Synthesis (AGS) book, 2006: Chapter 8: Water resources and global change. Global Change Processes and Impacts in Africa; pp.152-172. Lead Author: A. Opere; Contributing Authors: I. Saayman and F. Githui. Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2006.  The Role of ICPAC in the generation, application and dissemination of climate products: Expert Meeting on Climate Change and Water Resources, Geneva, Switzerland: 18-20 December 2006. Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2006.  Africa Environment Outlook-2 (AEO-2), 2006: Chapter 4: Freshwater; p119-154 Lead Authors: Kevin Pietersen, Hans Beekman Contributing Authors: Allali Abdelkader, Hesham Ghany, Alfred Opere, Eric Odada, Tenalem Ayenew, Dagnachew Legesse, Luc Sigha-Nkamdjou,. Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2006.  Pius Yanda, Shem Wandiga, Richard Kangalawe, Maggie Opondo, Dan Olago, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Robert Kabumbuli, Alfred Opere, Faith Githui, James Kathuri, Lydia Olaka, Eugene Apindi, Michael Marshall, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Edward Kirumira, Robin. Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2006.  Shem O. Wandiga, Maggie Opondo, Daniel Olago, Andrew Githeko, Faith Githui, Michael Marshall, Tim Downs, Alfred Opere, Pius Z. Yanda, Richard Kangalawe, Robert Kabumbuli, Edward Kirumira, James Kathuri, Eugene Apindi, Lydia Olaka, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugam. Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2006.  Opere A.O., Mkhandi S.H. and P. Willems (2006): At Site Food Frequency Analysis for the Nile Equatorial basins. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31 (2006) 919. Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

2005

O, DROPEREALFRED.  2005.  Opere, A.O., Mkhandi S., Willems, P. (2005): Homogeneity testing for peak flow in catchments in the equatorial Nile basins. Proceedings of the International conference of FRIEND/Nile FUST project, Sheraton Sharm Hotel, Sharm El Sheik, Egypt. Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O, DROPEREALFRED.  2005.  Opere, A. (2005): Hazard Risk assessment in Mount Kenya headwaters: Sustainable Management of Headwater Resources; research from Africa and India, United Nations University, p165-177; Jansky L., Martin J. Haigh and H. Prasad (eds).. Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. : A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

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