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2020
Mwazighe FM. "Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Detection of Anthracene." Int. J. of Electrochem.Sci. . 2020;15(11):11058-11069. Abstract

The electrochemical oxidation of anthracene on a bare glassy carbon electrode results in electrode fouling and reduced sensitivity in its detection. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of anthracene because of their antifouling and peak enhancement properties. The peak current for anthracene oxidation was enhanced by 73.64%, and the peak potential shifted by 53 mV to a slightly less positive value. The electrochemical process was determined to be mixed diffusion- and adsorption-controlled, and a preconcentration or accumulation time was necessary in the analysis of anthracene. Square wave voltammetry was used to analyze increasing concentrations of anthracene; a dynamic linear range of 50–146 μM (R2 = 0.98452) and a limit of detection of 42 μM were established. The sensor platform was used to detect anthracene in a spiked sample of tap water, albeit at lower than expected concentrations because of its low solubility in water.

Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589871x20300267-main.pdfWebsite

The uptake of forensic DNA testing technologies in Africa has been slow despite the revolutionary technology being discovered and adopted 3 decades ago. African governments and partners have invested in construction and equipping of forensic laboratories in Africa but the benefits are yet to be realised as the laboratories are still faced with the challenge of shortage of adequately trained personnel. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary training approach that was developed and used to train officers from the Directorate of Criminal Investigations Kenya. We report on the structure, implementation and effectiveness of the training. It is expected that with the increased number of trained forensic DNA analysts, there will be an improvement in quality of forensic DNA evidence presented in courts and a reduction in backlog in the forensic biology laboratories in Kenya.

Nanji, "Gichuhi", Nyenze, Kherani, damji, Kiage. "The muranga teleophthalmology study: A comparison of virtual (teleretina) assessment with in-person clinical examination to diagnose diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in kenya." MEAJO. 2020;27(2):91-99. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: This study compares a web-based teleophthalmology assessment with a clinical slit lamp examination to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among diabetic patients in a rural East African district.
METHODS: Six hundred and twelve eyes from 306 diabetic patients underwent both a clinical slit lamp examination and a teleretina (TR) assessment by an experienced ophthalmologist. Both assessments were compared for any DR and AMD using the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study and age-related eye disease study grading scales, respectively.
RESULTS: Of the 612 TR assessment photos, 74 (12%) were deemed ungradable due to media opacities, poor patient cooperation, or unsatisfactory photographs. The ability to detect DR and AMD showed a fair agreement (kappa statistic 0.27 and 0.23, respectively) between the TR and clinical slit lamp examination. Relative to a clinical slit lamp evaluation, a positive TR diagnosis carried a 75.0% positive predictive value when diagnosing DR and a 27.3% positive predictive value when diagnosing AMD. A negative TR diagnosis carried a 97.2% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of DR and a 98.1% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of AMD.
CONCLUSION: When comparing TR assessments to clinical slit lamp examinations to diagnose DR and AMD, there was a fair agreement. Although further validation is needed, the TR approach provides a promising method to diagnose DR and AMD, two major causes of ocular impairment worldwide.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, slit lamp examination, teleretina, teleophthalmology

omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
Rop PBK, Nyamai PCM, Namwiba WH. Narrative Glossary of Fundamentals for Applied Geology. Scholars' Press; 2020.Website
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Natural concurrent infections with black spot disease and multiple bacteriosis in farmed Nile tilapia in central Kenya." Natural concurrent infections with black spot disease and multiple bacteriosis in farmed Nile tilapia in central Kenya. 2020;2020(Article ID 8821324. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8821324).
W M, M A, W V, K C, O J. "Nematodes as Bio-Indicators of Physical Disturbance of Marine Sediments Following Polychaete Bait Harvesting." Western Indian Ocean Journal of marine science. 2020;19(2):117-130.
Wafula M, Muthumbi AW, Wangondu V, Kihia C, Okondo J. "Nematodes as bio-indicators of physical disturbance of marine sediments following polychaete bait harvesting." WIO Journal of Marine Science . 2020;19(2):117-130.
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega. 2020. Abstractdx.doi.org

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1–C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan-2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1–C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV–vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1–L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0–8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2 …

R.M. Kweyu, T. Thenya KEKJ. "The nexus between land cover changes, politics and conflict in Eastern Mau forest complex, Kenya." Applied Geography. 2020;114(102115).
J.K. K. "Non-medical effects of coronavirus (COVID-19)." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2020;3(2):S16-21.
Rotich J, Nyamota W, J. K. "Nutrition knowledge and practices in management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease by adult Patients at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication . 2020;10(3):613-625. Abstract

This study sought to determine nutrition knowledge and its association with practices in management of stage 5 chronic
kidney disease (CKD) among renal adult patients in Kenyatta National Hospital. A cross-sectional analytical design was used to
facilitate collection of qualitative and quantitative data and enable identification of associations between variables. Cochran formula
was used to calculate a sample of 110 respondents. A research administered questionnaire with closed ended questions was used to
collect information. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used to describe demographic and socio-economic
characteristics of the population. Inferential statistics were done using chi square with an alpha of 0.05 to test association between
independent and dependent variables. Most participants had moderate knowledge levels whereas more than half of the participants
(66%) indicated poor nutrition management practices of their condition. There was significant association between period on dialysis
in months and practices in management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Knowledge on importance of diet in management of stage 5
CKD (<0.001), moderation of fluid intake (<0.001), reduction in salt/ sodium intake (<0.001), and moderation in protein intake
(<0.004) were significantly associated with nutritional management practices of stage 5 CKD. The study concluded that Knowledge
levels were low in identifying foods rich in phosphorus, calcium and fat soluble vitamins. Practice scores were also poor despite
moderate nutrition knowledge levels. Patients’ knowledge on nutrition management of their condition may be achieved through
frequent and consistent nutrition education and counseling including follow ups.
Key Terms: Knowledge, Practice, chronic kidney disease, nutrition management

JI Sagala, Gachuiri CK, Kuria SG, Wanyoike MM. "Nutritive value of selected preferred forage species by lactating camels in the peri-urban area of Marsabit town, Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):218-226.
Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2).
and Nicholas M. Jacob, Shem O.Wandiga DKKVOM. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2):7-22.
Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbertspaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. Abstractfull text link

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of op erators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modelling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. AbstractWebsite

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of operators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Muhati LN, Khalagai JM. "On Unitary Invariance of Some Classes of Operators in Hilbert Spaces." Pure Mathematical Sciences. 2020;9(1):45-52. AbstractWebsite

Itis a known fact in operator theory that two similar operators have equal spectra but they do not necessarily have to belong to the same class of operators. However,under the stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of operators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit some results on some pairs of operators which may belong to the same class under not only unitary equivalence but also isometric and co-isometric equivalence

Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW. "On Unitary Quasi-Equivalence of Operators." International Journal of Mathematics And its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. Abstractfull text link

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations.

Bernard M. Nzimbi, Luketero SW. "On unitary quasi-equivalence of operators." International Journal of Mathematics and Its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are
unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give
and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations

Maina. "Ontology of Vernacular Interior and Exterior House Decorations in East Africa." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2020;9(8):32-41.
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker M. "Optimizing soil nitrogen balance in a potato cropping system through legume intercropping.". 2020.
Langat SK, Eyase FL, Berry IM, Nyunja A, Bulimo W, Owaka S, Ofula V, Limbaso S, Lutomiah J, Jarman R, Distelhorst J, Sang RC. "Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 2 causing outbreaks in Kenya: Evidence of circulation of two cosmopolitan genotype ." Virus Evol. 2020;6(1):veaa026. Abstractveaa026.pdfWebsite

Dengue fever (DF) is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4). Globally, DF incidence and disease burden have increased in the recent past. Initially implicated in a 1982 outbreak, DENV-2 recently reemerged in Kenya causing outbreaks between 2011 and 2014 and more recently 2017-8. The origin and the evolutionary patterns that may explain the epidemiological expansion and increasing impact of DENV-2 in Kenya remain poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing, samples collected during the 2011-4 and 2017-8 dengue outbreaks were analyzed. Additional DENV-2 genomes were downloaded and pooled together with the fourteen genomes generated in this study. Bioinformatic methods were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns of DENV-2 causing outbreaks in Kenya. The findings from this study have shown the first evidence of circulation of two different Cosmopolitan genotype lineages of DENV-2; Cosmopolitan-I (C-I) and Cosmopolitan-II (C-II), in Kenya. Our results put the origin location of C-I lineage in India in 2011, and C-II lineage in Burkina Faso between 1979 and 2013. C-I lineage was the most isolated during recent outbreaks, thus showing the contribution of this newly emerged strain to the increased DENV epidemics in the region. Our findings, backed by evidence of recent local epidemics that have been associated with C-I in Kenya and C-II in Burkina Faso, add to the growing evidence of expanding circulation and the impact of multiple strains of DENV in the region as well as globally. Thus, continued surveillance efforts on DENV activity and its evolutionary trends in the region, would contribute toward effective control and the current vaccine development efforts.

Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Origin of Carbon dioxide in Selected Mofette Springs in the Eastern Mt. Kenya Region and Associated Characteristics." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;5:48-62.
Opondo EM, Oleche OM. "Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure among the Elderly in Kenya ." Global Journal of Health Science. 2020;10(11).
Segera D, Mbuthia M, Nyete A. "Particle Swarm Optimized Hybrid Kernel-Based Multiclass Support Vector Machine for Microarray Cancer Data Analysis.". In: Prime Archives in Medicine. Hyderabad (India): Vide Leaf; 2020.
Buyana K, Lwasa S, Tugume D, Mukwaya P, Walubwa J, Owuor S, Kasaija P, Sseviiri H, Nsangi G, Byarugaba D. "Pathways for resilience to climate change in African cities. Environ. Res. Lett. 15 (2020) 073002.". 2020.2020_environmental_research_letters_journal.pdf
Opiyo R, Were A, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Olenja J, Bukania Z. "Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: How Can They Make Informed Nutritional Decisions?" Office of DVC Research, Innovation and Enterprise, University of Nairobi. 2020:39-40. AbstractWebsite

The Ministry of Health and partners should develop national standard operating procedures and IEC materials in renal nutrition counsellingfor harmonized messages. All patients with chronic kidney disease should get takeaway information leaflets with patient-specific simple nutrition messages to ensure the accuracy of nutrition information; All nutritionists and healthcare workers in renal units should participate in regular continuing nutrition education on most recent evidence-based nutrition information.

Kituku O, Osano SN, Mwea SK. "Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian Facilities at Donholm Interchange along Outer Ring Road Nairobi, Kenya." Icastor. 2020;Vol. 13(Issue No. 1):1-15.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Gaithuma VW. "Phonological Influence of Kiamu dialect to Amu Learners of Standard Kiswahili - Expected." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). 2020.
Charles AO, Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Jain P. "Photo-thermal Conversion Efficiency of Textured and Untextured Aluminum Substrate Coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 Absorber." American Journal of Modern Energy. 2020;6(1):9-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

The possibility of obtaining thermal energy from the sun for household bathing and washing has resulted to growth in market for solar thermal applications with new types of solar absorbers currently being investigated either to compliment or to replace existing ones. This study focuses on CuFeMnO4 absorber paint by addressing aspects which have little attention regarding improvement of optical absorption for higher efficiency such as texturing the metal substrates on which to coat CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. In this study, texturing was done controllably in order to match the incoming solar radiation wavelength and the surface topography and morphology. Textured and untextured aluminum sheets coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint were used to fabricate prototype flat plate solar thermal collectors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chosen here as binder to a spectrally selective CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. The TiO2-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint was applied by a simple, cheap and up-scalable dip coating method over the aluminum sheets. The aluminum sheets were electro-chemically textured to enhance optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency for both the textured and untextured prototypes were compared. The efficiency characterization of the prototype collectors was done by measuring the global solar irradiance, fluid inlet, fluid outlet and ambient temperature. Both instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies were determined mathematically, and it was found that the prototype collector whose absorber plates were textured recorded higher instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies compared to the collector fabricated from untextured aluminum plates.
Keywords: Aluminum, Texturing, Conversion Efficiency, Solar Energy, (TiO2)-bound, CuFeMnO4

and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.
DK Inoti, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Maina JG. "Physical and chemical characteristics of limestone for use in layer feeds in Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):242-246.
Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40(2020):148-155.chemistry_of_five_croton_species_phytolletters_2020.pdf
O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Kebba N, Mutie JM. "Possible impairment of surgical decision making and confounded outcome in Fontan surgery by Nakata Index." African Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Since cardiac structuring dimensions inform surgical decisions making, Z-score systematic error impairs surgical decision making and confounds outcome measurement, hence a similar error may affect the Nakata index. In this study, PubMed was searched using the terms: “pulmonary,” “artery,” “size,” “Nakata,” “Fontan,” and “outcome”. Studies that did not describe the outcome of the Fontan procedure and the size of the branch pulmonary arteries were excluded. Outcome measures of interest, in relation to BPA size, included: Operative mortality, Fontan “take-down”, length of ICU stay, pleural effusions and functional capacity. The results revealed that of 116 papers retrieved, 9 were included representing 1,042 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Six out of 9 papers representing 645 (61.9%) patients reported that BPA size had no relationship with the outcome of the Fontan procedure; while 2 out of 9 papers representing 366 (35.1%) patients found that BPA size did affect the outcome. One paper representing 31 (3%) patients was unable to find any relationship. All the papers that concluded that there was no relationship labelled normal sized BPAs as small because of a systematic error introduced by the Nakata index. Papers that found a relationship did not use the Nakata index. Thus, Nakata index systematic error may impair surgical decision making and confound outcome measurement in Fontan surgery. In addition, continued use of the Fontan index may have similar implications for other congenital heart lesions.

BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Mauritius: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

Ebrahim YH. Preparation de la recherche universitaire et des theses (French) Preparation for academic research and theses: From undergraduate to postgraduate degree levels. Chisinau, Moldova: Editions Universitaires Europeennes, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2020.
Ebrahim YH. Preparazione alla ricerca accademica e alle tesi (Italian) Preparation for academic research and theses: From undergraduate to postgraduate degree levels. Chisinau, Moldova: Edizioni Accademische Italiane, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
W Awuor, Muthumbi AWN, Robertson-Andersson DV. "Presence of microplastics in benthic macroinvertebrates along the Kenyan coast." African Journal of Marine Science. 2020;42(4):405-411.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Oyugi J, Schnabel D, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence and factors influencing the distribution of influenza viruses in Kenya: Seven-year hospital-based surveillance of influenza-like illness (2007-2013)." PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237857. Abstractumuhoza_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were

Muyodi MM, Bhatt KM, KAYIMA JK. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstractprevalence_of_and_factors_associated_with_ckd_in_osteoarthritis.pdf

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.

Muyodi MM, KAYIMA JK, Oyoo GO, Bhatt KM. "Prevalence of and factors associated with chronic kidney diseases is osteoarthritis patients at Kenyatta National hospital." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.
Key words: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Osteoarthritis (OA), Cockrauft-Gault (CG), Estimated Glomerular
Filtration Rate (eGFR), Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme
Inhibitors (ACEI), Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB)

Gachuiri TT, Mwango GN, Muriithi IM, Mulama BM. "Prevalence Of Chest Radiograph Findings In Neonates With Respiratory Distress At Kenyatta National Hospital." EAMJ. 2020;97(11):3245-3251.Abstract
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum2 MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;10(2):144-118.
Mbindyo C, Gitao C, Mulei C. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Embu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 |Article ID 8831172 | 12 pages (https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8831172):12 pages.
Kitata M. "The Problematics of Naming in Kenyan Creative Narratives." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020;6(1):1-15. Abstract

There is a tendency in Kenyan literature, which can be defined as ahistorical ethnopolitanism. In this approach the writer chooses to use names of characters and places that indicate an attempt to see the Kenyan community from a distance. The result is that, in the push for inclusivity in works of literature, the very idea an authentic record of history and self-knowledge is lost: Real actors are alienated from the story of the history of the country; the background loses its referential significance; fantasy contexts are created to overlay and erase the real; and an atmosphere of namelessness is prioritised. This paper is a preliminary critique of these traits in contemporary Kenyan creative narrative. It seeks to highlight how such an approach – whose aim is to create a text that sidesteps ethnic politics – paradoxically undermines the writers’ efforts.

Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Scientific Research Publishing. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Koech OK, Mbau JS. "Projected Changes in Soil Organic Carbon over a 50-Year Period under Different Grazing Management Systems in Semi-Arid Grassland." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2020;10(4):357-369.
Mwangi IK(2020). "Proposing a Conceptual Model of Planning Methodology in Public Domain." Africa Habitat Review . 2020;Vol. 14, No.3,(ISSB 2519-7851).
"Proverbs and Enculturation: The Gender Convergence of Kiswahili and Ekegusii Proverbs ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5, (Na.1, April 2020, ):19-36.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Othoo CO, Dulo SO, Olago DO, Ayah R. "Proximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planning." Journal of UOEH. 2020;42(3):237-249. AbstractProximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planningjstage.jst.go

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor
urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on
community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda
B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and
Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within
0-15m and 15-30m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit
latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7%
(100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow
wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and
even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities
near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of
the recommended safe distance of 30m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other
sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.

Keywords : density, health, informal settlements, water-source, Sanitation technology.

S W, A K, S K, I M. "A Qualitative Analysis on the Clinical Experiences of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care. 2020:293-238.
Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Report of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the Period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2020;23(3):79-86. Abstract

During the period 2011-2015, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) analyzed 1972 drug samples. The samples consisted of 21.5% locally manufactured and 78.2% imported products while the origin of 0.3% of products was indeterminate. Samples were subjected to compendial and/or in-house analytical specifications. The overall non-compliance rate was 4.5% comprising 2.5% local products and 2.0% imports. High failure rates were recorded for uterotonics (37.5%), hemostatics (33%), anthelmintics (17%) and anticancers (10.5%) while ophthalmic, immunomodulatory, musculoskeletal and endocrine drugs all complied with the quality acceptance criteria. Erectile dysfunction drugs, received by the laboratory for the first time, all complied with specifications. The results obtained demonstrate an improvement in the quality of samples submitted to DARU when compared to previous performance.

Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality control report of drugs analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;23(3):79-86.
Abraham Kipchumba Cherwon, Margaret Mwihaki Wanyoike, Gachuiri CK. "Rabbit production practices in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2020;11(4):114-121.
Mutala TM, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "Radiology practice in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 outbreak: points to consider." Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37(28):doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.37.28.23081.
Mugo JW, Opijah F, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Rainfall variability under present and future climate scenarios using the Rossby Center Bias-corrected Regional Climate Model." American Journal of Climate Change. 2020;9(1):243-265.
Walter Onchere, Richard Tinega, Weke P, Otieno JAM. "The Reciprocal Generalized Inverse Gaussian Frailty with Application in Life Annuity Business." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science. 2020;35(6):112-131. AbstractWebsite

Aims: As shown in literature, several authors have adopted various individual frailty mixing distributions as a way of dealing with possible heterogeneity due to unobserved covariates in a group of insurers. This research contribution is to generalize the frailty mixing distribution to nest other classes of frailty distributions not in literature and apply the proposed distributions in valuation of life annuity business.

Methodology: A simulation study is done to assess the performance of the aforementioned models. The baseline parameters is estimated using Bayesian Inference and a better model is suggested for valuation of life annuity business.

Results: As a result of generalizing the frailty some new classes of frailty distributions are constructed such as; the Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian Frailty, the Inverse Gamma Frailty, the Harmonic Frailty and the Positive Hyperbolic Frailty.

From the simulation study, the proposed new frailty models shows that ignoring frailty leads to an underestimation of future residual lifetime since the survival curve shifts to the right when heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature.

The Reciprocal Inverse Gaussian model closely represents the Association of Kenya Insurers graduated rates with a slight increase in survival due to longevity risk.

Conclusion: The proposed new frailty models show an increase in the insurers expected liability when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. This is consistent with frailty literature and thus can be applied to avoid underestimating the insurer’s liability in the context of life annuity business.

The RIG model as proposed in estimating future liability by directly adjusting the AKI mortality rates shows an increase in longevity risk. The extent of heterogeneity of the insured group determines the level of risk. The RIG frailties should be considered for multivariate cases where the insureds are clustered in groups.

Ebrahim YH. Regional bioclimatic architecture 1.0: In the beginning and introduction. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2020.
Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. "Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore; 2020.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Gitari HI, Nyawade SO, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Raza MA, Maitra S, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2020.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A River from Rivulets? A Study of Sheng vis-à-vis Indigenous Kenyan Languages and Modern Technology - Expected." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS), Hankuk University. 2020.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Kithuka, J.M., Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "The role of periodic markets in provision of manufactured goods and creation of income in rural areas: a case study of selected markets in Mukaa Sub County; Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2020;7(5 ):65-79.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Muwanga S, Onwonga R, Keya SO, Komutunga E. "Sedentary Agriculture and Its Implications on Soil Quality in Agro-pastoral Semi-arid Karamoja, Uganda." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2020;2(4):148-162 .
Chaurasiya ND, Midiwo J, Pandey P, Bwire RN, Doerksen RJ, Muhammad I, Tekwani BL. "Selective Interactions of O-Methylated Flavonoid Natural Products with Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and-B." Molecules. 2020;25(22):5358. AbstractMolecules

Description
A set of structurally related O-methylated flavonoid natural products isolated from Senecio roseiflorus (1), Polygonum senegalense (2 and 3), Bhaphia macrocalyx (4), Gardenia ternifolia (5), and Psiadia punctulata (6) plant species were characterized for their interaction with human monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and-B) in vitro. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed selective inhibition of MAO-A, while 4 and 6 showed selective inhibition of MAO-B. Compound 3 showed~ 2-fold selectivity towards inhibition of MAO-A. Binding of compounds 1–3 and 5 with MAO-A, and compounds 3 and 6 with MAO-B was reversible and not time-independent. The analysis of enzyme-inhibition kinetics suggested a reversible-competitive mechanism for inhibition of MAO-A by 1 and 3, while a partially-reversible mixed-type inhibition by 5. Similarly, enzyme inhibition-kinetics analysis with compounds 3, 4, and 6, suggested a competitive reversible inhibition of MAO-B. The molecular docking study suggested that 1 selectively interacts with the active-site of human MAO-A near N5 of FAD. The calculated binding free energies of the O-methylated flavonoids (1 and 4–6) and chalcones (2 and 3) to MAO-A matched closely with the trend in the experimental IC 50′ s. Analysis of the binding free-energies suggested better interaction of 4 and 6 with MAO-B than with MAO-A. The natural O-methylated flavonoid (1) with highly potent inhibition (IC 50 33 nM; Ki 37.9 nM) and> 292 fold selectivity against human MAO-A (vs. MAO-B) provides a new drug lead for the treatment of neurological disorders. View Full-Text

Leo S. "Semiotic Survey of Kivumba Superstitions." International Journal of Innovative Research And Knowledge (IJIRK). 2020;5(5).
E.S. K, G. G, J. VL, P. K, T.O. A, D. G, J. M, D. M. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (type 1) in Meru County, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;175:104863.
Kipyego ES, Gitau G, Vanleeuwen J, Kimeli P, Abuom TA, Gakuya D, Muraya J, Makau D. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of Infectious rhinotracheatis virus( type1) in Meru county, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;104863.(175).
Awili H, Gitao C, Muchemi G. "Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Adolescent Blood Donors within Selected Counties of Western Keny." Hindawi BioMed Research International. 2020;Volume 2020, Article ID 8578172,: 6 pages.
Fardolo EK, Bulimo W, Aluora PO, Gachara G. "Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Voluntary Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya: A Pilot Study." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:78-85. Abstractjbm_2020121415213791.pdf

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Kanori, E.N., Kimani G.N., Kalai JM. "Service tangibility, teaching and learning, and students’ satisfaction at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2020;1(2):16-28.
Kitata M. "Sexualising the performance, objectifying the performer: The twerk dance in Kenya." Agenda. 2020;34(3):11-21. Abstract

Shifting arenas of dance performance and youths’ counterculture have brought the twerk to the internet, thus exposing it to the discourse of cultural imperialism, appropriation, and cultural resistance. This has changed the symbolism of the art form: from a performance meant for celebration, to a dance of sexual rage. The media associates the dance with bottom provocation, prostitution or celebrity achievement stories − rarely celebrating the intellect, aesthetics or the expression of freedom in it. From a western point of view, twerking is overly sexualised and the performers participants in a cultural notoriety – thus, objectifying it. However, in its original context it is primarily a dance for festive celebrations. As a form of artistic expression resisting cultural destruction in Kenya, twerk is a way of re-politicising the African female body, and decolonising it from the male, western influenced gaze. Sexual expression in it is …

K. KM, Oleche OM. "Short and Long-Run Impact of Trade Liberalization on Agricultural Growth in Kenya." International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management. 2020;X(3).
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
omari HK, Makokha M, Masoud A, Abdalla S. Simplified Arabic Language. Nairobi: Chance Publishers Ltd; 2020.
Ndegwa R, E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic Module using Manufacturer’s data." Africa Journal of Physical Science. 2020;5:1-9.
Ndegwa, R., E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model." Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2020;8(9):65-93.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Mbugua M, Nzuma J, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social networks and household food consumption smoothing in the presence of idiosyncratic shocks: insights from rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;30(3):383-393.
Ocharo RM, Mukami KL. "Social Predictors of Food Insecurity: The Case of Yatta Constituency, Machakos County, Kenya. ." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences.. 2020;3(1):86-95.
Maina, mwihaki. "Social-Cultural Impact of Bead work in East Africa: the Nexus between the Dinka, Samburu & Masaai Ethnicities." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2020;9(7):87-94.
M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Bulinda BM, Inyega HN, Inyega JO. The source book on labour relations. LAP LAMPARD Academic Publishing. ISBN: 978-620-2-67531-4; 2020.
Kieti J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H. "Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya." https://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-business. 2020. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Moturi CA, Ogoti G. "Strengthening technology risk management in mobile money lending." International Journal of Financial Services Management. 2020;10(3):217-238. AbstractWebsite

Innovative mobile money services have grown tremendously in the East African market. While there are positive effects of technology-enabled financial inclusion, risks exist. This study sought to strengthen the capacity of technology risk management by proposing practices and strategies that can protect the financial technology ecosystem. Applying the ISACA Risk IT Framework, data was collected in June 2019 from the leading digital lenders in Kenya. The study found that while regulated mobile lenders have an IT risk management environment that is viewed as a critical success factor, unregulated entities have minimal integration of IT risk management essentials. This study is useful to many developing countries where governments are working towards having secure and strong financial systems that contribute to the Millennium Sustainable Development Goals. Regulators and practitioners must ensure the financial technology lending ecosystem is protected from risks that could reverse gains made from witnessed developments in financial inclusion.

Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Aywa S. "Strong Commutativity of Unbounded Self-adjoint Operators on a Separable Hilbert space." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2020;10(8). AbstractWebsite

The unbounded Self-adjoint operators that strongly commute on a common dense subset of their domain
commute pointwise. When the operators commute pointwise on the same dense subset, there is to guarantee that
they will commute strongly. By imposing some conditions, we on the operators as well as the underlying space,
we get pointwise commuting unbounded operators that commute strongly. This article shows that by suitably
selecting two unbounded positive Self-adjoint operators with compact inverses we get a set of pointwise
commuting self-adjoint operators that commute on common core. then prove that it strongly commutes on the
same subspace.

BIRIR JK, GATARI MJ, RAJAGOPAL P. "Structured channel metamaterial for deep subwavelength resolution in guided ultrasonics." AIP Advances. 2020;10(6).
Muasya J, Muasya I. "A Study of Children's Perceptions of Gender Identity and Stereotype in Public Pre-Primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Elementary Education . 2020;9(1):1-7.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector).

Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Mugo JW, Opijah FJ, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Suitability of Green Gram Production in Kenya Under Present and Future Climate Scenarios Using Bias-corrected Cordex RCA4 Models." Agricultural Sciences. 2020;11:882-896.
Kerosi J, Ouma H, Langat K. "Sum Rate and Fairness Maximization in Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(2):6438-6443.
Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

Cecilia OM, John W, Gubbels P, Mokaya PO. Surviving COVID-19: The neglected remedy. A mini Barefoot Guide. South Africa: Alliance for Food Sovereignty In Africa ; 2020.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction literacy: A study of the Kenyan interior design market segment of the construction industry." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):1999-2009. AbstractWebsite

Due to the widespread calls for the construction industry to adopt sustainable approaches, the various stakeholders are now engaging in the sustainability agenda more than before. This study investigated how the Kenyan construction industry is engaging the sustainability agenda. Specifically, this study sought to establish sustainable construction (SC) literacy levels, key sustainability considerations and SC literacy avenues in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. Key project stakeholders in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry were the target population. A total of 60 (12 architects/interior designers, 12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers,12 quantity surveyors and 12 contractors) structured questionnaires were distributed, out of which 46 (10 architects/interior designers, 9 electrical engineers, 9 mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and 10 contractors) were received back. Collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean item scores (MIS) and standard deviations (SD). The study revealed an average level of sustainability literacy with a composite mean score of 3.7102 and mismatch between SC literacy levels and key sustainability considerations in interior design projects. Additionally, the respondents rated standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as the least effective contributors to their current SC literacy levels. On the other hand, informal learning, construction professional associations influence, collaboration amongst firms, and formal learning were largely attributed to the respondent’s SC literacy levels. The implication of the findings was that there is need to fine-tune SC literacy drives to the peculiarities of the various industry market segments to ensure their effectiveness in informing practice. Additionally, there is the need to leverage standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as avenues to improve the overall sustainability literacy levels.

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction Literacy: A study of the Kenyan Interior Design Market Segment of the Construction Industry. ." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print). http:uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ahr . 2020;14(3):1999-2009.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction transition: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):2035-2044. AbstractWebsite

Construction industry has been identified as key to the sustainability agenda. Efforts towards improved sustainability compliance in the construction industry involve a socio-technical transformation. Such transitions are said to be purposive, of a wider perspective, multi-dimensional in nature and are influenced by numerous factors. This paper focused on establishing sustainable construction (SC) uptake levels, including identification of key SC drivers and barriers with specific reference to the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. The study employed a quantitative research approach. For quantitative attributes, the study employed structured questionnaires to collect data from actively practicing architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors drawn from the interior design market segment of Kenyan construction industry in Nairobi City County. Data analysis employed the descriptive statistics of distribution (frequencies), proportions (percentages), central tendency (mean) and dispersion (standard deviation). Generally, the respondents ranked the overall uptake of the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social) as average- ranking as social, environment and economic in a decreasing order of uptake levels. The study findings ranked sustainability driver categories as organization related drivers, stakeholder related drivers, economic related drivers and management related drivers; in order of decreasing influence. Lastly, barrier categories were ranked as economic related barriers, professional/capacity related barriers, technology related barriers and societal/cultural related barriers, in order of decreasing influence. With the average sustainable construction practices uptake in the Kenyan construction industry, there is an implied call to action to leverage known sustainability drivers, while at the same time suppressing the known barriers. This implies significant room for improvement and an appropriate starting point for key construction project stakeholders as above identified.

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction Transition: A Kenyan Interior Design Market Segment Perspective. ." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print). http:uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ahr . 2020;14(3):2035-2044.
Warinda Enock, Dickson M. Nyariki, Stephen Wambua, Reuben M. Muasya, Hanjra. MA. "Sustainable development in East Africa: impact evaluation of regional agricultural development projects in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda." Natural Resources Forum. 2020;44:3-39.
Derese S. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Products Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke
Owor, R. O., Bedane, K. G., Openda, Y. I., Zühlke, S., Derese, S., Ong’amo, G., Ndakala, A., & Spiteller, M.
Abstract
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020:1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

R. T. "Tamathali za Usemi na Taswira katika Utenzi wa Ukimwi ni Zimwi." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2020;5/2(September 2020):15-32.
Omare E, Imonje RK, Nyagah G. "Teacher qualification, experience, capability beliefs and professional development: Do they predict teacher adoption of 21st century pedagogies?" International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction. 2020;12(2):639-670.
Barasa L. "Teacher Quality and Mathematics Performance in Primary Schools in Kenya." African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 2020;24(1):53-64.
I; MN, G N, Mugambi M. "Teachers’ Non-Verbal Behavioral Instructional Practices and students’ Achievement in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools in Murang’a County, Kenya ." . Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2020;1(2):36-54.
Irungu MN, Nyagah G, Mercy M. "Teachers’ use of class talks interaction as a predictor of learning outcomes in chemistry." Springer Nature . 2020;1(13):1-24.
"Teaching Canadian Literature in the University of Nairobi." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020:1-17.
Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

Meru AK, Ciambotti G, Ebong J, Kinoti MW, Mugendi-Kiarie RK. "Technology and Social Media in Customer Service.". In: Customer Service Management in Africa. Productivity Press; 2020. Abstract

The rapid transformation of technology in the business sector has brought unprecedented disruptions to traditional practices that relied heavily on human labour force. Technological advancement has made inroads in the entire supply chain with overwhelming ramifications on the firm-level customer interface. Over the years, the developed world and a few Asian countries have rapidly adopted multiple customer interfaces and integration to hasten provision of customer-centric information and services. Today, the same inroads are being witnessed in Africa, albeit at a slower pace. This is largely driven by rapid adoption of smartphones, artificial intelligence, cognitive computing and a myriad of other technologies. All the same, it is clearly emerging that, unlike the past technologies where African firms were deemed passive users, the trend is slowly changing the landscape and pointing to a slowly awakening continent.

tranc, K, wa Gachigi. "Testing." Testing. 2020;12:23. Abstract

This Testing

Karanja P, Mbugua L, Riungu J, Mulaku M, Okalebo F. "Time series analysis of consumption and short term forecasting of female contraceptives in the Kenyan public health sector." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2020;9(1):9-17.
"Time to tumour detection in familial retinoblastoma patients: a retrospective study." JOECSA- Journal of Ophthalmology for Eastern, Central and southern Africa. 2020;24:12-17.joecsa-time_to_tumour_detection-_july_2020.pdf
Ouko A, Okoth S, l. N NE, Altus V, Lindy JR. "Tolerance to Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize F1 hybrids and subsequent F2 population. ." Agronomy journal. 2020;112(4):2444-2432.
Idowu TE, R. W, Lasisi, K H, Kiema JBK. "Towards achieving Sustainability of Coastal Environments: Urban Growth Analysis and Prediction of Lagos, State Nigeria." South African Journal of Geomatics. 2020;9(2):149-162.
Wabwoba CN, Mugambi M, Okoth UA. "Translanguaging Teaching Strategies and Students’ Performance in English Language: Implications for Non-formal Basic Schools in Nairobi." . International Journal of Pedagogies . 2020;15(1):21-41.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM. "Transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease through seed in commercial hybrids and effect on growth in the subsequent crop." Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2020;DOI:10.1080/03235408.2020.1826720.
W1 G, Ongondi M2, GO1 O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2020;3(1):29-34.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Duke Gekonge Omayio, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang'ombe AW. "Trends and Constraints in Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2020:1-12.

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