Publications

Found 548 results

Sort by: Author Title [ Type  (Asc)] Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is J  [Clear All Filters]
Book
Thiankolu M, Mavisi VK. Judiciary Bench Book on Electoral Disputes Resolution. Nairobi: The Judiciary (Kenya); 2017.
Kimilu RK. Jatropha Biodiesel: Properties and Performance. Sunnyvale, CA: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
Wamitila KW. Jumba la huzuni.; 2006.Website
Mescher A. Junqueira's {Basic} {Histology}: {Text} . 12th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2005. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Book Chapter
R T. "Jinamizi la Malezi.". In: Utashi wa Dola na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Oxford University Press ; 2021.
R 3. T. "Jinamizi la Ubaguzi.". In: Fimbo ya Mbali na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers 2015; 2015.
Mukhwana, A. IS&OM(eds). "Je, Sheng' niLahaja ya Kiswahili?". In: Miaka Hamsini ya Kiswahili nchini Kenya. Twaweza Communications Ltd; 2014.
"J.W. Mwangi, G. N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage on Essential oil bearing plants from Kenya: Chemistry, Biological activity and Applications. In H.Rodolfo Juliani, James E. Simon and Chi-Tang Ho (Eds). African Natural Products: New Discoveries and Challenges in C." American Chemical Society. Washington DC, USA, Chapter 27, pp 495-525.; 2009. Abstract

PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

Ngugi M. "Jomo Kenyatta.". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
"James N. Kiarie, Joan K. Kreissa, Barbra A. Richardsonb and Grace C. John-Stewarta. Compliance with antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Objective: To compare compliance and infant HIV-1 infection risk at 6 weeks with
the Thai-CDC and HIVNET-012 antiretroviral regimens in a field setting.
Design: Randomized clinical trial.
Setting: Tertiary hospital antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.
Participants: HIV-1 infected women referred from primary care clinics.
Interventions: Thai-CDC zidovudine regimen or HIVNET-012 nevirapine regimen.
Main outcome measures: Women were considered compliant if they used > 80% of
the doses. Infants were tested for HIV-1 at 6 weeks.
Results: Seventy women were randomized to Thai-CDC and 69 to HIVNET-012
regimens. More women were compliant with the antenatal (86%) than the intrapartum
(44%) Thai-CDC regimen doses (P ¼ 0.001). Ninety-seven per cent took the maternal
and 91% gave the infant dose of the HIVNET-012 regimen (P ¼ 0.2). Overall, 41%
were compliant with the Thai-CDC regimen and 87% with the HIVNET-012 regimen
(P , 0.001). Compliance with the Thai-CDC regimen was associated with partner
support of antiretroviral use [odds ratio (OR), 3.0;, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0–
9.1] and knowledge at recruitment that antiretroviral drugs could prevent infant HIV-1
(OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0–8.1). Compliance with the HIVNET-012 regimen was associated
with partner notification (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5–50) and partner willingness to
have HIV-1 testing(OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.4–40). There was a trend for a higher risk of
transmission with the HIVNET-012 regimen than with the Thai-CDC regimen (22%
versus 9%; P ¼ 0.07).
Conclusion: Compliance with the Thai-CDC and HIVNET-012 regimens was comparable
to that in efficacy trials. Partner involvement, support and education on perinatal
HIV-1 prevention may improve compliance and increase the number of infants
protected from HIV-1 infection.

Case
Conference Paper
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "J E Sanderson, E G Olsen, and D Gatei.Peripartum heart disease: an endomyocardial biopsy study.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 11 African women in Nairobi who presented with the clinical features of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The samples were studied by light and electron microscopy. In five patients there was evidence of a "healing myocarditis", that is the presence of a mild inflammatory cell infiltration within the myocardium with foci of necrosis and variable amounts of hypertrophy and fibrosis. Of the nine patients who were followed up, three out of four with myocarditis had persistent heart failure and four out of five without myocarditis improved. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte cell subsets were measured in nine patients by means of monoclonal antibodies. A high helper:suppressor T cell ratio was found in three patients. Almost half of this group of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy had myocarditis in their biopsy specimens. The myocarditis may have been due to an inappropriate immunological reaction in some patients.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, MILE DRJUSTUSKITHEKA. "Justus K. Mile, Bernard M. Nzimbi and S.K. Moindi, On the characterization of Class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "A joint Kenya – Ivory Coast Malaria Measurement Campaign.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Cytotoxicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity to the Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae).". In: The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Natural products: An exciting source of new pharmacophores against malaria.". In: : The 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and the 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference held at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, from 25th to 27th April 2012. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuyab, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama. Cytotoxicity of anti-malarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to the brine shrimp, artemia salina l. (artemiidae).". In: Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Artemia salina (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemicals and natural products. Design and methods: In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values) of 45 anti-malarial plant extracts and positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were determined using Artemia salina (Artemiidae). Results: Out of the 45 organic extracts screened for activity against Artemia salina larvae, 23 (51%) of the crude extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml, and were categorized as having strong cytotoxic activity, 18 (40%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml, and were categorized as having moderate cytotoxicity, 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity, while 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were considered to be non toxic. Approximately 20% (9) of the aqueous extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml and were considered to have strong cytotoxic activity, 40% (18) of the screened aqueous crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml and were considered to be moderately cytotoxic, 16% (7) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity while 24% (11) of the aqueous extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were categorized as non toxic The positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide exhibited strong cytotoxicity with LC50 values of 95 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml respectively in a 24 hour lethality study, validating their use as anticancer agents. Conclusions: In the current study, 95.5% of all the screened organic extracts and 76% of the investigated aqueous extracts demonstrated LC50 values <1000 μg/ml, indicating that these plants could not make safe antimalarial treatments. This calls for dose adjustment amongst the community using the plant extracts for the treatment of malaria and chemical investigation for isolation of bioactive compounds responsible for the observed toxicity. These could make novel ingredients for anticancerous drugs. Key words: Cytotoxicity; Artemia salina bioassay; crude extracts; anti-malarial plants; Kenyan biodiversity
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "James M. Mbaria: Traditional Knowledge and Practices of Indigenous Peopes in Coping with Diabetes. Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Held at Copenha.". In: . Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Joseph M. Nguta, J. Mbaria et al (2012). Cytotoxicity of Antimalarial plant extracts from Kenya biodiversity to brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemidae).". In: Drugs and therapy studies. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
NYAGA PROFGATUMUHANIEL. "July 2012 .". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Biological screening of Kenyan antimalarial plant extracts in brine shrimp bioassay.". In: The first international congress on Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI): Impact, Limitations and Needs in Developing Countries in the United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September 12th to 18th, 2011, sponsored by USDA/APHIS in collab. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Development of ethnomedicines for management of malaria in Msambweni district, Kenya.". In: The Proceedings of a Workshop on Regional Networks in Africa, held on October 5 to 6th, 2010 at the Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre in Benoni, South Africa, near Johannesburg. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.". In: The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.". In: The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Natural products from plant biodiversity and malaria.". In: The 12TH International Symposium on Natural Product Chemistry and Related Biological Sciences, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Pakistan during November 22-25, 2010. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Plants as source of drugs: Ethnopharmacology, Pharmacology and Toxicology of selected antimalarial herbal plants from Msambweni district, South coast Kenya.". In: Proceedings of a RISE AFNNET workshop-University of Nairobi Node in Chak Guest House, Nairobi, on 13th December 2011. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Toxicity of crude plant extracts and antitumour drugs in the Brine Shrimp Bioassay.". In: The Proceedings of the Ist International Scientific Conference, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya during June 15-17th, 2011. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuya, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama BIOLOGICAL SCREEIG OF KENYAN MEDICIAL PLATS USIG ARTEMIA SALINA L. (ARTEMIIDAE).". In: Pharmacologyonline 2: 458-478 (2011). Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "James M. Mbaria (2011). Lead poisoning.". In: Proceeding Continuous Professional Development (CPD) workshop on Forensic Veterinary Science. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Joseph Mwanzia Nguta, James M. Mbaria, Peter K. Gathumbi, Daniel Gakuya, John David Kabasa and Stephen Gitahi Kiama (2011). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for Malaria: A Lead to Traditional Bioprospecting.". In: The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Joseph Mwanzia Nguta1,James M. Mbaria,Peter K. Gathumbi,Daniel Gakuya,John David Kabasa, and Stephen Gitahi Kiama Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting.". In: ORIGINAL RESEARCHARTICLE published: 24 June 2011 doi: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00030. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the developmentof resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases.This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information.The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria.This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions.The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.Keywords:malaria,antimalarials,ethnopharmacology,ethnodiagnostic skills,Digo community,bioprospecting
Collins odote, Migai Akech PK-M, Mwangi G. "Judicial Reforms and Access to Justice in Kenya: Realising the Promise of the New Constitution." Kenya Civil Society Strengthening Programme ACT and PACT; 2011. Abstract
n/a
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria (2010). Bioavailability of cobalt and anthelmintic effects of albendazole fortified with cobalt (Vermitan super) in sheep.". In: The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference, held on September 8th To 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010) Spectroscopic Determination of Cobalt and Copper in Grass Pastures in Kabete.". In: The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference held on September 8th to 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting?". In: The Proceedings of the Ist East and Central Africa Regional Symposium for the Carnegie-RISE Fellows held on September 15th, 2010 at Royale Imperial Hotel, Kampala-Uganda, East Africa. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010). Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432.". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432. University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010). Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131: (2010) 256.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010): Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies Used by the South Coast Community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(2): 256-267.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 424. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010. Abstract
Malariaisaseriouscauseofmortalityglobally.The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbalremedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plantsthataretraditionallyusedbytheMsambwenicommunityofKenyanSouth Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semi structured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplementedthe interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon(Rutaceae), Gerranthuslobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey(Cucurbitaceae), GrewiahexamintaBurret. (Tiliaceae), CanthiumglaucumHiern. (Rubiaceae), AmaranthushybridusL.(Amaranthaceae), CombretumpadoidesEngl and Diels.(Combretaceae), SeneciosyringitoliusO.Hoffman.(Compositae),OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae),AloemacrosiphonBak.(Liliaceae)andLaudolphiabuchananii(Hall.f)Stapf.(Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plantbased antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M. Ngutaa, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131 (2010) 256. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "John B. Githiori and Peter K Gathumbi (2010 ) Ethnoveterinary plants used in East Africa, In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press).". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432. University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "John B. Githiori and Peter K Gathumbi (2010 ) Ethnoveterinary plants used in East Africa, In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press).". In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press). Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2010. Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Jefwa G. Mweri et al. Sign Language Interpreter Training in Kenya. In Jemina Napier (Ed). International Perspectives on Sign Language Interpreter Education. Washington, DC. Gallaudet University Press.". In: International Perspectives on Sign Language Interpreter Education. Gallaudet University Press; 2009. Abstract

The history of interpratation is as old as the deaf culture itself. wherever daef people have been, intepratation has always been there. deaf people, of course, do not live in isolation. they live amid thier brothers and sisiters and other relatives. According to the Kenya campaign on disability and HIV and AIDS advocacy, propoasl 2008, approximately 3.5 people in Kenya are currently living with disabilities. This translates to an approximately 800.000 deaf people out of the population of about 35million  people in Kenya. This population makes, or will make use of interpratation in settings such as courts of law, police stations, and so forth. interpreters act as a bridge between hearing and deaf people inn terms of communication. This chapter gives an overview of the situation of kenyan sign Language(KSL)  interpratation in Kenya by giving a historical perspective, the role of Kenya National Association of the Deaf (KNAD), Kenya Sign Language Research project (KSLRP) and the role of other institutions including the Kenya Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) in interprter training and concludes by giving recommendations in the way forward.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka H, Malogo R, Ndambuki R, Nyange J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Fast P, Schmidt C, Verlinde C, Smith C, Bhatt K, Ndinya-Achola J and Anzala O (2009) Pregnancy rates among female participants in Phase I and Phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical.". In: UoN research meeting. East African Medical Journal 86(9):430-4; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka H, Malogo R, Ndambuki R, Nyange J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Fast P, Schmidt C, Verlinde C, Smith C, Bhatt K, Ndinya-Achola J and Anzala O (2009) Pregnancy rates among female participants in Phase I and Phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 86(9):430-4; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Jefwa, G. J. (2009) Structural borrowing: The case of Kenyan sign Language (KSL) and Kiswahili Contact Signing. In Fredrick Kang.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. USIU press; 2009.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria and L. W. Kanja local experience on conduct of acute toxicological studies: Presented in seminar on procedure of Evaluation of pesticides: toxicology Ecotoxicology and Efficacy. Workshop organized by pest control products Board (PCPB) on 16th.". In: Workshop organized by pest control products Board (PCPB) on 16th July 2008 at Agricultural information resource centre (AIRC), Nairobi, Kenya. E; 2008.
HURIA PROFNDERITUJOHN. "J. W. Muthomi; P. E. Otieno; G. N. Chemingw.". In: J. Entomol. 5(3): 156-163. Nderitu, J, H, and Kasina, J, M.; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "Jane T. Munene, J.I. Kinyamario, N. Holst and JK Mworia Competition between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and wild rice (Oryza punctata) in Kenya.African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 3 (9), pp. 605-611.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2008.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Jeruto, P.,Lukhoba, C., Ouma, G., Otieno, D. and Mutai. C., 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.; 2008. Abstract

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance

The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests.

Aims of the study

This study therefore sought to collect information from local populations concerning the use of Nandi Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used and determine the relative importance of the species surveyed.

Materials and methods

Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. A total of 40 medicinal plants used locally for the treatment and/or control of human ailments were collected through interviews conducted with selected traditional doctors and professional healers.

Results

This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants use and that leaf material form the major component of plant parts exploited. The other harvested materials consist of stem bark, the roots and the whole plant, though at a lower intensity for making liquid concoctions from different plants. Majority of the remedies were prepared from a single species. In most cases, the mode of administration was oral. In the forest, some of the plants collected were scarce. This scarcity was attributed to indiscriminate logging, overexploitation, poor harvesting methods and current agricultural trends.

Conclusion

Conservation procedures and creation of awareness were identified as the main remedies to the current situation.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Kenya medicinal plants; Nandi people

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John N. Kireiger, Robert C. Bailey, John C. Opeya, Benard O. Ayieko, Felix A. Opiyo, Dickens Omondi, Kawango Agot, Corette Parker, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, and Stephen Moses. Adult Male Circumcision Outcomes:.". In: Experience in a Developing Country Setting. Urol Int. 2007; 78: 235-240. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.docadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "J. H. Nderitu, E. M. Wambua, F. Olubayo, J. M. Kasina, C. N. Waturu. 2007. Evaluation of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars and Breeding lines for Resistance to Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Pests in Kenya.". In: Journal of Entomology 4 (3): 2002-209. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN. "J. M. BURURIA, P. N. KINYANJUI, P. G. WAIYAKI AND S. M. KARIUKI Resistance of Klebsiella species Isolates from Two Institutions in Nairobi, Kenya to Commonly Prescribed antimicrobial Agents. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10 (2007) 22-26. au-ibar; 2007. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero. 2007. Soil Erosion Engineering. Lecture notes developed for open and distance learning in an e-learning interactive CD based on the the Webscript software.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Jan. 29-30, 2007 .". In: Regional Conference on Capacity Building for the Fast Tracking of the East African Market, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Jaoko WG, Michael E, Meyrowitsch DW, Estambale BB, Malecela MN, Simonsen PE.Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African communities. Infect Immun.". In: Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5651-62. Epub 2007 Oct 1. Taylor & Francis; 2007. Abstract
We compared the age profiles of infection and specific antibody intensities in two communities with different transmission levels in East Africa to examine the contribution of humoral responses to human immunity to the vector-borne helminth Wuchereria bancrofti. The worm intensities were higher and exhibited a nonlinear age pattern in a high-transmission community, Masaika, in contrast to the low but linearly increasing age infection profile observed for a low-transmission community, Kingwede. The mean levels of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were also higher in Masaika, but intriguingly, the IgG3 response was higher in Kingwede. The age-antibody patterns differed in the two communities but in a manner apparently contrary to a role in acquired immunity when the data were assessed using simple correlation methods. By contrast, multivariate analyses showed that the antibody response to infection may be classified into three types and that two of these types, a IgG3-type response and a response measuring a trade-off in host production of IgG4 and IgG3 versus production of IgG1, IgG2, and IgE, had a negative effect on Wuchereria circulating antigen levels in a manner that supported a role for these responses in the generation of acquired immunity to infection. Mathematical modeling supported the conclusions drawn from empirical data analyses that variations in both transmission and worm intensity can explain community differences in the age profiles and impacts of these antibody response types. This study showed that parasite-specific antibody responses may be associated with the generation of acquired immunity to human filarial infection but in a form which is dependent on worm transmission intensity and interactions between immune components.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Michael E, Meyrowitsch DW, Estambale BB, Malecela MN, Simonsen PE.Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African communities.Infect Immun.". In: Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5651-62. Epub 2007 Oct 1. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract
We compared the age profiles of infection and specific antibody intensities in two communities with different transmission levels in East Africa to examine the contribution of humoral responses to human immunity to the vector-borne helminth Wuchereria bancrofti. The worm intensities were higher and exhibited a nonlinear age pattern in a high-transmission community, Masaika, in contrast to the low but linearly increasing age infection profile observed for a low-transmission community, Kingwede. The mean levels of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were also higher in Masaika, but intriguingly, the IgG3 response was higher in Kingwede. The age-antibody patterns differed in the two communities but in a manner apparently contrary to a role in acquired immunity when the data were assessed using simple correlation methods. By contrast, multivariate analyses showed that the antibody response to infection may be classified into three types and that two of these types, a IgG3-type response and a response measuring a trade-off in host production of IgG4 and IgG3 versus production of IgG1, IgG2, and IgE, had a negative effect on Wuchereria circulating antigen levels in a manner that supported a role for these responses in the generation of acquired immunity to infection. Mathematical modeling supported the conclusions drawn from empirical data analyses that variations in both transmission and worm intensity can explain community differences in the age profiles and impacts of these antibody response types. This study showed that parasite-specific antibody responses may be associated with the generation of acquired immunity to human filarial infection but in a form which is dependent on worm transmission intensity and interactions between immune components.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Javvaji S, Kumar A, Madan K, Garg PK, Acharya SK.Management of gastric variceal bleeding.Trop Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr-Jun;28(2):51-7.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr-Jun;28(2):51-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the value of clinical symptomatology, abdominal ultrasound (US), triple-phase CT (TPCT) and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) estimation in predicting presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, Child's A/B cirrhosis patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, US, TPCT and serum AFP estimation. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical symptoms and of AFP at different cut-off levels were determined. Detection rate of HCC and agreement between US and TPCT was estimated. RESULTS: A high proportion of enrolled subjects had HCC at first presentation (40.7%). Significantly higher prevalence of abdominal pain, weight loss, and anorexia was seen in patients with cirrhosis with HCC compared to those without HCC. Sensitivity and specificity of any of these symptoms was 73 and 79%, respectively (positive and negative predictive values of 65 and 85%, respectively). A 100% agreement between TPCT and US was observed for diagnosing HCC cases. However, TPCT detected a greater number of smaller HCCs. Sensitivity of AFP at 400 ng/ml cut-off was only 25.7%, too low to be useful. Best mix of sensitivity (77.2%) and specificity (78.1%) of AFP was found to be at 10.7 ng/ml cut-off which falls within the conventional limits of normalcy. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of symptomatology of weight loss, abdominal pain or anorexia as markers for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. AFP was not found to be a useful screening test. TPCT should be undertaken in all cirrhotics presenting to the hospital for the first time. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "J. Kasina, J. Nderitu, G. Nyamasyo, F. Olubayo, C. Waturu. E. Obutho and D. Yobera. 2006. Diurnal population trends of Megalurothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) and their natural enemies on French bean Phaseolus vulg.". In: International journal of Tropical Insect Science Vol. 26, No. 1 pp. 2-7. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "J. Kasina, J. Nderitu, G. Nyamasyo, F. Olubayo, C. Waturu. E. Obutho and D. Yobera. 2006. Evaluation of companion crops for thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)management on French bean Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae).". In: International journal of Tropical Insect Science Vol. 26, No. 2 pp. 121-125. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
N. DRMUTEMIJOSEPH. "J. N. Mutemi, L.A. Ogallo, T. N. Krishnamurti, A. K. Mishra, and T.S.V. Vijaya Kumar, 2006: Multimodel based Superensemble Forecasts for Short and Medium Range NWP over Various Regions of Africa: Meteorol Atmos Phys 95, 87-113.". In: Meteorol Atmos Phys 95, 87-113. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2006. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "J. Nguhiu-Mwangi; P.M.F. Mbithi; J.K. Wabacha; and P.G. Mbuthia. Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2006 special.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "J. O. Owino, C. Mwathi, Miheso M. O.". In: In Proceedings of the International Congress on Mathematics Instruction, ICMI-1, S. Africa. 1999; 2006. Abstract
n/a
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero. 2006. Rainwater Harvesting. Electronic based training material developed for open and distance learning in Wedusoft e-learning environment (internet based) as well as on stand alone interactive CD developed using Dream Weaver Software.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE, D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "J. T. Njoka and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006: The Logistic Model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained off-take rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2006. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE, D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "J. T. Njoka and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006: The Logistic Model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained off-take rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. WABACHA, C.M.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G. Thaiyah and J. Nduhiu. An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
A study to evaluate alternative health interventions for the control of sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds was carried out in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. A total of 40 herds were randomly allocated, by a simple random strategy, to 3 treatment groups and 1 control group. Each group comprised of 10 herds. Herds in group 1 (control) were treated with a placebo, physiological saline. In group 2, control of nematodes and mange was attempted through the use of ivermectin, while in group 3, nematodes and mange were treated through the use of an anthelmintic (piperazine hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. In group 4, nematodes and mange were treated by using an anthelmintic (levamisole hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was not different (p>0.05) from that of levamisole. The proportion of pigs positive for mites was not different (p>0.05) between the ivermectin and the amitraz treatment groups. The overall costs for the treatments were US$0.50 for the ivermectin treatment, US$0.31 for the piperazine/amitraz combination treatment and US$0.26 for the levamisole/amitraz combination treatment. Amitraz/levamisole drug combination was the most cost-effective against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes of pigs in the studied smallholder herds.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. WABACHA, C.M.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G. Thaiyah and J. Nduhiu. An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54:144-147.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.; 2006. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, W. OLuoch-Kosura (2006). Evaluation of alternative health interventions against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Af.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
A study to evaluate alternative health interventions for the control of sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds was carried out in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. A total of 40 herds were randomly allocated, by a simple random strategy, to 3 treatment groups and 1 control group. Each group comprised of 10 herds. Herds in group 1 (control) were treated with a placebo, physiological saline. In group 2, control of nematodes and mange was attempted through the use of ivermectin, while in group 3, nematodes and mange were treated through the use of an anthelmintic (piperazine hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. In group 4, nematodes and mange were treated by using an anthelmintic (levamisole hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was not different (p>0.05) from that of levamisole. The proportion of pigs positive for mites was not different (p>0.05) between the ivermectin and the amitraz treatment groups. The overall costs for the treatments were US$0.50 for the ivermectin treatment, US$0.31 for the piperazine/amitraz combination treatment and US$0.26 for the levamisole/amitraz combination treatment. Amitraz/levamisole drug combination was the most cost-effective against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes of pigs in the studied smallholder herds.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "J.K. Wabacha, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and C.M. Mulei (2006). An outbreak of acute bovine dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and C.M. Mulei (2006). An outbreak of acute bovine dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Jaoko WG, Simonsen PE, Meyrowitsch DW, Estambale BB, Malecela-Lazaro MN, Michael E.Filarial-specific antibody response in East African bancroftian filariasis: effects of host infection, clinical disease, and filarial endemicity.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul;75(1):97-107. Taylor & Francis; 2006. Abstract
The effect of host infection, chronic clinical disease, and transmission intensity on the patterns of specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis was assessed by analyzing specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, and IgE profiles among adults from two communities with high and low Wuchereria bancrofti endemicity. In the high endemicity community, intensities of the measured antibodies were significantly associated with infection status. IgG1, IgG2, and IgE were negatively associated with microfilaria (MF) status, IgG3 was negatively associated with circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status, and IgG4 was positively associated with CFA status. None of the associations were significantly influenced by chronic lymphatic disease status. In contrast, IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 responses were less vigorous in the low endemicity community and, except for IgG4, did not show any significant associations with MF or CFA status. The IgG3 responses were considerably more vigorous in the low endemicity community than in the high endemicity one. Only IgG4 responses exhibited a rather similar pattern in the two communities, being significantly positively associated with CFA status in both communities. The IgG4:IgE ratios were higher in infection-positive individuals than in infection-negative ones, and higher in the high endemicity community than in the low endemicity one. Overall, these results indicate that specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis are more related to infection status than to chronic lymphatic disease status. They also suggest that community transmissi
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Simonsen PE, Meyrowitsch DW, Estambale BB, Malecela-Lazaro MN, Michael E.Filarial-specific antibody response in East African bancroftian filariasis: effects of host infection, clinical disease, and filarial endemicity.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul;75(1):97-107. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract
The effect of host infection, chronic clinical disease, and transmission intensity on the patterns of specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis was assessed by analyzing specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, and IgE profiles among adults from two communities with high and low Wuchereria bancrofti endemicity. In the high endemicity community, intensities of the measured antibodies were significantly associated with infection status. IgG1, IgG2, and IgE were negatively associated with microfilaria (MF) status, IgG3 was negatively associated with circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status, and IgG4 was positively associated with CFA status. None of the associations were significantly influenced by chronic lymphatic disease status. In contrast, IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 responses were less vigorous in the low endemicity community and, except for IgG4, did not show any significant associations with MF or CFA status. The IgG3 responses were considerably more vigorous in the low endemicity community than in the high endemicity one. Only IgG4 responses exhibited a rather similar pattern in the two communities, being significantly positively associated with CFA status in both communities. The IgG4:IgE ratios were higher in infection-positive individuals than in infection-negative ones, and higher in the high endemicity community than in the low endemicity one. Overall, these results indicate that specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis are more related to infection status than to chronic lymphatic disease status. They also suggest that community transmission intensity play a dominant but subtle role in shaping the observed response patterns.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Japhet Magambo, Ernest Njoroge, Eberhard Zeyhle (2006) Epidemiology and Control of Echinococcosis in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Parasitology International, 55: S193 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
Biodiversity offers multiple opportunities for development and improving human well-being. It is the basis for essential environmental services upon which life on Earth depends. Thus, its conservation and sustainable use are of critical importance. The opportunities and challenges associated with biodiversity typically apply over large geographical extents, although one or two issues may be more important at any given location. To avoid repetition, particular issues are highlighted in the sub-regional sections, not because they are restricted to those areas, but because they are best illustrated there. Deforestation is discussed under Central Africa, while relations between protected areas and adjacent populations are dealt with under Eastern Africa. Riparian biodiversity is discussed in Northern Africa, climate change and invasive alien species (IAS) in Southern Africa, desertification in Western Africa, and endemism in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) islands. Habitat degradation and resource overexploitation are discussed in this regional synthesis, because they are overwhelmingly important as drivers of biodiversity loss throughout Africa.
ZEKE MRWAWERU. "Jointly edited a book on"Africa communication and the future".". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Joseph Karugia, Willis Oluoch-Kosura, Rose Nyikal, Michael Odumbe and Paswell P. Marenya (2006) .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi, et al (2005). Some clinical features of osteoarthritis in the hip joints of adult dogs in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp.20-22.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "J. Orem, P. Fu, A. Ness, W.O. Mwanda, S. C. Remick. Oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S144-S150.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S144-9. MBA; 2005. Abstract

{ Uganda Cancer Institute, Mulago Hospital and the Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of an oral combination chemotherapy regimen administered to patients with AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, pilot phase II clinical trial. SETTING: Consecutive patient recruitment occurred at two medical centers in the United States: Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, where patients were recruited prior to December 31, 1996 (pre-HAART era); and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, where patients were recruited after January 1, 1997 (HAART era). INTERVENTION: Oral chemotherapy consisted of lomustine (100 mg/m2 day I for cycle one and odd cycles thereafter); etoposide (200 mg/m2 days 1 through 3); and cyclophosphamide and procarbazine (each 100 mg/m2 days 22 through 31). Cycles were repeated every six weeks. Colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF in all instances) was allowed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical demographic variables, peripheral blood counts, serum chemistries, CD4 lymphocyte count, histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's disease were identified for all patients, who were staged according to Ann Arbor criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Common Toxicity Criteria were utilized to assess safety; response was assessed using ECOG criteria; and survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and difference of survival between pre-HAART and HARART era was compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: Eleven patients (six in pre-HAART era), all but one male, with a median age of 36 years, excellent performance status and advanced International Prognostic Score were treated. Myelosuppression was the major side effect and there were minimal other grade 3 or greater toxicity all of which were promptly reversible. An overall objective response rate of 82% (with 18% complete responses) and median survival duration of 24 months (range 2.5 +/- 68) were observed. Survival was markedly improved in patients treated in the HAART era (median not reached versus 7.25 months

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "J. Orem, P. Fu, A. Ness, W.O. Mwanda, S. C. Remick. Oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S144-S150.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S144-9. MBA; 2005. Abstract

{ Uganda Cancer Institute, Mulago Hospital and the Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of an oral combination chemotherapy regimen administered to patients with AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, pilot phase II clinical trial. SETTING: Consecutive patient recruitment occurred at two medical centers in the United States: Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, where patients were recruited prior to December 31, 1996 (pre-HAART era); and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, where patients were recruited after January 1, 1997 (HAART era). INTERVENTION: Oral chemotherapy consisted of lomustine (100 mg/m2 day I for cycle one and odd cycles thereafter); etoposide (200 mg/m2 days 1 through 3); and cyclophosphamide and procarbazine (each 100 mg/m2 days 22 through 31). Cycles were repeated every six weeks. Colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF in all instances) was allowed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical demographic variables, peripheral blood counts, serum chemistries, CD4 lymphocyte count, histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's disease were identified for all patients, who were staged according to Ann Arbor criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Common Toxicity Criteria were utilized to assess safety; response was assessed using ECOG criteria; and survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and difference of survival between pre-HAART and HARART era was compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: Eleven patients (six in pre-HAART era), all but one male, with a median age of 36 years, excellent performance status and advanced International Prognostic Score were treated. Myelosuppression was the major side effect and there were minimal other grade 3 or greater toxicity all of which were promptly reversible. An overall objective response rate of 82% (with 18% complete responses) and median survival duration of 24 months (range 2.5 +/- 68) were observed. Survival was markedly improved in patients treated in the HAART era (median not reached versus 7.25 months

DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, J.M.A. KITAA (2005) Microbial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Isolates from dogs with Otitis Externa in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29:40 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.D. Mande, S.W. Mbugua, I.B.J. Buoro, P.M.F. Mbithi and P.K. Gathumbi (2005). Some Clinical Features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joints in Adult Dogs in Kenya. Accepted for publication in the next issue of The Kenya Veterinarian. 29: 126-129.". In: Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2005. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, S.W. MBUGUA, I.B.J. BUORO, P.M.F. MBITHI, P.K. GATHUMBI (2005) Some Clinical Features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint in Adult Dogs in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29: 126 - 129.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, S.W. MBUGUA, P.M.F. MBITHI, I.B.J. BUORO, P.K. GATHUMBI (2005) Pathophysiology and Clinical Management of Degenerative Joint Disease. A Review. Kenya Veterinarian 28: 33 - 36.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "J.K Ruminjo, C.B Sekadde-Kigondu et al. Comparative acceptability of combined and progestin-only contraception injectable contraceptives in Kenya. Contracetion. 72(2005) 138.1: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45.". In: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.M.A KITAA, C. MULEI, J.D. MANDE, J.K WABACHA (2005) Clinical, Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment of Ehrlichial Infections in Dogs: A Review. Kenya Veterinarian 29: 71 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.M.A. Kitaa, C. Mulei, J.D. Mande, J.K. Wabacha (2005). Clinical, Laboratory diagnosis and treatment of Ehrlichial infections in dogs: Kenya Veterinarian 29:71-75.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko Walter (Contributing Author) (2005) Kenya National Guidelines for Research and Development of HIV/AIDS Vaccines (2005), Kenya Ministry of Health, Republic of Kenya, Contributing Author.". In: Kenya Ministry of Health, Republic of Kenya, Contributing Author. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
The effect of eight half-yearly treatment rounds with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 6mg/kg bodyweight) on Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA), a marker of adult worm infection, was followed in 79 individuals who were CFA-positive before start of treatment. Half of these were also microfilariae (mf)-positive. Microfilaraemia decreased rapidly after onset of treatment and became undetectable after four treatments. Circulating antigenaemia also decreased progressively, but at a much slower rate. After two, four and eight treatment rounds, the mean CFA intensity was reduced by 81, 94 and 98%, and the prevalence of CFA positivity was 85, 66 and 57%, compared with pre-treatment, respectively. CFA clearance rates were negatively related to pre-treatment CFA intensities, and were higher among pre-treatment mf-negative individuals than among pre-treatment mf-positive individuals. Even among patients who had pre-treatment CFA intensities above the upper measuring level (32000antigen units), and who continued to have intensities above this level after treatment, a decrease in post-treatment CFA intensities was obvious from a continuous decrease in ELISA optical density values. Repeated DEC therapy thus appears to have a slow but profound and persistent macrofilaricidal effect, which in the long run may be beneficial to populations undergoing DEC-based control interventions by reducing the probability of future morbidity development.
MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "John M. Wanjohi, Abiy Yenesew, Jacob O. Midiwo, Matthias Heydenreich, Martin G. Peter, Michael Dreyer, Matthias Reichert,c and Gerhard Bringmannc,* (2005), Three dimeric anthracene derivatives from the fruits of Bulbine abyssinica. Tetrahedron 61, 2667 .". In: Tetrahedron 61 , 2667 - 2674. SITE; 2005. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "John-Stewart GC, Nduati RW, Rousseau CM, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Rainwater S, Pantaleef DD, Overbaugh J. ubtype C is associated with increased vaginal shedding of HIV-1 J Infect. Dis Di 2005;192:492-6.". In: Dis Di 2005;192:492-6. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 3085-00506, Nairobi, Kenya. jkiarie@swiftkenya.com OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing. DESIGN: A prospective cohort. METHODS: Antenatally, women and their partners were interviewed regarding physical, financial, and psychological abuse by the male partner before HIV-1 testing and 2 weeks after receiving results. RESULTS: Before testing, 804 of 2836 women (28%) reported previous domestic violence, which tended to be associated with increased odds of HIV-1 infection [univariate odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.2; P < 0.0001, adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6; P = 0.1], decreased odds of coming with partners for counseling (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0; P = 0.04), and decreased odds of partner notification (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.1; P = 0.09). Previous domestic violence was not associated with a reduced uptake of HIV-1 counseling, HIV-1 testing, or nevirapine. After receiving results, 15 out of 1638 women (0.9%) reported domestic violence. After notifying partners of results, the odds of HIV-1-seropositive women reporting domestic violence were 4.8 times those of HIV-1-seronegative women (95% CI 1.4-16; P = 0.01). Compared with women, men reported similar or more male-perpetrated domestic violence, suggesting a cultural acceptability of violence. CONCLUSION: Domestic violence before testing may limit partner involvement in PMTCT. Although infrequent, immediate post-test domestic violence is more common among HIV-1-infected than uninfected women. Domestic violence prevention programmes need to be integrated into PMTCT, particularly for HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16931941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "John-Stewart GC, Nduati RW, Rousseau CM, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Rainwater S, Pantaleef DD, Overbaugh J. ubtype C is associated with increased vaginal shedding of HIV-1 J Infect. Dis Di 2005;192:492-6.". In: Dis Di 2005;192:492-6. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
1. Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Background: There are limited reports on HIV-1 RNA load, CD4+ T-lymphocytes and antibody responses in relation to disease progression in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Africa. Methods: To describe the relationships between these parameters, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study involving 51 perinatally HIV-1 infected children aged between 1 and 13 years. HIV status was determined by ELISA and confirmed by western blot and PCR. Antibodies were quantified by limiting dilution ELISA, plasma HIV-1 RNA load by RT-PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocytes by FACSCount. Results: Asymptomatic and symptomatic disease had, respectively, a rise in median HIV-1 RNA load from 1,195 to 132,543 and from 42,962 to 1,109,281 copies/ml in children below 6 years. The increase in viral load was 10-fold higher for asymptomatic compared to other categories and 2-fold faster for children less than 6 years than those above. Similarly, symptomatic children below 6 years had initial median CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of 647 (22%) cells/muL, declining to 378 (20%) while those above 6 years had initial values of below 335 (15%) but which increased to 428 (17%). Median viral load correlated significantly with median CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage in children above 6 years (p=0.026) but not below. Conclusions: Viral load is lower in older than younger children and correlates significantly with percentage CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Survival by HIV-1 infected children requires a competent immune response early in infection to counter the rapidly replicating virus. Interventions aimed at boosting the naive immune system may prolong survival in these children.
PROF. MBITHI PMF, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "John-Stewart G,Mbori-Ngacha D, Ekpini R, Janoff EN, Nkengasong J, Read JS, Van de Perre P, Newell ML; Ghent IAS Working Group on HIV in Women Children. Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Feb 1;35(2):196-202.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.2004 Feb 1;35(2):196-202. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstractbreast-feeding_and_transmission_of_hiv-1.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.

WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Justus Nyameyio Agoti, The impact of dividend announcements on firm value: An event study of the case of the NSE, University of Nairobi, 2004." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Overstraining of Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Mechanical Engineering Science Vol. 218(2) (2004) p 143-153.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Transition, Convergence and Constancy in Radiused Entry Cross-Bored Cylinders Trans. Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineers 28 (2B) (2004) p 343-353.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE. "J. M. Njenga and V.Tsuma.Sudden death following rupture of the middle uterine artery, in a bovine dystocia.In The Kenya Veterinarian Vol 26(2004): 27-28.". In: Africa-Caribbean Institute. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2004. Abstract
A case of dystocia resulting in rupture of he middle uterine artery and subsequent death in a cow is reported
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero and Fuchaka Waswa. 2004. Dryland Farming Technologies. Book Chapter under review.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.D. Mande, P.K. Gathumbi, P.M.F. Mbithi (2004). Synovial Osteochondromatosis in Osteoarthritic Hip and Stifle Joints of Adult Dogs.". In: Presented at the Biennial Scientific Conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi held on 3rd -5th November 2004. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2004. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 26:29-34.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 26:29-34.". In: Presented in International workshop on improving the well-being of resource poor communities-the contribution of small livestock. Everglades Hotel, Howick, South Africa 12-15 September 2005. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, W. Oluoch-Kosura (2004). Characterisation of Smallholder pig Production in Kikuyu Division, Central Kenya. Prev. Vet. Med. 63: 183-195.". In: Presented in International workshop on improving the well-being of resource poor communities-the contribution of small livestock. Everglades Hotel, Howick, South Africa 12-15 September 2005. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, W. Oluoch-Kosura (2004). Health and Production measures for Smallholder pig Production in Kikuyu Division, Central Kenya. Prev. Vet. Med. 63: 197-210.". In: Presented in International workshop on improving the well-being of resource poor communities-the contribution of small livestock. Everglades Hotel, Howick, South Africa 12-15 September 2005. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, W. Oluoch-Kosura. Evaluation of relative cost-effectiveness of alternative health interventions against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal helminthosis on smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu .". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.K.Gikunju, T.E. Maitho, P.K. Gathumbi and S.E. Mitema. Toxic effects of Fluoride in rats exposed to different fluoride sources.". In: Presented at the Biennial Scientific Conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi held on 3rd -5th November 2004. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2004. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE. "J.M Njenga and V.T Tsuma (2004).Sudden death following rupture of the middle uterine artery, in a bovine dystocia. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 27-28.". In: Africa-Caribbean Institute. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2004.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Gathuma, J.M. Mbaria, J. Wanyama, H.F.A. Kaburia, L Mpoke, J.N. Mwangi, Samburu and Turkana healers (2004): Efficiency of Myrsine africana, Albizia anthelmintica, Hilderbrantia sepalosa Herbal remedies against Mixed Natural Sheep Helminthosis in Samb.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. E; 2004. Abstract
The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared.  Sheep were infected orally with     10 000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%).  Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4,6,8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep.  These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05).  The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.M.A. Kitaa, C. Mulei, J.D. Mande, J.K. Wabacha. Clinical and Laboratory diagnosis of Ehrlichial infections in dogs: A Review.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2004. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Jae Sung Lee, Jong Suk Lee, Jae Don Yoon, Sung-Mok Beak, Kefa O. Bosire, Yong Soo Lee, Jung-Ae: Production of lignin Peroxidase by Phellinus igniarius and Cytotoxic effects of Ligin hydrolysates derived from wood biomass on cancer cells. J. Appl. Pharmaco.". In: J. Appl. Pharmacol. 12, 3, (2004) 189-193. Folio Morphol; 2004. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Jaeger M, Grussner SE, Omwandho CO, Klein K, Tinneberg HR, Klingmuller V. Cranial Sonography for Newborn Screening: A 10 year retrospective Study in 11, 887 Newborns.[Article in German].". In: Rofo. 2004 Jun;176(6):852-8. [Article in German].; 2004. Abstract

We retrospectively analyzed the results of a sonographic cranial screening study, performed between 1985 and 1994 to determine the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral anomalies based on obstetrical risk factors. In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University Giessen, Giessen, Germany, 94.6 % (n = 11,887) of all children born during the study period were included and underwent sonographic cranial screening within the first 10 days after birth. Cerebral abnormalities were found in 653 (= 5.5 %) cases, and peri-/intraventricular hemorrhages (PIVH, grade I-IV) in 303 cases. Periventricular leucomalacia, porencephaly, subarachnoidal hemorrhage and hydrocephaly were rare (

AKINYI DRDWASIJANE. "Jane Dwasi and Judy Oglethorpe, HIV/AIDS and Ecoregion Conservation (Island Press.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 22, pp 371- 383, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Volume of ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritis of the hip joints of adult dogs. Journal of South African Veterinary Medical Association. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.W.MBUGUA, I.B.J. BUORO, P.K. GATHUMBI (2003) Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 74: (1): 11-13.". ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2003. Abstract

Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2003). "The control of parasitic nematodes in commercial piggeries in Kenya reflected by a questionnaire survey on management practices". Tropical Animal Health and Production. 35: 79-84.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, S. M. Mutuli and G.O. Rading Stress Characterization in Autofrettaged Thick Walled Cylinders Int. J. Mechanical Engineering Education. 31(4) (2003) p 370-389.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

The inaccessibility of commercial software has necessitated the development of low-cost, general-purpose finite element method (FEM) computer programs for structural analysis. Using the FEM program, the elastic, elastic-plastic, residual and service stresses and displacements in a closed ended, thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure were established. The displacement formulation was implemented and eight-noded brick isoparametric elements chosen. The frontal solution technique and the incremental theory of plasticity were used, as only limited computing facilities were available. The results were found to be in very good agreement with the through-thickness analytical values. The benefits of autofrettage were demonstrated and an optimum overstrain of 16% established for a cylinder with a thickness ratio of 2. The material economy achieved through autofrettage and the limitations imposed are illustrated. The FEM program could therefore be reliably used for other complex geometries and load conditions.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O DROPEREALFRED. "J. Muthama, A. O. Opere and C. B. Lukorito (2003): Utilization of Meteorological products in Agriculture and Water sectors in Central and Eastern Kenya. Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003), p7-1.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003). A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.K. GATHUMBI Correlation between radiographic and pathological features of hip osteoarthritis in adult dogs.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2003. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua, I.B.J. Buoro and P.K. Gathumbi (2003). Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs. JlS. Afr. Vet Ass. 74: 11-13.". In: Presented at the Biennial Scientific Conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi held on 3rd -5th November 2004. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2003. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "J.I.Mwanje;G.A.Olukoye;J.I.Kinyamario;J.W.Wakhungu and W.N.Wamicha (2003) Policy and Institutional framework for rangeland development; emerging challenges in Livestock and wildlife management regimes in Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Sciences.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6- 8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2003.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA. and P.W.N. KANYARI. ( 2003). Resistance to anthelmintics in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Israel Journal of 20 Veterinary Medicine 58(1): 31-36.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J.M. Kihiu, G.O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Geometric Constants in Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Pressure Vessel Technology, 125 (2003) p 446-453.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "JK Kyaligonza, EO Wango, C Sekadde-Kigondu and P Adayo The Acrosomee Reaction in Gray Mangbey.". In: J.Med. Primatology., 23, 187, 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in commercial chicken.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. M. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). An analysis of intensity of nematode infections in commercial pig farms in Thika District.". In: Annual Scientific Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association Held at Kakamega; April 2002. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, I.B.J. BUORO, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.W. MBUGUA, (2002) Polysulphated Glycosaminoglycans in the treatment of Osteoarthritis- A review. Kenya Veterinarian 23: 70-73.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, I.B.J. BUORO, S.W. MBUGUA, P.M.F. MBITHI (2002) Experimental Models of Osteoarthritis in Animals- A Review. Kenya Veterinarian 23: 67-69.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2002). "The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in commercial pig farms in Thika District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 50: 1-11.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "J.I.Mwanje; G.A.Olukoye; J.I.Kinyamario; W.N.Wamicha and J.W.Wakhungu:(2002) Coping with Drought in livestock and wildlife Production in Laikipia District: Emerging Issues and Concerns.". In: Proceedings of the Animal Production Society of Kenya,pp 37-47. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2002.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, E.H. Weda, and J.M. Maribei (2002). Prevalence of Sarcoptic mange in pigs in smallholder herds in a peri-urban area in Central Kenyan highlands. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 50:9-14.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2002. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA, P.W.N. KANYARI (2002). Anthelmintic resistance survey in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "J.W.Wakhungu; G.A.Olukoye;W.N.Wamicha;J.I.Kinyamario and J.I.Mwanje(2002).Environmental impacts of livestock- wildlife ranching in Lakipia District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Animal production Society of Kenya, pp49-58. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2002.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Jain R, Batra Y, Acharya SK.Post cholecystectomy hemobilia: transcatheter embolization of pseudoaneurysms with homemade steel coils.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul-Aug;21(4):161-2.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul-Aug;21(4):161-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Two patients presented with hemobilia, one and two months following cholecystectomy. Angiography demonstrated pseudoaneurysms arising form the gastroduodenal and right hepatic arteries. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization of the pseudoaneurysms was successfully performed in both patients using homemade steel coils.
AKINYI DRDWASIJANE. "Jane A. Dwasi, Regulation of Pesticides in Developing Countries, The Environmental Law Reporter, Volume XXXII, Number 1, January.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Joint Aspects.". In: Department of Design, UON Nairobi. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Joint exhibition of Art and Design by academics of the University of  Kentucky and University of Nairobi.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J M Gathuma, JM Mbaria, JB Wanyama, HFA. Kaburia, L Mpoke, Samburu and Turkana healers (2001). Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Ke.". In: Proceedings of the First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Held from 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. E; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT: One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it's a good indicator of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E. coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2001). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in small ruminants in a high potential area of Central Kenya". Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 72 (3): 147 - 149.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka, "Microfinancing Adolescent Girls from Slum Areas: An Attempt at Poverty Eradication".". In: Published by UNCRD. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI (2001) An overview of the role of the veterinary schools in emergency and disaster management. Kenya Veterinarian. 21: 66-68.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2001. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei (2001). The economic impact of progressive atrophic rhinitis in grower -finisher pigs in a medium- scale piggery in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth and Prod. Afr.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J. M. Maribei and P.M.F. Mbithi (2001). Occurrence of Clinical dermatophilosis in Zero-grazed Dairy Cattle. The Kenya Veterinarian 21: 43-44.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J.M. Maribei and M.N. Kyule (2001). Farm demographics and pig management practices of smallholder pig farms in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 72-75.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.

UoN Websites Search