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N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN. Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic dyspepsia. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):601-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):601-2. test; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 + T cell count in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment initiation in a Kenyan population of HIV seropositive patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, HIV treatment and follow-up outpatient facility; Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twenty five HIV Elisa positive, ARV naive patients visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre between January 2006 to March 2006. RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between TLC and CD4 cell count for the whole group with a Spearman rank correlation of 0.761 (p < 0.01); and was also independently observed in the four WHO clinical stages. The classification utility of TLC 1200 cells/mm3 cut-off was suboptimal; sensitivity 37% specificity of 99% and the NPV of 56%. The receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve generated an optimal TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 cut-off to be of greatest utility with a sensitivity of 81.1%, specificity of 90.3%, PPV of 90.8% and NPV of 80.2%. This implies that a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 correctly classify eight out of ten HIV positive patients as having a CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 and only misclassify two such patients. Serial CD4 testing can then be performed on the minority of patients who despite a TLC > or = 1900 cells/mm3 are, on basis of clinical data, suspect of more advanced disease warranting ARV therapy. This would reduce the number of patients tested for and focus the application of CD4 testing and thus reduce attendant cost in care provision in CD4 resource poor settings. CONCLUSION: Our data showed a good positive correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count, however the WHO recommended TLC cuto-ff of 1200/mm3 was found to be of low sensitivity in classifying patients as having a CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3. This would result in underestimation of advanced stage of disease and to withholding ARVs treatment to persons who need treatment. We recommend a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 for our population to classify patients as either above or below the CD4 count cut-off of 200 cells/mm3 as an indicator of when to start antiretroviral therapy.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama and S. Palmieri: Monitoring of total ozone using Brewer spectrophotometers in Italy, Bollettino Geofisico, Anno XV, N.5.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1992. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Status of Organochlorine (DDT) pollutants and steps toward electrocatalytic reductions", Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 73, 1907-1916.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2001. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. """Accounting Standards and the Kenya Institute o Certified Public Accountants." by J.D.Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This paper reviews briefly the status and development of Accounting Standards in several major countries of the world as background for standard .". In: The Accountant, Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya, (pages 16-19. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Okoth F, Lule GN. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) in patients with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(5):355-8. test; 1990. Abstract

Forty one consecutive patients (24 males and 17 females) with AIDS had their blood assayed for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by Reversed Passive Haemagglutination (RPHA), Passive Haemagglutination (PHA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques respectively. 5 (12.2%) were found positive for HBsAg. 10 (24.4%) for anti-HBs and 31 (75.6%) for anti-HBc. 32 (78%) out of 41 patients with AIDS had serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). The prevalence of HBsAg found in this study is not different from what has been found in the Kenyan community without AIDS, while that of anti-HBs is much lower than what has been reported in the general community.

N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Chlamydia as a cause of late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):476-9. PMID: 12625688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN, Govedi AF, Revathi G, Wambani JS.". In: East African Med J, 79; 7-10:2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late neonatal pneumonia. It is therefore useful to gather epidemiological evidence to guide in the routine diagnosis and treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chlamydia associated pneumonia among infants developing the disease between the 7th and 30th days of life (late neonatal pneumonia). DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty two newborns clinically diagnosed as having late neonatal pneumonia. They were all subjected to chest X-rays to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates for chlamydia antigen detection tests were then performed on all patients. The study was undertaken during the months of September through to November 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of newborns with late neonatal pneumonia that have chlamydia trachomantis as the sole or contributory causative agent. RESULTS: Fifty two newborns of postnatal age between seven and 30 days were recruited. Their sex distribution was about 1:1. Thirty three (63.5%) of these infants were found with chlamydia in their upper airways. Thirty out of 47 available chest X-rays, representing 63.8% had evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Chlamydia associated pneumonia indicated by the presence of both interstitial pneumonia and colonization of the upper air ways was present in 24 out of 47 patients, 51% of the total cases of late neonatal pneumonia. When X-rays alone were compared with our gold standard for the diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia (radiology and colonization), we computed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 73%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value of 80%. Mode of delivery, birth weight and gestation had no association with nasopharyngeal colonization by chlamydia or actual diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chlamydia associated infection among newborns with late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital is 51%, eight times more than that reported elsewhere. Chest X-rays appear to be a reliable diagnostic tool in this group. The use of antichlamydial drugs in addition to the regular antibiotics whenever a diagnosis of late neonatal pneumonia is made is justifiable.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, A. OYEJIDE, J. ALAK, D. ANDERSON, S.T. WILSON and K.K. SRIVASTAVA ( 2002). "Cryptosporidium parvum: experimental transmission in murine hosts". Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 57(2): 70 - 75.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Effect of Coagulation aspects and colour removal from textile wastes", J. Biochemiphysics, 3 (1994) 41.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1994. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Ameyaw MM, Regateiro F, Li T, Liu X, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Thornton N, Folayan GO, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, Price-Evans DA, McLeod HL..MDR1 pharmacogenetics: frequency of the C3435T mutation in exon 26 is significantly influenced by ethnicity. .". In: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr;11(3):217-21. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
P-glycoprotein (PGP), the product of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that exports its substrates out of the cell. PGP expression is an important factor regulating absorption of a wide variety of medications. It has also been associated with intrinsic and acquired cross resistance to a number of structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 26 of the MDR1 gene, C3435T, was recently correlated with PGP protein levels and substrate uptake. Individuals homozygous for the T allele have more than four-fold lower PGP expression compared with CC individuals. As overexpression of PGP has been associated with altered drug absorption, therapy-resistant malignancies, and lower concentrations of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, this SNP may provide a useful approach to individualize therapy. To facilitate clinical application throughout the world, 1280 subjects from 10 different ethnic groups were evaluated for this SNP using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the genotype and allele frequency for each group were ascertained. Marked differences in genotype and allele frequency were apparent between the African populations and the Caucasian/Asian populations (P < 0.0001). The Ghanaian, Kenyan, African American and Sudanese populations studied had frequencies of 83%, 83%, 84% and 73%, respectively, for the C allele. The British Caucasian, Portuguese, South-west Asian, Chinese, Filipino and Saudi populations had lower frequencies of the C allele compared to the African group (48%, 43%, 34%, 53%, 59%, and 55%, respectively). The high frequency of the C allele in the African group implies overexpression of PGP and may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications for use of PGP dependent drugs in individuals of African origin. PMID: 11337937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Characterization of East African Clays.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth F, Mwai SJ. The clinical pattern of duodenogastric bile reflux in the Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract
Forty consecutive African patients found to have duodenogastric bile reflux at endoscopy were studied. Bile reflux was found more commonly among males than females, giving a male/female ratio of 2.3:1, with a peak age at 41-60 years. ABO blood groups had no significant influence on duodenogastric bile reflux. Flatulence and borborygmi were the most consistent symptoms other than the classical dyspeptic pain pattern. Bilious vomiting was a rare finding. Duodenogastric bile reflux was more commonly associated with endoscopic gastritis (67.5%), gastric ulcer (35%) and oesophagitis (30%) than with duodenal ulcer (22.5%), deformed pyloric ring (5%) or distorted duodenal bulb (2.5%). The dysfunction in the pyloric sphincter in people with duodenogastric bile reflux appears to be more of a physiological defect than structural.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. WAWERU, P. W. N. KANYARI, D.M. MWANGI, T.A NGATIA and P. NANSEN (1999). "Comparative parasitological and haematological changes in two breeds of sheep infected with Fasciola gigantica." Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31: 363 - 372.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Resolution of overlapped current-potential curves for reduction of pyridine carboxylic acid", J.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 17, 1984, 265. Survey Review; 1984. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Socio-Economic Consequences of Kenya's Changed Formal Education Structure. A synoptic review of Kenya's Education policy and structural change to the current 8-4-4 structure: high-lighting the socio-economic consequences.". In: The Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi, (25 pages). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1984. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. Drought climatology and development of the climatic scenarios. Part II (pp. 149-173), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2:.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Lilly C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga and C.O. Kimoro. (1998). Comparason of immune responses of two Salmonella gallinarum strains viewed as posssible vaccines for fowl typhoid in Kenya. Onderspoort Journal of Vet. Res. Vol. 65.67-73.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1998. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "Discovery and Innovation Vol 8:181-188 [1996] A Comparison of Ultrastructural aspects of macrogametogenic Stages of Two Eimeria Species of Goats( capra hircus) PWN Kanyari, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; Kenya.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "E.S. Bizimenyera and P.N. Nyaga (1988). Acquisition of disinfectant resistance in E. coli and other bacteria found in poultry operations:.". In: Hong Kong 1-5th August, 1988. 8th International Conference on Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1990). " Development of Eimeria apsheronica in Goats Capra hircus: Endogenous development and host cellular response."International Journal for Parasitology. 20: 625 - 630.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI (1986). " Ultrastructural studies of Eimeria apsheronica in goats". Sixth International.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga, A.D. Wiggins and W.A. Priester. Epidemiology of equine influenza, risk by age breed and sex Comp. Immuno. Microbiol. Infec. Dis.Vol. 3. 1981:67-83.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Establishment of a biobank and pharmacogenetics database of African populations.Matimba A, Oluka MN, Ebeshi BU, Sayi J, Bolaji OO, Guantai AN, Masimirembwa CM.Eur J Hum Genet. 2008 Jul;16(7):780-3. Epub 2008 Apr 2.". In: Eur J Hum Genet. 2008 Jul;16(7):780-3. Epub 2008 Apr 2. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2008. Abstract

The natural product curcumin has a wide range of useful biological effects. However its use in humans is limited due to its short half-life, rapid metabolism and poor oral bioavailability. It is metabolized by sequential reduction of carbon-carbon double two carbonyl groups. To overcome these limitations, a hydrazide derivative of curcumin was synthesized to improve its water solubility and reduce its rate of metabolism. The objective of study was, therefore, to develop a method for the analysis of hydrazinocureumin in murinc blood. This method will be eventually used to evaluate the pharmokinetic profile of hydrazinocurcumin in mice. Method: LC/MS/MS was selected as the analytic method because its high sensitivity allowed for sampling of small volumes of blood from mice. The optimal chromatographic and mass spectrometry conditions were determined by trial arid error. The column performance was monitored by measuring retention time, peak symmetry factor. A calibration curve was generated by using standard solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.78 - 10 rig/ml. The method was validated by determining the recovery, limit of detection, accuracy, linearity and intraday precision. The optimal method for extracting hydrazinocurcumin from biological fluids was determined by spiking human blood and plasma and extraction was done by solvent extraction from a spotted filter paper and liquid-liquid extraction. Instrumentation: The samples were assayed using an Agilent LC/MS/MS 3200Q Trap system (1100 series, USA) in the positive ionization mode. HPLC separation was done using an Agilent 1200 system (Agilent Technologies, Japan) interfaced with the MS/MS system. Ionization was done by electron spray ionization with a collision energy was 33eV. Chromatograms were integrated using Analyst version 1.4 software. Weighted linear regression was used to generate calibration curves from standard solutions. Results: The optimal conditions for HPLC separation was a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile: acetonitrile (1:1) with an isocratic flow rate of 0.3m1/minute and run time of 2 minutes. The analytical column was a 50 by 2.0 mm Pheromex C18 column with a particle size of 5 microns. The injection volume was 1 Out The hydrazinocurcumin formed molecular ion at M+H+ m/z 365.2 and two metastable ions at m/z 351 and m/z. 349.2. The transition monitored was m/z 365.2 to 349.2 at unit resolution and a dwelling time of 150 milliseconds. The retention time was 1.11 minutes. The optimal method of extraction was liquid-liquid extraction using 250 ul of ethyl acetate from 10 ul of whole blood in 50 ul of buffer at pH 10. The filter paper method of extraction was found to give erratic results. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 10n/m1 to 0.5 ng/ml of hydrazinocurmin in whole human blood. Conclusion: The precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

N DRKANGETHERACHEL. "Njenga, F.G., Kang.". In: East African Medical Journal. Vol.8.No.4., pp188. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J. Modelling Ultraviolet radiation using Dobson ozone spectrophotometer.". In: Proceedings of the quadrennial ozone symposium, Sapporo, July 2000. Eastern and South African Journal; 2000. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Socio-Economic Consequences of Kenya's Changed Formal Education Structure. A synoptic review of Kenya's Education policy and structural change to the current 8-4-4 structure: high-lighting the socio-economic consequences.". In: The Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi, (25 pages).; 1984. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Cheruiyot, P.K., W. Ndiema, C.K.W. and Ngunjiri, G.M.N. (2003). Greenhouse effects on biogas generation. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Comparative Examination of Two Zanthoxylum Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids for Cardiovascular Effects in Rabbits.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES - VOL. 1. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1989. Abstract

Cardiovascular activities of nitidine chloride from Zanthoxylunt chalybeum have been compared with those of 9-methoxychelerythrine. Whereas nitidinc chloride was found to show significant hypotensive activity in rabbits, 9-methoxychelerythrine chloride showed no hypotensive activity. The effect of nitidine chloride on isolated rabbit heart was also compared with those of adrenaline and acetylcholine. 9-Methoxychelerythrine, which has hitherto been regarded as an artefact formed by recrystallization of chelerythrine base from methanol, has been shown in this work to be a true natural constituent of Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Keywords: 9-inethoxychelerythrine; nitidine chloride; cardiovascular properties; hypotensive effect; Zanthoxylum chalybeum.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Observations on changes in resistance to levamisole in Haemonchus contortus after passage in sheep and calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 39 (3): 281-287.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Hukka, J J, Katko, T.S. and Nyangeri, E. N (1998) Privatization or Public Utilities reforms? Water Africa .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Mineralogy, Chemistry and Micromorphology of Ashes obtained from Sugar Cane Bagasse and Rice Husks from Kenya,.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 11&13, No. 3, December 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "PHARMACOGENETICS OF DRUG METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN THE LUO, KIKUYU AND MAASAI ETHINIC POPULATIONS OF KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. MN Oluka, A Matimba,AN Guantai, C Masirembwa, BH Estambale; 1981. Abstract

ere is great heterogeneity in the way individuals and populations respond to medications in terms of both host toxicity and efficacy. It is now well recognized that genetic differences in drug metabolism and disposition as well in drug target receptors could have an even greater influence on the efficacy and toxicity of medications. A Wide range of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are subject to genetic polymorphism. The genotype-phenotype relationship is particularly important for drugs with narrow therapeutic index where slight changes in plasma levels can result in serious toxicity or lack of efficacy. While Caucasian and oriental populations have benefited from the intense interest in the field of pharmacogenomics, there still exists a wide gap in this knowledge on African populations. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and frequency of allelic variants of polymorphic DME in three major ethnic populations in Kenya.

N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Sang F, Ogutu EO.Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7. test; 1991. Abstract

Sixty six patients with dyspeptic symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies for Helicobacter pylori culture. The number of H. pylori isolated increased with age reaching a peak at 51 to 60 years of age. Antral gastritis closely followed by duodenitis accounted for the highest number of H. pylori isolated, (87.5% and 85.7% respectively). In patients with duodenal ulceration only, 57% had H. pylori isolated from their antral biopsies, a result that was just slightly higher than that where no endoscopic diagnosis was made (50%).

N MRNYUTHOEDWIN. "Gate Keeping and Agenda Setting in 'A New Democratic Error?.". In: School of Journalism. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2003). "The control of parasitic nematodes in commercial piggeries in Kenya reflected by a questionnaire survey on management practices". Tropical Animal Health and Production. 35: 79-84.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Studies and Physical Chemical Properties of Unsaponifiable Matter of Avocado oil,".". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Harmonization of climate outlooks in Africa: Verification of user products.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol.5. No. 2 pp 81-89, 2002. 1999; 2002. Abstract
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N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogola EN, Yonga GO.Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of hydroflumethiazide versus propranolol in Africans with mild to moderate hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):277-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):277-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI and J.G. KAGIRA ( 2000). "The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in cattle in a high potential area of Kenya: A quantitative analysis". Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:157 - 161.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Advanced Financial Accounting" Concepts, Reationale and Procedures incorporating Kenyan Laws, Regulations and Standards. 15 chapters integrating Kenyan and International Accoutning Standards, and using KASNEB CPA examination problems sd illustrations. Cu.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1992. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Obara, D.A. and Mungai, D.N., 1998. Socio-economic implications of soil conservation in the highland and mountain ecosystems in Murang'a district, Kenya. Section IV (pp. 132-150), In: F.F. Ojany (Ed.), African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustain.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. E.A.M.J. (2004): 81:44-47.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA and J. NGOTHO ( 1996). "Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya.". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 43: 253.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFNYAGAP. "E.M. Nderitu and P.N.Nyaga (1988). The therapeutic value of topical application of unboiled honey on acute moist dermatitis lesions in dogs. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod Afri. (1989): 13)-35.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1992). " Toxocara vitulorum infection in the bovine".". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N Management of Hypertension in Africa East Africa. J.Med pract.4: 103,1994.". In: East Africa. J.Med pract.4: 103,1994. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1988). " Caprine coccidiosis". The Australian Goat World 39:3.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N DRMBATIAPAUL. "Nzioka, Charles and Mbatia, Paul. 2002. "Community-Based Research Methodologies" in Bahemuka Judith and Susan Nkinyangi (eds.) Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development (PP 83).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Conference, September 1990 Kabete Campus. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "M.G. Binta, P.N. Nyaga, T.B. Tjaberg and M. Valland.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Occurence in marine sea fish. Shellfi6h, water and sediment in Kenya. E. Afric. Med. Journ. Yol. 59 (7),1982: 442-445.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.". In: ournal of AIDS and HIV Research Vol. 2(2) pp. 024-031. Monicah Wanjiru Karara, Faith Apolot Okalebo, Margaret Ng; 2010. Abstract

Stavudine- containing regimens are currently the most widely used first-line anti-HIV treatment option in Kenya. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at two dose levels in patients attending a HIV Comprehensive Care Centre in Kenya. Data were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg (4.2 vs 16.7%, p <0.001). Patients < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8 vs 4.2%, p < 0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reaction was significantly associated with severe immunosuppression (HR =1.45, Cl: 0.86 - 2.45, p < 0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, Cl: 1.06 - 4.38, p < 0.001) and treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, Cl: 1.09 - 3.96, p < 0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities was principally in the first year of commencing therapy. Similar immunologic outcomes were demonstrated across all the treatment groups with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words: Low -dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability.

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis. East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism. PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J. Total ozone as a Stratospheric indicator of climate variability and change over East African tropical region.". In: Proceedings of the SPARC 2000 2nd general assembly of the SPARC/WCRP PROJECT, Mar Del Plata - November 2000. Eastern and South African Journal; 2000. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. (2004). Final Prinwass Project Workshop. Deakin Room, St Anthony.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing coronary angiography. Kamotho C,Ogola E N,Joshi M D,Gikonyo D.". In: East Afr Med J.2004;81:82-86. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2004. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the coronary angiogram (CA). OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors with presence of CAD in black Africans. DESIGN: This was a dual-armed study, consisting of retrospective and prospective comparative arms. SUBJECTS: Black Africans who underwent coronary angiography. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, Cathereterization laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The conventional risk factors: age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alcohol use and interventricular septum (IVS) hypertrophy, as a marker of LVH. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 144 in the retrospective arm and 25 in the prospective. The larger retrospective arm showed that the group with CAD, compared to the normal group, was significantly older, with a higher mean age of 54.4 years compared to 49.8 years (P=0.005); had significantly more males, with a male to female ratio of 5.5:1 compared to 2.3:1 (P=0.045); had a very significantly larger proportion of diabetics (38.5% compared to 12%
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya. Leadership Education Training Manual.". In: (An article in the Journal of the Marketing Students Association - University of Nairobi). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, and J.N. Gicho. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of a poxvirus from horses in Kenya. Zebl. Vet. Med. B21., 1974: 592-601.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1974. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai A.N., Addae-Mensah I.,. Njoroge D.K.. Chloroquine Drug Interactions. Part I Interaction with drugs on the neuromuscular junction. The East and /central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 1 (3)-50-53 Dec. 1998.". In: The East and /central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 1 (3)-50-53 Dec. 1998. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 1998. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Resistance of field isolates of Haemonchus contortus to thiabendazole and fenbendazole in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 41: 133-137.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., A.M. Siani, S. Palmieri, V. Prioetti: Brewer ozone data collected over Italy during EASOE: A preliminary Investigation on high and low frequency variations.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on "Geophysics and Environment: Background air pollution", Rome, 16-18 June 1992, Bollettino Geofisico, Anno XVI, N.1, Part II, January 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Hypoglycemic and Hyperglycemic effects of Momordica charantia Fruit extracts,.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W., Guantai A.N. and Muriuki G. Eucalyptus Citriodora - Essential oil contents and chemical varieties in Kenya. E.Afric. Agr. For J. 46, 89 1981.". In: E.Afric. Agr. For J. 46, 89 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

N DRANANGWEGILBERT. "Intestinal atresia and stenosis as seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1993. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Obiero ET, Ogutu EO.Factors that influence the short term outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):240-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8. test; 1994. Abstract

Between April 1990 to January 1991, a prospective study of 97 consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of Kenyatta National Hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage was done. All the patients studied under went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation and a positive endoscopic diagnosis was possible in 90 (93%) of the patients studied. The leading causes of bleeding were oesophageal varices in 34 (35%) patients, duodenal ulceration in 17 (17.5%) patients, and superficial inflammatory lesions in 17 (17.5%) patients. 17 (17.5%) patients had multiple lesions with superficial inflammation and oesophageal varices as the commonest combination. In 86 (88%) patients, bleeding settled on simple conservative measures which included intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and antacids. Further haemorrhage was observed in 11 (11.3%) patients. Tachycardia (> 100/minute), hypotension (systolic BP < 100mm Hg) and low haemoglobin (< 8 g/dl) at admission were all correlated with a poor outcome. Variceal bleeding had the worst prognosis and the overall mortality rate was 5%.

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. 1986. Rehabilitation of Hand-dug Wells and Protected Springs, Kisii District, Kenya. M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 1986 .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Fuel value of Refined vernonia galamensis seed oil".". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Inflation Accounting: Pros, Cons, and the Sate of Play." This article discusses the impact of inflation on financial accounting and reporting with view fo highlighting the need for price-level adjsuted Financial Statements.". In: The Accountant, Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accoutants of Kenya, (pages 23-29. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Wankya BM. Duodenal ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Okoth FA, Lule GN, Ogutu EO, Pilczer S, Dubois C. Famotidine in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux. East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
Famotidine has been used for the treatment of peptic ulcers and Zollinger Ellison syndrome and is also useful in reflux and erosive oesophagitis. To evaluate the effects of Famotidine 20 mg given twice daily in the symptomatic relief of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease with normal oesophagus or mild endoscopic oesophagitis, patients were followed over a period of six weeks. 70% of the patients had complete day-time heartburn relief during the study and 75% had complete night-time heartburn relief during the study. Famotidine was found to be safe and there were no serious clinical or laboratory adverse experiences.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, Weda E. and Otieno, R. ( 2001). Use of medicated urea molasses blocks [ MUMB] to control gastro-intestinal nematodosis in calves in a semi-arid environment.". In: The 10th International Conference of the Association for Tropical Veterinary Medicine [ AITVM]. 20th - 23rd August, Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Ethical Transformations - Changing Professional Demands" This article is the edited version of a presentation to the Institute's seminar held in Mombasa in 1996 dealing with professional conduct in a changing economic and business environment.". In: The Student Accountant (Ibid) (pages 3-17). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1997. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Master of Medicine (in Pathology) dissertation entitled "Chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute leukaemia at K.N.H., Nairobi, Kenya.".". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Gichuki, F.N., Mungai, D.N., Gachene, C.K.K. and Thomas, D.B. (Eds.), 2000. Land and water management: Towards sustainable land use in Kenya. Proceedings of the Fourth National Land and Water Management Workshop: Towards Sustainable Land Use, Nairobi, Ken.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "A. OMEGA and P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Suitability of the faecal egg sedimentation (FEST) as a quantitative diagnostic technique for fasciolosis in sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th - 31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga (1989): Poxvirus in skin lesions of five nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Kenya.". In: KVA Scientific meeting on epidemic diseases, 27-28 July 1989, Nyeri, Kenya. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M. GITHIGIA, W. K. MUNYUA, P.W. N. KANYARI (1993). " Prevalence of coccidiosis in Kenya.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lodenyo H.A, McLigeyo S.O OGOLA E.N.Cardiovascular disease in elderly patients at the Kenyatta national hospital. East Africa. J.741: 647,1997.". In: East Africa. J.741: 647,1997. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1989). " Experimental coccidiosis in the goat Capra hircus: Observations on the ultrastructural aspects of Eimeria apsheronica macrogametogenesis". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. Special Issue.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. September 19th - 21st, 1990. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Gathuma, P.N. Nyaga, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.S Kaminjolo. Exposure of calves to taenid of wild carnivore origin. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol.30 (1). 1983: 55-60.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N; Arrhythmias in rheumatic Heart Disease as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Medicom, 10:133,1988.". In: Medicom, 10:133,1988. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation? Adv Exp Med Biol . 2001; 501 : 431-7 . PMID: 11787713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ.". In: Adv Exp Med Biol . 2001; 501 : 431-7 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2001. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary. PMID: 11787713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Harmonization of climate outlooks in Africa: Verification of user products.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol.5. No. 2 pp 81-89, 2002. Eastern and South African Journal; 2002. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri E, N. (200). History of Water Development in Kenya from 1895 to 2003. Flows from the Past: a trans-disciplinary Conference on the History of Water in Africa. The North West University: Vaal Triangle Campus (Vanderbijlpark, South Africa) in cooper.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. ""Positioning Your Bank For Survival" - Sokoni January .". In: Journal of the Marketing Society of Kenya (MSK)). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, J.K. Omuse, and E.R. Mutiga Infectious bovine rhinotracheatis infectious bovine pustulo - vulvo-vaginitis viral isolates from cattle with epididymitis and vaginitis. Amer. J. Vet Res. 36 (1975): 123-125.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 5. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 2002. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Low birthweight. East Afr Med J . 1986 Feb; 63 ( 2 ): 89-90 . No abstract available. PMID: 3720609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1986 Feb; 63 ( 2 ): 89-90 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available.
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Anthelmintics usage in Kenya and its implications. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 42:71-73.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., A.M. Siani, S. Palmieri: Precipitation as a cleanser of gaseous pollutants: Its efficiency in removing total column NO2 above a station in the centre of Rome.". In: Proceedings of the International conference on Atmospheric Physics and Dynamics in the analysis and prognosis of precipitation fields, Rome, 15 - 16 November 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (2001) Resource person. Workshop on Country Strategy Paper on the Water Supply and Sanitation Services. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. Kenya School of Monetary studies, Ruaraka, Nairobi. 15th .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Relative distribution of cathinone and D-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edulis (Miraa) growing in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Ogutu EO, Okoth FA, Lule GN.Colonoscopic findings in Kenyan African patients. East Afr Med J. 1998 Sep;75(9):540-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):226-31. test; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the types and prevalence of colonic diseases in Kenyan African patients referred for colonoscopy with lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey conducted over a two year period. SETTING: Major private hospitals in Nairobi. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty seven consecutive patients of both sexes and all ages referred for colonoscopy between January 1996 and December 1997. Only Kenyans of African origin were included. Patients were referred from all over the country though the majority of cases were from Nairobi and its surrounding districts. RESULTS: The major indications for colonoscopy were lower abdominal pain (35.6%), non-bloody diarrhoea (22.3%), constipation (21.4%) and rectal bleeding (19.8%). Nearly 53% of patients colonoscoped had abnormal mucosal findings, with the main abnormalities being: proctocolitis (20.2%), colorectal cancers (12.1%), haemorrhoids (7.3%), colorectal polyps (6.5%) and diverticulosis (5.3%). The main histological diagnosis among patients whose colonic biopsy were done included normal colonic mucosa (29%), non-specific colitis (28.5%), adenocarcinoma (18.2%), benign colonic polyp (9.7%) and ulcerative colitis (7.3%). There was one case of Crohn's colitis and five cases (3%) of infective colitis. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the African colon has a number of pathological lesions contrary to previous reported literature.

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (1990) Management of Limited Resources. Third Supervisors.". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, P.M. MATHIU, K.K. SRIVASTAVA, S.T. WILSON and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Post-mortem Observations on Ostrich Chicks in a Commercial Farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 52:59-62.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Determination of fluoride in different toothpaste formulations", Kenya J.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Lule GN, Otieno LS. Upper gastrointestinal tract in chronic renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. test; 1988. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2001). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in small ruminants in a high potential area of Central Kenya". Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 72 (3): 147 - 149.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Levels of Mercury in water, fish, sediments and blood samples from different regions of Kenya", J. Biochemiphysics, 1, 9.". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1991. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Ways of Knowing: Human Development. This article delineates the ways of knowing with a bias towards scientific research for Human Development and concludes by highlighting some current issues in the Kenyan society that demand scholarly endeavors to effect.". In: "The Student Accountant, Issue No. 13,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2000. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Githang'a, J. N. (1998). Diagnosis of disseminated alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma using cytogenetics: case report.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Dec;75(12):724-5. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The clinical, histologic and cytogenetic features of a patient with the alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) were investigated. The patient presented with a widely disseminated tumour including bone marrow involvement, and was a diagnostic dilemma. The presence of translocation (2;13)(q37;q14), which is strongly associated with alveolar RMS helped make the diagnosis. A review of other published cases confirms the strong association of (2;13) with alveolar RMS. The importance of considering RMS as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with disseminated tumour as the only finding is stressed. This case also shows how cytogenetic investigation of similar patients may provide a diagnosis.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Stigter, C.J., Coulson, C.L., Ng.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No.3, pp. 291-298. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI et. al. ( 1998). Occurrence of the Nematode Parasite Toxocara sp. In the African Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer):.". In: 7th Annual Seminar ENRECA Livestock Helminth 25 Research Project. 27th April to 1st May, Arusha Tanzania. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Cold solvent extraction and physico-chemical study of Avocado oil," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 75.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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N PROFLULEGODFREY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lule GN, Amayo EO. Irritable bowel syndrome in Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in black Kenyans. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, an urban private institution. SUBJECTS: Case files of all patients presenting with abdominal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of IBS using modified Manning's Symptomatic criteria in 223 consecutive adult patients presenting with abdominal pain and discomfort who had normal clinical findings and normal general and gastrointestinal investigations. RESULTS: Out of the 3472 patient files screened, there were 281 patients who fitted the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome giving an overall prevalence of 8%. The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male to female ratio of 1.4:1 being statistical significant at a p-value of 0.010. There was no statistical significant difference between the males and females in constipation and diarrhoea at p-value of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients were either on antidepressants or had been seen by a psychiatrist. Nine percent had undergone laparatomy for the abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to irritable bowel syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns. The syndrome may account for over 10% of patients with abdominal pain presenting to gastroenterologists in Africa. Proper attention to symptomatology may lead to clinching the diagnosis without resorting to many unnecessary and expensive investigations.

N S, O MS. "Neurofibromatosis type I: Report of two contrasting cases." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):614. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

N PROFNYAGAP. "M.K. Njenga, P.N. Nyaga, I.B.J. Buoro (1990). Management of Canine parvovirus enteritis in Kenya. The Kenya Vet. 14: 16-19.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1990. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, J. N. CHEGE, J. W. NGOTHO, and J.GICHANGA (1994). " Toxocara vitulorum - Kajiado District, Kenya: Prevalence of infection in calves, larval isolation from colostral milk and experimental infections in rabbits.". In: Third Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Ruminant Helminth Research Project, Samora Mitchel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. January 24th - 27th, 1994. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OMONDI DROYOOGEORGE. "Oyoo G.O OGOLA E.N, Clinical and sociodemographic aspects of congestive heart Failure Patients at Kenyatta National hospital. East Africa Med.J.70: 1999; 76:23-27.". In: East Africa Med.J.70: 1999; 76:23-27. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the underlying aetiology, precipitating factors and certain socio-demographic determinants in patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi in congestive heart failure. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SUBJECT: All patients aged thirteen years and above of either sex consecutively admitted with clinical diagnosis of congestive heart failure. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a national referral hospital. PATIENT EVALUATION: Detailed history including socio-demographic characteristics and physical examination was done. Patients underwent haematological and biochemistry tests followed by a chest x-ray, ECG and 2D Echo-doppler examination. Blood culture sensitivity was done when clinically indicated. RESULTS: Ninety one patients were studied, 44 males and 47 females. Almost 32% had rheumatic heart disease, 25.2% had cardiomyopathy, 17.6% hypertensive heart disease, 13.2% had pericardial disease while 2.2% had ischaemic heart disease. Three quarters of patients with hypertensive heart disease were above the age of 50 years, while 79% of patients with rheumatic heart disease were below the age of 30 years. Factors associated with patient deterioration leading to admission with congestive heart failure (CHF) included inadequate therapy (27.4%), arrhythmia (20.9%), respiratory infections (17.6%), anaemia (13.2%) and infective endocardiatis. Sixty two per cent of patients investigated were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification class IV, 31.9% in class III and 5.5% in class II. CONCLUSION: Congestive heart failure constitutes 3.3% of all medical admissions at KNH. Rheumatic heart disease is the commonest cause of congestive heart failure in our set-up while inadequate therapy, arrhythmias and respiratory infections are the three major causes of decompensation in our patients with cardiac disease.
N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Effects of the technique in intestinal anastomosis in cattle. Modern Vet. pr. (1984). 11: 891-895.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N N, SW H. "Influence of Coloring Agents on the Properties of Polymeric Coating Systems.". In: Aqueous Polymeric Coatings for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, 3rd edition. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2008.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Ogola E.N. and Ogutu E.O. Pericardial Disease in Association with Human Immune Deficiency. A report of two cases. Nairobi J. of Medicine 16: 13, 1990.". In: Nairobi J. of Medicine 16: 13, 1990. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperature.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6 . No. 2, pp 1-10,. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri E. N. (2004). Characteristics strength and treat ability of a recycled paper mill wastewater in a UASB reactor. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Vol. No. 8, p61-77. ISSN No.1562-6121.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "The Ten Day Rule and its implementation at the Kenyatta National Hospital Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983. University of Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Gathuma, M.M. Kagiko and P.N.Nyaga. Water quality in Kajiado District, Kenya. E. Afric. Journ. Med. Res. Vol. 3 (1) 1979.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Kamau F.N., Kibwage I.O, Guantai A.N. Muriuki G., Munenge, R.Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diarrhoea activities of a steroidal indoxyl: E. C. African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 6 (2) pp 26.". In: African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 6 (2) pp 26 . O Wesongah*l, GA Murilla, AN Guantai, RE Mdachi I, WM Karanja and TE Maitho; 2003. Abstract

hloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine due to its low cost and ready availability. However its use has been associated with serious adverse effects, (bone marrow suppression, hemolytic anaemia and aplastic anaemia) that may or may not be dose related. Consequently chloramphenicol is currently banned for use in food producing animals and restricted to non-food producing animals and management of life threatening infections in humans in absence of alternative therapy. Exposure to chloramphenicol can occur after regular consumption of animal foods from treated animals. Therefore the pharmacokinetic of chloramphenicol should be determined using a highly sensitive and specific assay method that can detect residue levels at the lowest concentration possible. Previous methods were limited due to low sensitivity (10 ng/m1-50Ong/mi). Therefore the aim of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol and potential residue levels in food producing animals using a published highly sensitive detection method; Chloramphenicol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml. Methods: Eight male red Maasai sheep aged 9 to 12 months and weighing between 21kg to 25 kg, were weaned and allowed to acclimatize for three weeks. Pre-treatment blood samples (10m1) was collected from each animal and then 25mg/kg chloramphenicol sodium succinate administered by deep intramuscular injection. Post treatment blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15 and 30minutes, I, 2, 4, 6 8, 12, 24 and 32 hour intervals then twice a day (week 1), once daily (week 2) thrice daily (week 3) twice daily (week 4). Phannacokinetic parameters were measured using chloramphenicol ELISA method. Data was analyzed by fitting four, parameter logistics regression curve of calibration standards and sample chloramphenicol concentration calculated from optical densities using ELISA data Eiaquik program (MC. Eisler, 1995). Samples were analyzed in duplicate. Results from these assays were compared with those from published data with respect to elimination half life, species variation, and minimum retention time. Results: Chlorarnphenicol elimination half life (36.4+3.66 h) obtained in the present study was significantly (P<0.05) longer than that of 5.75+1.25 h reported in similar species using colorimetric method. The method was able to detect the drug 7 days post administration. The area under the curve of 124,487.8 ng.h/m1 observed in sheep in the present study was significant higher than that of 31.220+3.25 rig.himl reported in literature in goats using similar treatment route and dose but different assay method. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetic parameters are significantly influenced by animal species and analytical assay methods used in their determination and care must be taken when reporting the residue levels in food producing animals.

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Breastfeeding promotion: feeding the low birth weight infant. Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1990; 31 Suppl 1 : 57-9; discussion 67-8 . PMID: 1972088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1990; 31 Suppl 1 : 57-9; discussion 67-8 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Though there is still some reluctance to use human milk for low birth weight infants, we have shown that it is possible exclusively to feed these infants on milk from their own mothers. The infants have adequate weight gain and are less likely to get infections, especially gastrointestinal and respiratory. It is possible to sustain lactation through manual expression during the period that the mother is not nursing her infant directly on the breast. A cup rather than a bottle can be used to feed these small infants. The mothers are thus encouraged because the infant does not suffer nipple confusion with a bottle and they continue breastfeeding after discharge from the hospital. PMID: 1972088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Ormemiddelresistens hos far (Anthelmintic resistance in sheep). Hovedresultater af endansk undersogelse (The results of a survey in Denmark).". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama N. J. and G. O. Ouma: An evaluation of atmospheric environmental quality of Nairobi for use in urban planning and architectural design. .". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Architecture and Environmentally Sensitive, Sustainable development, Nairobi, 25-26 July 1996. Eastern and South African Journal; 1996. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (2002). Principal Researcher. First Prinwass Project Workshop. The Dahrendorf Room, St Anthony.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lule GN, Amayo EO. Irritable bowel syndrome in Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in black Kenyans. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, an urban private institution. SUBJECTS: Case files of all patients presenting with abdominal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of IBS using modified Manning's Symptomatic criteria in 223 consecutive adult patients presenting with abdominal pain and discomfort who had normal clinical findings and normal general and gastrointestinal investigations. RESULTS: Out of the 3472 patient files screened, there were 281 patients who fitted the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome giving an overall prevalence of 8%. The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male to female ratio of 1.4:1 being statistical significant at a p-value of 0.010. There was no statistical significant difference between the males and females in constipation and diarrhoea at p-value of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients were either on antidepressants or had been seen by a psychiatrist. Nine percent had undergone laparatomy for the abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to irritable bowel syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns. The syndrome may account for over 10% of patients with abdominal pain presenting to gastroenterologists in Africa. Proper attention to symptomatology may lead to clinching the diagnosis without resorting to many unnecessary and expensive investigations.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: Atmospheric greenhouse warming, Science news, Vol. 1 :No.". In: Proceedings of The first National Research workshop on Meteorological applications and services, Nairobi. Eastern and South African Journal; 1989. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (1991). Experience with Small Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plans. Institution of Engineers, Mauritius, Commonwealth Engineering Council Meeting, 12th .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Influence of surfactant-based microheterogeneous fluids on aggregation of copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate", J.". In: porphyrins phthalocyanine 3, 188-195, 1999. Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth F, Mwai SJ. The clinical pattern of duodenogastric bile reflux in the Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9. test; 1989. Abstract

Forty consecutive African patients found to have duodenogastric bile reflux at endoscopy were studied. Bile reflux was found more commonly among males than females, giving a male/female ratio of 2.3:1, with a peak age at 41-60 years. ABO blood groups had no significant influence on duodenogastric bile reflux. Flatulence and borborygmi were the most consistent symptoms other than the classical dyspeptic pain pattern. Bilious vomiting was a rare finding. Duodenogastric bile reflux was more commonly associated with endoscopic gastritis (67.5%), gastric ulcer (35%) and oesophagitis (30%) than with duodenal ulcer (22.5%), deformed pyloric ring (5%) or distorted duodenal bulb (2.5%). The dysfunction in the pyloric sphincter in people with duodenogastric bile reflux appears to be more of a physiological defect than structural.

N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "E. Obimbo, R.N. Musoke F. Were: Knowledge attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. East Afr. Med. J. 76:425; 1999.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "TYLOR, W.D., SRIVASTAVA, K.K., OYEJIDE, A., KANYARI, P.W.N., NGATIA T.A., MBAABU- MATHIU, P. ( 2002). Evaluation of causes of chick mortality in small holder ostrich farms in Alabama. School of Veterinary Medicine Annual Symposium,.". In: Kellog's Conference Centre, Alabama USA March 6th to 9th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Development of Rice Husk Ash based alternative cements in Kenya", Proceedings:.". In: Inaugral conference of the Kenya Chemical Society, Nairobi, June 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Morsman JM, Sludden J, Ameyaw MM, Githang'A J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, McLeod HL.Evaluation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in South-west Asian, Kenyan and Ghanaian populations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Sep;50(3):269-72.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Sep;50(3):269-72. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2000. Abstract

AIMS: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) reduces endogenous pyrimidines and therapeutic analogues such as the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Among Caucasian populations DPD activity is highly variable and subject to polymorphic regulation. To evaluate interethnic influence, DPD activity was assessed in South-west Asian, Kenyan and Ghanaian populations. METHODS: DPD activity was determined in peripheral mononuclear cells using[14C]-5-fluorouracil and h.p.l.c. analysis. RESULTS: A high degree of variation in DPD activity was observed within each population (range CV = 34-48%). Median DPD activity also varied between these populations. South-west Asian and Kenyan subjects exhibited almost identical median values (192 and 193.5 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively), which were similar to Caucasians (median 215 pmol min(-1) mg(-1). A significantly lower median DPD activity (119 pmol min(-1) mg(-1)) was observed in the Ghanaian population. CONCLUSIONS: The similarity in DPD activity between Caucasian, Kenyan and South-west Asian populations suggests that the incidence of 5FU-related toxicity may be comparable in these groups. The pharmacokinetic implications of lower activity amongst Ghanaians needs to be evaluated.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D. N., C.K. Ong, B. Kiteme, W. Elkaduwa, R. Sakthivadivel, 2004. Lessons from two long-term hydrological studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104 (2004) 135.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, OYEJIDE,A.O., ALAK, J.I.B., OYEWOLE, A., ANDERSON, D.L., WILSON, S.T. (1998). "Cryposporidium parvum: Histopathological evidence of transplacental transmission in mice". The Kenya Veterinarian 23:103-105.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Accumulation of DDT residues in aquarium fish, sediment, plant and water," Accepted, J. Environment International.". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1996): A comparison of field outbreaks of camelpox and Camel contagious ecthyma in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. Afric. 44: 73-78.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). " Immunohistological demonstration of antigenecity of various endogenous stages of Eimeria in goats." Veterinary Research Communications, 18: 295 - 299.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.W. Maina, G.M. Mugera, J.M. Maribei and P.N. Nyaga. The control and prevention of sub-clinical mastitis in Kenya (1985). Kenya Vet. Vol. 9(2): 6-8.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Ogola ES, Muita AK, Adala H.Chloroquine related complete heart block with blindness: case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):50-2.". In: East Africa. Med J.69: 50,1992. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
A 27-year old African woman with history of regular chloroquine ingestion presented with progressive deterioration of vision, easy fatiguability, dyspnoea, dizziness progressing to syncopal attacks. Ophthalmological assessment revealed features of chloroquine retinopathy, cardiac assessment revealed features of heart failure and a complete heart block with right bundle branch block pattern. The heart block was treated by pacemaker insertion and the heart failure resolved spontaneously following chloroquine discontinuation. She however remains blind.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON, E. W. ALLONBY (1982) "Trypanotolerance and economics among East African goats compared to their crosses with two exotic Breeds". In Karbe, E. and Freitas, E. K. (Eds); pp. 93 - 99.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Probability Modelling of climate Data. Importance of Mathematical modelling of Biological and Biomedical processes.". In: African society of Biomathematics Series 1, edited by L. S. Luboobi, J.Y.T. Mugisha and J. Kasozi, Kampala:Makerere university press, ISBN 9970- 418-14-3, pp. 133-137, 2004. Eastern and South African Journal; 2004. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri,E.N. Omosa, I. And Shikoli, B.S.A (2004). Application of water demand management strategies in Kenya Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Under review.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Under review. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, Kimarua RW. "Comparison of two microdiffusion methods used to measure ionizable fluoride in cow's milk.". In: Analyst, 120, 2245 (1995). UoN; 1995. Abstract

Two microdiffusion methods for measuring ionizable fluoride in cows’ milk have been compared. The comparison includes diffusion time, amount of fluoride in spiked and unspiked milk samples and the effect of aluminium as an interfering ion. This work uses an acid diffusion technique involving hexamethyldisiloxane at room temperature and acid diffusion at 60 °C in the oven for 20 h. A significant difference was found in diffusion time and in the effect of aluminium ions. There was no significant difference in the amount of fluoride found in the milk samples using the two microdiffusion methods.

Keywords: Fluoride; microdiffusion; milk; fluoride-selective electrode; aluminium

N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "Okoth FA, Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Wambugu MN. Some Aspects of Obstructive Jaundice at Kenyatta National Hospital (co author) East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga and J.M. Gathuma. Some observations on Taenia sarginata cysticercosis in Kenya slaughter cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth, Prod. Afric. Vol.27 (1), 1979: 51-59.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in Meru district of Kenya.Muthaura CN, Rukunga GM, Chhabra SC, Omar SA, Guantai AN, Gathirwa JW, Tolo FM, Mwitari PG, Keter LK, Kirira PG, Kimani CW, Mungai GM, Njagi EN.Phytother Res. 2007 Sep;21(9).". In: Phytother Res. 2007 Sep;21(9):860-7. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2007. Abstract

Ten plant extracts commonly used by the Meru community of Kenya were evaluated for the in vitro antiplasmodial, in vivo antimalarial, cytotoxicity and animal toxicity activities. The water and methanol extracts of Ludwigia erecta and the methanol extracts of Fuerstia africana and Schkuhria pinnata exhibited high antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) < 5 microg/mL) against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum clones. The cytotoxicity of these highly active extracts on Vero E6 cells were in the range 161.5-4650.0 microg/mL with a selectivity index (SI) of 124.2-3530.7. In vivo studies of these extracts showed less activity with chemosuppression of parasitaemia in Plasmodium berghei infected mice of 49.64-65.28%. The methanol extract of Clerodendrum eriophyllum with a lower in vitro activity (IC(50) 9.51-10.56 microg/mL) exhibited the highest chemosuppression of 90.13%. The methanol and water extracts of Pittosporum viridiflorum were toxic to mice but at a lower dose prolonged survival of P. berghei infected mice (p < 0.05) with no overt signs of toxicity. However, the extracts were cytotoxic (SI, 0.96-2.51) on Vero E6 cells. These results suggest that there is potential to isolate active non-toxic antimalarial principles from these plants.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: Atmospheric ozone, Science News ,Vol. 1 :No.". In: Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya. Eastern and South African Journal; 1999. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N.(2003). Resource person. Regional Workshop for Coordinators of Reforms in Water and Sanitation Delivery. Water Utility Partnership for Capacity Building- Africa/World Bank Institute/ WSP-Africa. Landmark Hotel, Nairobi Kenya. 16th .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W. Guantai A.N., Muriuki G.m Essential oil of Plectrathus marrubiodes Benth. Kenya J. Sci. Technnol (A 63 1986.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technnol (A 63 1986. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1986.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in three districts of Kenya. Bulletin of Animal 8 Health and Production in Africa 39 (4): 423-428.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Karuru JW, Lule GN, Joshi M, Anzala O. Prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):170-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):170-2. test; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among medical in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital, in-patient department SUBJECTS: HIV/AIDS and HIV negative in-patients at KNH medical wards. RESULTS: Among 458 HIV/AIDS medical in-patients, the prevalence of HCV was 3.7% while in the 518 HIV negative patients, it was 4.4%. The prevalence of co-infection with HCV and HIV was 3.7%. The incidence of risk factors in persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: This study found the prevalence of HCV infection among medical in-patients to be similar in HIV positive and HIV negative group of patients. The co-infection rates were low, as were the risk factors for transmission of these infections.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., and L. J. Ogallo: The anomalous year 1989 over East Africa.". In: Proceedings of the second National Research workshop on Meteorological applications and services, Nairobi, September 1990. Eastern and South African Journal; 1990. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. 1994. Rehabilitation of Hand-dug Wells and Protected Springs. Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237.". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Potentials of using waste burnt clay as a pozzolanic material in Kenya", Discov. Innov., 13, 114-118.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2001. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N MJ. "An Overview of Theological Education by Extension Resources.". In: A Manual for Writers and Designers of Theological Education and Extension (TEE) Study Materials, The Writers Walking Stick,. Harare: Conference of African Theological Institutions; 1997.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Okoth FA, Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Wambugu MN. Some aspects of obstructive jaundice at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7. test; 1989. Abstract

A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).

N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants. East Afr. Med. J. 79:120, 2002. D.N. Ndwiga, F.N. Were, R.N. Musoke.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):120-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
{ Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. DESIGN: Comparative cohort study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during their first week of life. Half of them were designated as cases in view of having various early neonatal illnesses. The remaining 28 being clinically stable were taken as controls. These two groups had comparable birthweights, sex distribution and gestational ages. Their sodium intakes were also similar during the first week of life. RESULTS: The sick infants (cases) had persistently low serum sodium (mean of 120 mmols/L) throughout the first week while among the healthy infants (controls) a sequential increase from 127 to 133 mmol/l, (mean values) was observed during the same period. The difference registered on day seven (133 versus 120) was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Using a cut off point of 130 mmol/L to define hyponatraemia the proportion of infants with hyponatraemia, which was similar at the beginning became higher among the cases for the rest of the week with the largest disparity observed on the seventh day (75% versus 23%
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in commercial chicken.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Indirect spectroscopic determination of phosphate",J. Biochemiphysics, 3 (1994) 37.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1994. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Githang'a JN, Dave P. Bone marrow examination at a paediatric hospital in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S37-9.". In: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr;11(3):217-21. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main indications for, and common conditions found in bone marrow examinations (BME) of children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study from September 1, 1993 to September 3 1998. All bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy results were retrieved. The clinical data provided by clinicians were also noted. RESULTS: A total of 97 BME were recorded from patients aged two months to 13 years. The peak ages for BME were six to eight years (24% of patients). The more frequent indications for BME were unexplained anaemia found in 26% request forms, investigation for solid tumours (10%) and lymphoma (10%) and remission assessment after treatment for leukaemia (26%). The main findings were malignancy (27%) with leukaemia being commonest (ALL) 16% of patients and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5%). Haematinic deficiency was seen in 12.7% of cases with iron deficiency being the commonest. There were some notable differences and similarities in the study as compared to a similar one performed at a local referral hospital. CONCLUSION: The importance of BME as a crucial investigational tool in the management of patients is underscored. Interpretation is more meaningful when the haematologist has adequate clinical data.
N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Temperature Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of Grog Modified Kenyan Kaolinte Refractory.". In: Africa Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, 5(1), 6-14. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth FN, Were BO. The pattern of chronic gastric ulcer at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.). East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):10-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):10-4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract
Thirty consecutive patients with gastric ulcer diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic panendoscopy at both Kenya Medical Research Institute and Kenyatta National Hospital endoscopy rooms were studied. The male/female ratio was 5:1 with a peak prevalence in the 6th decade. 76.6% of the patients were from the Kikuyu ethnic group. Smoking habit was found in only 50% of patients with gastric ulcers. There were a total of 32 gastric ulcers in 30 patients. 84.4% of these were at the incisura angularis. All the incisural ulcers were benign. Two (6.25%) of the 32 ulcers were malignant (one at the cardia and the other at the antrum). Gastric ulcers whose diameter were greater than 30 mm had a higher tendency of being malignant. Five patients (16.7%) had both gastric (4 benign and 1 malignant) and duodenal ulcers while 4 (13.3%) patients had both gastric and pyloric ring ulcers. Apparent healing of a gastric ulcer while on an H2-antagonist does not totally exclude malignancy. Upper gastrointestinal bleed which was present in 53.3% of cases was the most frequent complication.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, EH. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1999). "Verminous pneumonia and other microscopic lung lesions in wild animals in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 15.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Determination of Trace Elements in Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines. J. Phytochemistry, Submitted.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 17, 1984, 265. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "The Making of Professional Accountants." Part 1, By J.D. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the legal framework under which the Kenyan accounting profession is orgnaized. It presents data on the current status of the profession and discusses ed.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, July 1980. (pages 37-39). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1980. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. The effects on agroclimatic zones and agricultural production. Part II (pp. 175-190), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2: Assessments in.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G.Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1997): Pathogenicity of Camelpox virus adapted to sheep skin and sheep kidney derived cell cultures in camels. Indian Vet. J. 74: 872-874.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA & J. NGOTHO. (1995). "Toxocara vitulorum infections in cattle in Kajiado District, Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health & Production in Africa, 3:11-5.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Intestinal anastomosis in cattle: Comparison of appositional techniques.". In: Proceedings of 14th World Congress on diseases of cattle (1986): 20. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1990). " Prevalence of coccidia oocysts in sheep and goat faecal samples. A preliminary report based on laboratory records." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 38 (4): 473 - 474.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogola EN, Yonga GO.Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of hydroflumethiazide versus propranolol in Africans with mild to moderate hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):277-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):277-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N.KANYARI (1985). "Studies in goat coccidiosis: Effects of corticosteroids on natural and experimental infections". Australian Society for Parasitologists.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1985. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "Mary, G. Binta, P.N. Nyaga, M. Valland and J.G. Tjaberg. Observations on some characteristics and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shell fish in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 29 (2), 1981:187-192.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

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