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17
CJ O, Onguru D, L K, M N, Ong’amo G. "Perennial transmission of malaria in the low altitude areas of Baringo County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 17;16:257.
1971
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Faces at Crossroad Edited. Nairobi. East African Literature Bureau:.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1971. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

1972
1973
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau, Vol. 1, 1, 2,.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Standpoints on African Literature, Ediated, Intro, Angus Calder Nairobi. East African Literature BureauFaces at Crossroads, ediated, Niairobi, East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

1974
Varma S, Ferguson HL, Breen H, Lumb WV. "Comparison of Seven Suture Materials in Infected Wounds." Journal of Surgical Research. 1974;17:165-170. Abstract
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Page MM, Alberti KG, Greenwood R, Gumaa KA, Hockaday TD, Lowy C, Nabarro JD, Pyke DA, Sönksen PH, Watkins PJ, West TE. "Treatment of diabetic coma with continuous low-dose infusion of insulin." British Medical Journal. 1974;2:687-690. Abstract

Thirty-eight patients in diabetic coma from four different centres were treated with a continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin at an average dose of 7.2 IU/hr. All patients recovered rapidly except for one profoundly shocked patient who died. The mean fall in plasma glucose was 58% four hours after the start of insulin. Blood ketone bodies and plasma free fatty acids showed a similar response. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose response according to severity of acidosis or previous treatment with insulin. Hypokalaemia was uncommon. In the treatment of diabetic coma this technique has proved simple, safe, and effective.

Varma S, Ferguson HL, Breen H, Lumb WV. "Comparison of Seven Suture Materials in Infected Wounds." Journal of Surgical Research. 1974;17:165-170.
1975
Varma S, Lumb WV, Ferguson HL, Breen H. "Infection and Suture Tolerance.". In: Presented at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons. Denver, Colorado, USA.; 1975. Abstract
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L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Singing with the Night, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1975. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Varma S, Lumb WV, Ferguson HL, Breen H. "Infection and Suture Tolerance. .". In: Presented at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons. Denver, Colorado, USA.; 1975.
Di Ferrante N, Leachman RD, Angelini P, Donnelly PV, Francis G, Almazan A, Segni G, Franzblau C, Jordan RE. "Ehlers-Danlos type V (X-linked form): a lysyl oxidase deficiency." Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser.. 1975;11(6):31-7.
Mulrennan JA, Lamdin JM, Bolton HT, Hammond CL. "Atmospheric levels of propoxur aboard submarines after residual spraying." J. Econ. Entomol.. 1975;68(6):755-60.
Hartman FC, LaMuraglia GM, Tomozawa Y, Wolfenden R. "The influence of pH on the interaction of inhibitors with triosephosphate isomerase and determination of the pKa of the active-site carboxyl group." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5274-9. Abstract

Ionization effects on the binding of the potential transition state analogues 2-phosphoglycolate and 2-phosphoglycolohydroxamate appear to be attributable to the changing state of ionization of the ligands themselves, therefore it is unnecessary to postulate the additional involvement of an ionizing residue at the active site of triosephosphate isomerase to explain the influence of changing pH on Ki in the neutral range. The binding of the competitive inhibitor inorganic sulfate is insensitive to changing pH in the neutral range. 3-Chloroacetol sulfate, synthesized as an active-site-specific reagent for triosephosphate isomerase, is used to provide an indication of the pKa of the essential carboxyl group of this enzyme. Previously described active-site-specific reagents for the isomerase were phosphate esters, and their changing state of ionization (accompanied by possible changes in their affinity for the active site) may have complicated earlier attempts to determine the pKa of the essential carboxyl group from the pH dependence of the rate of inactivation. Being a strong monoprotic acid, chloroacetol sulfate is better suited to the determination of the pKa of the carboxyl group. Chloroacetol sulfate inactivates triosephosphate isomerase by the selective esterification of the same carboxyl group as that which is esterified by the phosphate esters described earlier. From the pH dependence of the rate of inactivation of yeast triosephosphate isomerase, the apparent pKa of the active-site carboxyl group is estimated as 3.9 +/- 0.1.

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Roskoski R, Lim CT, Roskoski LM. "Human brain and placental choline acetyltransferase: purification and properties." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5105-10. Abstract

Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the following chemical equation: acetyl-CoA + choline in equilibrium to acetylcholine + CoA. In addition to nervous tissue, primate placenta is the only other animal source which contains appreciable acetylcholine and its biosynthetic enzyme. Human brain caudate nucleus and human placental choline acetyltransferase were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using ion-exchange and blue dextran-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The molecular weights determined by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis are 67000 plus or minus 3000. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inhibit the enzyme. Dithiothreitol reverses the inhibition produced by the latter two reagents. The pKa of the group associated with N-ethylmaleimide inhibition is 8.6 plus or minus 0.3. A chemically competent acetyl-thioenzyme is isolable by Sephadex gel filtration. The enzymes from the brain and placenta are thus far physically and biochemically indistinguishable.

Scheller F, Jänchen M, Lampe J, Prümke HJ, Blanck J, Palecek E. "Studies on electron transfer between mercury electrode and hemoprotein." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(1):157-67. Abstract

The electrochemical behaviour of ferricytochrome c, metmyoglobin and methemoglobin was studied using d.c., a.c. and differential pulse polarography, and controlled potential electrolysis. 1. The three hemoproteins yield d.c. polarographic steps, and peaks in differential pulse polarograms, the height of which is proportional to concentration. The charge transfer is influenced by strong adsorption. 2. The concentration dependence of the a.c. polarograms indicates structural changes in the adsorbed molecules. 3. The reduction products of controlled potential electrolysis of metmyoglobin and methemoglobin have absorption spectra identical with the native control samples. The affinity for oxygen and the cooperativity in hemoglobin are not affected by the reaction at the electrode. 4. The charge transfer proceeds via adsorbed, already reduced, molecules to freely diffusible proteins.

Crow TJ, Deakin JF, Longden A. "Proceedings: Do anti-psychotic drugs act by dopamine receptor blockade in the nucleus accumbens." Br. J. Pharmacol.. 1975;55(2):295P-296P.
Lorkin PA, Stephens AD, Beard ME, Wrigley PF, Adams L, Lehmann H. "Haemoglobin Rahere (beta Lys-Thr): A new high affinity haemoglobin associated with decreased 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding and relative polycythaemia." Br Med J. 1975;4(5990):200-2. Abstract

A new haemoglobin with increased oxygen affinity, beta82 (EF6) lysine leads to threonine (Hb Rahere), was found during the investigation of a patient who was found to have a raised haemoglobin concentration after a routine blood count. The substitution affects one of the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding sites, resulting in an increased affinity for oxygen, but both the haem-haem interaction and the alkaline Bohr effect are normal in the haemolysate. This variant had the same mobility as haemoglobin A on electrophoresis at alkaline pH but was detected by measuring the whole blood oxygen affinity; it could be separated from haemoglobin A, however, by electrophoresis in agar at acid pH. The raised haemoglobin concentration was mainly due to a reduction in plasma volume (a relative polycythaemia) and was associated with a persistently raised white blood count. This case emphasises the need to measure the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in all patients with absolute or relative polycythaemia when some obvious cause is not evident.

LaVail MM, Battelle BA. "Influence of eye pigmentation and light deprivation on inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat." Experimental eye research. 1975;21:167-192. Abstract
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1976
Rees BI, Lari J. "Chronic intussusception in children." British Journal of Surgery. 1976;63:33-35. AbstractWebsite
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Brzustowski TA, Lutia MF. "Flow due to a two-dimensional heat source with cross flow in the atmosphere.". 1976. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a model describing the flow field due to a two-dimensional infinitely long heat source in a stably-stratified atmosphere with a uniform wind cross-flow. The governing equation which is valid for any wind shear is non-linear in its general form and is solved for uniform flow only. The energy equation is not solved but a “source” function is assumed. The results of this model exhibit some of the observed mass fire characteristics such as the inflow window, the pinch effect, the upstream downdraft and a strong dynamic convection column. Blocking and the formation of eddies are shown to be the most important characteristics of the onset of mass fire conditions.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

1977
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Debtors, Edited, Nairobi , East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1977. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Munyua JK, Almlof E, Larsson M, Razinikiewicz, Lindqvist I. Fractionation by size of Casein micelles on controlled pore size glass. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1977.
Steel CM, Ennis M, Levin AG, Wasunna A. "The mitogenic response of cryopreserved human lymphocytes in a microculture system." Cytobios. 1977;18(70):89-99. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Padilla AJ, Loeb JN. ""{Low}-dose" versus "high-dose" insulin regimens in the management of uncontrolled diabetes. {A} survey." The American Journal of Medicine. 1977;63:843-848. Abstract
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1978
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Attachments to the Sun, Edited with Dougal Blackburn, Alfred Horsfall et. Al, London Edwad Arnold: 1978.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Discovering New East African Poets, Busara II, 2 (1969), 43-45. An extended version of it in E. Gachukia and S.K. Akivaga (eds.), Teaching of African Literature in Schools, Nairobi [Kenya Literature Bureau, 1978], 77-90.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Fossilized Black Martys: A Study of in the Fog of the Season's End, a novel by the late Alex La Guma, in Teaching of African Literature in Schools, [eds.] E. Gachukia and S. K. Akivage [Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1978], 201- 215.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Simanovskaia VK, Kadishaite DL, Lisok TP, Siminina AA, Goluveb DB. "[Characterization of biological properties and glycopeptide composition of influenza virus type A grown in different cell systems]." Virologie. 1978;29(4):275-81.
1979
KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE, M.G., VALLI VEO, LOSOS GJ. "Bovine granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid colony culture: Characteristics of the colonies and the assay systems." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1979;43:448-457.
Munyua JK, Larsson-Razinikiewicz. M. Chemical and physical effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Skim-Milk and isolated Casein Micelles.. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1979.
KAAYA GP, LOSOS GJ, MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. Effect of bovine trypanosomiasis on hematopoiesis.; 1979.
1980
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "For Home and Freedom, Authored, Nairobi, Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1980. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Imaginative Writing Since Independence: in The East African Experience: Essays on English and Swahili Literature Second Janheinz Jahn Symposium, Edited by Ulla Schild [Sonderdunck: Dietrich Reiner Verlag, 1980] 9-24.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1980. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Munyua JK, Larsson-Razinikiewicz. M. The influence of Ca2+ on size and light scattering properties of the Casein Micelles. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1980.
Kimani V;, Lawry JM;, Good CM. "The Initiation of a Kikuyu Medicine Man.". 1980. Abstract

The field research for this paper was part of a broader project on urban and rural traditional medicine conducted in Kenya in ,1977-1978, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C. We wish to thank Professor F. J. BENNETT of the Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, for providing us with office space and valuable advice. We also wish to express our appreciation to RICHARD MUTHEE and PENINAH MAKOBU for their good work as research assistants. Pronounciation: u as 0 in English word who; i as English a

Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks." Tissue Antigens. 1980;16(4):326-32. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

1981
Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574. Abstract
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Cordobés F, Lobato RD, Rivas JJ, Muñoz MJ, Chillón D, Portillo JM, Lamas E. "Observations on 82 patients with extradural hematoma: comparison of results before and after the advent of computerized tomography." Journal of neurosurgery. 1981;54:179-186. AbstractWebsite
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Varma S, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL, Lumb WV. "Tissue Reaction to Suture Materials in Infected Surgical Wounds – A Histopathologic Evaluation." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:563-570. Abstract
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Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574.
Huang, TT; Lewis SR, Amayo E;, Lewis SR. "A histological study of the lower tarsus and the significance in the surgical management of a involutional (senile) entropion.". 1981. Abstract

The dimension of the lower tarsus diminishes with aging. Changes in the number and size of the meibomian glands and in the character of intermingling fibroconnective tissues are thought to be responsible. Furthermore, such alterations of the structural integrity play an important role in the pathogenesis of entropion encountered commonly in the elderly. We have advocated the use of an autogenous cartilage graft harvested from the ear to correct the deformity, especially in instances where the conventional methods of correction have failed.

Varma S, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL, Lumb WV. "Tissue Reaction to Suture Materials in Infected Surgical Wounds – A Histopathologic Evaluation." American Journal of Veterinary Research . 1981;42:563-570.
1982
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Notes on Grace Ogot's Land Without Thunder for O-levels, Authored, Nairobi.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Twilight Years are the Years of Counsel and Wisdom", History and Culture in Western Kenya: The People of Bungoma District through Time, Edited by Simiyu Wandibba [Nairobi G.S. Were Press, 1982] 78 -90.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Lees P;, Maitho TE;, Millar JD;, Taylor JB. "Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in Welsh Mountain ponies."; 1982.
Karanja JG, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Mati JKG, Lequin RM. "Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men.". 1982.
Langman VA, Bamford OS, Maloiy GMO. "Respiration and metabolism in the giraffe.". 1982. Abstract

Measurements have been made on respiration of three resting unstressed adult giraffe under normal conditions. Tracheal dimensions and body dimensions have also been measured in a large number of giraffe and other mammals. The results indicate that contrary to statements in the literature the giraffe does not have an abnormally large dead space, though the trachea is abnormally long and narrow. The respiratory measurements indicate that the giraffe breathes as predicted by published scaling equations, and at rest shows no abnormalities of rate or depth. The respiratory evaporative water loss is very small. Body temperature is labile with a range of at least 3.3 degrees C, and oxygen consumption, respiratory frequency, minute volume and respiratory evaporative water loss are all strongly correlated with body temperature.

Lesan WR. Some Aspects Of Solubility Of Silicate And Glass Ionomer Cements A Laboratory Study.; 1982. Abstract

Three aspects of the in-vitro solubility of silicate and glassionomer
dental cements were studied.
a) The solubility of silicate cements was studied using the "weight
of evapourated eluate method. It was shown that the dissolution
of these cements depends on the volume of solution in which they
are immersed and also the frequency in which this was changed.
It was seen that these cement~ were capable of taking up fluoride
ions from concentrated solutions while releasing the same ions
in more dilute solutions. Studies with samples of varying surface
area:volume ratios confirm that dissolution is not only dependent
on the surface area but that matter is also lost from the bulk
of the specimen.
b) The release of organic materials from glass ionomer cements
immersed in water or phosphate solution was studied using a total
organic content (T.O.C) analyser. It was seen that upto 0.l0mg
of organics could be detected in such solutions. The concentration
of detected organic species rises with increasing time, then
falls off again. This is explained in terms of re-adsorption
of the organic species by the cement.
c) Thermogravimetric analysis studies glass ionomer cement samples
"
with various histories were made. Weight loss (presumably of
water) was shown to be related to the history of the samples
as well as to the thermogravimetric conditions. The thermogravimetric
conditions used in this study were air and Nitrogen
atmospheres. The results are used to assess the merits of the

sample-weight loss" method for investigating solubility.
This method, in view of the simultaneous water loss or uptake
by the sample, is not recommended.

Anthon S, Lund JF, Helles F. "Targeting the poor: taxation of marketed forest products in developing countries.". 1982. Abstract

In this article, we investigate whether taxation of households’ production of marketed forest products in developing countries is likely to assist in achieving the general development objectives of resources conservation and poverty alleviation. Based on an empirical study on such taxation in a village in Tanzania, we develop and solve a theoretical analytical model to analyse taxation, when households’ access to alternative income generating opportunities is heterogeneous. Findings are that taxation adversely affects income equality and has an ambiguous effect on the level of resource utilisation.

Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Kung'u A, Brubaker G. "HLA antigens in East African Black patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in controls: a pilot study." Hum. Immunol.. 1982;5(2):91-105. Abstract

A pilot study is reported of HLA-A, B, and C antigens in 141 East African Blacks comprising patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma, either with active disease or in long-term remission, together with comparable controls. This study forms part of a wider program investigating host factors in these diseases. A protocol was selected for optimal testing of cells processed and cryopreserved between 1972 and 1976, largely under field conditions, which employed a two-color fluorochromasia typing procedure. Antigen distribution and computed haplotype frequencies in the total unrelated population are given. New findings include an approximately equal frequency of Aw23 and Aw24, a high (18%) incidence of Bw21, and the gametic associations of Aw36 with Bw44, and Aw30 with Bw45. Of the major group of B15-related antigens reported earlier. SV is the most common, and there are strong linkages of SV with Cw2 and Bu with Cw3. The possible presence of further variants at the A- and B-loci is reported. The proportion of B-locus antigen "blanks" in this study is 5.9%. Relationships have been sought between the HLA antigens and diseases studied: the antigen A29, possibly in linkage with Bw42, shows a correlation with disease susceptibility, and associations are suggested between Bw44 (in possible combination with Aw36) and resistance to both BL and NPC, and between Bw45 and long-term remission in NPC.

Wilson HK, Keuer SP, Lea AS, Boyd AE, Eknoyan G. "Phosphate therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1982;142:517-520. Abstract

To determine the efficacy of phosphate replacement in the therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 44 patients were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: those who received no phosphate replacement, those who received 15 mmole of sodium phosphate at the fourth hour, or those who received 15 mmole of sodium phosphate at 2, 6, and 10 hours. All patients were treated with intravenous insulin injection (0.1 units/kg/hr), fluids, and potassium. Four hours after a 15-mmole sodium phosphate infusion, the serum phosphate level was 2.8 +/- 0.8 mg/dL vs 2.1 +/- 0.8 mg/dL in the control patients; however, this dose was insufficient to maintain the serum phosphate level at 16 and 24 hours. Forty-five millimoles of phosphate prevented severe hypophosphatemia in all but one patient and produced substantially higher phosphate levels at 8, 16, and 24 hours. Phosphate therapy did not affect the duration of DKA, dose of insulin required to correct the acidosis, abnormal muscle enzyme levels, glucose disappearance, or morbidity and mortality. Although theoretically appealing, phosphate therapy is not an essential part of the therapy for DKA in most patients.

1983
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Regional Reflections in the Literature of Kenya in Adjoining Culture as Reflected in literatureand Languages,(eds.) John X. Evans and Peter Horwath (Phoenix: Arizon State University Press, 173 ff.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1983. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Ochanda N, EPP H;, Lantieri D, Agatsiva JL. "Application of remote sensing to earth resources monitoring in Kenya.". 1983.Website
Bowry TR;, Ojwang J;, Lumba M. "HBV infection: prevalence of core antibody and other markers in urban based, black school children in Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

This paper reports a study of 279 sera obtained from children attending five schools in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya which is situated in a non-malarious zone. Their ages ranged from six to 16 years. The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in 13 children (4.7%) including seven boys and six girls. The core and surface antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay on 125 of the samples to study the pattern of infection in childhood and the interrelationships of different parameters of the infection. The core antibody by itself was observed in four children (3.2%). A total of 31 samples (24.8%) had both core and surface antibodies, 19 (15.2%) had only surface antibody. Thus, 48% of all school children tested had serological evidence of past exposure to the virus. The implications of these findings are discussed.

CF C, DS E, PE D, N H, BD R, LW I, H T. "Susceptibility of aposymbiotic Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti." Journal of invertebrate pathology. 1983;41(2):214-223. AbstractElsevier link

Larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus originating from Kenya were reared in 0.025 mg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride. Some of the resulting progeny were shown, by electron microscopy and crossing experiments, to have been rendered free of the rickettsia like symbiont Wolbachia pipientis and from these progeny, symbiont-free lines were established. In experimental feedings on infected human volunteers and on cryopreserved microfilariae, the aposymbiotic stocks were found to be fully susceptible to the filaria Wuchereria bancrofti. This contrasts with some recently published data on Aedes polynesiensis, from which it has been suggested that rickettsia like symbionts have an important role in the development of filaria in the mosquito.

Keywords
Culex quinquefasciatus; Wolbachia pipientis; Wuchereria bancrofti; electron microscopy; tetracycline treatment; aposymbiotic mosquitoes; filarial susceptibility; cryopreservation

Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

Lever E, Jaspan JB. "Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1983;75:263-268. Abstract

Rates of recovery of plasma glucose and bicarbonate levels, arterial pH, and level of consciousness were determined in a retrospective analysis of 95 episodes of severe diabetic ketoacidosis in patients treated with conventional regimens including low-dose insulin, saline, and potassium administration. No significant differences were found between 73 episodes in 52 patients treated with sodium bicarbonate and 22 episodes in 21 patients not undergoing such treatment. In view of these observations, the potential hazards of sodium bicarbonate replacement therapy, and the fact that sodium bicarbonate is still frequently given, the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate treatment in patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis requires reevaluation.

1984
Obel AO, L G, J W. "Comparison of slow - release frusemide (Lasic Retard) and bendrofluazide in the trea tment of moderate hypertension in Kenya Negroes." Clinical Trial Journal. 1984;(21):443-50. AbstractWebsite

The relative efficacy and the risk of producing biochemical disturbances by bendrofluazide, 10 mg once daily and slow-release frusemide (Lasix Retard) 60 mg once daily, during treatment of moderate hypertension in Kenyan negroes were compared in a double-blind randomized control study. Fifty newly diagnosed hypertensive patients entered the study which lasted for 36 wk. There were 7 drop-outs at the end of the trial. Both slow-release frusemide and bendrofluazide significantly decreased both supine and standing diastolic pressures and standing systolic pressure (P < 0.05). Bendrofluazide also showed a significant effect on supine systolic pressure (P < 0.01), which was greater than that of slow-release frusemide. Biochemical disturbances were more pronounced in patients receiving bendrofluazide than in those on slow-release frusemide. Bendrofluazide treatment resulted in significant hyperuricemia (P < 0.02), hypokalemia (P < 0.01) and a rise in blood glucose which was not statistically significant (t [test of significance] = 0.26). Slow-release frusemide produced no significant alterations in blood uric acid, K and blood glucose. Both treatment modalities produced no significant change in other biochemical and hematological indices. Compared with slow-release frusemide, bendrofluazide produced potentially serious adverse biochemical changes. The drugs were equally effective in controlling moderate hypertension although the hypotensive effect on systolic blood pressure was more pronounced with bendrofluazide.

Indangasi H, Laguma A. ""In the Fog of the Seasons' End.".". 1984.Website
Lule, G.N; Shah GWMV; EM;. "Malabsorption Syndromes in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1984.
1985
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "In 1985, collaborated with the Italian Cultural Institute in Nairobi on the issue of the Magazine Sinchron, dedicted to Africa and Kenya in particular.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "La Litteratura Dopo L'Independenza, in Synchron Numero 5 - Anno 4 Decembre 1985, 53-65.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Lule GN;, Okoth F;, Ogutu EO;, Mwai SJ. "HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985. Abstract

In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years

Oyugi WO;, Leonard DK. "Procedures for decentralized programming, budgeting and work planning: Lessons from Kenyan mistakes.". 1985. AbstractWebsite

In 1980 Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture instituted a new Management Manual, designed to improve the quality of district participation in programme identification, budgeting and implementation. Despite the fact that the Manual drew on modern programme budgeting techniques and was based on several years' experience with the management of Kenya's multi-district Integrated Agricultural Development Project, the new procedures have not taken hold. This experience is analysed in order to suggest lessons for the reform of management procedures elsewhere in the developing world.

Brun-Buisson CJ, Bonnet F, Bergeret S, Lemaire F, Rapin M. "Recurrent high-permeability pulmonary edema associated with diabetic ketoacidosis." Critical Care Medicine. 1985;13:55-56. Abstract

Delayed-onset pulmonary edema complicating severe diabetic ketoacidosis was observed twice in one patient. Hemodynamic measurements during the second episode showed normal transmural pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, suggesting an alteration in alveolocapillary permeability. Hyperventilation and acidosis may underlie this alteration. Vigorous fluid therapy, while decreasing oncotic pressure, may also contribute to the pulmonary edema. The two episodes in one patient suggest that pulmonary microvascular diabetic angiopathy may predispose some diabetics with severe ketoacidosis to increased-permeability pulmonary edema.

1986
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Geological Map, Juba Sheet 1:250 000; Geology and Land Use. .". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1986.
LITONDO KO. "Edited the report on the proceedings of a follow-up workshop on the"Role of Co-operatives in Development of Kenyan Economy",.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1986. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

Lubwama SW;, Plummer FA;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Nsanze H;, Namaara W;, D'Costa LJ;, Ronald AR. "Isolation and identification of Haemophilus ducreyi in a clinical laboratory.". 1986. Abstract

Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.

Kanja L, Skåre JU, Nafstad I, Maitai CK, Løkken P. "Organochlorine pesticides in human milk from different areas of Kenya 1983-1985." J Toxicol Environ Health. 1986;19(4):449-64. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

Adrogué HJ, Lederer ED, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. "Determinants of plasma potassium levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." Medicine. 1986;65:163-172. Abstract

The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.

1987
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "East African Prose and Poetry, Authored, Nairobi University Press.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers, 1989], 9-16.; 1987. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. & B. Meissner, (1987): Fracture systems and mineralization in East Equatoria Province, South Sudan, Special volume by IGCP Project 247;.". In: Arusha Conference 1987; published in Dar Es. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1987.
Lindqvist KJ, Arimi SM, Kaburia HFA, Kayihura M. "Staphylococcal enterotoxin Ä in raw and pasteurized milk.". 1987.
Macaques R, Ott-Joslin JE, Lasiey BL, Zucker EL, Miller TJ, Bennett B, Stover J. "Zoo Zoology.". 1987.Website
Serra AJ, McNicholas KW, Olivier HF, Boe SL, Lemole GM. "The choice of anticoagulation in pediatric patients with the St. Jude Medical valve prostheses." J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1987;28(5):588-91. Abstract

Between February 1982 and January 1984 27 St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prostheses were implanted in 24 children ranging in age from 5 to 20 years (mean 12.38 years). There were 10 isolated aortic valve replacements, 14 isolated mitral valve replacements and one triple valve replacement (aortic, mitral and tricuspid). There was one operative and four late deaths. All patients were maintained on Aspirin and Dipyridamole from the early postoperative period. There were six documented thromboembolic events occurring in five patients. There were 0.68 thromboembolic events per patient year in the aortic valve group and 0.19 events in the mitral valve group. Because of the significant incidence of thromboembolic events in our patients, we now recommend universal anticoagulation with Coumadin in all pediatric age patients in whom the St. Jude Medical prosthesis is implanted.

1988
Rivas JJ, Lobato RD, Sarabia R, Cordobés F, Cabrera A, Gomez P. "Extradural hematoma: analysis of factors influencing the courses of 161 patients." Neurosurgery. 1988;23:44-51. AbstractWebsite
n/a
LAVERA DRLEVI. "A text book for Christian Religious Education Form I.". In: God meets Us, Bk I. ISCTRC; 1988. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Bahemuka M, al-Nozha M, Shamena AR, Qaraqish AR, Lambourne A. "Cerebral infarction and left ventricular mass: a clinical and echocardiographic study.". 1988. Abstractcerebral_infarction_and_left_ventricular_mass-a_clinical_and_echocardiographic_study.pdfWebsite

One hundred and two stroke patients were studied. Thirty-three (32 per cent) were hypertensive by the WHO criteria. Eighty-three (83 per cent) had cerebral infarction and three patients suffered from spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. The mean left ventricular mass was calculated from echocardiographic measurements and compared with that of controls. Neither cases nor controls had valvular or congenital heart disease, or disease processes that may be associated with myocardial infiltration. Mean left ventricular mass of all cases was significantly greater than that of controls (p less than 0.025) and that of the cases over the age of 50 years was also significantly greater than that of controls of the same age (p less than 0.02). The clinically normotensive cases had greater left ventricular mass than the normotensive controls (p less than 0.02). Meanwhile left ventricular mass in patients aged 50 and under was not significantly different from the appropriate control group (p greater than 0.2). These data indicate that the frequency of arterial hypertension among victims of cerebral infarction is greater than may be ascertained clinically particularly in those over 50.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Growth of a Literary Tradition, in Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 2.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1988. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Lumumba P;, Gitau W;, Ogallo LA;, Mutemi JN. "National Culture And Constitution Review Process: Bridging The Gap.". 1988.Website
LITONDO KO. "Recurrent Cost of Public Investment and Rationalisation in Kenya",. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1988. AbstractWebsite

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LULE GN, Ogutu EO, Okoth F, Were IB, Wambugu M. "Sclerotheraphy in the treatment of bleeding oesophageal, varices: preliminary report.". 1988. Abstract

I n an on-going clinical trial 12 patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to oesophageal varices have undergone injection sclerotherapy. Another 5 have been followed up on conservative management. Of the sclerosed group 8, had schistosoma! disease, J cirrhosis of the liver while I had portal vein thrombosis. Three of the controls had schistosomiasis and 2 had cirrhosis. All of them were in Child's Classfication A or B. Sclerotherapy effectively stopped acute bleeding in all cases reducing further transfusions and hospital visits although 2 cases have been lust to follow-up and 3 have had repeat scler otherapy within 3 months, of initial management. Three art! alive and well. whereas I died ofa bout of haem ate me sis in the absence of the authors. A cast of 14-Jear-old boy who has had portal hypertension since birth and has had 2 shunt operations and oesophagectomy following which sclerothe rapy has been done is highlighted. Of the 5 control groups 2 patients have died due to bleeding varices within one year of follow-up, 1 patient has had to be changed to sclerotherapy as a life saving manoeuvre, however, the remaining 2 are a live and well on conservative management but have high rebleeding rates.

Luzi L, Barrett EJ, Groop LC, Ferrannini E, DeFronzo RA. "Metabolic effects of low-dose insulin therapy on glucose metabolism in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1988;37:1470-1477. Abstract

The effect of low-dose insulin treatment (5-10 U/h) on hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral glucose disposal was determined in 5 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) subjects who were admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA; plasma glucose 598 +/- 50 mg/dl, blood pH 7.20 +/- 0.06, plasma bicarbonate 12 +/- 2 meq/L). Basal hepatic glucose production (4.3 +/- 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1) in the DKA patients was 1.5- to 2-fold greater (P less than .01) than in controls (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1) and nonketotic IDDM subjects (2.9 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1), whereas tissue glucose disposal was significantly reduced (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .05). After the institution of insulin therapy (1 mU.kg-1.min-1), the plasma glucose concentration fell at the rate of 60 +/- 5 mg.dl-1.h-1 to reach a value of 220 +/- 10 mg/dl, which was maintained constant for 2 h (insulin-clamp technique). Blood pH (7.21 +/- 0.06 to 7.35 +/- 0.05) and plasma bicarbonate (12 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 2 meq/L) both increased during insulin therapy (P less than .01). The decline in plasma glucose concentration during insulin therapy primarily resulted from a suppression of HGP (from 4.3 +/- 0.5 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .01) and to a lesser extent from the stimulation of tissue glucose disposal (1.7 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1, P less than .01). At this time, urine glucose excretion decreased from 2.6 +/- 0.2 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1989
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Culture and the Nation State, in Bottlenecks to National Identity: Ethnic Co-operation Towards Nation Building.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers, 1989], 9-16.; 1989. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Performance evaluation of the Limuru Dairy Farmers Cooperative Society, May.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
n/a
LAVERA DRLEVI. "Text Book for Christian Religion Education Form II.". In: God Meets us Bk II. ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Cheatle RJ, Muraya P, Young A, Thomas DB, Biamah EK, Kilewe AM, Lundgren L. Modelling soil changes under agroforestry.; 1989. AbstractWebsite

In the older approach to soil conservation, the emphasis was on controlling the rate of soil loss, expressed as tonnes per hectare or millimeters of soil depth. Conservation measures were directed at reducing erosion to a presumed acceptable rate, called soil-loss tolerance. Earlier attempts to assess economic terms were made on the basis of reduction in soil erosion control should come first, as a prerequisite to other agricultural improvements. Recent research has changed this emphasis in several ways. It has been recognized that the effects of erosion are by no means limited to reduction in soil depth. Equally important are loss of nutrients, organic matter, and through the latter, deterioration in soil physical properties. This is leading towards integration between tow aspects of soil conservation: erosion control and maintenance of fertility. Both are necessary to achieve land use which is sustainable as well as productive.

Mugambi JM, Kanja L, Maitho TE, Skaare JU, Lökken P. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) eggs from central Kenya."; 1989. Abstract

In 367 domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) eggs collected from 61 farms, residues of 10 pesticides were detected in various combinations and in the following order of frequency: p,p′-DDE (in 100% of the eggs), p,p′-DDT (98%), dieldrin (95%), Indiane (66%), p,p′-DDD (46%), o,p′-DDT (17%), β-HCH (9%), γ-HCH (5%), endrin (4%) and aldrin (0–5%). No residues of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB or PCBs were found. The mean concentration (0–70 mg kg−1 eggs; range <0–01–10–25) of total DDT exceeded the extraneous residue limit (ERL) of 0–50 mg kg−1. The mean dieldrin residue level (0–35 mg kg−1; range 0–01–14–90) was 3–5 times higher than the ERL (0–10 mg kg−1). Only 3% of the eggs exceeded the ERL for Indane. The 156 eggs from free-range hens had significantly (P<0–05) higher residue concentrations of total DDT, dieldrin and Iindane than eggs collected from hens kept in enclosures. The mean ratio [p,p′-DDT]/[p,p′-DDE] in eggs from enclosed hens (0–97) was significantly higher (P<0–01) than in eggs from free-range hens (0–53), indicating that the former had a more direct exposure to p,p′-DDT, whereas the latter obtained more of it after environmental conversion to p,p′-DDE. Eggs from a rice-growing area had the highest concentrations of all pesticide residues detected. Accumulation ratios indicated that the levels of DDT and Iindane in the feed of enclosed hens could account for the levels in the corresponding eggs. The much higher accumulation ratios calculated for the free-range hens demonstrated that the feed ingested by these chickens obviously contained ingredients additional to those sampled, and revealed probable extensive environmental contamination by these persistent pesticides. The present results indicate that there is a need to identify sources of dieldrin in the eggs of domestic fowls and, where necessary to investigate local wildlife samples. The amounts of total DDT and dieldrin in eggs in this study seem to be higher than reported from any other country. Toxicological evaluation of the results indicates that, at lest in parts of KEnya there is a need for improved practices in the use of some organochlorine pesticides.

Abinya NAO, l.Wanyama, S.DOLA, Wellde BT, Chumo DA, Reardon MJ. "Treatment of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Kenya.". 1989.
1990
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Culture and the Nation State" in Bottlenecks to National Identity: Ethnic Co-operation Towards Nation Building.". In: Edited by Jude J. Ongong'a and Kenneth Gray [Nairobi Masaki Publishers].; 1990. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Evaluation of a Rural Water Project: Kibiko Water Supply, Ngong, September.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
n/a
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Evaluation of an urban sanitation project, January.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
n/a
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. The significance of Aswa Lineament in South Sudan; 15th Colloquium on Geology of Africa in Nancy, France,.". In: Published in: recent Data in African Earth Sciences; CIFEC. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L., Earthquakes and strike slip faults in South Sudan,.". In: 15th Colloquium on African Geology in Nancy; France. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Literature in our Time and the University", in Trends and Future of University in Kenya in the 1990s and Beyond. Edited by Wanjala-Kerre and Kenneth Gray.". In: [Nairobi Masaki Publishers].; 1990. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "M.A. Thesis entitled Urban Land use and Environmental damage, June.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
n/a
Mwangi JW, Mensah IA, G.Muriuki, R.Munavu, L.W L. Antimicrobial activity of lippie grandifolia and lippa javancia. Biology and chemistry of active natural substances. Bonn: Thieme George, Thieme Verlag Strutgart, New York ; 1990.
LITONDO KO. "Computer Vendors and users expectations as a contributing towards curriculum development for training managers and supervisors in Kenya. This was an initiative of the Kenya Government.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1990. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Mbithi PMF;, Ferguson JG;, Leach DH. "Creation of pseudoarthrosis in young calves.".; 1990.
Rege JEO;, Wakhungu JW;, Lomole MA. "Genetic parameters and trends in production and reproductive traits at the Kenya Sahiwal Stud."; 1990. Abstract

Presents results of a trial conducted in Kenya Sahiwal Stud from the period 1964 through 1988 to estimate genetic parameters and trends in production traits by analysing milk yield, birth weight of calves, service period, number of services per conception and calving interval.

Mukiibi JM;, Paul, B; Field SP;, Lloyd SE. "Haemophilia in Zimbabwe.". 1990. Abstract

Of the 120 haemophiliacs diagnosed in Zimbabwe in 8 years, haemophilia A and Christmas disease accounted for 90% and 10% respectively (i.e. a ratio of 9:1). Although the clinical and laboratory parameters were essentially similar to those previously described in Caucasian, African and other populations in the World, sub-haemophiliac cases are probably still being missed particularly in very busy health centres where the index of suspicion is low and malnutrition and infectious disease predominate and therefore readily attract the attention of most health workers. However, with the steadily improving socio-economic status and decentralization of health care facilities, more of these cases are likely to be diagnosed. Major constraints in the diagnosis and management of haemophilia in an African setting are succinctly discussed; including home therapy; and the implications of recent findings of HIV sero-positivity. The study serves as evidence that haemophilia is common in Zimbabwe contrary to earlier published literature.

Mwabe PO, Wendt JOL, Lin WC. "Nox destruction in a laminar opposed jet diffusion flame."; 1990.
WanyanguSamuel, AngolioA, MachariaS, LitamoiJK, OdongoMahacla. "A preliminary serological survey for leptospiral agglutinins in sheep and goats in Kenya." The East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 1990;56 (1):15-19.
Shideler SE, Munro CJ, Tell L, Owiti G, Laughlin L, Chatterton R, Lasley BL. "The relationship of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations to the enzyme immunoassay measurements of urinary estrone conjugates and immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide in Macaca mulatta.". 1990. Abstract

Paired urine and serum samples from four conceptive and six nonconceptive ovarian cycles of seven adult Macaca mullatta were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for circulating estradiol (E2) and progesterone (Po), and urinary estrone conjugates (E1C) and immunoreactive preganediol-3-glucuronide (iPDG) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Nonconceptive cycles exhibited a fivefold increase in urinary E1C and serum E2 levels from follicular phase levels to the preovulatory peak. Linear correlation between urinary E1C and serum E2 nonconceptive cycle hormone levels was significant (P <0.01, r = 0.69). Luteal phase levels of iPDG and serum Po levels were approximately parallel in nonconceptive cycles. Similarly, conceptive cycle urinary E1C levels and serum E2 measurements had a correlation coefficient that was significant (P<0.01, r = 0.45). Nonconceptive and conceptive cycle iPDG and Po levels were significantly correlated (P = 0.05, r = 0.63, and P<0.01, r = 0.66, respectively). These data demonstrate that EIA measurements of ovarian hormones in daily urine samples can be used to accurately monitor ovarian function and early pregnancy in Macaca mulatta.

Baro JA, Lehmkuhle S, Kratz KE. "Electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials in long-term monocularly deprived cats." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 1990;31:1405-1409. Abstract

The effects of long-term monocular lid-suture deprivation on visual-evoked cortical potentials (VEPs) and flash- and pattern-evoked electroretinograms (FERGs and PERGs, respectively) were assessed in the cat. VEPs were virtually eliminated when recorded with the deprived eye, indicating that the lid suture produced a severe amblyopia in that eye. In contrast, FERGs and PERGs were more similar for both deprived and nondeprived eyes and comparable to those recorded in normal animals. The current findings demonstrate that long-term deprivation (3-4 yr) does not produce systematic changes in the electroretinogram.

Lachica EA, Crooks MW, Casagrande VA. "Effects of monocular deprivation on the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors in a primate." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1990;296:303-323. Abstract

Previous studies of the monocularly deprived (lid-sutured) primate (Galago crassicaudatus) have shown that magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells that receive input from the deprived eye are smaller than counterparts that receive input from the nondeprived eye; deprived koniocellular (K) cells show wide variability in size, but they do not differ from their nondeprived counterparts (Casagrande and Joseph, '80). Although deprivation results in cell-size changes, the physiological properties of deprived LGN cells do not change from normal (that is, P cells have normal X-like properties, M cells have normal Y-like properties, and K cells have normal W-like properties). Because of these findings, we were interested in determining how the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors is affected by deprivation. To this end, 104 horseradish-peroxidase-filled retinogeniculate arbors from galagos deprived from birth to maturity were completely reconstructed within the binocular segment of the LGN. These arbors were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with 56 arbors reconstructed from normal galagos as part of another study (Lachica and Casagrande, '88). Our main findings are as follows. Deprived M and P arbors are affected by deprivation in the same general manner: compared with normal arbors, they are altered in shape (rather than being round or columnar, respectively, both groups have terminals that are elongated parallel to laminar borders); they are smaller in area, and they have fewer boutons but innervate the LGN with a greater density of boutons. K arbors are affected by deprivation in the same manner, but less severely. Finally, our results show that nondeprived arbors are also affected by eyelid suture. Specifically, all nondeprived arbor groups are smaller in area than normal and possess more boutons/mm3. We interpret these changes in the morphology of deprived retinogeniculate axons to suggest that abnormal competitive interactions begin by affecting primarily immature LGN cells and their axons and that the retinogeniculate axons presynaptic to these cells experience secondary degenerative effects. Our results also show that similar manipulations of visual experience can result in changes that are not necessarily comparable across species such as cats and primates.

Lau KC, So W-F, Tay D. "Effects of visual or light deprivation on the morphology, and the elimination of the transient features during development, of type {I} retinal ganglion cells in hamsters." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1990;300:583-592. AbstractWebsite

Intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow (LY) was used to study the detailed morphology of the normal, visually deprived, and light-deprived superior colliculus projecting Type I retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in hamsters. The soma size of the normal Type I cells ranged from 337 to 583 pm2 with a mean of 436 pm2. Two to six primary dendrites were observed in these cells. The mean dendritic field diameter was 495 km and ranged from 309 to 702 pm. The dendritic field diameter of this population of cells exhibited an eccentricity dependence. Quantitative comparisons between the normal and visually deprived or light-deprived Type I RGCs indicated that the morphology of these three groups of cells were similar to each other in terms of the soma size, dendritic field diameter, branching pattern, and total length of the dendrites. During the normal development of cats and hamsters, several transient features, such as exuberant dendritic spines and intraretinal axonal branches, have been observed in the developing RGCs. The complete elimination of these transient features occurs at about 3 and 2 weeks after the opening of the eyes in cats and hamsters, respectively. In the present study, the hypothesis whether visual experience or light stimulation is required for the elimination of these transient features during development was examined. After studying a total of 115 mature Type I RGCs, which included cells from the normal, visually deprived, and light deprived animals, no transient feature was observed. We conclude that visual or light deprivation has no effect on the morphological develop- ment of superior colliculus projecting Type I RGCs in hamsters, and the elimination of the transient features on the Type I RGCs during development does not depend on visual experience or light stimulation.

1991
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. & N.Opiyo-Akech, (1991): Structural environment of Gold Ore Deposits in Bondo-Asembo area, Western Kenya,.". In: Proceedings of 25 Years SGA Anniversary Meint, pp.461-464; A Balkema, Rotterdam. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
Orlando CA, Bowman RL, Loose JH. "Multicentric papillary-cystic neoplasm of the pancreas." Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 1991;115:958-960. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Opinya GN;, Bwibo NO;, Valderhaug J;, Birkeland JM;, Lökken P. "Intake of fluoride and excretion in mothers' milk in a high fluoride (9 ppm) area in Kenya.". 1991.
Maj M, Janssen R, Satz P, Zaudig M, Starace F, Boor D, Sughondhabirom B, Bing EB, Luabeya MK, Ndetei MD, et al. "The World Health Organization's cross-cultural study on neuropsychiatric aspects of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).". 1991.
Michon JJ, Li ZL, Shioura N, Anderson RJ, Tso MO. "A comparative study of methods of photoreceptor morphometry." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 1991;32:280-284. AbstractWebsite
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1992
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. , Okello G. B. A. and Kyobe, J. (1992). Estimation of fibrinogen and products of its degradation blood plasma of uncomplicated cases of malaria with low parasitemia. East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 .". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "The Role of culture in the process of human development, paper presented at a seminar organised by the Amani Centre, March.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
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AJ W, LS O. "Acute renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(2):110-3. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

PN N, LW I, SK M. "Effect of puparia incubation temperature: increased infection rates of Trypanosoma congolense in Glossina morsitans centralis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. brevipalpis." Medical and veterinary entomology. 1992;6(2):127-130. AbstractPubMed link

Puparia of Glossina morsitans centralis (Machado), G.fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) and G.brevipalpis (Newstead) were incubated at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 28 +/- 1:25 +/- 1 degrees C, day:night or 29 +/- 1 degrees C throughout the puparial period, and maintained at 70-80% relative humidity. Puparial mortality was higher at 29 than at 25 degrees C (optimum temperature) in all three species, particularly in G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis. Adults of G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C, and those of this subspecies, G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night or 25 degrees C throughout, were infected as tenerals (27 h old) by feeding them at the same time on goats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden) IL 1180 after the parasites were detected in the wet blood film. Infection rates on day 25 post-infected feed were higher in G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C and in adults of the three different tsetse species from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night, than in those from puparia incubated at 25 degrees C. However, in G.f.fuscipes the labral and hypopharyngeal infection rates were not significantly different from those of the tsetse produced by puparia kept at 25 degrees C.

Mwangi JW, I.Addae-Mensah, Muriuki G, Munavu R, L.W L, A H. "Essential oils of lippie species in Kenya: IV. Maize weevil (Stophilus Zeamis). Repellency and Larvicidal Activity." . Int. J Pharmacognosy . 1992;30(1):9-16.
Lamberti GA, Lavens P, Lokken P, Maitho TE. "volume 234 (1992), author index.". 1992.
Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. "Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1992;12:3554-3567. Abstract

Injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye, intravitreally or subretinally, delays photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, as does local injury to the retina (Faktorovich et al., 1990). To determine whether this heparin-binding peptide or local injury is effective in any other form of photoreceptor degeneration, we examined their protective roles in light damage. Albino rats of the F344 strain were exposed to 1 or 2 weeks of constant fluorescent light (115-200 footcandles), either with or without 1 microliter of bFGF solution (1150 ng/microliters in PBS) injected intravitreally or subretinally 2 d before the start of light exposure. Uninjected and intravitreally PBS-injected controls showed the loss of a majority of photoreceptor nuclei and the loss of most inner and outer segments after 1 week of light exposure, while intravitreal injection of bFGF resulted in significant photoreceptor rescue. The outer nuclear layer in bFGF-injected eyes was two to three times thicker than in controls, and the inner and outer segments showed a much greater degree of integrity. Following recovery in cyclic light for 10 d after 1 week of constant light exposure, bFGF-injected eyes showed much greater regeneration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments than did the controls. bFGF also increased the incidence of presumptive macrophages, located predominantly in the inner retina, but the evidence suggests they are not directly involved in photoreceptor rescue. Subretinal injection of bFGF resulted in photoreceptor rescue throughout most of the superior hemisphere in which the injection was made, with rescue extending into the inferior hemisphere in many of the eyes. Remarkably, the insertion of a dry needle or injection of PBS into the subretinal space also resulted in widespread photoreceptor rescue, extending through 70% or more of the superior hemisphere, and sometimes into the inferior hemispheres. This implicates the release and widespread diffusion of some endogenous survival-promoting factor from the site of injury in the retina. Our findings indicate that the photoreceptor rescue activity of bFGF is not restricted to inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, and that light damage is an excellent model for studying the cellular site(s), kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of both the normal function of bFGF and its survival-promoting activity. Moreover, the injury-related rescue suggests that survival-promoting factors are readily available to provide a protective role in case of injury to the retina, presumably comparable to those that mediate the "conditioning lesion" effect in other neuronal systems.

1993
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Root causes of environmental degradation in Kenya; paper published in the Baobab.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
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Ayuo PO, Abinya NA, JOSHI MD, Lore W. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". 1993. Abstractcardiovascular_features_in_adolescents_and_adults_with_sickle_cell_anaemia.pdfWebsite

Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function

Mwangi JW, Lwande W, HASSANALI A. "Composition of essential on of plectranthus tenuiBorus (Vatke) agnew.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from leaves of Plectranthus tenuiftorus (Vatke) Agnew was analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 17 compounds accounting for 72.3% of the oil were identified. Carvacrol (14.3%), a-terpinene (10.2%) and p-cymene (10.9%) were the major constituents. The oil had low quantities of oxygenated

Liniger H;, Mbuvi JP;, Kironchi G. "The need to protect Mt. Kenya area soils with permanent cover.".; 1993.
Liniger H;, Mbuvi JP;, Kironchi G. "The need to protect Mt. Kenya area soils with permanent cover.".; 1993.
Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Rojkittikhun T, Lundeheim N. Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.. Missouri, USA; 1993.
Gathenya JM, Liniger HP, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK, Thomas D. "Problems of river-water management for a basin west of Mount Kenya: challenge to water resource planners.". 1993. Abstract

A case study was conducted in two reaches in the Naro Moru river basin, which extends from the humid western slopes of Mount Kenya to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau. The study involved measuring the amount of water abstracted from all abstraction points, as well as river discharge, for a period of eight months starting from November 1990. Results showed that the amount of water abstracted from each reach as a percentage of the available river inflow rose from 10% at the end of the wet season to over 60% at the end of the dry season. A survey of water permits revealed that legal abstractions constituted 30% of the amount abstracted during the wet season, but only 8% of the dry season abstractions. Communal water supply systems taking water for domestic use, for watering livestock and for irrigation accounted for over 90% of the water that was abstracted from the river during the period of study.

Kironchi G, Ondieki C, Liniger HP. "Soil cover for improved productivity: attractive water and soil conservation for the drylands in Kenya.". 1993. Abstract

The importance of soil cover and topsoil management for soil and water conservation was studied in catchment and test plot studies and infiltration trials in the west and north of Mount Kenya. The short-term improvement of productivity through specific biological and management measures is discussed along with aspects of long-term sustainable development for implementation programmes. Results show that permanent grass cover (50%) reduced catchment runoff rates to less than one third and erosion rates to less than one in thirty of that from an overgrazed area with a cover of less than 10%. Infiltration on different soil types increased 3-12 times under permanent cover compared to that under overgrazed land. Monitoring of cropland productivity under different conservation measures illustrated the potential of mulching/minimum tillage and agroforestry systems to double yields with no additional input, compared to local practices

1994
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "The myth of cultural conflict a Kenyan experience, a paper presented at a workshop organised by the School of International Learning, January.". In: Published by World Vision International, Monrovia 2000, pp (86-215). EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
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Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Lundeheim N. Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.. Bangkok, Thailand; 1994.
Gitau GK, O'Callaghan - JJ CJ, ADAMS. JE, LISSEMORE KD, WALTNER. "McDermott.". 1994.
Bahemuka JM;, Lammerink MP. "A second look.". 1994.Website
R.O M, L.W. I, J. MM. "A survey of Phlebotomine sandflies in the Nairobi Area and an undescribed species of Sergentomyia." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1994;15(2):145-153. AbstractWebsite

Studies were commenced to collect and identify the phlebotomine sandflies found in Nairobi. These studies were also aimed at determining their numbers as well as assessing the effects of seasonal changes on the sandfly population. Four trapping methods, namely, light traps, sticky traps, aspiration and human bait were employed. Eight species and one undescribed species were recorded over a period of 6 months. The identified species included Phlebotomus guggisbergi (Kirk and Lewis), P. rodhaini (Parrot), Sergentomyia adleri (Theodor), S. harveyi (Heisch, Guggisberg and Teesdale) and S. bedfordi (Newstead) and an undescribed species. Most of the sandfly species trapped showed seasonal prevalence. The seasonal variation was closely related to the weather conditions. Sandflies were found in termite mounds, animal burrows, caves and dugouts some of which were near human habitations. Termite mounds and animal burrows were the most preferred habitats.

Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Lwande W, HASSANALI A, Laurent R. "Volatile Components of Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey.". 1994. Abstract

The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey. was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds constituting about 96% of the oil were identified. The major constituents were a-pinene (22.2%), germacrene-D (17.9%) and sabinene (12.3%).

Maj M, Janssen R, Starace F, Zaudig M, Satz P, Sughondhabirom B, Luabeya MA, Riedel R, Ndetei DM, Calil HM, et al. WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I.; 1994.
K M, L O. Evaluation of the Impact of the Programme Activities of the Former NCCK Women’s Programme. Nairobi: National Council of Churches of kenya; 1994.
Shou TD, Liu H, Xue JT. "[{Binocular} competitive mechanisms in the visual cortex in early developing kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture revealed by pattern visual evoked potential]." Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica]. 1994;46:281-287. Abstract

Using contrast reversing square- wave gratings as stimuli the pattern visual evoked potentials (P-VEP) and pattern electroretinograms (P-ERG) were simultaneously recorded to determine the spatial frequency tuning curves for kittens of monocular deprivation (from 8th to 12th postnatal week) and reverse suture (from 12th to 15th postnatal week), as compared with those of normal kittens of the same age and adult cats. The results showed that in the range from spatial frequency 0.12 to 1.5 c/d the amplitudes of P-VEP responses driven respectively by the left and the right eyes in normal kittens were similar but clearly smaller than those driven binocularly. For kittens with one eye deprived, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the deprived eye decreased markedly. In contrast, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the undeprived eye increased significantly, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by simultaneous stimulation of both eyes were intermediate between the two monocular responses. For the reversely sutured kittens, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the formally deprived eye recovered to some extent, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the reversely sutured eye decreased, and their amplitudes tended to be quite close. The P-VEP amplitude driven by both eyes was the biggest. Neither such shift of spatial frequency tuning curves of the P-VEP in adult cats, nor such functional competition between the two eye in P-ERG responses during early development of kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1995
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and K^ombutu F. O. X. (1995). The effect on fibrinolytic system of blood plasma of Wister rats after feeding them with coix mixed diet. East African Medical Journal 72(1):51 .". In: East African Medical Journal 72(1):51 . University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howlandi H. "Differences in {Eye} {Growth} and the {Response} to {Visual} {Deprivation} in {Different} {Strains} of {Chicken}." Vision Research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract
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Leaper DJ. "Risk factors for surgical infection." Journal of Hospital Infection. 1995;30:127-139. AbstractWebsite
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Folds JD, Cohen M, Lule G, Hamilton H, Hoffman I, Behets F, Dallabetta G, Schmitz JL, Jethwa HS. "Comparison of molecular and microscopic techniques for detection of Treponema pallidum in genital ulcers.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

We compared the ability of direct immunofluorescent staining (DFA) and the PCR to detect Treponema pallidum in specimens from patients with genital ulcer disease. Touch preparations from 156 patients with genital lesions were fixed in acetone and stained with a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for the 37-kDa antigen of T. pallidum. After microscopic examination, the smear was removed from the slide with a swab. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform and precipitated with isopropanol. Ten microliters of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using primers for the gene encoding the 47-kDa protein of T. pallidum and hybridized to an internal probe. Twenty-two of 156 specimens were positive for T. pallidum by DFA and PCR, while 127 were negative by both methods, yielding a concordance of 95.5% (kappa = 0.84). Four specimens were positive by PCR and negative by DFA, while three specimens were negative by PCR and positive by DFA. The DFA-negative, PCR-positive specimens may have resulted from the presence of large numbers of leukocytes on the slides, obscuring visualization of treponemes. The DFA-positive, PCR-negative results were not due to inhibition of the PCR since purified T. pallidum DNA was amplified when added to aliquots of these specimens. Negative results in these specimens were most likely due to inefficient recovery of their DNA. These data suggest that DFA and PCR are equivalent methods for detection of T. pallidum on touch preparations of genital lesions. Further refinements of the PCR assay are necessary for it to significantly improve the detection of T. pallidum in genital lesions.

Laker CD;, Mukhebi AW;, Ssenyonga GSZ;, Gathuma JM. "The economic impact of East Coast Fever on cattle in Mbarara district, Uganda."; 1995.
Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Lwande W, others. "Essential Oil constituents of Artemisia Afra Willd." J. Essent. Oli Res.. 1995;7:97-99.
Lindley RI;, Amayo EO;, Marshall J;, Sandercock PA;, Dennis M;, Warlow CP. "Hospital services for patients with acute stroke in the United Kingdom: the Stroke Association Survey of consultant opinion.". 1995. Abstract

A national postal survey of all UK hospital consultant geriatricians, general physicians and neurologists was performed in 1992/3 in order to describe the provision of hospital stroke services in the United Kingdom and to assess whether the recommendations of the King's Fund consensus conference on stroke had been widely implemented. Of 3478 survey forms, 2923 (84%) were returned and, of these 1953 (67%) consultants indicated that they routinely cared for patients with acute stroke. On their stated estimates, the survey respondents had admitted approximately 107,000 patients with acute stroke in the previous year, 40% of whom were cared for by geriatricians. Sixty-three per cent (1239/1953) worked in District General Hospitals. Few (5%) had access to an acute stroke unit, and a majority (51%) of consultants were uncertain of the benefits of such units. Less than half (44%) had access to a specialized stroke rehabilitation unit, but a majority (68%) were certain of the benefits of stroke rehabilitation units. Although a majority of consultants had on-site CT scanning, about a third of all UK stroke patients were admitted to a hospital without on-site CT facilities. Most (90%) consultants would want a CT scan themselves if they had a stroke. Only about a third of consultants were aware of a recent audit of stroke care in their hospital, or had a hospital policy for the implementation of minimum standards of stroke care, and less than half routinely provided written information for patients or carers. This survey illustrated that five years after the publication of the King's Fund consensus statement on the treatment of patients with acute stroke UK hospital stroke services are still poorly organized. Access to CT scanning for stroke patients is improving, but is still insufficient

Bhatt SM;, Cabellos, C;, Nadol, JB Jr;, Halpin C;, Lauretano A;, Xu WZ;, Tuomanen E. "The impact of dexamethasone on hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.". 1995. Abstract

Bacterial meningitis, particularly that resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a common cause of acquired profound sensorineural deafness in children. The pathogenesis of meningogenic hearing loss has been investigated in an experimental rabbit model. In this study significant deafness was documented within the first 15 hours of infection. Initiation of antibiotic therapy at this time diminished the severity of hearing loss in most animals. The addition of dexamethasone to antibiotic therapy prevented the development of profound deafness. These results suggest this model will be useful in developing antiinflammatory strategies to improve the outcome of bacterial meningitis.

Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti JL;, Macharia MJ;, Shihmanter E;, Lipkind M. "Isolation and identification of avian paramyxoviruses from avian reservoirs in Kenya."; 1995.
Dindi E, Havskov J, Iranga M, Jonathan E, Lombe DK, Mamo A, Turyomurugyendo G. "Potential Capability of the East African Seismic Stations." Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 1995;85(1):354-360. Abstract

It is well known that Africa is poorly covered with seismic stations and relatively few readings reach the international data bases. In September I993 a workshop was held in Dar es Salaam, where all available seismograms for the months November and December 1992 from Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. A bulletin was prepared for the 2 months of data containing 645 events of which 222 were reported as teleseisms and the rest as regional events. Seventy events had more than three stations reporting and were located within the area, mostly in central East Africa.
For the same time period, PDE has five events reported in central East Africa, and it seems that the local stations can lower the detection threshold from about magnitude 4.6 to 4.0. The existing networks in East Africa thus have a large potential for increasing the quantity and quality of data available to the seismic community, and the workshop showed that it is very important to cooperate on a regional basis to achieve this.

Ikamari LDE, Lucas TJ, Nalwamba C. "’Provincial view of fertility and mortality change in Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe’.". In: Africa Today: Proceedings of the international Seminar. Sydney: University of New South Wales; 1995.
Mbori-Ngacha DA, Onyango FE, Chunge C, Luta M, Oloo AJ, Muga RO. "Efficacy of halofantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria." East Afr Med J. 1995;72(12):796-9. Abstract

In the last decade, Plasmodium falciparum resistance to a number of commonly used anti-malarials especially chloroquine, has increased considerably. Newer anti-malarial drugs are therefore being aggressively evaluated as alternatives. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was therefore undertaken, to compare the efficacy of halofantrine to that of metakelfin, in the treatment of moderately severe infections of Plasmodium falciparum in an endemic malaria area in Kenya. Three hundred and thirty five subjects with laboratory confirmed malaria were recruited and randomized to receive treatment with either halofantrine (171 subjects) or metakelfin (164 subjects). Two thirds (66%) of the study subjects were under the age of five years, and were therefore considered to have minimal immunity. All study subjects were initially admitted to hospital for three days and then followed up as out-patients on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The level of parasitaemia, the presence of fever and the occurrence of adverse effects were evaluated. Halofantrine was found to be comparable to metakelfin in terms of resolution of fever (mean time 45 and 51 hours respectively). No major adverse side effects were observed. Halofantrine is a viable drug in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.

Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howland HC. "Differences in eye growth and the response to visual deprivation in different strains of chicken." Vision research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract

Several laboratories studying visual deprivation myopia in the domestic chick report varying degrees of axial elongation and myopia induced by similar visual deprivation techniques. In this study we tested the hypothesis that in different strains of chick the eyes respond differently to visual deprivation. We compared under identical conditions two strains of White Leghorn chick commonly used in ocular development research–the Cornell-K strain (K) and Washington H & N Strain (H/N). The normal development of the eye was found to vary significantly between these strains of White Leghorn chicks. The K strain normally develops flatter corneas, thicker lenses, and larger eyes than the H/N strain. The response to visual deprivation also varies significantly between strains. For example, we find that 2 weeks of visual deprivation in the K strain results in less elongation of the vitreous chamber and flattening of the cornea yielding lower levels of induced myopia compared to the H/N strain. Our results show that while visual experience clearly affects normal ocular development in both strains of chick, the nature of the effect depends upon not only the type and duration of the experience but the genetics of the subject population as well.

1996
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.,J.O. Barongo, N. Opiyo-Aketch, E.M. Mathu, i.O. Nyambok, (1996):Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". In: Joint Special Publication, Commission on Geosciences Education and Training of IUGS, AGID Special Publication Series No.10; 49-51. Balkema, Rotterdam. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
LISHENGA JL. " "Profitability of Momentum Strategies in Emerging Markets: Evidence From Nairobi Stock Exchange".". In: The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, . White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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This paper tests the profitability of momentum strategies in Kenya, an emerging market for the period 1995 to 2007. Analysis revealed that Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) exhibit medium term return continuation over the entire sample period and the sub-periods. We used RSS results to evaluate the influence of transaction costs, calendar effects, risk factors and other reported momentum characteristics on momentum profitability. We employ WRSS results to discriminate between the two diametrically opposed causes for the profitability of momentum strategies:.  Our results show that, consistent with the evidence elsewhere, momentum is an anomaly; being driven by continuation in the idiosyncratic component of individual-security, rather than by cross-sectional differences in expected return and risks.

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti J;, Macharia, J M;, Shimanter E;, Panshim, A;, Lipkin M. "Antigenic characterisation of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) Isolated in Kenya."; 1996.

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