Publications

Found 2213 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is L  [Clear All Filters]
2007
N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M, L.G.Wori. "THE CONFIGURATION QUASI-PROBABILITY FORMULATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS.". 2007. Abstract

We apply a dynamical correspondence principle between ordinary functions of classical and quantum mechanical distribution function and derive its operator equation.We further examine one of the methods of finding the particular solutions to this equation in the algebra of coordinate-momentum ordered pair.

undefined. Effects of lactoperoxidase system in camel milk for preservation and fermentation purposes. Wangoh J, Lamuka PO, eds. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Summary
This study was conducted to investigate preservative effect of the LPsystem
on both raw and pasteurized camel milk. The effect of the LPsystem
on selected starter cultures in the raw and pasteurized camel
milk was also investigated. Experiments were therefore conducted to:
 evaluate the effect of LP-system activation on shelf-life of raw
camel milk with the underlying activities being to:
o determine the duration of antibacterial effect in camel milk
stored at different temperatures after activation of its LPsystem
and
o monitor effect on keeping quality of increasing
concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and hydrogen
peroxide within physiological limits.
 determine the effect of the LP-system on keeping quality in
pasteurised camel milk
 determine the effect of the LP-system on starter culture activity in
camel heat treated and raw camel milk.
The concentration of thiocyanate occurring naturally in the milk used in
the present investigations ranged from 9.7 to 36.4 mg/l. No addition of
thiocyanate was therefore necessary to activate the LP-system. The
average thiocyanate values of camel milk from different sites were
2
15.8, 32.9 and 9.74 mg/l and were significantly different (p<0.001)
across the three sampling sites in this study.
Changes in total viable counts between LP-activated and LPinactivated
camel milk were determined during storage at 10, 20 and
30°C. Viable counts increased with storage temperature. Microbial
growth was halted for 15, 17 and 76 hours at 30, 20 and 10°C
respectively by activation of the LP-system in raw camel milk. At 30°C
the effect was mainly bacteriostatic and at 20°C, there was an initial
bactericidal effect in the first 15 hours. At 10°C, the bactericidal effect
was noted throughout the period of 76 hours.
The titratable acidity between LP-activated and LP-inactivated camel
milk was determined during storage at 10, 20 and 30°C. There lag in
acid production of 14, 23, and 10 hours at 10, 20 and 30°C
respectively as compared to the controls and was significantly different
(p>0.05) across the three incubation temperatures. Shelf life difference
between LP-system activated samples and their respective controls
was 19 hours at both 10 and 20°C and 4 hours at 30°C.
The differences in mean acid produced between the control samples
and the activated samples, however, were 0.12, 0.61 and 0.49 for 10,
20 and 30°C respectively. Inhibition of acid production by the LPsystem
increased from significant (p<0.05) during storage at 10°C to
highly significant (p<0.01) during storage at 20 and 30°C. The present
investigation therefore shows that by activating the LP-system it is
3
possible to extend the storage period of raw camel milk and that the
effect of the LP-system on the microbes present varies with
temperature of storage.
The effect of increasing levels of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide
on antibacterial activity of LP-system in raw camel milk at 30ºC was
investigated. Changes in total viable counts and lactic acid
development in raw camel milk at concentrations of 0, 10:10, 20:20,
30:30 and 40:40ppms, NaSCN
-
:H2O2 were monitored. The delay in
multiplication of bacteria increased significantly with an increase in the
LP-system components from no lag phase in the control to 4, 6, 11.5
and 9.5 hours in the 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm levels of
NaSCN/H2O2 respectively.. The lag in acid production was 0, 4.8, 6, 12
and 8 hours for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm dose of
NaSCN:H2O2, respectively. The shelf life of the camel milk was 4, 6,
12, 16 and 16 hours, respectively, for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40
ppm dose of NaSCN:H2O2.
Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was activated in camel milk followed by
pasteurization after 0, 4, and 8 hours after of storage.
This resulted in a shelf life of 15, 32, 17 and 17 days for the nonactivated
control and those activated after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage
respectively during storage of samples at 10ºC. At 20°C, the shelf life
was 6, 13, 9 and 7 days for non-activated control and those activated
after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage respectively. These results showed
4
a significant effect of storage time prior to pasteurisation on the effect
of the LP-system on the surviving microflora between the control and
activated samples at all the 3 times of storage prior to pasteurisation
(p<0.001). The number of viable bacteria in untreated sample reached
108 after 45 days compared to 105-107 in treated samples during
storage at 10ºC and 108 after 15 days in untreated compared to 107-
106 in treated samples under storage at 20ºC. The mean specific
growth rates at 10ºC storage temperature were 0.51, 0.2, 0.41 and 0.5
for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively and were significantly lower in the LP-treated camel
milk samples than in the control (p<0.001). At 20ºC storage
temperature, the mean specific growth rates were 1,46, 0.27, 0.69 and
1 for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively. These were also significantly lower in the LPtreated
camel milk samples than in the control (p<0.001)
Sensitivity of lactic starter cultures to LP-system was investigated by
monitoring acid production by mesophillic, thermophillic and Suusac
starter cultures in both LP-system treated and untreated camel milk.
Inoculation with starter was done after zero, 4 and 8 hours of storage
of LP-activated samples.
In all the three starters, LP-system activation resulted in a significant
slow down in acid development in raw camel milk activated and
inoculated immediately. For the thermophillic starter mean lactic acid
5
was 0.41, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.36 for the inactivated control sample and
those activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and the
activated samples were very highly significant (p<0.001), highly
significant (p<0.01) and not significant (p>0.05) at the inoculation times
o, 4 and 8 respectively. For the Suusac starter, mean lactic acid was
0.67, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.52 for the inactivated control sample and those
activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and
activated samples were highly significant (p<0.01) at all the inoculation
times after activation. However, for mesophillic starter culture the mean
values of lactic acid produced were 0.53, 0.48, 0.42 and 0.54 for the
inactivated control and activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4,
and 8 hours respectively. The differences in means between the
control and activated samples were significant (p<0.01) at 0 and 4
hours and non-significant (p>0.05) at 8 hours. This implied that camel
milk preserved using this method could support satisfactory mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity if the milk is held prior to
processing.
The investigation on the effect of the LP-system on starter activity in
camel milk heat-treated prior to inoculation showed that heat treatment
reduced starter inhibition by the LP-system for the mesophillic and
thermophillic starter cultures for samples LP-system activated, heat
6
treated and inoculated at immediately. For the mesophillic starter mean
lactic acid values for the inactivated control sample, activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40
respectively. The differences in mean lactic acid values between the
control and activated samples showed that a non-significant effect of
inoculation time at time 0 (p>0.05), a significant effect after 4 hours
(p<0.05), and a very highly significant effect (p<0.001) after 8 hours.
Mean lactic acid values for the thermophillic starter for the inactivated
control sample and those activated and then inoculated after 0, 4 and 8
hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40 respectively. The inhibition
changed from insignificant (p>0.05) on inoculation at time 0 and 4
hours (p<0.05) and was highly significant (p<0.01) on inoculation after
8 hours. Thus the inhibitory effect of the LP-system on mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity in heat treated camel milk
apparently is reactivated and increases with time of preservation of raw
milk by LP-system. However with suusac starter, the mean lactic acid
values inactivated control sample and those activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours respectively were 0.69, 0.58, 0.64
and 0.71. At zero and four hours after activation inhibition was
significant (p<0.05) compared to a non-significantly different inhibition
(p>0.05) on inoculation after 8 hours of storage.
The use of the LP-system might therefore have a significant influence
on the time taken to reach the desired pH in the vat, which is a critical
7
factor for the manufacturer of fermented camel milk and this influence
is dependent on the time of preservation of raw camel milk prior to
processing of fermented products.

Waitaa SM, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Granqvist CG, Lindquist SE, Niklasson GA, Hagfeldtc A, Boschloo G. "Electron transport and recombination in dye sensitized solar cells fabricated from obliquely sputter deposited and thermally annealed TiO2 films.". 2007.Website
and R. S. Malele, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, López ML, Zunino MP, López AG, Zygadlo JA, Oliva MM, Demo MS. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and antimicrobial activity." J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10:83-87.
G DF, E L, D L, PP P, PP C, A O, G C, J N, W M, C B, M H, S P, P T, H S, A G, Leoncini L. "Gene expression analysis identifies novel RBL2/p130 target genes in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors." Blood.. 2007;110(4):1301-7.
Wanyande P, Omosa M, Ludeki C. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Ludeki C, Wanyande P, Omosa M. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Søren M, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmer

Søren M;, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmers

editor) Laban Ogallo FK(A, et al. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall anomalies." Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1-2).
Ochieng JW, Steane DA, Ladiges PY, Baverstock PR, Henry RJ, Shepherd M. "Microsatellites retain phylogenetic signals across genera in eucalypts (Myrtaceae)." Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2007;30(4):1125-1134.2007_ochieng_et_al_gmb.pdf
Otieno SPV, Bwire R. Naomi. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
Nathan I, Lund JF, Gausset Q, Andersen SK. "On the Promises of Devolution: Overcoming the Constraints of Natural Resource Management in a Village in Tanzania.". 2007. Abstract

This article is concerned with the hypothesis that devolution, understood as entrusting local government with significant domains of autonomous discretionary power, will lead to the equitable and efficient management of natural resources. The paper focuses on the three domains of power conceived by some theorists as critical in the management of natural resources, namely making rules, implementing rules, and resolving disputes in relation to these rules. Based on a case study of a village in Tanzania, the article identifies some of the main constraints the village council encounters concerning the efficient and equitable management of common lands, and discusses whether devolution is the solution for overcoming these constraints. It is concluded that the role and functions of higher levels of government in decentralised natural resource management are essential and require due consideration beyond the point of arguing for more autonomy to local government.

Gausset Q, Andersen SK, Hansen HH, Lund JF, Mugasha AG, Nathan I, Theilade I. "Opportunities and constraints for private and communal tree management in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007.
Ininda J, Njuguna JGM, Gichuru L, Lorroki P. "Performance of Three-Way Cross Hybrids for Agronomic Traits and Resistance to Maize Streak Virus Disease in Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Maize Streak virus (MSV) disease is a major disease in many parts of Africa, and is the most important viral pathogen of maize in Kenya. A study was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the agronomic performance and maize streak virus (MSV) resistance of maize ( Zea mays check for this species in other resources L.) three-way crosses developed in Kenya. Twenty hybrids and one check were grown under normal conditions in a randomized complete block design, in two replications at Embu, 1540 masl; and Muguga, 2093 masl). In a parallel trial in Muguga, hybrids were also evaluated in two replications under artificial inoculation with MSV. The analyses of variance combined across environments showed significant differences (P<0.05) among genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% pollen shed, days to mid-silk and ear height. Genotype x environment interaction was significant (P<0.01) for grain yield and days to mid-silk, indicating some hybrids were more adapted in some environments. Grain yield for MU03-025 (10.04 t ha-1) was significantly better (P<0.05) than the check, H513 (7.53t ha-1). In the disease inoculated experiment, the best hybrids for disease resistance were MU03-012 and MU03-006 (score of 1.75), while H513 had a mean score of >3.0. The highest yielding hybrid under disease inoculation, MU03-026 showed yield gain of 5.2 t ha-1 above that of H513. The results indicate adoption of disease resistant hybrids would result in a higher maize yields in the mid-altitude areas of Kenya.

Lankinen A, Kiboi S. "Pollen Donor Identity Affects Timing of Stigma Receptivity in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): A Sexual Conflict during Pollen Competition?" The American Naturalist. 2007;170(6):854-863. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
Theory predicts that, during pollen competition, selection may favor a pollen trait that increases donor competitive ability at the expense of the female reproductive function. One such pollen trait could be manipulation of the onset of stigma receptivity. We evaluated the potential occurrence of this kind of sexual conflict by testing female control of the timing of stigma receptivity in the self-compatible annual Collinsia heterophylla. By performing one-donor crosses in the greenhouse, we found that differences in both recipients and pollen donors influenced when stigmas became receptive. Because we did not detect an interaction effect, our result suggests that some donors were consistently better than others at germinating pollen and siring seeds earlier. Unexpectedly, self-pollen was able to fertilize seeds earlier during floral development compared with outcross pollen. These results suggest that female control on timing of stigma receptivity is not complete in this species. In addition, fertilizations that occurred early during floral development resulted in fewer seeds than later fertilizations, possibly indicating a cost of lost control over the onset of receptivity. The ability of pollen donors to influence the timing of stigma receptivity might reflect a conflict between the sexual functions in C. heterophylla.

Randolph TF, M'Ibui GM, Kang'ethe EK, Lang'at AK. "Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in milk and animal feeds from urban smallholder dairy production in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 and Total Aflatoxin B1 in milk and animal feeds. Cross sectional household study. Urban and peri-urban area of Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred fifty seven dairy farming households and 134 non-dairy neighbouring households. The prevalence of AFM1 in milk was found to be 45.5% (178/391). The farmer prevalence was 43.5% (112/257), while that of non-farmer was 49.2% (66/ 134). There was however no statistical significant difference between the two categories. Of the 178 positive milk samples, 49% had aflatoxin levels exceeding 0.05 microg Kg(-1). The prevalence of AFB1 in the feed was found to be 98.6% (69/70) with 83% of the samples having aflatoxin B1 levels exceeding 10 microg Kg(-1). Only one feed sample had no traces of AFB1. This study points to an underlying problem that requires the action by policy makers, considering the number of samples with aflatoxin M1 [49%] and aflatoxin B1 [83%] exceeding the WHO/FAO tolerance limits for milk and feeds destined for dairy animals.

Emma M, Anna K, L.P O, M.F O, Simon K. "The Role Of Hormonal Contraceptives In Hiv Infection Among Antenatal Mothers In Machakos District Hospital.". 2007. Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistently both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study.

Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'anga JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and its consequences under different management in a six year old hedged agroforestry demonstration plot in semi-arid Kenya, for two successive contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis

Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and maize-bean yields under different management in a six years old hedged Agroforestry system in Semi-Arid Laikipia, Kenya, for two contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis.

Nesbitt WH, Lampe C, Lustgarten D, Obel OA. "Supraventricular tachycardia with two VA intervals: what is the mechanism?". 2007.
Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E;, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Simiyu J, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A, Lindquist S-E. Synthesis and Characterization of Titania Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells. Arusha, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract

TiO2 nanofibres have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process in 10M NaOH. TEM images have shown that nanofibres measuring average length 500nm and diameter 10nm were formed by this method. XRD analysis indicated strong anatase peaks with crystal orientation in the direction (101) with slight rutile peaks appearing at 5000C calcinations temperature. Thin films prepared from the nanofibres had thickness varying from 4.5 – 5.5μm. The films were used to fabricate complete dye sensitised solar cells with Ruthenium complex dye as sensitizer. I-V characteristics yielded Voc and Jsc of 0.46V – 0.58V and 0.16mA/cm2 – 4.5mA/cm2 respectively under standard illumination of 100mW/cm2 (using a halogen lamp and data acquired using Keithley 2400 Source Meter® controlled by LabVIEW® software).

Marco S, Karimurio J, Kariuki M, Lubanga P. "Visual loss and ocular involvement in adult patients with intracranial neoplasms in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:15-20. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular manifestations in adults
with intracranial neoplasms.
Design: Cross sectional hospital based study
Settings: Neurosurgical Clinic and Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from November 2005 to January 2006.
Subjects: 60 adult with intracranial neoplasm (32 females and 28 males)
Results: 31(52%) of the studied patients had not had any previous eye examination. Ocular symptoms were reported in 44 (73%) patients. 38 (63%) had colour vision defects, 20 (33%) papilloedema, 16 (27%) bilateral optic disc atrophy, 16 (27%) defective extra-ocular motility, 11(18%) bilaterally blind, 10 (17%) nystagmus, 6 (10%) proptosis and 4 (7%) diplopia. Only 11 (18%) of the patients had normal visual field. 40 (67%) were booked for routine follow-up at the Kenyatta Eye Clinic while 9 (15%) were referred for Low Vision Assessment. All the 11 (18%) blind patients were referred for rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Majority (73%) of patients attending the KNH Neurosurgical Clinic and those admitted in Neurosurgical ward have ocular involvement and visual loss. Colour vision defects were the commonest manifestations while total blindness was the most serious complication.
Recommendation: Neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists should work together as a team to ensure timely and comprehensive assessment and management of all patients with intracranial tumours both pre-operative and post-operatively. Stable patients with irreversibly visual impairment and blindness should be referred for Low vision therapy and rehabilitation.

Kachlik D, Baca V, Stingl J, Sosna B, Lametschwandtner A, Minnich B, Setina M. "Architectonic arrangement of the vasa vasorum of the human great saphenous vein." Journal of vascular research. 2007;44:157-166. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The detailed spatial arrangement of the vasa vasorum (VV) of the human great saphenous vein (HGSV) was demonstrated in qualitative and quantitative terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segments of the HGSV taken from cadavers 12-24 h post mortem and from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypassing were studied by light microscopy of India-ink-injected specimens and by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. RESULTS: Arterial feeders were found to approach the HGSV from nearby arteries every 15 mm forming a rich capillary network within the adventitia and the outer two thirds of the media in normal HGSV, while in HGSV with intimal hyperplasia capillary meshes extended into the inner layers of the media. Within the media, capillary meshes ran circularly. Postcapillary venules drained centrifugally towards the adventitial venous vessels which finally formed venous drainers running adjacent to the arterial feeders. Three-dimensional morphometry of vascular corrosion casts of VV revealed that diameters of (i) arterial VV ranged from 11.6 to 36.6 microm, (ii) capillary VV from 4.7 to 11.6 microm and (iii) venous VV ranged from 11.6 to 200.3 microm. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D network of VV suggests these layers are metabolically highly active and therefore require a continuous blood supply. We conclude, therefore, that the VV network must be preserved during in situ bypassing.

Dimba EAO, Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Chindia ML, Awange DO. "An audit of oral diseases at a Nairobi centre, 2000–2004." International dental journal. 2007;57:439-444. Abstract
n/a
Lin J, Xia Y-J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Hou X-Y, Gan F-X, Huang W. "The colour-tuning effect of 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue–red organic light-emitting devices." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2007;40:4442. Abstract
n/a
Muchai M, Lovei G, Ndang'ang'a K. "Europe-Africa songbird migration: relative abundance of migrants in relation to habitat structure and composition of resident avifauna in Mwea National Reserve, Kenya.". In: OSTRICH. Vol. 78. BIRDLIFE SOUTH AFRICA PO BOX 84394, GREENSIDE 2034, SOUTH AFRICA; 2007:. Abstract
n/a
Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, others. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26:1661-1672. Abstract
n/a
Maher ER, Latif F, Johnson CM, Richards FM, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Raval RR, Zatyka M, Morris MR, Maina EN, others. "Identification Of Novel VHL Targets That Are Associated With The Development Of Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2007. Abstract
n/a
Bülow Pedersen I, Laurberg P, Knudsen N, Jørgensen T, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Rasmussen LB. "An increased incidence of overt hypothyroidism after iodine fortification of salt in {Denmark}: a prospective population study." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;92:3122-3127. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Lukandu O, Dimba E, Vintermyr O, Costea D, Johannessen A. "P221 Khat inhibits proliferation of normal oral keratinocytes in monolayers and organotypic cultures." Oral Oncology Supplement. 2007;1:198. Abstract
n/a
2006
Simiyu J, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Lindquist S-E, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "Titania Nanotubes Prepared by Synthesis Method for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells.". In: Presented at the International Conference on Microstructures and Nanotechnologies (ICMNT2006). Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria; 2006. Abstract

The area of nanostructured materials for dye sensitized solar cells has gained great interest by scientists, especially after a breakthrough by Gratzel and coworkers in developing a solar cell from nanostructured oxide of titania gaining an overall efficiency of about 11%. Since then research has been going on with emphasis on improvement on this achievement.

TiO2 nanofibres measuring average length 500nm and diameter 10nm have been prepared by synthesis method using 10M NaOH and dispersed in alcohol. Thin films prepared from the nanofibres had thickness varying from 4.5 – 5.5μm. The films were used to fabricate complete dye sensitised solar cells with Ruthenium complex dye as sentizer. I-V characteristics yielded Voc and Isc of 0.41V – 0.58V and 0.18mA – to 1.1mA respectively under standard illumination of 100mW/cm2 (using a halogen lamp and data acquired using Keithley 2400 Source Metre® controlled by LabVIEW® software). XRD analysis indicated strong anatase peaks with crystal orientation in the direction (101). This showed that there was no lose of crystalline structure of the TiO2 during the synthesis process. However, as the sintering temperature was raised, the percentage crystal content of anatase reduced as the rutile structure slowly formed.

Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "An Overview of American and Chinese Activities in Africa – And African Priorities for the Future.". In: China – Africa – US Trilateral Dialogue. Tswalu, South Africa; 2006.
Nyagol J, Leucci E, Onnis A, De Falco G, Tigli C, Sanseverino F, Torriccelli M, Palummo N, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Spina D, Gichangi P, Muchiri L, Lazzi S, Petraglia F, Leoncini L, Giordano A. "The effects of HIV-1 Tat protein on cell cycle during cervical carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol. Ther.. 2006;5(6):684-90. Abstract

The role of HPV in the carcinogenesis of intraepithelial and invasive anogenital lesions is currently well established. E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV genotypes are known to inactivate p53 and pRb pathways. Several studies have described an increased prevalence and recurrence of both cervical HPV infection and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-1 positive women compared to HIV-1 negative cases. For these reasons, cervical cancer is considered an AIDS-defining neoplasm. Unlike other AIDS-associated neoplasms, the occurrence of cervical cancer is independent of immune suppression. HIV-1 infection in patients with high grade precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancers results in a therapy refractory and more aggressive disease phenotype, which is not yet well understood at the molecular level. An upregulation of HPV E6 and E7 gene expressions by HIV-1 proteins such as Tat has been documented by some authors. However, the role of HIV-1 in cervical carcinomas is still unclear. It is already known that HIV-1 Tat protein is able to influence cell cycle progression. Altogether, these facts led us to investigate the effects of Tat on the expression of cell cycle regulator genes. After transfection of HeLa cells with Tat, we analyzed the expression of cell cycle regulators from these cells by IHC and Real-time PCR. A significant reduction in the expression of cell cycle inhibitors of transcription and an increase in the levels of proliferation markers were observed. These results suggest that HIV-1 may enhance cervical carcinogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression. We also found that this HIV-1 Tat-induced cell proliferation was not dependent on the E2F family of transcription factors, and therefore postulate that Sp factors may be involved.

Smith UM, Consugar M, Tee LJ, McKee BM, Maina EN, Whelan S, Morgan NV, Goranson E, Gissen P, Lilliquist S, Aligianis IA, Ward CJ, Pasha S, Punyashthiti R, Malik Sharif S, Batman PA, Bennett CP, Woods GC, McKeown C, Bucourt M, Miller CA, Cox P, Algazali L, Trembath RC, Torres VE, Attie-Bitach T, Kelly DA, Maher ER, Gattone VH, Harris PC, Johnson CA. "The transmembrane protein meckelin (MKS3) is mutated in Meckel-Gruber syndrome and the wpk rat." Nat. Genet.. 2006;38(2):191-6. Abstract

Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a severe autosomal, recessively inherited disorder characterized by bilateral renal cystic dysplasia, developmental defects of the central nervous system (most commonly occipital encephalocele), hepatic ductal dysplasia and cysts and polydactyly. MKS is genetically heterogeneous, with three loci mapped: MKS1, 17q21-24 (ref. 4); MKS2, 11q13 (ref. 5) and MKS3 (ref. 6). We have refined MKS3 mapping to a 12.67-Mb interval (8q21.13-q22.1) that is syntenic to the Wpk locus in rat, which is a model with polycystic kidney disease, agenesis of the corpus callosum and hydrocephalus. Positional cloning of the Wpk gene suggested a MKS3 candidate gene, TMEM67, for which we identified pathogenic mutations for five MKS3-linked consanguineous families. MKS3 is a previously uncharacterized, evolutionarily conserved gene that is expressed at moderate levels in fetal brain, liver and kidney but has widespread, low levels of expression. It encodes a 995-amino acid seven-transmembrane receptor protein of unknown function that we have called meckelin.

Mbuthia P.G., Bebora L.C, L.W. N. "Tetrameres species infestations in different age groups of village free-range chickens in Embu and Mbeere districts.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2006.2006_-_tetrameres_in_indigenous_chickens.pdf
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Langat SK, Onyatta JO. "The changing conceptions and focus of health research in East Africa ." Africa J. Health. 2006;13:1-5.
Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Dupas S, Moyal P, Calatyud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Distribution, pest status and agroclimatic preferences of lepidopteran stemborers of maize and sorghum in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(2):171-177.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Makobe M, Ochora J, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):371-380.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, G O'amo, P M, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Societe entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):371-380.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Makobe M, Ochora J, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and Abundance of wild host plants of Lepidopteran stem borers in two different agroecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Société entemologique de France. 2006;42 (3-4):371-380. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2004 and 2005 in two ecologically different locations, Kakamega and Muhaka to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers as compared to maize plots during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Kakamega in Western Kenya is characterized by a Guineo-Congolian rain forest mosaic and Muhaka at the Kenyan coast by a Zanzibar Inhambane mosaic with secondary grassy and woody vegetation. In Kakamega, wild host plants and maize covered 2 and 43% of the surveyed area. No variation in diversity and relative abundance of wild host plants was observed between both the cropping and non-cropping seasons. In Muhaka, the diversity and relative abundance of wild host plant species differed between seasons, with the Shannon Weaver Index (H) of 1.67 and 0.95 for cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. Similarly in this location, wild host plant cover varied between cropping (23%) and non-cropping (17.9%). During both seasons, this was higher than the maize cover, with 10.7% and 0% for the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. For both localities, the implication of the differences found in the abundance and diversity between the cropping and non-cropping seasons is discussed.

LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullah Z, Cugala D, Defabachew B, Hailei TA, Kauma TM, Lada VY, Negassi B, Ravolonandrianina KJ, Sidumo A, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers in eastern Africa revisited." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2006;96:555-563.
Mukabana RW, Kannady K, Kiama MG, Ijumba JN, Mathenge EM, Ibrahim Kiche, Nkwengulila G, Mboera L, Mtasiwa D, Yamagata Y, Schayk IV, Knols BGJ, Lindsay SW, de Castro MC, de Castro MC, Tanner M, Fillinger U, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Mukabana, W.R., K. Kannady, G.M. Kiama, J. Ijumba, E.M. Mathenge, I. Kiche, G. Nkwengulila, L.E.G. Mboera, D. Mtasiwa, Y. Yamagata, I. van Schayk, B.G.J. Knols, S.W. Lindsay, M. Caldas de Castro, H. Mshinda, M. Tanner, U. Fillinger, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa." Malaria Journal. 2006;5(1):9.
J N, E L, A O, G DF, C T, F S, M T, N P, L P, R S, D S, P G, L M, S L, F P, Leoncini L, A G. "The Effects of HIV-1 Tat Protein on Cell Cycle during Cervical Carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol Ther. . 2006;5(6):684-90.
Obonyo N, Cheroigin K, Kariuki M, Sumuni K, Lang’at O, Njogu B, Masika M, Patel N. "The Effects of MÛGÛKA (Catha edulis vahl) on the Behaviour of Rats." Nairobi Journal of Medicine. 2006. Abstractabstract_-_the_effects_of_muguka_on_rats.pdfeffects_of_muguka_catha_edulis_vahl_on_the_behavior_of_rats-_nairobi_journal_of_medicine_jun_2006.pdf

The Effects of MÛGÛKA (Catha edulis vahl) on the Behaviour of Rats

N.G Obonyo, K.S Cheroigin, M.M Kariuki, K.M Sumuni, O Lang’at, Njogu, M.M Masika, N.B Patel

INTRODUCTION: Mûgûka (Catha edulis vahl) are ‘residue’ leaves, which are chewed to elicit a stimulant effect. It is grown in Eastern province (mostly in Mbeere and Embu districts) of Kenya and is very popular with the local residents in this part of the country. It is closely related to miraa (Catha edulis forsk), which is reported to be one of the most recklessly abused drugs in Kenya by NACADA (National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse). Whereas lots of research has been done on miraa, little, if any, research has been done on mûgûka.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of mûgûka on the behaviour of Sprague Dawley rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Sprague Dawley rats were used. The experiment was divided into three phases: Baseline, Normal saline and Mûgûka. Baseline phase established the normal behaviour of the rats before injection of mûgûka plant extract (mûgûka phase). Normal saline was used as a control. We conducted an Open field Test. The behaviours exhibited during a 30-minute trial were recorded for each of the experimental phases. The four behavioural parameters recorded for each experimental phase were line crossings, rearing counts, grooming time and defecation pellets count.

RESULTS: The behavioural changes noted after injection of mûgûka plant extract were; the line crossing counts increased but the grooming time, rearing counts and defecation pellet counts decreased. However, none of these changes was statistically significant. Sniffing behaviour was also markedly increased when the mûgûka was administered.

DISCUSSION: The results obtained above suggest that there are changes in the behavioural parameters although they are not statistically significant. The sample size probably needs to be increased and serial dose-response measurements for the injected mûgûka plant extract need to be done.

Keywords: Mûgûka (Catha edulis vahl), miraa (Catha edulis forsk), NACADA (National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse) in Kenya

Published in the Nairobi Journal of Medicine, June 2006

Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Castro, M.C., Fillinger U. "Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006;74(4):517-518.
Lelei JJ, Onwonga RN, Mochoge BO. "Interactive Effects of Lime, Manure, Urea and TSP on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Yield and Nutrient Uptake in an Acid Mollic Andosol of Molo, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Science and Technology. 2006;6 (2):http://journal.egerton.ac.ke/index.php/ejt/article/view/16.
Riha SJ;, Blume LE;, Barret CB;, Kinyangi JM;, Lehmann CJ;, Marenya PP;, Mbugua DM;, Nicholson CF;, Ngoze SO;, Parsons D;, Verchot LV;, Pell AN. "Long-Term Human and Biophysical Dynamics of Soil Degradation in the Kenyan Highlands.".; 2006. Abstract

Agroecosystems are among the most tightly coupled of human and natural systems, as farmers make conscious decisions regarding land use and improvement, cropping systems, livestock management and labor allocation. These decisions can profoundly impact the natural resource base, which can then lead to changes in farmers' behaviors. The focus of this study is to understand the long term human and biophysical dynamics of soil degradation. We are especially interested in the role that soil degradation plays in creating poverty traps and in interventions that will strongly impact the dynamics of these systems. We have developed an integrated economic and biophysical systems dynamic model to understand and predict the long term behavior of farms in the Kenyan highlands. Additionally, we have established a chronosequence in western Kenya of farms converted from primary forest to agriculture 100, 70, 50, 30, 15, 5, and < 3 years ago. This chronosequence includes three blocks that contain all time conversions, with 3 farms per conversion. Soil chemistry and soil organic matter fractions have been measured from fields that have never received fertilizer additions. An extensive set of fertility experiments to examine the response of maize to amendment with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, manure and green manure have been established on these soils. Socioeconomic data for these farms has been collected. The chronosequence data is being used to both parameterize and evaluate the model. Preliminary findings indicate that both soil organic matter and maize yields decline after conversion from primary forest, but not at the same rates. As the soil degrades and maize yields decrease, farms become more diversified by shifting some land into perennials. This change in land use is associated with a stable, though decreased, soil fertility level. The relationship of these changes in cropping systems and soil fertility to off farm activities and income will be discussed, as well as the implications of these dynamics for preventing soil degradation and restoring fertility.

LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Muchungu E, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullahi Z, Matama KT, Lada VY, Pallangyo B, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Major ecological characteristics of East African noctuid stem borers." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):353-361.
Lacroix R, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Gouagna LC, Koella JC. "Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes." PlosBiology, 3 (9), (e298).. 2006. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

L.U. A, W.D. B, F.J. M, E.O. O. "Molecular characterization of a tsetse fly midgut proteolytic lectin that mediates differentiation of African trypanosomes.Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Apr;36(4):344-52. Epub 2006 Jan 19.". In: Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Apr;36(4):344-52. Epub 2006 Jan 19. MBA; 2006. Abstract

Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.

JO M, LU(1) W, Faxelid EA, PN C, AA O'any, EB. N. "Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia." Reprod Health Matters. 2006 May;14(27):119-28.. 2006.dr.musandu.pdf
Waita SM, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Niklasson GA, Lindquist E, Granqvist CG. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered TiO2 Films." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology. 2006;7(2):125-139. Abstract

Nanocrystalline porous titanium oxide films of varying thickness have been deposited in ambient by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at a fixed but high oblique angle of 60o, and then converted to TiO2 by thermal annealing at 450 oC for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction analysis of the films showed that they were predominantly of anatase phase, whereas the as deposited films were amorphous. Top–down scanning electron microscope images of the annealed films showed cauliflower-like surfaces, and exhibited well-defined columns. Atomic force microscope images revealed rough surfaces with larger nodules for thicker films. With the annealed films as the working electrodes in a dye-sensitised solar cell, it was established that the photoelectric conversion efficiency increased with the film thickness. The highest efficiency was ~ 3.3 % at an illumination intensity of 100 W/m2.

Waita SM, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Niklasson GA, Lindquist S – E, Granqvist CG. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered TiO2 Films”,." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology, Series. 2006;7(2):125-139. Abstract

Nanocrystalline porous titanium oxide films of varying thickness have been deposited in ambient by reactive
DC magnetron sputtering at a fixed but high oblique angle of 60o, and then converted to TiO2 by thermal
annealing at 450 oC for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction analysis of the films showed that they were predominantly of
anatase phase, whereas the as deposited films were amorphous. Top–down scanning electron microscope
images of the annealed films showed cauliflower-like surfaces, and exhibited well-defined columns. Atomic
force microscope images revealed rough surfaces with larger nodules for thicker films. With the annealed films
as the working electrodes in a dye-sensitised solar cell, it was established that the photoelectric conversion
efficiency increased with the film thickness. The highest efficiency was ~ 3.3 % at an illumination intensity of
100 W/m2.

Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MSJ, Paton AJ. "Plectranthus : A review of ethnobotanical uses." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;103(1):1-24. Abstract

Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. The genus is plagued with numerous nomenclatural disharmonies that make it difficult to collate accurate data on the uses. The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on
Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species. The uses of 62 species of Plectranthus were mapped onto a current phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. The phylogeny reveals two major Clades, 1 and 2. The members of Clade 1 (corresponding to the formally recognized genus Coleus ) were richer in number and diversity of uses than members of Clade 2 (comprising the remaining species of Plectranthus
). The high incidence of synonymy can lead to problems in uncovering a species’ ethnobotanical profile. About 30% of all citations of Plectranthus use a synonym and most of the synonyms are attributed to 10 of the most used species, 9 of which are in Clade 1. Members of the ‘Coleus’ Clade are the most studied group both taxonomically and economically. The higher incidence of study may be as a result of the higher diversity of uses and the fact that species in Clade 1, such as Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus amboinicus andPlectranthus mollis, are geographically more widespread than those in Clade 2. Plectranthus species in Clade 1 are frequently used as medicines and are used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive, skin, infective and respiratory problems. Plectranthus
used as foods, flavours, fodder and materials are also mostly found in Clade 1. Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and phenolics have been reported in species of Plectranthus. The abietane diterpenoids are the most diverse of the diterpenoids isolated from species of Plectranthus. The labdane diterpenoid, forskolin, occurs in Plectranthus barbatus and could explain some of the traditional uses of this species. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about the chemistry of other species of Plectranthus to explain their traditional uses.

Keywords: Plectranthus; Ethnobotanical uses; Coleus

Dorothy McCormick, Paul K, Ligulu P. "Post-Multifibre Arrangement Analysis of the Textile and Garment Sectors in Kenya.". In: Post-Multifibre Arrangement Analysis of the Textile and Garment Sectors in Kenya." IDS Bulletin 37 (1): 80-88. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.; 2006. Abstract

n/a

L N, J K, R O, H A. "Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a Nairobi urban population." East Afr Med J. 2006;83:69-72. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among Kibera slum dwellers.
Design: Population based Survey.
Setting: Kibera Slums, Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: One thousand four hundred and thirty eight randomly selected slum dwellers.
Results: The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.0), and 6.2% (95% CI: 4.95 to 7.15) respectively. 37.5% of those found blind were due to cataract followed by refractive errors 25.0%. 58.1% of those with visual impairment had refractive errors while 35.5% had cataracts. Females had a higher prevalence of visual impairment compared to males but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.104).
Conclusions: Prevalence of blindness in Kibera slums is slightly lower than the estimated national average (0.7%) while that of visual impairment is almost three times higher. The leading causes of blindness are cataract followed by refractive errors. For visual impairment, refractive error was the leading cause followed by cataract.
Recommendation: Kibera slum dwellers are in need of comprehensive eye care services offering cataract surgery and low cost spectacles.

Ndetei DM, Lule G, Mohit A, Mburu J, Atwoli L, Mucheru M. "Psychiatric and Mental Health Training."; 2006.
Kamau A, Bornemann R, Laaser U. "Psychosocial influences on adolescent sexuality and identity in rural Kenya." Health Sociology Review. 2006;15(3):305-316.
Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Dupas S, Moyal P, Muchugu E, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "The role of wild host plants in the abundance of lepidopteran stem borers along altitudinal gradient in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):363-370.
J N, A N’o, B B, L M, M C, de MM S, D S, C B, S L, I K, P L, Leoncini L. "Routine assessment of hormonal receptor and Her-2/neu status underscores the need for more therapeutic targets in Kenyan women with breast cancer." J. of AQCH . 2006;28(2):97-103.
Nyagol J, Nyong'o A, BYAKIKA B, Muchiri L, Cocco M, de Santi MM, Spina, D; Bellan C, Lazzi S, Kostopoulos I, Luzi P, Leoncini L. "Routine assessment of hormonal receptor and her-2/neu status underscores the need for more therapeutic targets in Kenyan women with breast cancer.". 2006. Abstract

To report the expression of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her-2/neu) in 158 Kenyan women with breast cancer and correlation with other prognostic indicators in this high-risk group. This study stressed the importance of routine assessment of the steroid receptors and Her-2/neu as a mode of therapeutic selection of patients for antihormonal or targeting monoclonal antibody (Herceptin) therapy, directed at the juxtamembrane domain of Her-2/neu protein in the developing countries such as Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 158 female patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma seen at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital. An immunohistochemical (IHC) study of ER, PR and Her-2/neu was conducted, followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) validation for Her-2/neu gene amplification in cases initially scored as positive 2+ with IHC. Mastectomy samples registered at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital were used for this study. The study was approved by the institution's ethical review committee and informed consent obtainedfrom the concerned patients. RESULTS: In the studied cohort, positivity for both hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu was noted in 10 (6.33%) cases and negativity in 44 (27.85%) cases. Conversely, Her-2/neu negativity was noted in 32 (20.25%) cases with both steroid receptors positive and Her-2/neu positivity with both steroid receptors negative in 20 (12.66%) cases. Overall, no predictive factor was found in the Her-2/neu amplified 31/153 (20.26%) cases completely assessed with IHC and FISH. Grade III invasive ductal carcinomas, however, had a high prevalence of Her-2/neu overexpression. Association of both menopausal status (p = 0.044) and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.004) with high grade tumors were found to be statistically significant at 95% CI (p < 0.5). Consistent with other studies, Her-2/neu overexpression in this cohort was 20.26%. CONCLUSION: Her-2/neu positivity may activate ER expression through signaling kinases, and the combined target of mitogenic estrogen plus the monoclonal antibody therapy against Her-2/neu-overexpressing tumors expand chances of survival for patients in developing countries such as Kenya. The cost factor for these tests, selection for appropriate combined therapies and lack of awareness were noted as limiting factors for access to basic health care service and resulted in advanced tumor grade at time of patient presentation.

Maecker HT, Rinfret A, D'Souza P, Darden J, Roig E, Landry C, Hayes P, Birungi J, Anzala O, Garcia M, Harari A, Frank I, Baydo R, Baker M, Holbrook J, Ottinger J, Lamoreaux L, Epling LC, Sinclair E, Suni MA, Punt K, Calarota S, El-Bahi S. "Standardization of cytokine flow cytometry assays.". 2006. Abstract

Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories performing vaccine studies would provide a common platform by which to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates across multiple international organizations conducting clinical trials. As such, a study was carried out among several laboratories involved in HIV clinical trials, to define the inter-lab precision of ICS using various sample types, and using a common protocol for each experiment (see additional files online). Results: Three sample types (activated, fixed, and frozen whole blood; fresh whole blood; and cryopreserved PBMC) were shipped to various sites, where ICS assays using cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide mix or control antigens were performed in parallel in 96-well plates. For one experiment, antigens and antibody cocktails were lyophilised into 96-well plates to simplify and standardize the assay setup. Results (CD4+cytokine+ cells and CD8+cytokine+ cells) were determined by each site. Raw data were also sent to a central site for batch analysis with a dynamic gating template. Mean inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (C.V.) ranged from 17–44% depending upon the sample type and analysis method. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yielded lower inter-lab C.V.'s than whole blood. Centralized analysis (using a dynamic gating template) reduced the inter-lab C.V. by 5–20%, depending upon the experiment. The inter-lab C.V. was lowest (18–24%) for samples with a mean of >0.5% IFNγ + T cells, and highest (57–82%) for samples with a mean of <0.1% IFNγ + cells. Conclusion: ICS assays can be performed by multiple laboratories using a common protocol with good inter-laboratory precision, which improves as the frequency of responding cells increases. Cryopreserved PBMC may yield slightly more consistent results than shipped whole blood. Analysis, particularly gating, is a significant source of variability, and can be reduced by centralized analysis and/or use of a standardized dynamic gating template. Use of pre-aliquoted lyophilized reagents for stimulation and staining can provide further standardization to these assays.

Lund JF;, Helles F. "Taxation issues in Tanzanian forest decentralisation."; 2006. Abstract

The paper deals with issues of taxation in relation to decentralisation of forest resources. It presents preliminary empirical data from Tanzania in the form of forest taxation records from 12 villages that have gained jurisdiction over forest products taxation through a decentralisation reform. The analysis shows that (i) decentralisation of forest resources can lead to vast improvements of taxation effectiveness and (ii) taxation of forest products may be regressive or progressive in relation to income distribution. Thus, the effects of increased forest taxation effectiveness on poverty alleviation are ambiguous and highly dependent upon the local pattern of forest utilisation. The indication that forest decentralisation can lead to higher effectiveness in the taxation of forest products contradicts some of the general debate on the effects and potentials of decentralisation on taxation, and, hence, provides an argument for continued decentralisation of natural resources.

Maher ER, Latif F, Teh B;, Yao M, T K, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Gupta K, Maina EN, Abdulrahman M, Gentle D, Morris MR. "Tumor Suppressor Activity And Epigenetic Inactivation Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 2/SPINT2 In Papillary And Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2006. Abstract

Following treatment with a demethylating agent, 5 of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines showed increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2/SPINT2/Bikunin), a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that regulates HGF activity. As activating mutations in the MET proto-oncogene (the HGF receptor) cause familial RCC, we investigated whether HAI-2/SPINT2 might act as a RCC tumor suppressor gene. We found that transcriptional silencing of HAI-2 in RCC cell lines was associated with promoter region methylation and HAI-2/SPINT2 protein expression was down-regulated in 30% of sporadic RCC. Furthermore, methylation-specific PCR analysis revealed promoter region methylation in 30% (19 of 64) of clear cell RCC and 40% (15 of 38) of papillary RCC, whereas mutation analysis (in 39 RCC cell lines and primary tumors) revealed a missense substitution (P111S) in one RCC cell line. Restoration of HAI-2/SPINT2 expression in a RCC cell line reduced in vitro colony formation, but the P111S mutant had no significant effect. Increased cell motility associated with HAI-2/SPINT2 inactivation was abrogated by treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospholipase C-gamma inhibitors, but not by an inhibitor of atypical protein kinase C. These findings are consistent with frequent epigenetic inactivation of HAI-2/SPINT2, causing loss of RCC tumor suppressor activity and implicate abnormalities of the MET pathway in clear cell and papillary sporadic RCC. This information provides opportunities to develop novel targeted approaches to the treatment of RCC.

KABUBO-MARIARA JANE, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R, Mwabu G. "“Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya”." PREM Working Paper. 2006;PREM 06/06.
Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, Jin Y, Yu X, Fan C, Chong W, others. "Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in {China}." New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354:2783-2793. AbstractWebsite
n/a
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Group interpersonal psychotherapy for rural Uganda: six months follow-up (co-author).". In: British Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 188-567-573. EAMJ; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Xia Y-J, Lin J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Gan F-X, Huang W. "High-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting devices with 4, 4′, 4 ″-tris (N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine as the hole/exciton-blocking layer." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2006;39:4987. Abstract
n/a
Limo A, Gichana J, Korir A, Dimba E, Wakoli K, Awange D, Mutuma G. "Incidence rates of head and neck cancers in Nairobi Kenya.". 2006. Abstract
n/a
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Guides and Techniques for Mineral Exploration,.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
Smith UM, Consugar M, Tee LJ, McKee BM, Maina EN, Whelan S, Morgan NV, Goranson E, Gissen P, Lilliquist S, others. "The transmembrane protein meckelin (MKS3) is mutated in Meckel-Gruber syndrome and the wpk rat." Nature genetics. 2006;38:191-196. Abstract
n/a
Peters DA, Courtemanche DJ, Heran MKS, Ludemann JP, Prendiville JS. "Treatment of cystic lymphatic vascular malformations with {OK}-432 sclerotherapy." Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2006;118:1441-1446. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2005
Cang J, Kalatsky VA, Löwel S, Stryker MP. "Optical imaging of the intrinsic signal as a measure of cortical plasticity in the mouse." Visual neuroscience. 2005;22:685-691. Abstract

The responses of cells in the visual cortex to stimulation of the two eyes changes dramatically following a period of monocular visual deprivation (MD) during a critical period in early life. This phenomenon, referred to as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, is a widespread model for understanding cortical plasticity. In this study, we designed stimulus patterns and quantification methods to analyze OD in the mouse visual cortex using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Using periodically drifting bars restricted to the binocular portion of the visual field, we obtained cortical maps for both contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) eyes and computed OD maps as (C - I)/(C + I). We defined the OD index (ODI) for individual animals as the mean of the OD map. The ODI obtained from an imaging session of less than 30 min gives reliable measures of OD for both normal and monocularly deprived mice under Nembutal anesthesia. Surprisingly, urethane anesthesia, which yields excellent topographic maps, did not produce consistent OD findings. Normal Nembutal-anesthetized mice have positive ODI (0.22 +/- 0.01), confirming a contralateral bias in the binocular zone. For mice monocularly deprived during the critical period, the ODI of the cortex contralateral to the deprived eye shifted negatively towards the nondeprived, ipsilateral eye (ODI after 2-day MD: 0.12 +/- 0.02, 4-day: 0.03 +/- 0.03, and 6- to 7-day MD: -0.01 +/- 0.04). The ODI shift induced by 4-day MD appeared to be near maximal, consistent with previous findings using single-unit recordings. We have thus established optical imaging of intrinsic signals as a fast and reliable screening method to study OD plasticity in the mouse.

Cang J, Kalatsky VA, Löwel S, Stryker MP. "Optical imaging of the intrinsic signal as a measure of cortical plasticity in the mouse." Visual neuroscience. 2005;22:685-691. Abstract

The responses of cells in the visual cortex to stimulation of the two eyes changes dramatically following a period of monocular visual deprivation (MD) during a critical period in early life. This phenomenon, referred to as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, is a widespread model for understanding cortical plasticity. In this study, we designed stimulus patterns and quantification methods to analyze OD in the mouse visual cortex using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Using periodically drifting bars restricted to the binocular portion of the visual field, we obtained cortical maps for both contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) eyes and computed OD maps as (C - I)/(C + I). We defined the OD index (ODI) for individual animals as the mean of the OD map. The ODI obtained from an imaging session of less than 30 min gives reliable measures of OD for both normal and monocularly deprived mice under Nembutal anesthesia. Surprisingly, urethane anesthesia, which yields excellent topographic maps, did not produce consistent OD findings. Normal Nembutal-anesthetized mice have positive ODI (0.22 +/- 0.01), confirming a contralateral bias in the binocular zone. For mice monocularly deprived during the critical period, the ODI of the cortex contralateral to the deprived eye shifted negatively towards the nondeprived, ipsilateral eye (ODI after 2-day MD: 0.12 +/- 0.02, 4-day: 0.03 +/- 0.03, and 6- to 7-day MD: -0.01 +/- 0.04). The ODI shift induced by 4-day MD appeared to be near maximal, consistent with previous findings using single-unit recordings. We have thus established optical imaging of intrinsic signals as a fast and reliable screening method to study OD plasticity in the mouse.

Fisher SK, Lewis GP, Linberg KA, Verardo MR. "Cellular remodeling in mammalian retina: results from studies of experimental retinal detachment." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2005;24:395-431. Abstract

Retinal detachment, the separation of the neural retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium, starts a cascade of events that results in cellular changes throughout the retina. While the degeneration of the light sensitive photoreceptor outer segments is clearly an important event, there are many other cellular changes that have the potential to significantly effect the return of vision after successful reattachment. Using animal models of detachment and reattachment we have identified many cellular changes that result in significant remodeling of the retinal tissue. These changes range from the retraction of axons by rod photoreceptors to the growth of neurites into the subretinal space and vitreous by horizontal and ganglion cells. Some neurite outgrowths, as in the case of rod bipolar cells, appear to be directed towards their normal presynaptic target. Horizontal cells may produce some directed neurites as well as extensive outgrowths that have no apparent target. A subset of reactive ganglion cells all fall into the latter category. Muller cells, the radial glia of the retina, undergo numerous changes ranging from proliferation to a wholesale structural reorganization as they grow into the subretinal space (after detachment) or vitreous after reattachment. In a few cases have we been able to identify molecular changes that correlate with the structural remodeling. Similar changes to those observed in the animal models have now been observed in human tissue samples, leading us to conclude that this research may help us understand the imperfect return of vision occurring after successful reattachment surgery. The mammalian retina clearly has a vast repertoire of cellular responses to injury, understanding these may help us improve upon current therapies or devise new therapies for blinding conditions.

Lempp HK. "Perceptions of dissection by students in one medical school: beyond learning about anatomy. {A} qualitative study." Medical Education. 2005;39:318-325. AbstractWebsite

Introduction  The practice of dissection, as part of undergraduate medical education, has recently resurfaced in the public eye. This paper focuses on a number of important learning outcomes that were reported by Year 1–5 medical students in a British medical school, during the dissection sessions in the first 2 years of their training, as part of a wider qualitative research project into undergraduate medical education. Methods  A group of 29 students was selected by quota sampling, using the whole student population of the medical school as the sampling frame. Qualitative data were collected by 1 : 1 interviews with students and from formal non-participatory observations of dissection sessions. Results  Apart from learning to cope with the overt ‘emotional confrontation’ with the cadavers which assists anatomical learning, 7 additional covert learning outcomes were identified by the students: teamwork, respect for the body, familiarisation of the body, application of practical skills, integration of theory and practice, preparation for clinical work, and appreciation of the status of dissection within the history of medicine. Discussion  A number of medical schools have either removed the practical, hands-on aspect of dissection in the medical undergraduate curriculum or are seriously considering such a measure, on financial and/or human resource grounds. This study highlights the fact that dissection can impart anatomical knowledge as well as offer other relevant, positive learning opportunities to enhance the skills and attitudes of future doctors.

Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Breast milk HIV-1 suppression and decreased transmission: a randomized trial comparing HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course zidovudine." AIDS. 2005;19(13):1415-22. Abstract

To compare the effect of perinatal regimens of short-course nevirapine (HIVNET 012) and zidovudine [Thai-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regimen] on breast milk viral shedding and perinatal transmission during the first 6 weeks postpartum in a randomized clinical trial.

Adhiambo C, Forney JD, Asai DJ, LeBowitz JH. "The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions." Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.. 2005;143(2):216-25. Abstract

Eukaryotic organisms with cilia or flagella typically express two non-axonemal or "cytoplasmic" dyneins, dynein-1 and dynein-2. Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2.1 and LmxDHC2.2) along with a single dynein-1 heavy chain (LmxDHC1). Disruption of LmxDHC2.2 resulted in immotile parasites that had a rounded cell body. Although they assume amastigote morphology, immunoblot analysis of these cells demonstrates protein expression consistent with the promastigote stage. Ultrastructural analysis revealed non-emergent flagella that lacked the paraflagellar rod and an axoneme with deficiencies in several components. We confirmed the absence of paraflagellar rod proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These results show that LmxDHC2.2 is required for flagellar assembly and also participates in the maintenance of promastigote cell shape. In contrast to the results with LmxDHC2.2, we were unable to generate homologous disruptions of LmxDHC2.1. This result suggests that, unlike LmxDHC2.2, LmxDHC2.1 is an essential gene in Leishmania. Together, these findings demonstrate that the two dynein-2 heavy chain isoforms in Leishmania perform distinct functions. The observation that the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei also contain two dynein-2 isoforms suggests that this unusual aspect of cytoplasmic dynein is a conserved feature of the kinetoplastids.

Morris MR, Gentle D, Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Gupta K, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Kishida T, Yao M, Teh B, Latif F, Maher ER. "Tumor suppressor activity and epigenetic inactivation of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2/SPINT2 in papillary and clear cell renal cell carcinoma." Cancer Res.. 2005;65(11):4598-606. Abstract

Following treatment with a demethylating agent, 5 of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines showed increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2/SPINT2/Bikunin), a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that regulates HGF activity. As activating mutations in the MET proto-oncogene (the HGF receptor) cause familial RCC, we investigated whether HAI-2/SPINT2 might act as a RCC tumor suppressor gene. We found that transcriptional silencing of HAI-2 in RCC cell lines was associated with promoter region methylation and HAI-2/SPINT2 protein expression was down-regulated in 30% of sporadic RCC. Furthermore, methylation-specific PCR analysis revealed promoter region methylation in 30% (19 of 64) of clear cell RCC and 40% (15 of 38) of papillary RCC, whereas mutation analysis (in 39 RCC cell lines and primary tumors) revealed a missense substitution (P111S) in one RCC cell line. Restoration of HAI-2/SPINT2 expression in a RCC cell line reduced in vitro colony formation, but the P111S mutant had no significant effect. Increased cell motility associated with HAI-2/SPINT2 inactivation was abrogated by treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospholipase C-gamma inhibitors, but not by an inhibitor of atypical protein kinase C. These findings are consistent with frequent epigenetic inactivation of HAI-2/SPINT2, causing loss of RCC tumor suppressor activity and implicate abnormalities of the MET pathway in clear cell and papillary sporadic RCC. This information provides opportunities to develop novel targeted approaches to the treatment of RCC.

Koigi-Kamau R, Leting PK, Kiarie JN. "Perceptions and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean section among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2005;82(12):631-6. Abstract

To determine perceptions, preferences and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean.

Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "High Oil Prices and the African Economy: the Impact of High Oil Prices in SSA.". In: Annual Meetings of the African Development Bank Group at Ouagadougou. Burkina Faso; 2005.
L.C. B, P.G. Mbuthia, J.M.Macharia, Mwaniki G, L.W. Njagi. "Appraisal of the village chickens potential in egg production." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:10-13.abstract-appraisal_of_village_chickens-kvaj-2005.pdf
Oyugi, Lutiali, Saka, Musumba. Au Sommet 3: Une approche Intégrée et communicative . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2005.
E.M. Mathenge, G.O. Misian, D.O. Oulo, L. W. Irungu, P. N. Ndegwa, G.F. Killeen, B.G.J. Knols. "Comparative performance of Mbita trap, CDC light trap and Human Landing Catch in the sampling of Anopheles arabiensis, An. Funestus and culicine speci." Malaria Journal. 2005;4:7-11.Website
Rosenthal1, S. K., Lodge, D. M., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) and native Dytiscid beetles (Cybister tripunctatus) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):157-162.
Shepherd M, Lee DJ, Baker N, Kasem S, Ochieng JW, Bihua C;, Henry RJ. Corymbia genetics at Southern Cross University (Presentation Corymbia Research Meeting).; 2005.
Lwai-Lume L, Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Kariuki S. "Drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.

Lore TA, Mbugua SK, Wangoh J. "Enumeration and identification of micro flora in suusac, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product." Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie . 2005;38(2):125-130.
Kristensen K;, Larsen B;J, Madsen P. Forest rehabilitation in Denmark using nature-based forestry .; 2005.Website
C B, S L, M H, N P, de M S, T A, J N, E S, T L, SA P, M R, H S, P T, Leoncini L. "Immunoglobulin gene analysis reveals two distinct cells of origin for EBV-positive and EBV-negative Burkitt lymphomas." Blood. 2005;106(3):1031-6.
Ndunda B, Chabbra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Akenga T. Isolation and Characterization of Compounds from Kenyan Medicinal Plants of the Genus Croton. JUJA-KENYA: JKUAT; 2005.
Lodge, D. M., Rosenthal1, S. K., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):119-124.
Lacroix, R., Mukabana, W.R., Gouagna LC, Koella JC. "Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes." PlosBiology, . 2005;3(9):1590-1593 (e298).
LWABUKHA HILDAN. OCCURRENCE OF SYPHILIS IN RESIDENT OF SHER AGENCIES FIRM IN NAIVASHA. G.M.MURAGE, ed. NAIROBI: THE KENYA POLYTECHNIC; 2005.hilda_higher_dip.pdf
Th. Dittrich, H.-J. Muffler, M. Vogel, T. Guminskaya, A. Ogacho, A. Belaidi, E. Strub, W. Bohne, J. Röhrich, and O. Hilt, Lux-Steiner MC. "Passivation of TiO2 by Ultra-thin alumina." Applied Surface Science . 2005;240 :236-243.
Ogutu BR, Nzila AM, Ochong E, Mithwani S, Wamola B, Olola CH, Lowe B, Kokwaro G, Marsh K, Newton CR. "The role of sequential administration of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine following quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in children.". 2005. Abstract

Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) is often administered with quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria to shorten the course of quinine. The efficacy of SP alone in the treatment of non-severe malaria has been declining rapidly in East Africa, raising concerns of the usefulness of a shortened course of quinine followed SP. We audited the efficacy of quinine/SP in the treatment of severe malaria in Kenyan children. Children with severe falciparum malaria were treated with parenteral quinine followed by a single oral dose of SP. A clinical evaluation was performed 3 weeks later in which a blood sample was obtained for full haemogram, blood slide and analysis of the parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) codons, mutations of which are associated with resistance to SP. A total of 452 children were enrolled, of whom 374 completed the study. Fifty-two (13.9%) children were parasitaemic by 3 weeks of whom 17 (4.5%) had fever as well. The treatment failure group had a significantly higher parasitaemia (129 061 vs. 43 339; P<0.001) and haemoglobin on admission, but only admission parasitaemia independently predicted treatment failure. Those with treatment failure had a significantly lower rise in haemoglobin at 3 weeks compared with treatment successes (9.0 vs. 10.0 g/dl). Of the 76 parasite isolates collected before treatment, 40 (53%) were triple mutant DHFR-double DHPS (Tp-Db), the genotype most associated with SP resistance. Three weeks after SP treatment, the proportion of Tp-Db increased to 72% (31/43). The high treatment failure rate and proportion of parasites with Tp-Db negate the use of SP to shorten the course of quinine treatment in East Africa

Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Alila PO;, Suda C;, Yambo MO;, Adhiambo-Oduol J;, Ligunya A;, Hopkins M. "Sixth Country Programme Evaluation Report. Nairobi: Government of Kenya and UNDP .". 2005.Website
Wood CM, Bergman HL, Bianchini A, Laurent P, Maina J, Johannsson OE, Bianchini LF, Chevalier C, Kavembe GD, Papah MB, Ojoo RO. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living.". 2005. Abstract

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L-1, i.e. HCO3 - and CO3 2-) rather than Cl-(112 mmol L-1) represents the major anion matching Na? = 356 mmol L-1, with very low concentrations of Ca2? and Mg2? (\1 mmol L-1). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was ?4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at ?7 mV at 10–30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to ?9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to-13 and-28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca2?]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28 C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L-1 solutions of NaHCO3, NaCl, NaNO3, or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L-1 NaHCO3 solution sustained the TEP unchanged at ?7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L-1 NaHCO3, the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L-1 NaCl— i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO3 solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na? diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na? inwards (?9.9 mV) and Cl- outwards (?3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient

Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
n/a
Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
n/a
Peichl, Leo. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: {Adaptations} to habitat and lifestyle?" The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 2005;287A:1001-1012. AbstractWebsite

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Group Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in Rural Uganda. A Randomized controlled trial (co-author).". In: Journal of American Asociation (JAMA) Vol. 289 no. 23, June. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Nyariki DM, Kitalyi A, Wasonga VO, Isae IM, Kyagaba E, Lugenja M. "Indigenous techniques for assessing and monitoring range resources in East Africa.". 2005. Abstract
n/a
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Natural Resources and Environment.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
Lewis TL, Maurer D. "Multiple sensitive periods in human visual development: {Evidence} from visually deprived children." Developmental Psychobiology. 2005;46:163-183. AbstractWebsite

Psychophysical studies of children deprived of early visual experience by dense cataracts indicate that there are multiple sensitive periods during which experience can influence visual development. We note three sensitive periods within acuity, each with different developmental time courses: the period of visually-driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage, and the sensitive period for recovery. Moreover, there are different sensitive periods for different aspects of vision. Relative to the period of visually driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage is surprisingly long for acuity, peripheral vision, and asymmetry of optokinetic nystagmus, but surprisingly short for global motion. A comparison of results from unilaterally versus bilaterally deprived children provides insights into the complex nature of interactions between the eyes during normal visual development. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 46: 163–183, 2005.

Lewis T, Daphne M. "Multiple {Sensitive} {Periods} in {Human} {Visual} {Development}: {Evidence} from {Visually} {Deprived} {Children}." Dev Psychobiol. 2005;46:163-183. Abstract

Psychophysical studies of children deprived of early visual experience by dense cataracts indicate that there are multiple sensitive periods during which experience can influence visual development. We note three sensitive periods within acuity, each with different developmental time courses: the period of visually-driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage, and the sensitive period for recovery. Moreover, there are different sensitive periods for different aspects of vision. Relative to the period of visually driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage is surprisingly long for acuity, peripheral vision, and asymmetry of optokinetic nystagmus, but surprisingly short for global motion. A comparison of results from unilaterally versus bilaterally deprived children provides insights into the complex nature of interactions between the eyes during normal visual development.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Transformed relationships with ourselves: In changing lives.". In: Published by WNI. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Maher ER, Latif F, Teh B, Yao M, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Gupta K, Maina EN, Abdulrahman M, Gentle D, others. "Tumor Suppressor Activity And Epigenetic Inactivation Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 2/SPINT2 In Papillary And Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2005. Abstract
n/a
2004
Umpierrez GE, Latif K, Stoever J, Cuervo R, Park L, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Efficacy of subcutaneous insulin lispro versus continuous intravenous regular insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 2004;117:291-296. Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous insulin lispro with that of a standard low-dose intravenous infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized open trial, 20 patients treated with subcutaneous insulin lispro were managed in regular medicine wards (n=10) or an intermediate care unit (n=10), while 20 patients treated with the intravenous protocol were managed in the intensive care unit. Patients treated with subcutaneous lispro received an initial injection of 0.3 unit/kg followed by 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia (blood glucose levels {\textless}250 mg/dL), followed by 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textgreater} or =7.3, bicarbonate {\textgreater} or =18 mEq/L). Patients treated with intravenous regular insulin received an initial bolus of 0.1 unit/kg, followed by an infusion of 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia, then 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Mean (+/- SD) admission biochemical parameters in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro (glucose: 674 +/- 154 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 9.2 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.17 +/- 0.10) were similar to values in patients treated with intravenous insulin (glucose: 611 +/- 264 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 10.6 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.19 +/- 0.08). The duration of treatment until correction of hyperglycemia (7 +/- 3 hours vs. 7 +/- 2 hours) and resolution of ketoacidosis (10 +/- 3 hours vs. 11 +/- 4 hours) in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro was not different than in patients treated with intravenous regular insulin. There were no deaths in either group, and there were no differences in the length of hospital stay, amount of insulin until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis, or in the rate of hypoglycemia between treatment groups. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in the intensive care unit was associated with 39% higher hospitalization charges than was treatment with subcutaneous lispro in a non-intensive care setting (\$14,429 +/- \$5243 vs. \$8801 +/- \$5549, P {\textless}0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatment of adult patients who have uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous lispro every hour in a non-intensive care setting may be safe and more cost-effective than treatment with intravenous regular insulin in the intensive care unit.

Fagiolini M, Fritschy J-M, Löw K, Möhler H, Rudolph U, Hensch TK. "Specific {GABAA} circuits for visual cortical plasticity." Science (New York, N.Y.). 2004;303:1681-1683. Abstract

Weak inhibition within visual cortex early in life prevents experience-dependent plasticity. Loss of responsiveness to an eye deprived of vision can be initiated prematurely by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated transmission with benzodiazepines. Here, we use a mouse "knockin" mutation to alpha subunits that renders individual GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors insensitive to diazepam to show that a particular inhibitory network controls expression of the critical period. Only alpha1-containing circuits were found to drive cortical plasticity, whereas alpha2-enriched connections separately regulated neuronal firing. This dissociation carries implications for models of brain development and the safe design of benzodiazepines for use in infants.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Liang H, Crewther SG, Crewther DP, Junghans BM. "Structural and {Elemental} {Evidence} for {Edema} in the {Retina}, {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium}, and {Choroid} during {Recovery} from {Experimentally} {Induced} {Myopia}." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2004;45:2463-2474. AbstractWebsite

purpose. The purpose of this study was to monitor temporal changes in the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid of chick eyes using biometric, ultrastructural, and elemental microanalysis techniques as a means of visualizing more detailed signs of the physiological processes underlying choroidal expansion and refractive normalization during recovery from form deprivation. methods. Axial dimensions and refractions were measured on form-deprived and fellow eyes of 117 experimental chickens reared with monocular translucent occlusion from days 1 to 15 and given different lengths of visual experience (T = 0–144 hours) before death. Tissue was analyzed ultrastructurally by electron microscopy and relative sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ion abundances, by using x-ray microanalysis to determine changes in the presence of these indicators of tissue hydration. results. Refractive error decreased from more than 20 D of myopia almost linearly over the first 144 hours after occlusion. Concurrent changes in thickness in the retina, RPE, and choroid were seen as a series of thickness increases and edema, which returned to normal thickness, first in the retina, and did not reach maximum until 3 days after occluder removal in the choroid. In freeze-dried tissue, Na and Cl ion concentrations were greatest in the RPE photoreceptor outer segments and extravascular choroid at T = 0, decreasing toward fellow eye levels by T = 48 in the RPE and choroid. Na and Cl ion abundances in the frozen lymph of choroidal lymphatics were nearly at control levels (T = 0) and increased later as the vessels became more distended after the extravascular edema became significant. conclusions. The results suggest that occluder removal induces edema across the retina and choroid and that this fluid may be the vector eliciting choroidal expansion during recovery from form deprivation possibly driven by the hyperosmolarity in the choroid, RPE, and photoreceptor outer segments that accompanies deprivation.

Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, Karabell A, Latif K, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous insulin aspart." Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1873-1878. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: In this prospective, randomized, open trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of aspart insulin given subcutaneously at different time intervals to a standard low-dose intravenous (IV) infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 45 consecutive patients admitted with DKA were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous (SC) aspart insulin every hour (SC-1h

Morris MR, Maina E, Morgan NV, Gentle D, Astuti D, Moch H, Kishida T, Yao M, Schraml P, Richards FM, Latif F, Maher ER. "Molecular genetic analysis of FIH-1, FH, and SDHB candidate tumour suppressor genes in renal cell carcinoma." J. Clin. Pathol.. 2004;57(7):706-11. Abstract

Overexpression of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 transcription factors and the consequent upregulation of hypoxia inducible mRNAs is a feature of many human cancers and may be unrelated to tissue hypoxia. Thus, the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau) tumour suppressor gene (TSG) regulates HIF-1 and HIF-2 expression in normoxia by targeting the alpha subunits for ubiquitination and proteolysis. Inactivation of the VHL TSG in VHL tumours and in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) results in overexpression of HIF-1 and HIF-2. However, RCC without VHL inactivation may demonstrate HIF upregulation, suggesting that VHL independent pathways for HIF activation also exist. In RCC, three candidate HIF activating genes exist-FIH-1 (factor inhibiting HIF), SDHB, and FH-which may be dependent or independent of VHL inactivation.

Ouma OW, Birungi H, Askew I, Warren C, Liambila W, Meme M. "Acceptability and Sustainability of Focused ANC in Kenya.". 2004.Website
Lissens G, Rabay K, Waweru M, Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S. "Anaerobic Digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.". 2004.Website
Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi, N; Mbithi PMF, Maingi, N; Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Dorothy McCormick, Ligulu P, Kinyanjui N. "The Clothing and Footwear Industries in Kenya.". In: Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation. Africa Institute of South Africa, Johannesburg. ISBN 0-7983-0162-7. University of Leipzig: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

n/a

J. G, M. M, J. M, L. M, J. M, P. O. "Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa, ISBN-9966-907-15-7." Community-based Livestock Initiatives Program; 2004.
Kioko UM, Guthrie T, Lara G, Sumbana H, Phororo H, Kerapeletswe C, Fairstein C, Valdes A, Sotomayor J, Darce D. Funding the fight: Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries. ISBN 1-919798-71-4, . Idasa, Cape Town; 2004.
Jianlin H, Ochieng JW, Lkhagva B, Hanotte O. "Genetic diversity and relationship of domestic bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China and Mongolia." Journal of Camel Practice & Research. 2004;11(2):97-99.2004_jianlin_et_al_jcpr.pdf
LW I, RN K, SM K. "Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 2004;75(1):58-59. AbstractPubMed link

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.

Njeri KM, Ligulu, Peter, McCormick, Dorothy. "Policy and Footwear in Kenya in McCormick.". In: Clothing and Footwear in Africa industrialization. Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2004.
Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Guglielmino CR, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Gomulski LM, Zheng L, Quilici S, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR. "Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: T."; 2004.
Mwenda JM, Machoki JM, Omollo E, Galo M, Langat DK. "The prevalence of anti-phospholipid antibodies in a selected population of Kenyan women and development of a non-human primate model.". 2004. Abstract

The mechanisms by which anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs) may induce pregnancy losses, intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension are not clearly understood. Moreover, there is a controversy regarding the possible direct effects of these antibodies on the physiology of the placenta since the target antigens of these antibodies are intracellular antigens and are potentially inaccessible to the antibody. Also, controversy exists regarding the usefulness of the treatment regimens currently available. In this study, we present preliminary data on the prevalence of aPLs in a selected population (n = 80) of Kenyan women visiting Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya for obstetrical complications including recurrent pregnancy losses. Our results showed approximately 13.8% of the patients were positive for anti-cardiolipin antibodies whereas 33.8% were positive for aPS. Additionally, we screened 72 non-human primates for presence of aPLs and our results showed that the olive baboon (Papio anubis) had the highest prevalence rate (52.2%, n = 23). Overall, our results suggest that the olive baboon may be a suitable animal model for studying the mechanism of action of the anti-phospholipid antibody and pregnancy complications associated with aPLs.

Mwenda JM, Machoki JM, Omollo E, Galo M, Langat DK. "The prevalence of endometriosis among African-American and African-indigenous women.". In: Gynecol Obstet Invest 2004: 57:1-60.; 2004. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

UoN Websites Search