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2009
Syomiti MM, Wanyike MM, Wahome RG, Kuria, J K, Lukuyu B. "Effect of Feed Mixtures and Preservation period on the Nutritive Value and Fermentation characteristics of Ensiled maize stovers." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2009;74 (3 ):227-234.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino, J., Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Evaluation of discrete host–parasitoid models for diamondback moth and Diadegma semiclausum field time population density series. ." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220:1735-1744.
M.kumar, P.K.Karanja, N.M.Monyonko, L.G.Wori-Baraja. "EXCITATION OF 2S-3S TRANSITION OF LITHIUM ATOM BY ELECTRON IMPACT.". 2009. Abstract

The Theoritical calculations for the total cross section (TCS) by electron impact excitation of Li (2s-3s) in the energy rate of 10-200eV are reported.These results are obtained in Born,Gauber,Simplified Second Born,Eikonol Born Series and modified Glauber approximation.Present results are compared withthe measurement of Zajonc and Gallagh

Karline S, Maria F, Nikolaos L, Agnes M, Maaike S, Leen V, vanden Edward B, Jan V. "Factors affecting nematode biomass, length and width from the shelf to the deep sea." Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 2009;392:123-132.
Plummer FA;, Ackers M;, Gelmon L;, Kimani J;, Thabane L;, Ball B;T, Ngugi E;, Estambale B;, Nguti R;, Barasa S;, Karanja S;, Habyarimana J;, Jack W;, Chung M;, Ritvo P;, Kariri A;, Mills EJ;, Lester RT. "The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.". 2009. Abstract

The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS (’short message system’ or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by ‘intention-to-treat’. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

LULE GN. "Hepatitis E Virus." East African Medical Journal. 2009:357.
Lohman-Payne, B; Slyker RBA; FMM-OM-NDA; ORJA; C;. "Infants with late breast milk acquisition of HIV-1 generate interferon-gamma responses more rapidly than infants with early peripartum acquisition.". 2009. Abstract

Infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life have a lower viral set-point and slower disease progression than infants infected before 1 month. We investigated the kinetics of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte secretion of interferon (IFN)-g in infants infected before 1 month of life compared with those infected between months 1 and 12 (late infection). HIV-1 infection was assessed at birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 and timing of infection was determined by HIV-1 gag DNA from dried blood spots and verified by plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. HIV-1 peptide-specific IFN-g responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12. Timing of development of IFN-g responses was compared using the log–rank test and Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Infants infected late developed HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses 2·8 months sooner than infants infected peripartum: 2·3 versus 5·1 months after HIV-1 infection (n = 52, P = 0·04). Late-infected infants had more focused epitope recognition than early-infected infants (median 1 versus 2 peptides, P = 0·03); however, there were no differences in the strength of IFN-g responses. In infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life, emergence of HIV- 1-specific CD8+ IFN-g responses is coincident with the decline in viral load, nearly identical to what is observed in adults and more rapid than in earlyinfected infants.

Wanjala W Cornelius, Akeng’a T, George O Obiero, Lutta KP. "Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, PO Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, KENYA." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2). Abstract

The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers of Erythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual-choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae. The new compound (+)-11β-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1) from the flowers, showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration>= 500 pm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotramidine (2) also new from the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration>= 100 ppm. Three known compounds (+)-erysotrine,(+)-erysotramidine,(+)-erythraline,(+)-11β-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations>= 100 ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotrine and (+)-11 b-hydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations>= 100 ppm.

Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, A M, Buergy R, Le Noble F, Djonov V. Modulation of angiogenesis by Notch-signalling inhibition in the chick area vasculosa.. Interlaken, Switzerland; 2009.
Hansen CP, Lund JF, Treue T. "Neither Fast, Nor Easy: He Prospect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Ghana.". 2009. Abstract

On the basis of a detailed case study of the High Forest Zone of Ghana, the paper challenges the common narrative of REDD as being fast and easy. The paper analyses proximate and underlying causes of deforestation and degradation and finds that these processes are driven by multiple underlying causes. The paper goes on to argue that the causes of deforestation and degradation that are found within the realm of the forestry sector, to which REDD measures will be largely confined, have emerged as a result of a political economy that gives priority to economic development over forest conservation, while at the same time allowing powerful interest groups, in particular the political and administrative elite, to financially benefit from resource depletion. The analysis suggests that forest conserving policy reforms are unlikely to come fast and easy, and that the prospect of future REDD payments may not accelerate them. It is argued that the case of Ghana is not unique and that REDD implementation may face similar constraints in many developing countries.

Ndetei DM, Iipinge S, Dambisya YM, Loewenson R, Chimbari M, Munga M, Sibandze S, Lugina H. "Policies and incentives for health worker retention in east and southern Africa: Learning from country research.". 2009.
Lang'o MO, Githanga JN, CA. Y-J. "Prevalence of iron deficiency in children with cyanotic heart disease seen at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital Nairobi. ." East Afr Med J. 2009 Dec;86(12 Suppl):S47-51.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency among children with cyanotic heart disease.
DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.
SETTING:

The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital from August to December of 2007. A total of 112 children meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from the wards and the cardiac clinics.
SUBJECTS:

These were children less than 18 years of age, with cyanotic heart disease confirmed on ECHO, presenting at the paediatric cardiac clinic of the two hospitals or admitted in the wards at Kenyatta National Hospital. These were patients who had not undergone surgical correction.
RESULTS:

The prevalence of iron deficiency was found to be 16.9% (95% CI 9.8-24.1%).
CONCLUSION:

There is a high prevalence of iron deficiency among patients with congenital heart disease with cyanosis in the two institutions. Routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for these children and those found to be deficient should be treated.

PMID:
21591509
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nicolaisen M, Supronienė S, Nielsen LK, Lazzaro I; S, Henrik N, Justesen AF. "Real-time PCR for quantification of eleven individual Fusarium species in cereals.". 2009. Abstract

Contamination of cereals with Fusarium species is one of the major sources of mycotoxins in food and feed. Quantification of biomass of Fusarium species is essential to understand the interactions of individual species in disease development. In this study quantitative real-time PCR assays based on the elongation factor 1 α (EF1α) gene for the 11 Fusarium species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. equiseti, F. tricinctum, F. avenaceum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans and F. proliferatum were developed and tested on 24 wheat and 24 maize field samples. The assays were found to be specific and sensitive. Generally, the results from the quantitative real-time PCR assays corresponded well with mycotoxin data of the field samples

Willems P, Ogiramoi NP, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere AI. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Bull. Séanc. Acad. R. Sci. Outre-Mer / Meded. Zitt. K.Acad. Overzeese Wet.. 2009;55(4):555-570.
Willems P, Ogira PN, Mutua F, Abdo G, Kabubi J, Fahmi AH, Sonbol M, Lotfy A, Kimaro TA, Mkhandi S, Opere A, Ibrahim YA, Kizza M, Tadesse L, Motaleb AM, Farid S, Zaki A, Al-Weshah R. "Regional Flood Frequency Analysis for the River Nile Basin." Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen. 2009;55(4):555-570. AbstractLirias

Regional differences have been investigated in the probabilities of high and low river flow extremes along the river Nile basin in eastern Africa. This has been done on the basis of statistical extreme value analysis applied to about one hundred flow gauging stations spread over the basin. The statistical analysis results have been combined with physical sub-basin characteristics such as topography and land use. The research has been conducted within the framework of the FRIEND/Nile project, which focuses on regional hydrology research cooperation between the main Nile countries (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Flemish universities. The high- and low-flow statistics developed can be used in water engineering and civil engineering design applications. Of equal importance are the supratechnical research outputs, among which enhancement of water-related transboundary research cooperation in the Nile region. During the course of the project, trust among the researchers and water managers from the different Nile countries gradually increased, data sharing enhanced, and politically sensitive issues (on transboundary water sharing) became debatable.

Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, A W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(8):426-433.osanjo_2009_a_salt_lake_extremophile.pdf
Harper GW, Ngugi EN, Lemos D, Gikuni A, Riplinger AJ, Hooks K, Hooks K. "Sources of resillience among kenyan youth newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in the nairobi slum of kibera: Implications for intervetion.". 2009. Abstract

Adolescents and young adults who are living with HIV in Kenya comprise a growing percentage of the population. Currently, youth (ages 15-35) represent 38% of the Kenyan population, yet over 60% of new HIV infections occur among this group. In 2008, adolescents and young adults living with HIV accounted for an estimated 6 % of the adolescent population between the ages of 15 and 24 (KDHS, 2009). Of these, the prevalence rates are nearly 6 times higher among young women (2.7% for 15 to 24 year old females; 6.4% for 20 to 24 year old females) as compared to young men (0.7% for 15 to 19 year old males; 1.5% for 20 to 24 year old males) (KDHS, 2009). The difference in prevalence rates among age groups suggests that many youth are becoming infected during adolescence (NASCOP, 2009). Geographic disparities also exist with regards to HIV infection. HIV is more prevalent in urban areas (7.2%) than in rural areas (6.2%). The vast majority ofthe infections are attributed to heterosexual contact in regular partnerships, men who have sex with men, and prisoners (HIV Prevention, Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis, 2009). A study on HIV seroprevalence study found this disparity is even greater in young women aged 15-24 who are four times more likely to become infected with HIV than men of the same age (KDHS, 2009). While having multiple sex partners is seen as a risk factor for HIV transmission, it has also been reported that married persons (6.4%) have higher HIV prevalence rates than nonmarried persons (4.2%) in Kenya, suggesting the need for tailored messages for married partners. Additionally, despite the urgent need for focus on HIV in Kenya, with limited resources there is a need also to focus on urban slum settlements in Kenya as they have higher rates of HIV prevalence than urban regions in general (12% versus 7.1%).

LL A, M KP, PB G, MO N, Muchemi G, Muchemi G, A SE. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis in Northern Turkana District, Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2009;1(89):197-204.
Gichuru EK;, Combes MC;, Mutitu EW;, Ngugi ECK;, Omondi CO;, Bertrand B;, Lashermes P. Towards the development of sequence based markers for resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae).; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Coffee Berry Disease which affects green Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) berries is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum kahawae and is a major problem in Arabica coffee production in African countries. Breeding for resistance to this disease is therefore to a major priority in these countries avoid intensive chemical usage for its control. Recently, microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) markers for a gene conferring resistance to the disease were identified and mapped onto the chromosomal region carrying the gene. To improve the repeatability of the AFLP markers, four of the marker bands were selected for cloning and sequencing to facilitate specific primers to be designed. Three of the resultant primers did not amplify products that exhibited polymorphism characteristic of the parent AFLP bands; but one primer pair amplified a product that dominantly identified the presence of the parent AFLP marker at an optimum temperature of 62°C followed by electrophoresis in agarose. The reliability of the designed primers was confirmed by analysis in 95 plants from a F2 population previously used to map the chromosomal fragment carrying the resistance. The importance of the results in enhancing the utility of the parent AFLP marker in relation to analytical costs and position on the chromosomal fragment is discussed.

Loewenson R, Mathai MA, Obondo A, Mburu J, Kitazi N, Othieno CJ. "Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya.". 2009.
Othieno CJ, Kitazi N, Mburu J, Obondo A, Mathai MA, Loewenson. R. "Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya: ." International Psychiatry . 2009;6(1).
Muthoni M, Levine T, and Asaah AH. "Who’s Afraid of Female Sexuality.". In: Empathy and Rage: Female genital Mutilation in African Literature. Ayebia Clark. UK; 2009.
Leucci E, Onnis A CDFIACCMMGFG. "‘ B cell." Int J Cancer.. 2009;15(126):1316-1326.b-cell_differentiation_in_ebv-positive_burkitt_lymphoma_is.pdf
Murray PG, Woodman CB, Stankovic T, Teo SH, Young LS, Lim PV, Arrand J, Wei W, Buettner M, Maina E, others. "The ATM Tumour Suppressor Gene Is Down-regulated In EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.". 2009. Abstract
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Tabu C, Sharif C, Okoth P, Kioko J, Nzioka C, Muthoka P, Ope M, Makama S, Kalani R, Ochieng W, Simwa J, Schnabel D, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Onsongo J, Njenga K, Breiman R, Kearney A, Sick A, Harris R, Lebo E, Munyua P, Wakhule L, Waiboci-Muhia L, Gikundi S, Gikunju S, Omballa V, Nderitu L, Mayieka L, Kabura W, Omulo S, Odhiambo D, Wachira C, Kikwai G, Feikin D, Katz M. "Introduction and transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus - Kenya, June-July 2009." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58:1143-1146. Abstract
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Muge E, Burg K, Kadu C, Muchugi A, Lemurt S, Jamnadass R. "Isolation of high quality DNA and RNA from cambium of the East African Greenheart (Warburgia ugandensis)." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8. Abstract
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Adebambo AO, G. Bjørnstad, W. Bulimo, H. Jianlin, G. Kierstein, L. Mazhani, B. Podisi, J. Hirbo, K. Agyemang, C. Wollny, T. Gondwe, V. Zeuh D, Tadelle, G. Abebe, P. Abdoulaye, S. Paco, L. Serunjogi, M. Abrerrahman, R. Sow, S. Weigend, R. Sanfo, F. Gaye, E. Ssewanyana, M. D. Coulibaly, B. Teme, VSF(Sudan), Hanotte. O. "Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Analysis of South Western Nigerian Chicken." Archivos de Zootecnia. 2009;58:637-643. Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), Normal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "The morphology and morphometry of the male reproductive system of the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "The morphology and morphometry of the male reproductive system of the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, Abraham W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3:426-433. Abstract
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Stankovic T, Taylor M, Falciani F, Kearns P, Lawson S, Powell JE, Sameith K, Mapp K, Skowronska A, Agathanggelou A, others. "Stratification of pediatric ALL by in vitro cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical response.". 2009. Abstract
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2008
Lehmann K, Lowel S. "Age-{Dependent} {Ocular} {Dominance} {Plasticity} in {Adult} {Mice}." PLoS ONE. 2008;3. AbstractWebsite

Background Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90–100 days, 109–158 days, 208–230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90–100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109–158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Lucy Muchiri, Gathari Ndirangu CKPGJMBEMT. "HIV infection and cervical neoplasia in a Kenyan semi-urban population.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Bulimo WD, Garner JL, Schnabel DC, Bedno SA, Njenga MK, Ochieng WO, Amukoye E, Magana JM, Simwa JM, Ofula VO, Lifumo SM, Wangui J, Breiman RF, Martin SK. "Genetic analysis of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated in 2006-2007 in Nairobi, Kenya." Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2008;2:107-13. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Minimal influenza surveillance has been carried out in sub-Saharan Africa to provide information on circulating influenza subtypes for the purpose of vaccine production and monitoring trends in virus spread and mutations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate a surveillance program in Kenya to isolate and characterize influenza viruses. RESULTS: In the 2006-2007 influenza season, nine influenza A viruses were isolated. All were of H3N2 subtype with key amino acid (aa) changes indicating that they were more closely related to recent World Health Organization recommended vaccine strains than to older vaccine strains, and mirroring the evolution of circulating influenza A globally. Hemagglutination inhibition data showed that the 2006 Kenya isolates had titers identical to the 2005-2006 H3N2 vaccine strain but two- to threefold lower titers to the 2006-2007 vaccine strain, suggesting that the isolates were antigenic variants of the 2006-2007 vaccine strains. Analysis of aa substitutions of hemagglutinin-1 (HA1) protein of the 2006 Kenyan viruses revealed unique genetic variations with several aa substitutions located at immunodominant epitopes of the HA1 protein. These mutations included the V112I change at site E, the K 173 E substitution at site D and N 278 K change at site C, mutations that may result in conformational change on the HA molecule to expose novel epitopes thus abrogating binding of pre-existing antibodies at these sites. CONCLUSION: Characterization of these important genetic variations in influenza A viruses isolated from Kenya highlights the importance of continuing surveillance and characterization of emerging influenza drift variants in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hildebrandt HA, Gossl M, Mannheim D, Versari D, Herrmann J, Spendlove D, Bajanowski T, Malyar NM, Erbel R, Lerman LO, Lerman A. "Differential distribution of vasa vasorum in different vascular beds in humans." Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:47-54. AbstractWebsite

Objective Vasa vasorum (VV) have been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to describe the distribution of VV density in different vascular beds in humans and to investigate the association between VV density and the known distribution of atherosclerosis in human arteries. Methods Forty-two human arteries, harvested at autopsy or after explantation, were analyzed by three-dimensional microscopic-computed tomography (micro-CT). VV density, endothelial-surface-fraction (Σ VV endothelial-surface-area/vessel-wall-volume) and vascular-area-fraction (Σ VV area/vessel-wall-area) were calculated for coronary, renal and femoral arteries. Representatively five coronary, renal and femoral arteries were stained for endothelial cells (von Willebrand-Factor), macrophages (CD68), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen (Sirius Red). Results Coronary arteries showed a higher VV density compared to renal and femoral arteries (2.12±0.26n/mm2 versus 0.61±0.06n/mm2 and 0.66±0.11n/mm2; P{\textless}0.05 for both) as well as a higher endothelial-surface-fraction and vascular-area-fraction. Histology showed a positive correlation between histologically derived VV density and CD68-positive cells/area (r=0.54, P{\textless}0.01), VEGF-immunoreactivity/area (r=0.55, P{\textless}0.01) and a negative correlation between VV density and collagen I content (r=0.66, P{\textless}0.05). Conclusion This micro-CT study highlights a higher VV density in coronary than in peripheral arteries, supporting the relation between VV density and the susceptibility to atherosclerosis in different vascular beds in humans.

Orwa OD, Lucy M. "Innovative Design Approach for Technology Adoption for Semi-illiterate Users in Rural Kenya.". In: HCI for Community and International Development. Florence Italy; 2008.
Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Calatayud P-A, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Silvain J-F. "Microsatellite analyses reveal fine scale genetic structure of Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).". In: XXIII International Congress of Entomology. International convention Centre, Durban, South Africa; 2008.
Mark O. Nanyingi, Lagat BK, Wagate CG, Adanyi FN, Koros KB, Rono BC, Asaava LL. "Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Plants Traditionally used in Treatment of Malaria in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference and Exhibition of Research Results and Review of Innovations.Ministry of Science and Technology. K.I.C.C. Nairobi ; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Okello RO, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL, Kipsengeret B Koros, M.Oguna M. "9.131 Evaluation of resistance development to three anthelmintics and efficacy of plant extracts against nematodes of sheep in Samburu District, Kenya .". In: KVA Scientific Seminar.; 2008.
McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK. "Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: results of a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2008;197(10):1361-8. Abstract

Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

Lehman DA, Chung MH, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission." AIDS. 2008;22(12):1475-85. Abstract

The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined.

Gongora J, Rawlence NJ, Mobegi VA, Jianlin H, Alcalde JA, Matus JT, Hanotte O, Moran C, Austin JJ, Ulm S, Anderson AJ, Larson G, Cooper A. "Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2008;105(30):10308-13. Abstract

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Lanyasunya AL, Wagate CG, Koros KB, Ogara WO, O J. "Drug Discovery and Biodiversity Conservation in Samburu, Kenya.". In: Biodiversity Conference . The College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.
Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Highly active antiretroviral therapy versus zidovudine/nevirapine effects on early breast milk HIV type-1 Rna: a phase II randomized clinical trial." Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 2008;13(6):799-807. Abstract

Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV type-1 (HIV-1) levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission.

Bebora L.C, P. M, G. GM, L.W N. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (hardware disease) in peacocks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference , . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_hostomoniasis_and_traumatic_gastritis_in_peacocks.pdf
L.C. B, L.W. N, Mbuthia P.G., P.N N. "Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night-housed indigenous chickens.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi, ; 2008.
L.C. B, Nyaga P.N., Mbuthia P.G. "Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi ; 2008.2008_-_localisation_of_nd_nucleoprotein_in_tissues_of_carrier_ducks.pdf
Mbuthia P.G., L.C. B, Mwaniki G., Sourou S.Y., L.W. N, M M. "Myopathy and parasitism in a guinea fowl.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_myopathy_and_parasitism_in_a_guinea_fowl.pdf
B M, L O. Rapid assessment of milk sheds in 16 Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Land O Lakes; 2008.
Lingappa JR, Lambdin B, Bukusi EA, Ngure K, Kavuma L, Inambao M, Kanweka W, Allen S, Kiarie JN, Makhema J, Were E, Manongi R, Coetzee D, de Bruyn G, Delany-Moretlwe S, Magaret A, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Ndase P, Celum C. "Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial." PLoS ONE. 2008;3(1):e1411. Abstract

Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported.

Bukachi F, Waldenstrom A, Mörner S, Lindqvist P, Henein MY, Kazzam E. "Age dependency in the timing of mitral annular motion in relation to ventricular filling in healthy subjects: Umea General Population Heart Study.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

AIMS:

Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling

Muchemi, L., Lwande O. Agro-Meteorological KMS for SS Farmers. Pretoria, South Africa: CSIR International Convention Centre; 2008.
Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I. Analysis along procedural elements.; 2008.Website
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Uhl GR, Arinami T, Teasenfitz L, Macharia D, Iwasaki S, Inada T, Lujilde J, Hope B, Akinshola EB, Brusco A, Gardner E, Tagliaferro PA, Mora Z, Perchuk A, Myers L, Meozzi PA, Patel S, Gong J-P, Ishiguro H, Onaivi mail ES. "Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.". 2008.
Waema TM, Camara S, Abdelnour NJ, Luckin R. Bridging the global digital divide with participatory customisation..; 2008.
Flora N. Namu, John M. Githaiga, Esther N.Kioko, Paul N. Ndegwa, L. C. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests, in:Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya)." Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany. 2008:47-61.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E.N. Kioko, Ndegwa PN, C.L. Häuser, L.Kühn. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica (Drury, 1773) in Kakamega Forest National Reserve (KFNR) Kenya." Metamorphosis. 2008;18(4):142-143. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

Othieno CJ, Kitazi N, Mburu J, Obondo A, Mathai MA, Loewenson R. Community participation in the management of Mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya .; 2008.
Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, R W Nduati, E Wafula, Lenja J. "Community understanding of pneumonia in Kenya ." African Health Sciences Vol 8 No 2 June 2008. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
Background: Effective management of pneumonia demands active participation by the caretaker to facilitate early seeking of
appropriate health care and adequate compliance to home
care messages. This would only be possible if the caretakers’ perception of pneumonia is appropriate. This study aims to determine
community’s perception of childhood pneumonia in a suburb of Nairobi.
Objectives: To determine community perception of childhood pneumonia.
Design: Cross sectional study utilizing qualitative ethnographic methodology.
Participants: Six key informants for in-depth interview and eight groups for focus group discussions from the study community.
Results: Pneumonia was perceived to be the most serious childhood illness. There was a great deal of diversity of Kikuyu phrases for
chest-in drawing. There was no term for rapid breathing. Chest in-drawing, fever, difficult in breathing, startling at night and
convulsions were perceived as features of pneumonia. Chest in-drawing, fever and convulsions were indicative of severe disease.
Conclusion: The caretakers perceived severe pneumonia as outlined in the IMCI guidelines. Non-severe pneumonia was not
perceived for what it should be. Inappropriate knowledge on causes of pneumonia and signs of non severe pneumonia are likely to
interfere with compliance with home care messages.

LITONDO KO. "Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence.". In: ORSEA conference, 2008. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2008. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Waita SM, Aduda BO, Mwabora, J.M; Niklasson GA, Lindquist SE, Granqvist CG. DC sputter deposited TiO2 photoelectrodes: Effect of deposition angle on the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell..; 2008.
Waita SM, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Niklasson GA, Lindquist SE, Granqvist CG. DC sputter deposited TiO2 photoelectrodes: Effect of deposition angle on the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell..; 2008.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4(2):92-103. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2005 and 2006 in two ecologically different localities, Suam and Mtito Andei, to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Suam in western Kenya is situated in the moist high tropics and is characterised by an Afromontane vegetation mosaic, while Mtito Andei is located in the dry mid-altitudes characterised by a Somalia Masai vegetation mosaic. In Suam, wild host plants and maize covered 11 and 50%, respectively, of the surveyed area. In Mtito Andei, 27% of the surveyed area was under maize during the cropping season, while wild host plant species covered 13% and 8% during the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. There was no significant variation in the relative abundance and diversity of the wild grasses between the two seasons in either location. The abundance of host plants of B. fusca and C. partellus is low in natural habitats surrounding cereal crops. The abundance of C. partellus was low in its wild host plants and B. fusca was absent. Therefore, the role of wild vegetation surrounding cultivated areas in the carry-over of these pests during the non-cropping season is limited

Nanyingi, Mark O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W. "Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya.".; 2008.
Nanyingi, Mark O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W. "Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya.".; 2008.
Mburu DN, Mbugua SW, Skoglund LA, Lokken P. "Effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid on the post‐operative course after experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs.". 2008. Abstract

In placebo-controlled cross-over trials in dogs, two ‘identical’ operations were performed on the forelimbs of each animal with an interval of 28 days, to evaluate how daily doses of 1.5 g paracetamol, 1.5 g acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 0.5 g ASA might modulate an acute post-operative inflammatory reaction. On the third post-operative day the reductions in swelling compared with placebo averaged 33% with 1.5 g paracetamol (P = 0.02), 24% with 1.5 g ASA (P = 0.03) and 15% with 0.5 g ASA (P= 0.18); while the reductions in pain estimates averaged 47% with 1.5 g paracetamol (P= 0.01), 32% with 1.5 g ASA (P= 0.07) and 28% with 0.5 g ASA {P= 0.21). There were no clinical signs of adverse drug effects, such as vomiting, haematochezia, cyanosis or depression. The results disagree with the traditional view that paracetamol has little or no anti-inflammatory effect, and demonstrate that paracetamol may reduce an acute inflammatory reaction, at least as efficiently as ASA. The potential proinflammatory effect of ASA in low doses is discussed. It is concluded that paracetamol appears to be a valuable drug against post-operative or post-traumatic sequelae in the veterinary as well as in the human clinic.

Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Lanyasunya AL, Wagate CG, Kipsengeret B Koros, Kaburia HF, Munenge RW, Ogara WO. "Ethnopharmacological Survey of Samburu District, Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine,. 2008; 4:(14).
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG;, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO. "Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N."; 2008.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG;, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO. "Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N."; 2008.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO. "Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N."; 2008.
Ogot MM, Okudan GE, Simpson TW, Lamancusa JS. "A framework for classifying disassemble/analyse/assemble activities in engineering design education." Journal of Design Research. 2008;7:120-135. Abstract

Disassemble/analyse/assemble (DAA) activities of an artifact pervade many undergraduate engineering courses in the USA as they provide useful ‘hands-on’learning components. DAA activities are central to product dissection and reverse engineering activities used by many engineering practitioners as part of their industry’s benchmarking and competitive analysis processes. Although the two terms are used interchangeably in the literature and as part of course titles, we argue that they are different activities based on their roles, objectives and outcomes when used in engineering education. This paper presents a classification framework for DAA activities in engineering education that differentiates between product dissection and reverse engineering in the context of the desired educational goals. Relevant examples from existing classes and the literature are presented, and implementation challenges are discussed.

Ochieng JW, Shepherd M, Baverstock PR, Nikles G, Lee D, Henry RJ. "Genetic variation within two sympatric spotted gum eucalypts exceeds between species variation." Silvae Genetica. 2008;57:249-256.2008_ochieng_et_al_silgen.pdf
Jeruto P, Lukhoba CW, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Herbal treatments in Aldai Division in Nandi District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 5(1)103-105. 2008;5(5):103-105.Website
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Lehman, Dara A.; Chung MSGJ; RBKJ; KJ; OJH; CA. "HIV-1 persists in breast milk cells despite antiretroviral treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission.". 2008. Abstract

Background: The effects of short-course antiretrovirals given to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) on temporal patterns of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk are not well defined. Methods: Women in Kenya received short-course zidovudine (ZDV), single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP), combination ZDV/sdNVP or short-course highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Breast milk samples were collected two to three times weekly for 4–6weeks.HIV-1 DNA was quantified b yreal-time PCR.Cell-free and cell associated RNA levels were quantified by the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay. Results: Cell-free HIV-1 RNA levels in breast milk were significantly suppressed by sdNVP, ZDV/sdNVP or HAART therapy compared with ZDV between day 3 and week 4 postpartum (P0.03). Breast milk HIV-1 DNA levels (infected cell levels) were not significantly different between treatment arms at any timepoint during the 4–6-week follow-up. At 3 weeks postpartum, when the difference in cell-free RNA levels was the greatest comparing HAARTdirectly with ZDV(P¼0.0001),medianlog10 HIV-1 DNA copies per 1106 cells were 2.78, 2.54, 2.69, and 2.31 in the ZDV, sdNVP, ZDV/sdNVP and HAART arms, respectively (P¼0.23). Cell-associated HIV-1 RNA levels were modestly suppressed in HAART versus ZDV/sdNVP during week 3 (3.37 versus 4.02, P¼0.04), as well as over time according to a linear mixed-effects model. Conclusion: Cell-free and,to a lesser extent,cell-associated HIV-1 RNA levels in breast milk were suppressed by antiretroviral regimens used to prevent MTCT.However,even with HAART, there was no significant reduction in the reservoir of infected cells,which could contribute to breast milk HIV-1 transmission.

Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Moyal P, Calatayud P-A, LeGall P, Ogol CKPO, Kokwaro ED, Claire, Silvain J-F. "Hostplant diversity of Sesamia calamistis: cytochrome b gene sequences reveal local genetic differentiation." Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2008;128:154-161.
Musembi RJ, Rusu M, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Intensity and temperature dependent characterization of eta solar cell." 9. physica status solidi (a). 2008;205(7):1713-1718. AbstractWebsite

Temperature-dependent electrical characterization of a highly structured TiO2/In(OH)x Sy /Pb(OH)x Sy /PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell has been carried out. The transport mechanism in this type of solar cell has been investigated. A schematic energy band diagram which explains the photoelectrical properties of the device has been proposed. The solar cell has been characterized in the temperature range 200–320 K at illumination intensities between 0.05 mW/cm2 and 100 mW/cm2. The diode ideality factor A under illumination has been found to vary between 1.2 and 1.6, whereas in the dark 6.9 ≤ A ≤ 10.1. The device has been found to undergo a thermally activated recombination under illumination, while tunnelling enhanced recombination has been established to dominate the current in the dark. The solar cell efficiency shows a logarithmic dependence on illumination in the whole temperature range investigated, achieving its maximum at an illumination of ∼45 mW/cm2. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W, Njagi; L.C, Bebora; J. N., Michieka; R.O O. "Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W N;, L.C B;, J. N. M;, R.O O. "Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W N;, L.C B;, J. N. M;, R.O O. "Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W N;, L.C B;, J. N. M;, R.O O. "Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W N;, L.C B;, J. N. M;, R.O O. "Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya."; 2008.
Atoh F, L. K. Introduction to Morphology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008.
Lund, JF; Helles MNI; TF; H; I. Landsbyskovbrug i Tanzania : hvem vinder, hvem taber?.; 2008.
Onwonga RN, Lelei JJ, Freyer B, Friedel JK, Mwonga SM, Wandhawa P. "Low Cost Technologies for Enhancing N and P Availability and Maize (Zea mays L.) Performance on Acid Soils." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;4(s):862-873.onwonga_et_al_2008_low_cost_technologies_for_enhancing_n_and_p_availability_2.pdf
E L, M C, A O, van P C, C B, van A R, G DF, J N, B B, S L, P T, van J K, Leoncini L. "MYC-negative classical Burkitt’s Lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation." J Pathol. . 2008;216(4):440-50.
Lucy W Njagi, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG. "Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village hens.". 2008. Abstract

Abstract
In this study, one hundred and thirty three non - vaccinated village hens in lay were tested for carriage of Newcastle disease virus and presence of antibody against the virus in sera, ovules and eggs. Blood was obtained from the hens through wing venipuncture while matched ovules and mature eggs were taken from the oviducts. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs
were collected from each hen for virus isolation. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56
± 0.74 for egg yolk and sera, respectively) (P<0.05). The mature egg yolks had significantly higher titres of antibodies as compared to the ovules (P<0.05). Sera and egg yolk antibodies were positively correlated (r = 0.50). Newcastle disease virus was isolated in 3.0% of the hens that were also sero - negative. The presence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in egg yolks and Newcastle disease virus isolation in sero-negative hens, indicate previous natural exposure to the virus, hence viral endemicity in the area.

Key words: Newcastle disease, egg yolk, non-vaccinated, village chickens

L. W. Njagi., P. N. Nyaga. PGM, L. C. Bebora., J. N. Micheka. KJK, A. K.Munene. MUM. "Newcastle Disease Virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village hens." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2008;32(1):1-6.
Tilahun Y, Soliman K, Lawrence KS, Cseke LJ, Ochieng JW. "Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in the United States." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(18):3217-3224.2008_tilahun_et_al_ajb.pdf
Ahramjian L, Carson A, Collins P, Kirloss R, Lang J, Makunda C, Moses Z, Oh SJ, Reinhardt J, Service E, Smith M, Styger K, Vagen K. The Philadelphia Public Space Project. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2008.
Manuthu EM, JOSHI MD, LULE GN, KARARI E. "Prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV infected patients.". 2008. Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced AIDS morbidity and mortality, however long-term metabolic consequences including dysglycaemia and dyslipidemia have raised concern regarding accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. To determine the period prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV-infected patients. Cross-sectional comparative group study. Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary HIV dedicated out-patient facility. Consecutive HIV- positive adult patients. Dyslipidemia: presence of raised total or LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, or raised triglycerides. Dysglycaemia: presence of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus. Results: Between January and April 2006, out of 342 screened patients, 295 were recruited and 58% were females. One hundred and thirty four (45%) were on HAART, 82% of whom were on stavudine, lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz. Overall prevalence of dyslipidemiawas 63.1% and dysglycaemia was 20.7%. High total cholesterol occurred in 39.2% of HAART and 10.0% HAART naive patients (p<0.0001, OR 5.18, CI 3.11-10.86), whereas high LDL cholesterol occurred in 40.8% and in 11.2% respectively (p<0.0001, OR 5.43, CI 2.973-9.917). HDL levels were low in 14.6% and 51.3% among HAART and HAART naive patients, respectively, (p<0.0001, OR 0.16, CI 0.091-0.29) while high triglycerides occurred in 25.6% and 22.5% respectively (p=0.541 OR 1.184 CI 0.688-2.037). Among patients on HAART compared to HAART naive patients, diabetes was found in 1.5% against 1.2% (p=0.85), impaired fasting in 2.2% against 0.6% (p=0.30) and impaired glucose tolerance in 16.4% against 21.1% (p=0.22), respectively. HIV- infected patients demonstrated a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. HAART use was associated with high levels of total, and LDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, an established athrogenic lipid profile. However, HAART was not associated with low HDL cholesterol and had no significant effect on dysglycaemia.

Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga, P. N., L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka. JN. "Prevalence of ectoparasites infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga, P. N., L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka. JN. "Prevalence of ectoparasites infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga, P. N., L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka. JN. "Prevalence of ectoparasites infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga, P. N., L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka. JN. "Prevalence of ectoparasites infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
Muasya T, Lore W, Yano K, Yatsuhashi H, Owiti FR, Fukuda M, Tamada MY, Kulundu J, Tukei J, Okoth FA. "Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and its genotypes among a cohort of drug users in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and that of its main genotypes varies between the worlds geographic regions. The risk factors for infection with HCV include blood transfusion, tattoing and injecting drug use. To examine the prevalence of HCV and determine its main genotypes among a cohort of drug users in Kenya. A laboratory based study. Hepatitis research laboratory in the Centre for Virus Research at the Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi. Three hundred and fourteen male and 19 female intravenous and non-intravenous drug users aged between 15-55 years. Seventy four (22.2%) out of 333 samples tested positive for anti-HCV. Sixty nine out of the 74 serum samples were assayed for HCV RNA and 38 (55.5%) were positive. The RNA positive samples were further subjected to sequencing and 19 (73%) of the samples were classified as genotype 1a, while seven (27%) samples were classified as genotype 4. Genotypes 2, 3, 5 and 6 were not identified in this study. These results demonstrate a high HCV infection prevalence among this cohort of drug users (22.2%) as compared to that of the general population, which is estimated to be 0.2-0.9%. The study also confirms the presence of at least two major genotypes among Kenyan drug users (genotypes 1 and 4).

Jeruto P, Lukhoba C, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Propagation of some endangered indigenous trees from the South Nandi District of Kenya using cheap, non-mist technology. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 3 (3):1-6." ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science,3(3):1-6.. 2008;3((3)):1-6. AbstractWebsite

Vegetative propagation studies were carried out at Maseno University, Kenya in the year 2004 and 2005 using stem cuttings on three endangered indigenous tree species namely Asystasia schimperi, Carissa edulis and Toddalia asiatica to test the effect of IBA on rooting of the stem cuttings of these plant species. Juvenile stem cuttings of these plant species were dipped in different concentrations of auxin (indole Butyric Acid (IBA) of 0, 100 ppm, 200ppm, 400ppm and 500ppm. Completely, randomized design (C.R.D) was used and the treatments replicated three times in a non mist polypropagator. The treated cuttings were planted in polythene pots. The duration of the experiment was four months. Data taken were plant height, number of leaves and number of rooted cuttings every 2 weeks. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means separated by L.S.D at 5% significance level. The results showed that hormone concentration, species and date of sampling affected the number of rooted plants, plant height and number of leaves Asystasia schimperi had the best rooting and subsequent plant growth followed by Carissa edulis and lastly Toddalia asiatica, .
It can be concluded that Asystasia schimperi and Toddalia asiatica can be propagated by stem cuttings easily hence farmers can cultivate them.

Keywords:
Non mist polypropagator, propagation, stem cuttings, auxin, concentration, species, endangered.

Lung’aho CG, Chemining’wa S, Shibairo, Hutchinson M. "Reaction of Potato Cultivars to Natural Infestation of Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

The late blight resistance and yield characteristics of 32 potato genotypes were studied at KARI-Tigoni between 2006 and 2007 under natural late blight inoculums pressure. Foliar late blight resistance was assessed on the basis of area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) whereas the relative area under disease progress curve (RAUDPC) was used to classify the genotypes into five late blight resistance groupings (resistant, moderately resistant, intermediate, moderately susceptible and susceptible). Tuber yields for individual cultivars ranged from 5.87 to 60.70 t/ha. The correlation between foliar late blight and total tuber blight was weak but that between foliar late blight and total tuber yield was negative and significant. On the basis of RAUDPC, it was possible to classify 26 of the 32 cultivars into distinct resistance classes. Cultivars Kenya Karibu, Tana Kimande, Kihoro, Kenya Sifa and Kenya Karibu (white flowers) were rated as resistant. The most susceptible cultivars were Kerr’s Pink, Ngure, Desiree, Romano and Pimpenel. Any of the resistant or susceptible varieties can be used as checks in evaluating germplasm for late blight tolerance.

Lingappa JR, Lambdin B, Bukusi EA, Ngure K, Kavuma L, Makhema J, Kiarie JN, Allen S, Kanweka W, Inambao M. "Regional Differences in Prevalence of HIV-1 Discordance in Africa and Enrollment of HIV-1 Discordant Couples into an HIV-1 Prevention Trial.". 2008. Abstract

Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial (“Partners HSV-2 Study”), the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8–31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49%) of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09). Conclusions/Significance HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.

Otieno W, Muiru WM, Mutua GK, Kimenju JW, Langat JK. "Response of free-living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation.". 2008. Abstract

This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of ecologically sound approaches for nematode management on non-target organisms, free-living nematodes. The materials tested were sugarcane bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts, neem (Achook), a biological agent (Paecilomyces lilacinus) and fenamiphos (Nemacur). The treatments were administered before planting carnation var. White Natila in flower beds that were naturally infested with nematodes. Application of bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts resulted in increased abundance of free-living nematodes compared to the control where nothing was applied. Bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and predators comprised 73, 14 and 13%, respectively of the free-living nematodes recovered. Members of the genus Rhabditis were the most abundant (10%) among the bacteriovores while Mononchus (10%) and Aphelenchoides (14%) dominated among the predators and fungivorous trophic groups, respectively. The highest numbers of free-living nematodes were recorded at 90 Days after Planting (DAP) in plots treated with bagasse and molasses but the numbers declined at 180 DAP. A steady increase in numbers of free-living nematodes was observed in plots treated with tea and flower composts up to 180 DAP. Significant reductions in abundance of free-living nematodes were recorded in plots treated with fenamiphos and neem. This study has established that application of organic substrates serve as a stimulus to processes leading to build-up of free-living nematodes. The organic substrates can strongly be recommended for use in sustainable carnation production systems.

Falco DG, Cerino G, Leucci E, Nyagol J, Cocco M, Onnis A, Tosi P, Giordano A, Leoncini L. "Role of chromatin remodelling mediated by the HIV-1 Tat protein in the genesis of the HIV-1-associated malignancies." Virchows Archives. 2008;452(S43).
Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne B, Nduati R, Otieno P, John-Stewart G. "Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya.". 2008.
Lesan WR, Kisumbi BK, Wakiaga JM. "Some Optical properties of Resin Composite Veneer materials.". 2008. Abstract

To evaluate the optical properties of some specimen materials with a view to establishing its behaviour under dry-storage and wet-storage conditions. The transmission of light through translucent composite materials used in veneering/masking procedures in dentistry may be affected by a number of factors including the storage conditions. Material and methods: The absorbency of refracted light was determined from the understanding of Beer-Lambert's Law. Results: Dry-storage over 9 months had little effect on absorbency, significant changes were observed after 3 months of wet storage. While this offers a vital trade-off between cost effectiveness and initial aesthetics, it still remains of interest to investigate whether the achieved colour at baseline stabilises over time and whether further deterioration in terms of colour and aesthetics diminishes

LALAH JO, chieng EZ, Wandiga SO. "Sources of heavy metal input into Winam Gulf, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Water and surface sediment from rivers Kisat, Nyamasaria, Nyando, Sondu-Miriu, Kuja, Awach, Yala, and Nzoia, which flow into Winam Gulf, were analyzed for heavy metals in order to assess the influence of the catchment activities on heavy metal input into the lake. Sampling was done both upstream and at river mouths where the rivers entered in to the lake. The mean sediment concentration of exchangeable cations (in microg/g) for Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn ranged from 0.01 to 263 (for Mn at Kuja). Ag, Cr, and Cd were poorly leachable with 0.1 MHCl but the other cations were found to be fairly exchangeable. Most exchangeable cations in sediment ranged between 2% and 20% of the total heavy metal content obtained by digestion with strong acid. The mean total dissolved metal (0.45 microm filter cut-off) and mean total sediment concentrations ranged from nd-16 (Ag), nd-8 (Cd), nd-23.3 (Co), nd-50 (Cr), 5-157.5 (Cu), 50-3276 (Mn), nd-54.1 (Ni), 7-93.6 (Pb), 25-219.5 (Zn) in microg/L and from nd-8.34 (Ag), 0.48-1.75 (Co), nd-1.78 (Cd), 2.92-5.36 (Cr), 3.90-150.2 (Cu), 133.5-7237 (Mn), 4.33-42.29 (Ni), 3.09-66.06 (Pb), 23.39-7.83 (Sn) and 23.39-350.8 (Zn) in microg/g dry weight, respectively. The rivers analyzed were found to be non-polluted in terms of sediment loads except river Kisat which was found to be polluted because of elevated levels of Pb, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Nyamasaria and Nyando were also found to have higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn than those reported previously in the lake sediment. The dissolved metal concentrations were acceptable by WHO maximum limits in drinking water except Mn which was above WHO limit in Kisat, Nyando, and Nyamasaria waters. Enrichment of Cd and Pb was found in all the river sediment samples with factors ranging from 2.12 at Kisat river mouth to 4.41 at Awach (for Cd) and from 1.49 (at Kisat river mouth) to 2.38 (at Nyando river mouth).

McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Chinga N, Maingi A, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA. "Substantial Intrapatient Differences In The Breadth And Specificity Of Hiv-specific Cd8+ T-cell Interferon-gamma And Proliferation Responses.". 2008. Abstract

HIV vaccine design and evaluation require a better understanding of protective immune responses. HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses have been characterized extensively using interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays, which do not always correlate with control of viral replication or disease progression. Alternative aspects of CD8+ T-cell responses, in particular those associated with a central memory (Tcm) phenotype, may be more protective against disease progression. To determine the extent that the breadth and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses differ based on immunological readout, we screened in HIV-infected Kenyan sex workers for responses to HIV Env using IFN-gamma ELISPOT and 6-day carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-based proliferation assays. This comparison revealed substantial differences in the epitopes recognized when the assay readout was IFN-gamma versus proliferation. Although 24 and 41 IFN-gamma and proliferative responses were identified, overlapping specificity was observed for only 5 responses. Breadth also differed between assays in several patients. Env-specific IFN-gamma breadth was found to correlate inversely with CD4 count (r = -0.66, P = 0.005), although this was not the case for proliferation. These data suggest that efforts to define HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses may need to be revisited using additional immunological readouts.

LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, A.N DRMAKANYA, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC, D.W DRONYANGO. "Testicular blood supply pattern in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens): Any significance in testicular thermoregulation?". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 6th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibitions, 2008.; 2008. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

Simiyu, J., B.O A, Mwabora JM, Lindqvist S-E, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "Titania Nanotubes Prepared by Synthesis Method for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells." African Physical Review Special Issue (Materials). 2008;83(2):161.
Lester RT, Yao X-D, Ball BT, McKinnon LR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko W, Plummer FA, Rosenthal KL. "Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viraemic HIV-1 infection.". 2008. Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling.Together, these data indicate that chronic viraemic HIV-1 is associated with increased TLR expression and responsiveness, which may perpetuate innate immune dysfunction and activation that underlies HIV pathogenesis, and thus reveal potential new targets for therapy.

Onwonga RN, Freyer B, Lelei JJ. "Traditional soil fertility management strategies: Do they conform to recommendations in organic farming? A case study of the smallholder farmers of the Central Rift Valley Province of Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

The low input nature of organic farming (OF) is often likened to the traditional soil fertility management practices (TSFMP) of smallholder farming systems in developing countries. There are however no concrete studies to support this assertion. The present study aims at comparing the TSFM practices with recommendations in OF specifically recycling of organic wastes of crop and animal origin and maintenance of long-term fertility of the soil. These were monitored through resource flow mapping and calculation of nitrogen balances, at crop production level, using NUTMON toolbox. The study was conducted in Gilgil, Lare and Molo divisions of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Crop residues and manure were the principal organic resources recycled within the smallholder farming systems. The calculated N balances were negative; -70.9, -80.2 and -99.8 kg/ha/year for Gilgil, Lare and Molo, respectively. The organic resources recycled within the farm were therefore insufficient to sustain soil fertility. This is contrary to recommendations in OF, in which the long-term soil fertility should be maintained and/or enhanced. There were however opportunities; composting, biomass transfer and improved use of external and internal farm boundaries, enhanced livestock manure handling and integration of agroforestry trees, for improving the TSFMP to expectations of OF

Oboko RO, Wagacha PW, Masinde EM, Omwenga E, Libotton A. Value Difference Metric for Student Knowledge Level initialization in a Learner Model-based Adaptive e-Learning System.; 2008. AbstractValue Difference Metric for Student Knowledge Level initialization in a Learner Model-based Adaptive e-Learning System

Web-based learning systems give students the freedom to determine what to study based on each individual learner’s learning goals. These systems support learners in constructing their own knowledge for solving problems at hand. However, in the absence of instructors, learners often need to be supported as they learn in ways that are tailored to suit a specific learner. Adaptive web-based learning systems fit in such situations. In order for an adaptive learning system to be able to provide learning support, it needs to build a model of each individual learner and then to use the attribute values for each learner as stored in the model to determining the kind of learning support that is suitable for each learner. Examples of such attributes are learner knowledge level, learning styles and learner errors committed by learners during learning. There are two important issues about the use of learner models. Firstly, how to initialize the attributes in the learner models and secondly, how to update the attribute values of the learner model as learners interact with the learning system. With regard to initialization of learner models, one of the approaches used is to input into a machine learning algorithm attribute values of learners who are already using the system and who are similar (hence called neighbors) to the learner whose model is being initialized. The algorithm will use these values to predict initial values for the attributes of a new learner. Similarity among learners is often expressed as the distance from one learner to another. This distance is often determined using a heterogeneous function of Euclidean and Overlap measures (HOEM). This paper reports the results of an investigation on how HOEM compares to two different variations of Value Difference Metric (VDM) combined with the Euclidean measure (HVDM) using different numbers of neighbors. An adaptive web-based learning system teaching object oriented programming was used. HOEM was found to be more accurate than the two variations of HVDM

Oboko RO, Wagacha PW, Masinde EM, Omwenga E, Libotton A. "Value difference metric for student knowledge level initialization in a learner model-based adaptive e-learning system." Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. 2008:411. Abstract

Web-based learning systems give students the freedom to determine what to study based on
each individual learner's learning goals. These systems support learners in constructing
their own knowledge for solving problems at hand. However, in the absence of instructors,
learners often need to be supported as they learn in ways that are tailored to suit a specific
learner. Adaptive web-based learning systems fit in such situations. In order for an adaptive
learning system to be able to provide learning support, it needs to build a model of each

Lund, JF; Larsen HO; CBK; RNOJ; OCSS;. "When Theory Meets Reality – How To Do Forest Income Surveys In Practice."; 2008.
Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn, Jean-Marc Nicaud,. MS. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Grahamstown, South Africa; 2008.
Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn,. J-M. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Oviedo, Spain; 2008.
Brauch HG, Grin J, Mesjasz C, Behera NC, Chourou B, Spring UO, Liotta PH, Kameri-Mbote P. "‘Water and food security in the River Nile Basin: The perspectives of governments and NGOS of upstream countries.". In: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York – Hong Kong – London – Milan – Paris – Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2008.
Lehmann K, Löwel S. "Age-dependent ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice." PloS one. 2008;3:e3120. Abstract

BACKGROUND Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90-100 days, 109-158 days, 208-230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90-100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109-158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Lukandu OM, Costea DE, Dimba EA, Neppelberg E, Bredholt T, Gjertsen BT, Vintermyr OK, Johannessen AC. "Khat induces G1-phase arrest and increased expression of stress-sensitive p53 and p16 proteins in normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts." European journal of oral sciences. 2008;116:23-30. Abstract
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Limo AK, Rugutt-Korir A, Gichana JO, Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Mutuma GZ. "Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002.". 2008. Abstract
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Limo AK, Rugutt-Korir A, Gichana JO, Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Mutuma GZ. "Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002.". 2008. Abstract
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Lesan WR, Kisumbi BK, Wakiaga JM. "Some Optical properties of Resin Composite Veneer materials.". 2008. Abstract
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Dimba EA, Moshy J, Limo A, Otwoma JG, others. "Synchronous Occurrence of Ossifying Fibroma of the Mandible and Maxilla.". 2008. Abstract
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Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Moshy J, Limo A, Otwoma JG, Guthua SW. "Synchronous occurrence of ossifying fibroma of the mandible and maxilla: a case report." Dental Update. 2008;35:705-707. Abstract
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Dimba EA, Moshy J, Limo A, Otwoma JG, Guthua Symon W. "Synchronous Occurrence of Ossifying Fibroma of the Mandible and Maxilla: A Case Report.". 2008. Abstract
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2007
Ritman EL, Lerman A. "The {Dynamic} {Vasa} {Vasorum}." Cardiovascular research. 2007;75:649-658. AbstractWebsite

The function of vasa vasorum is both to deliver nutrients and oxygen to arterial and venous walls and to remove “waste” products, either produced by cells in the wall or introduced by diffusional transport through the endothelium of the artery or vein. Although the relationship between changes in vasa vasorum characteristics and the development of atheromatous plaques is well documented, the role of vasa vasorum, especially in terms of their appearance and disappearance in disease processes such as atherosclerosis, are still not clearly understood in terms of their being causative or merely reactive. However, even if their proliferation is merely reactive, these new microvessels may be a source of disease progression by virtue of endothelial impairment and as a pathway for monocytic cells to migrate to sites of early disease. As both these features are aspects of the vasa vasorum function, this Review focuses on the following issues: 1) acute modulation of vasa vasorum patency due to surrounding compressive forces within vessel wall and due to variable tone in the smooth muscle within proximal vasa vasorum and 2) chronic angiogenic responses due to local cytokine accumulations such as occur in the wall of arteries in the presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, accumulation of lipids, extravasated blood products (e.g., red blood cells, macrophages, inflammatory products) which attract monocytes, and response of vasa vasorum to pharmacological stimuli.

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Gessaghi VC, Raschi MA, Larreteguy AE, y Perazzo CA. "Influence of arterial geometry on a model for growth rate of atheromas." Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2007;90:012046. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects medium and large size arteries and it can partially or totally obstruct blood flow through them. The lack of blood supply to the heart or the brain can cause an infarct or a stroke with fatal consequences or permanent effects. This disease involves the proliferation of cells and the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, cell debris, calcium and other substances in the artery wall. Such accumulation results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques called atheromas, which may cause the obstruction of the blood flow. Cardiovascular diseases, among which atherosclerosis is the most frequent, are the first cause of death in developed countries. The published works in the subject suggest that hemodynamic forces on arterial walls have influence on the localization, initial development and growth rate of atheromas. This paper presents a model for this growth rate, and explores the influence of the bifurcation angle on the blood flow patterns and on the predictions of the model in a simplified carotid artery. The choice of the carotid bifurcation as the subject for this study obeys the fact that atheromas in this artery are often responsible for strokes. Our model predicts a larger initial growth rate in the external walls of the bifurcation and smaller growth area and lower growth rates as the bifurcation angle is increased. The reason for this seems to be the appearance of helical flow patterns as the angle is increased.

Ahmed I, Asgeirsson KS, Beckingham IJ, Lobo DN. "The position of the vermiform appendix at laparoscopy." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:165-168. AbstractWebsite

Background The vermiform appendix has no constant position and the data on the variations in its position are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the various positions of the appendix at laparoscopy. Methods Patients undergoing emergency or elective laparoscopy at a university teaching hospital between April and September 2004 were studied prospectively. The positions of the appendix and the caecum were determined after insertion of the laparoscope, prior to any other procedure and the relative frequencies calculated. Results A total of 303 (102 males and 201 females) patients with a median age of 52 years (range 18–93 years) were studied. An emergency appendicectomy was performed in 67 patients, 49 had a diagnostic laparoscopy, 179 underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and eight had other procedures. The caecum was at McBurney’s point in 245 (80.9%) patients, pelvic in 45 (14.9%) and high lying in 13 (4.3%). The appendix was pelvic in 155 (51.2%) patients, pre-ileal in 9 (3.0%), para-caecal in 11 (3.6%), post-ileal in 67 (22.1%) and retrocaecal in 61 (20.1%) patients. Conclusion Contrary to the common belief the appendix is more often found in the pelvic rather than the retrocaecal position. There is also considerable variation in the position of the caecum.

Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Bayon R, Belaidi A, Bär M, Gumiskaya T, Th. Dittrich, Lux-Steiner MC. "Solar cell with PbS extremely thin absorber (eta) on porous substrate based on novel eta concept.". In: 6th Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute International Conference on Physics and Technology for sustainable development in Africa (EBASI2007). Cape Town, South Africa ; 2007. Abstract

A new highly structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS solar cell has been developed based on the novel eta concept, and characterized by photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, scanning electron spectroscopy, photovoltaic response and quantum efficiency spectroscopy. In this system, TiO2, In(OH)xSy, PbS and PEDOT: PSS serve as electron conductor, recombination barrier, absorber and hole conductor respectively. The buffer and the absorber layer were prepared by chemical bath deposition, while the electron and hole conductor were prepared by spray pyrolysis/sol-gel and spin coating respectively. The band gap of as prepared In(OH)xSy has been found to vary with PH of the solution, also the band gap of PbS can be engineered to make it suitable as absorber material for solar cell application. At present, a solar cell device has been realized with efficiency up to over 1%, Jsc = 8 mA/cm2 and Voc= 3.0 V.

Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26(11):1661-72. Abstract

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited family cancer syndrome characterized by the development of retinal and central nervous system haemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and phaeochromocytoma. Specific germline VHL mutations may predispose to haemangioblastomas, RCC and phaeochromocytoma to a varying extent. Although dysregulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 and JunB have been linked to the development of RCC and phaeochromocytoma, respectively, the precise basis for genotype-phenotype correlations in VHL disease have not been defined. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of RCC in VHL disease we compared gene expression microarray profiles in a RCC cell line expressing a Type 1 or Type 2B mutant pVHL (RCC-associated) to those of a Type 2A or 2C mutant (not associated with RCC). We identified 19 differentially expressed novel VHL target genes linked to RCC development. Eight targets were studied in detail by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (three downregulated and five upregulated by wild-type VHL) and for six genes the effect of VHL inactivation was mimicked by hypoxia (but hypoxic-induction of smooth muscle alpha-actin 2 was specific for a RCC cell line). The potential role of four RCC-associated VHL target genes was assessed in vitro. NB thymosin beta (TMSNB) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) (both downregulated by wt pVHL) increased cell growth and motility in a RCC cell line, but aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1 and ALDH7 had no effect. These findings implicate TMSNB and PAR2 candidate oncogenes in the pathogenesis of VHL-associated RCC.

McClelland SR, Sangare L, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Ndinya-Achola J, Jaoko W, Baeten JM. "Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition." J. Infect. Dis.. 2007;195(5):698-702. Abstract

We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. At monthly follow-up visits, laboratory screening for HIV-1 and genital tract infections was conducted. Among 1335 HIV-1-seronegative women monitored for a median of 566 days, there were 806 incident T. vaginalis infections (23.6/100 person-years), and 265 women seroconverted to HIV-1 (7.7/100 person-years). Trichomoniasis was associated with a 1.52-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.24-fold) increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Treatment and prevention of T. vaginalis infection could reduce HIV-1 risk in women.

Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Independent effects of nevirapine prophylaxis and HIV-1 RNA suppression in breast milk on early perinatal HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;46(4):472-8. Abstract

The mechanism of action of single-dose nevirapine on reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 may involve reduction of maternal HIV-1 or prophylaxis of infants.

W K, L O. Management Structures and Processes of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) in Selected Districts. Nairobi: Collaborative Centre for Gender and Development ; 2007.
Musembi RJ, B. O. Aduda, Mwabora JM, M.Rusu, Fostiropolous K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Temperature dependent characterization of TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS eta Solar Cell.". In: International Conference on Nanoscience and technology . Stockholm, Sweden.; 2007. Abstract

Temperature dependent current - voltage measurements have been used to characterize an highly structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell, which under AM1.5 had the following parameters: Voc = 0.249V, Jsc = 9.24mA/cm2, a fill factor FF = 0.339 and an efficiency of 0.78%. The current voltage characterizations have been done in the dark as well as under illumination. Diode ideality factor A under illumination has been found to be between 1 < A < 2 while in the dark A > 2. Recombination mechanism of the charge carriers has been found to be dominated by tunneling in the dark, while under illumination the charge carrier recombination is thermally activated. In this device, the type and place of the dominant recombination mechanism has been found to depend on illumination.

Mwega F, Muga KL, Oyejide A, Lyakurwa W, Njinkeu D. "Africa and the World Trading System: The Case of Kenya." New Jersey: Third World Press; 2007.
Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
Chindia ML, A. WK, Limo AK, Dimba EAO, Gichana J. "audit of oral diseases at a Nairobi center 2004 - 2005.". 2007.
MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI, CM A, MG M, LO F, JP M, MI H, HM J. "Both the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) kinase inhibitory region and SOCS-1 mimetic bind to JAK2 autophosphorylation site: implications for the development of a SOCS-1 antagonist.". In: J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15;178(8):5058-68. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2007. Abstract

Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 protein modulates signaling by IFN-gamma by binding to the autophosphorylation site of JAK2 and by targeting bound JAK2 to the proteosome for degradation. We have developed a small tyrosine kinase inhibitor peptide (Tkip) that is a SOCS-1 mimetic. Tkip is compared in this study with the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) of SOCS-1 for JAK2 recognition, inhibition of kinase activity, and regulation of IFN-gamma-induced biological activity. Tkip and a peptide corresponding to the KIR of SOCS-1, ((53))DTHFRTFRSHSDYRRI((68)) (SOCS1-KIR), both bound similarly to the autophosphorylation site of JAK2, JAK2(1001-1013). The peptides also bound to JAK2 peptide phosphorylated at Tyr(1007), pJAK2(1001-1013). Dose-response competitions suggest that Tkip and SOCS1-KIR similarly recognize the autophosphorylation site of JAK2, but probably not precisely the same way. Although Tkip inhibited JAK2 autophosphorylation as well as IFN-gamma-induced STAT1-alpha phosphorylation, SOCS1-KIR, like SOCS-1, did not inhibit JAK2 autophosphorylation but inhibited STAT1-alpha activation. Both Tkip and SOCS1-KIR inhibited IFN-gamma activation of Raw 264.7 murine macrophages and inhibited Ag-specific splenocyte proliferation. The fact that SOCS1-KIR binds to pJAK2(1001-1013) suggests that the JAK2 peptide could function as an antagonist of SOCS-1. Thus, pJAK2(1001-1013) enhanced suboptimal IFN-gamma activity, blocked SOCS-1-induced inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation in IL-6-treated cells, enhanced IFN-gamma activation site promoter activity, and enhanced Ag-specific proliferation. Furthermore, SOCS-1 competed with SOCS1-KIR for pJAK2(1001-1013). Thus, the KIR region of SOCS-1 binds directly to the autophosphorylation site of JAK2 and a peptide corresponding to this site can function as an antagonist of SOCS-1.

N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M, L.G.Wori. "THE CONFIGURATION QUASI-PROBABILITY FORMULATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS.". 2007. Abstract

We apply a dynamical correspondence principle between ordinary functions of classical and quantum mechanical distribution function and derive its operator equation.We further examine one of the methods of finding the particular solutions to this equation in the algebra of coordinate-momentum ordered pair.

undefined. Effects of lactoperoxidase system in camel milk for preservation and fermentation purposes. Wangoh J, Lamuka PO, eds. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Summary
This study was conducted to investigate preservative effect of the LPsystem
on both raw and pasteurized camel milk. The effect of the LPsystem
on selected starter cultures in the raw and pasteurized camel
milk was also investigated. Experiments were therefore conducted to:
 evaluate the effect of LP-system activation on shelf-life of raw
camel milk with the underlying activities being to:
o determine the duration of antibacterial effect in camel milk
stored at different temperatures after activation of its LPsystem
and
o monitor effect on keeping quality of increasing
concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and hydrogen
peroxide within physiological limits.
 determine the effect of the LP-system on keeping quality in
pasteurised camel milk
 determine the effect of the LP-system on starter culture activity in
camel heat treated and raw camel milk.
The concentration of thiocyanate occurring naturally in the milk used in
the present investigations ranged from 9.7 to 36.4 mg/l. No addition of
thiocyanate was therefore necessary to activate the LP-system. The
average thiocyanate values of camel milk from different sites were
2
15.8, 32.9 and 9.74 mg/l and were significantly different (p<0.001)
across the three sampling sites in this study.
Changes in total viable counts between LP-activated and LPinactivated
camel milk were determined during storage at 10, 20 and
30°C. Viable counts increased with storage temperature. Microbial
growth was halted for 15, 17 and 76 hours at 30, 20 and 10°C
respectively by activation of the LP-system in raw camel milk. At 30°C
the effect was mainly bacteriostatic and at 20°C, there was an initial
bactericidal effect in the first 15 hours. At 10°C, the bactericidal effect
was noted throughout the period of 76 hours.
The titratable acidity between LP-activated and LP-inactivated camel
milk was determined during storage at 10, 20 and 30°C. There lag in
acid production of 14, 23, and 10 hours at 10, 20 and 30°C
respectively as compared to the controls and was significantly different
(p>0.05) across the three incubation temperatures. Shelf life difference
between LP-system activated samples and their respective controls
was 19 hours at both 10 and 20°C and 4 hours at 30°C.
The differences in mean acid produced between the control samples
and the activated samples, however, were 0.12, 0.61 and 0.49 for 10,
20 and 30°C respectively. Inhibition of acid production by the LPsystem
increased from significant (p<0.05) during storage at 10°C to
highly significant (p<0.01) during storage at 20 and 30°C. The present
investigation therefore shows that by activating the LP-system it is
3
possible to extend the storage period of raw camel milk and that the
effect of the LP-system on the microbes present varies with
temperature of storage.
The effect of increasing levels of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide
on antibacterial activity of LP-system in raw camel milk at 30ºC was
investigated. Changes in total viable counts and lactic acid
development in raw camel milk at concentrations of 0, 10:10, 20:20,
30:30 and 40:40ppms, NaSCN
-
:H2O2 were monitored. The delay in
multiplication of bacteria increased significantly with an increase in the
LP-system components from no lag phase in the control to 4, 6, 11.5
and 9.5 hours in the 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm levels of
NaSCN/H2O2 respectively.. The lag in acid production was 0, 4.8, 6, 12
and 8 hours for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm dose of
NaSCN:H2O2, respectively. The shelf life of the camel milk was 4, 6,
12, 16 and 16 hours, respectively, for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40
ppm dose of NaSCN:H2O2.
Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was activated in camel milk followed by
pasteurization after 0, 4, and 8 hours after of storage.
This resulted in a shelf life of 15, 32, 17 and 17 days for the nonactivated
control and those activated after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage
respectively during storage of samples at 10ºC. At 20°C, the shelf life
was 6, 13, 9 and 7 days for non-activated control and those activated
after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage respectively. These results showed
4
a significant effect of storage time prior to pasteurisation on the effect
of the LP-system on the surviving microflora between the control and
activated samples at all the 3 times of storage prior to pasteurisation
(p<0.001). The number of viable bacteria in untreated sample reached
108 after 45 days compared to 105-107 in treated samples during
storage at 10ºC and 108 after 15 days in untreated compared to 107-
106 in treated samples under storage at 20ºC. The mean specific
growth rates at 10ºC storage temperature were 0.51, 0.2, 0.41 and 0.5
for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively and were significantly lower in the LP-treated camel
milk samples than in the control (p<0.001). At 20ºC storage
temperature, the mean specific growth rates were 1,46, 0.27, 0.69 and
1 for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively. These were also significantly lower in the LPtreated
camel milk samples than in the control (p<0.001)
Sensitivity of lactic starter cultures to LP-system was investigated by
monitoring acid production by mesophillic, thermophillic and Suusac
starter cultures in both LP-system treated and untreated camel milk.
Inoculation with starter was done after zero, 4 and 8 hours of storage
of LP-activated samples.
In all the three starters, LP-system activation resulted in a significant
slow down in acid development in raw camel milk activated and
inoculated immediately. For the thermophillic starter mean lactic acid
5
was 0.41, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.36 for the inactivated control sample and
those activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and the
activated samples were very highly significant (p<0.001), highly
significant (p<0.01) and not significant (p>0.05) at the inoculation times
o, 4 and 8 respectively. For the Suusac starter, mean lactic acid was
0.67, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.52 for the inactivated control sample and those
activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and
activated samples were highly significant (p<0.01) at all the inoculation
times after activation. However, for mesophillic starter culture the mean
values of lactic acid produced were 0.53, 0.48, 0.42 and 0.54 for the
inactivated control and activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4,
and 8 hours respectively. The differences in means between the
control and activated samples were significant (p<0.01) at 0 and 4
hours and non-significant (p>0.05) at 8 hours. This implied that camel
milk preserved using this method could support satisfactory mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity if the milk is held prior to
processing.
The investigation on the effect of the LP-system on starter activity in
camel milk heat-treated prior to inoculation showed that heat treatment
reduced starter inhibition by the LP-system for the mesophillic and
thermophillic starter cultures for samples LP-system activated, heat
6
treated and inoculated at immediately. For the mesophillic starter mean
lactic acid values for the inactivated control sample, activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40
respectively. The differences in mean lactic acid values between the
control and activated samples showed that a non-significant effect of
inoculation time at time 0 (p>0.05), a significant effect after 4 hours
(p<0.05), and a very highly significant effect (p<0.001) after 8 hours.
Mean lactic acid values for the thermophillic starter for the inactivated
control sample and those activated and then inoculated after 0, 4 and 8
hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40 respectively. The inhibition
changed from insignificant (p>0.05) on inoculation at time 0 and 4
hours (p<0.05) and was highly significant (p<0.01) on inoculation after
8 hours. Thus the inhibitory effect of the LP-system on mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity in heat treated camel milk
apparently is reactivated and increases with time of preservation of raw
milk by LP-system. However with suusac starter, the mean lactic acid
values inactivated control sample and those activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours respectively were 0.69, 0.58, 0.64
and 0.71. At zero and four hours after activation inhibition was
significant (p<0.05) compared to a non-significantly different inhibition
(p>0.05) on inoculation after 8 hours of storage.
The use of the LP-system might therefore have a significant influence
on the time taken to reach the desired pH in the vat, which is a critical
7
factor for the manufacturer of fermented camel milk and this influence
is dependent on the time of preservation of raw camel milk prior to
processing of fermented products.

Waitaa SM, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Granqvist CG, Lindquist SE, Niklasson GA, Hagfeldtc A, Boschloo G. "Electron transport and recombination in dye sensitized solar cells fabricated from obliquely sputter deposited and thermally annealed TiO2 films.". 2007.Website
and R. S. Malele, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, López ML, Zunino MP, López AG, Zygadlo JA, Oliva MM, Demo MS. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and antimicrobial activity." J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10:83-87.
G DF, E L, D L, PP P, PP C, A O, G C, J N, W M, C B, M H, S P, P T, H S, A G, Leoncini L. "Gene expression analysis identifies novel RBL2/p130 target genes in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors." Blood.. 2007;110(4):1301-7.
Wanyande P, Omosa M, Ludeki C. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Ludeki C, Wanyande P, Omosa M. Governance Issues in Kenya: An Overview.; 2007.Website
Søren M, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmer

Søren M;, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmers

editor) Laban Ogallo FK(A, et al. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall anomalies." Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1-2).
Ochieng JW, Steane DA, Ladiges PY, Baverstock PR, Henry RJ, Shepherd M. "Microsatellites retain phylogenetic signals across genera in eucalypts (Myrtaceae)." Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2007;30(4):1125-1134.2007_ochieng_et_al_gmb.pdf

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