Publications

Found 2213 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is L  [Clear All Filters]
2013
L M, K S, S Y, K M, S K, N I. "Study on endocytosis and haemoglobin uptake in different developmental stages of Trypanosoma congolense, IL3000 strain." Journal of Protozoology Research. 2013;23:14-20.
Lily B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Linet LK, K’Obonyo PO. A survey of strategic human resource and practices and performance of commercial banks in Nairobi, Kenya. London: LA MBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
Lorenz LM, Keane A, Moore JD, Munk CJ, Seeholzer L, Mseka A, Simfukwe E, Ligamba J, Turner EL, Biswaro LR, Okumu FO, GF K, WR M, SJ. M. "Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues. Parasites & Vectors." Parasites & Vectors. 2013;3(6):131.
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, L.W. N. "Teacher Factors Influencing Students Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;3(ISSN 2201 – 6333):145-158 .kimani_11.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R. "Tenure Security and Ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.". In: Nature’s Wealth. The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ; 2013.
Awori MN, Leong W, Artrip JH, O'Donnell C. "Tetralogy of Fallot repair: optimal z-score use for transannular patch insertion." European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2013;43:483-486. Abstracttetralogy_of_fallot_repair_optimal_z-score_use_for_transannula.pdf

Transannular patching is used to relieve significant pulmonary annular stenosis during tetralogy of Fallot repair. Although recent literature has focused on the deleterious effects of pulmonary regurgitation, inadequate relief of stenosis may increase postoperative mortality and the re-intervention rate. Patching criteria based on pulmonary annular z-scores are ambiguous because of the use of varied z-score data sets. This study aimed to generate data that could be used to optimize z-score use for patch insertion. A retrospective review was made of medical records of patients who had a valve-sparing repair of tetralogy of Fallot between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. In a selected group in which the residual gradient was confined to the pulmonary valve, the post-repair peak pressure gradient was determined by trans-thoracic echocardiography and was correlated with the intra-operative pulmonary valve annulus (PVA) diameter z-score. Regression analysis was used to examine this relationship. Data from 46 patients with valve-sparing repair were reviewed; the median age and median weight were 6.5 months and 6.6 kg, respectively; the 30-day mortality was 2.2%. Analysis of these data implies that 25% of the time, all patients with a PVA z-score of -1.3 would have a PVA gradient ≥30 mmHg. Criteria that recommend a transannular patch insertion only when the PVA diameter z-score is significantly smaller than -1.3 (e.g. -3) may result in a significant number of patients with an unacceptable post-repair PVA gradient.

Masatani T, Matsuo T, Tanaka T, Terkawi MA, Lee EG, Goo YK, Yamagishi J, Hayashi K, Kameyama K, Cao S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "TgGRA23, a novel Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and intravacuolar network.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which relies on a specialized compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), to survive within host cells. Dense granules within the parasite release a large variety of proteins to maintain the integrity of the vacuole structure. Here, we identified a novel dense granule protein in T. gondii, TgGRA23, which is a homolog of the Sarcocystis muris dense granule protein, SmDG32. Recombinant TgGRA23 (rTgGRA23) expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein was used to raise antisera in mice and rabbits. Immunoblotting showed that antisera from the immunized mice and rabbits reacted with parasite lysates to yield a 21-kDa native protein. In addition, immuno-electron microscopic examination showed that TgGRA23 resides in the dense granules, PV membrane and intravacuolar network of the parasite. To confirm the precise subcellular localization of TgGRA23 in T. gondii, an immunofluorescent antibody test was performed using dense granule markers. Notably, TgGRA23 co-localized with other dense granule proteins including TgGRA4 and TgGRA7, in the extracellular-stage parasites. Biochemical experiments indicated that TgGRA23 is insoluble and may form an electrostatic complex that is resistant to non-ionic detergents. Furthermore, specific antibodies to TgGRA23 were detected during the chronic stage of Toxoplasma infection in mice. Our results suggest that TgGRA23 is an as yet unknown member of the T. gondii dense granule proteins, and that it may be involved in remodeling or maintenance of the PV.

Félix A-E, Calatayud P-A, LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ong’amo G, Silvain J-F, Frérot B. "To be or not to be a species: use of reproductive isolation experiments and genetic analysis to clarify the taxonomic status of two Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France . 2013;49(3):345-354. Abstract

Phylogenetic analysis combined with chemical ecology can contribute to the delimitation of closely related insect species, particularly in Lepidoptera. In this study, the taxonomic status of a species in the genus Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was discussed using morphological data, cross-mating experiments, sex pheromone chemistry, field-trapping, and molecular classification. The results of the chemical ecology experiments corroborated those from the phylogeny studies. It was concluded that several reproductive isolation components, namely host plants, geography, pheromone emission time, pheromone blend, and post-zygotic isolation factors, led to the separation of Busseola n. sp. from its closely related species B. segeta. Molecular data showed a strong difference between these two species, regardless of the marker used. The new species named Busseola nairobica was morphologically described and a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of the studied species was put forward.

Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Transport Mechanism in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta Solar Cell." Researchgate. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K–320 K. The recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark has been found to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The illumination intensity and temperature have also been found to have a strong influence on the device conversion efficiency, with the highest efficiency being realized at 200 K

MN W, GN M, LP P, JO O'ech. "The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and the Cerebro-Placental Ratio as a Predictor of Adverse Foetal Outcome in Patients with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy during Third Trimester." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2013;18(3):94-97. AbstractWebsite

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy causes adverse effects both the maternal and faetal circulations. These circulations can be assessed safely and non-invasively by Doppler `ultrasound using arterial Doppler indices of umbilical artery alone or combining the umbilical
artery with the middle cerebral artery thus attaining the cerebroplacental ratio (ratio of the middle cerebral artery resistive index over that of the umbilical artery). The main objective of this study was to compare the Umbilical Artery Resistive index alone and the cerebroplacental ratio as a predictor of adverse fetal outcome in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in third trimester.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over a period of nine months. Gravid patients at least 32 weeks gestations by dates were recruited from labor ward. Consecutive sampling method was used. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index was obtained and the cerebroplacental ratio was also calculated from the Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and Middle Cerebral Artery Resistive index.
Results: A total of 160 patients were recruited into the study. Among neonates of mothers with pregnancy induced hypertension with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index median (0.64), a fetal birth score < 7 was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.8; p <0.001) times more likely than a score > 7 and 6.6 (Odds Ratio 6.6; 95% CI 2.5, 17.3; p <0.001) times more likely relative to hypertensive mothers with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index > median (0.64). Combining Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and Middle Cerebral Artery Resistive Index (cerebroplacental ratio) improves the prognostic odds ratio from 6.6 to 82. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index (/> median) had 80% (95% CI 63%, 90%) sensitivity, 62.3% (95% CI 54%, 70%) specificity, 33% positive predictive value, and 93.1% negative predictive value for neonatal adaption after birth as seen from the foetal birth score. Among infants of mothers with hypertensive disorder during pregnancy with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index median (0.64), low birth weight (<10th percentile of expected weight at gestation week) was 0.5 (95% CI 1.9, 7.3) times more likely than normal weight and 9.5 (Odds Ratio 9.5; 95% CI 3.1, 29.2; p<0.001) times more likely relative to infants of hypertensive mothers with Umbilical Artery Resistive Index > median (0.64). Combining Umbilical Artery Resistive Index and Middle Cerebral Artery Resistive Index (cerebroplacental ratio) does not improve the prognostic odds ratio. The Odds Ratio drops from 9.5 to5.6. This implies the Umbilical Artery Resistive Index is a better predictor of low birth weight. The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index (/> median) had 85.2% (95% CI 67.5%, 94%) sensitivity, 62.4% (95% CI 54%, 70%) specificity, 31.5% positive predictive value, and 95.4% negative predictive value for abnormal birth weight.
Conclusion • The Cerebroplacental ratio is a better predictor of faetal birth score < 7 as compared to Umbilical Artery Resistive Index.
• The Umbilical Artery Resistive Index is a better predictor of low birth weight as opposed to cerebroplacental ratio.
• Both cerebroplacental ratio and Umbilical Artery Resistive Index can be used in combination to get the best results on faetal birth score and foetal weight.

Karanja F, Lohmann P. "Using Developable Land Units as an Indicator of Rate of Growth of an Urban Area."; 2013. Abstract

Developable Land Units (DLU) have been used in combination with remotely sensed data as an indicator for tracking the rate of urban growth. The variables used to model this indicator(DLU) are namely available vacant land, high land value, moderate elevation and compatibility with already existing land uses. Dar-esalaam, Tanzania, is used as the case study, specifically existing land use information (1992) is used to provide data pertaining to available vacant land and neighbourhood (i.e. compatibility), elevation data used was derived from ERS (1/2) data, whereas land value is obtained from mapped landform characteristics. The modelled developable land units is combined with new developed areas from 1998 SPOT multispectral data to estimate the amount of development occurring within this period i.e. between 1992 to 1998. The advantage of remotely sensed data in providing information continuously has been exploited in this regard, thus enabling a growth rate index to be estimated based on developable land units. The results obtained show that developable land units can be used successfully for monitoring growth and not only for predominantly allocating new developments as has been the case in the past.

Okello JJ;, Ofwona-Adera, Edith; Mbatia, L.E; O, Okello RM. Using ICT to Integrate Smallholder Farmers into Agricultural Value Chain: The Case of DrumNet Project in Kenya.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

This article examines an ICT-based intervention (known as the DrumNet project) that has succeeded in integrating smallholder-resource and poor farmers into a higher value agricultural chain. The article assesses the design of the project, and how it resolves the smallholder farmers’ idiosyncratic market failures and examines member-farmers’ marketing margins. The article finds that the design of the DrumNet project resolves smallholder farmers’ credit, insurance and information market failures and enables them to overcome organizational failure. The article concludes that successful ICT-based interventions for integrating farmers into higher value agricultural value chains require an integrated approach to tackling smallholder farmers’ constraints. The findings have implications for the design of future ICT-based interventions in agriculture.

Okello JJ;, Ofwona-Adera, Edith; Mbatia, L.E; O, Okello RM. Using ICT to Integrate Smallholder Farmers into Agricultural Value Chain: The Case of DrumNet Project in Kenya.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

This article examines an ICT-based intervention (known as the DrumNet project) that has succeeded in integrating smallholder-resource and poor farmers into a higher value agricultural chain. The article assesses the design of the project, and how it resolves the smallholder farmers’ idiosyncratic market failures and examines member-farmers’ marketing margins. The article finds that the design of the DrumNet project resolves smallholder farmers’ credit, insurance and information market failures and enables them to overcome organizational failure. The article concludes that successful ICT-based interventions for integrating farmers into higher value agricultural value chains require an integrated approach to tackling smallholder farmers’ constraints. The findings have implications for the design of future ICT-based interventions in agriculture.

Abdallah F, Axt J, Axt M, Githanga J, Hansen E, Lessan J, Li M, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National Institute of Health. 2013;48(6)(june 2013):1254-1262.
LM Ngesu, S Gunga LNWKMCB. "Youth Violence in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Prevalence, Manifestations and Prevention." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2013.
Kassim BA, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR, Gathece LW. "Effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output, depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of dental resin composite." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90:288-296. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Lei F, Ozdemir SK, Long GL, Yang L. "Engineering the spectral properties of photonic molecules.". In: CLEO: QELS\_Fundamental Science. Optical Society of America; 2013:. Abstract
n/a
Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Leveille SG, Hayman LL. "Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms." BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2013;13:1-13. Abstract
n/a
De Coster G, Van Dongen S, Malaki P, Muchane M, Alcántara-Exposito A, Matheve H, Lens L. "Fluctuating asymmetry and environmental stress: understanding the role of trait history." PLoS One. 2013;8. Abstract
n/a
Edwards P, Janisch C, Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Liu Z. "Raman spectroscopic sensing using whispering gallery microresonators.". In: Ultrafast Imaging and Spectroscopy. Vol. 8845. International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2013:. Abstract
n/a
Stenmark KR, Yeager ME, El Kasmi KC, Nozik-Grayck E, Gerasimovskaya EV, Li M, Riddle SR, Frid MG. "The {Adventitia}: {Essential} {Regulator} of {Vascular} {Wall} {Structure} and {Function}." Annual Review of Physiology. 2013;75:23-47. AbstractWebsite

The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in.

2012
Chege, H.W., D.C.Kemboi, L.C. Bebora, N. Maingi, P.G. Mbuthia, P.N. Nyaga, Njagi LW, Githinji JM. "Prevalence of ecto and endo parasites in free-range chickens in Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conferencenar. Entebbe, Uganda; 2012.
Kemboi, D.C., H.W. Chege, L.C. Bebora, N. Maingi, P.N. Nyaga, P.G. Mbuthia, Njagi LW, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conferenceting. Entebbe, Uganda; 2012.2012-_seasonal_new_castle_disease_antibody_titre_levels_in_village_chickens_of_mbeere_distrct_kenya.pdf
Chantler PD, Lakatta EG. "Arterial-{Ventricular} {Coupling} with {Aging} and {Disease}." Frontiers in Physiology. 2012;3. AbstractWebsite

Age is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the coupling between the left ventricle (LV) and arterial system, termed arterial–ventricular coupling (EA/ELV), provides important mechanistic insights into the complex cardiovascular system and its changes with aging in the absence and presence of disease. EA/ELV can be indexed by the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA; a measure of the net arterial load exerted on the LV) to left ventricular end-systolic elastance (ELV; a load-independent measure of left ventricular chamber performance). Age-associated alterations in arterial structure and function, including diameter, wall thickness, wall stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a gradual increase in resting EA with age. Remarkably there is a corresponding increase in resting ELV with age, due to alterations to LV remodeling (loss in myocyte number, increased collagen) and function. These age-adaptations at rest likely occur, at least, in response to the age-associated increase in EA and ensure that EA/ELV is closely maintained within a narrow range, allowing for optimal energetic efficiency at the expense of mechanical efficacy. This optimal coupling at rest is also maintained when aging is accompanied by the presence of hypertension, and obesity, despite further increases in EA and ELV in these conditions. In contrast, in heart failure patients with either reduced or preserved ejection fraction, EA/ELV at rest is impaired. During dynamic exercise, EA/ELV decreases, due to an acute mismatch between the arterial and ventricular systems as ELV increases disproportionate compared to EA (≈200 vs. 40%), to ensure that sufficient cardiac performance is achieved to meet the increased energetic requirements of the body. However, with advancing age the reduction in EA/ELV during acute maximal exercise is blunted, due to a blunted increase ELV. This impaired EA/ELV is further amplified in the presence of disease, and may explain, in part, the reduced cardiovascular functional capacity with age and disease. Thus, although increased stiffness of the arteries itself has important physiological and clinical relevance, such changes also have major implications on the heart, and vice versa, and the manner in the way they interact has important ramifications on cardiovascular function both at rest and during exercise. Examination of the alterations in arterial–ventricular coupling with aging and disease can yield mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions and increase the effectiveness of current therapeutic interventions.

Lenga F, J.M.Bahemuka. "Higher Education in Africa and knowledge Economy.". In: Going Global Forum. London; 2012.
Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

Stenmark KR, Frid MG, Yeager M, Li M, Riddle S, McKinsey T, El Kasmi KC. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary circulation. 2012;2:3-14. Abstract

Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise.

L. O, J. A. Evaluation of HelpAge Kenya’s Sponsor a Grandparent Programme. Nairobi: HelpAge International; 2012.
Loh TP, Saw S, Sethi SK. "Bedside monitoring of blood ketone for management of diabetic ketoacidosis: proceed with care." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2012;29:827-828. Abstract
n/a
Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B, Tinevez J-Y, White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak P, Cardona A. "Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis." Nature Methods. 2012;9:676-682. AbstractWebsite

Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

Wong KK, Bulimo WD, Magana J, Achilla RA, Schwarcz SK, Simwa M, Majanja JM, Wadegu MO, Osuna FA, Mukunzi SO, Mwangi JK, Wangui JM, Muthoni JN, Njiri JO, Obura BD, Opot BH, Mitei KK, Barani J, Lifumo S, Schnabel DC. "Epidemiology of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Among Kenyans Aged 2 Months to 18 Years, 2009–2010." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S68-S73. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-wong-s68-73.pdfWebsite

Background.The US Army Medical Research Unit–Kenya (USAMRU-K) conducts surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Kenya. We describe the temporal and geographic progression of A(H1N1)pdm09 as it emerged in Kenya and characterize the outpatient population with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection.Methods.We included patients with ILI aged 2 months to 18 years enrolled during June 2009–August 2010. Respiratory specimens were tested by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza virus. Patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were compared to those with seasonal influenza A virus infection and those with ILI who had no virus or a virus other than influenza virus identified (hereafter, “noninfluenza ILI”).Results.Of 4251 patients with ILI, 193 had laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. The first pandemic influenza case detected by USAMRU-K surveillance was in August 2009; peak activity nationwide occurred during October–November 2009. Patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were more likely to be school-aged, compared with patients with seasonal influenza A virus infection (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–3.1) or noninfluenza ILI (PR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.4–4.3).Conclusions.USAMRU-K ILI surveillance detected the geographic and temporal distribution of pandemic influenza in Kenya. The age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 infections included more school-aged children, compared with seasonal influenza A virus infection and noninfluenza ILI.

Lubembe DM, Githigia SM, Chogo P, Athumani HM, Kitaa JM. "Management of bovine papillomatosis using an Autogenous Vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, Western Kenya.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial and 46th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Safaripark Hotel, Nairobi Kenya; 2012.
Kiemo K, Leseni B. "Mobile Money Services and Entrepreneurial Development in Rural Communities: The Case of the Agricultural Kikuyu and Pastoral Maasai Communities in Kenya.". In: IMTFI Annual Conference 2011 . Institute for Mooney, Technology and Financial Inclusion, University of California, Irvine, USA; 2012.
L.C. B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G. "Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2012.2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Irungu E, Chersich MF, Sanon C, Chege R, Gaillard P, Temmerman M, Read JS, Luchters S. "Changes in sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in west and east Africa in the first 24 months after delivery." AIDS. 2012;26(8):997-1007. Abstract

Describe changes in sexual behaviour and determinants of unsafe sex among HIV-infected women in the 24 months after delivery.

Choi RY, Fowke KR, Juno J, Lohman-Payne B, Oyugi JO, Brown ER, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "C868T single nucleotide polymorphism and HIV type 1 disease progression among postpartum women in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2012;28(6):566-70. Abstract

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

Davis G, Ananga A, Krastanova S, Sutton S, Ochieng JW, Leong S, Tsolova V. "Elevated gene expression in chalcone synthase enzyme suggests an increased production of flavonoids in skin and synchronized red cell cultures of North American native grape berries." DNA Cell Biol.. 2012;31(6):939-45. Abstract2012_davis_et_al_dna_and_cell_biology.pdf

Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia).

Davis G, Ananga A, Krastanova S, Sutton S, Ochieng JW, Leong S, Tsolova V. "Elevated gene expression in chalcone synthase enzyme suggests an increased production of flavonoids in skin and synchronized red cell cultures of North American native grape berries." DNA Cell Biol.. 2012;31(6):939-45. Abstract

Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia).

Long JK, Murphy SP, Weiss RE, Nyerere S, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG. "Meat and milk intakes and toddler growth: a comparison feeding intervention of animal-source foods in rural Kenya." Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(6):1100-7. AbstractMeat and milk intakes and toddler growth

To examine the effects of animal-source foods on toddler growth.

Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Kiarie J, Inambao M, Kilembe W, Farquhar C, Celum C. "Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):358-65. Abstract

Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1.

Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Kiarie J, Inambao M, Kilembe W, Farquhar C, Celum C. "Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):358-65. Abstract

Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Slyker JA, Chung MH, Lehman DA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Holte S, Tapia K, Njiri F, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Incidence and correlates of HIV-1 RNA detection in the breast milk of women receiving HAART for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(1):e29777. Abstract

The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

Slyker JA, Chung MH, Lehman DA, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Holte S, Tapia K, Njiri F, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Incidence and correlates of HIV-1 RNA detection in the breast milk of women receiving HAART for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(1):e29777. Abstract

The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

Mobegi VA, Loua KM, Ahouidi AD, Satoguina J, Nwakanma DC, Amambua-Ngwa A, Conway DJ. "Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa." Malar. J.. 2012;11:223. Abstract

Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur.

Murnane PM, Hughes JP, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Mugo N, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Wald A, Baeten JM. "Using plasma viral load to guide antiretroviral therapy initiation to prevent HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e51192. Abstract

Current WHO guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 counts ≤350 cells/µL. Increasing this threshold has been proposed, with a primary goal of reducing HIV-1 infectiousness. Because the quantity of HIV-1 in plasma is the primary predictor of HIV-1 transmission, consideration of plasma viral load in ART initiation guidelines is warranted.

Murnane PM, Hughes JP, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Mugo N, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Wald A, Baeten JM. "Using plasma viral load to guide antiretroviral therapy initiation to prevent HIV-1 transmission." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e51192. Abstract

Current WHO guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 counts ≤350 cells/µL. Increasing this threshold has been proposed, with a primary goal of reducing HIV-1 infectiousness. Because the quantity of HIV-1 in plasma is the primary predictor of HIV-1 transmission, consideration of plasma viral load in ART initiation guidelines is warranted.

L.D.E. I. "Analysis of Census Data taking into consideration Gender Dimensions’.". In: Kenya National Seminar on Census Data Analysis,. Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk.". 2012. Abstract

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested. The Enterobacteriaceaebelonged to 15 species from 10 genera. Dominant isolates wereEscherichia coli (50), Klebsiellapneumoniasubsp.pneumoniae (35) and Enterobactersakazakii (20).Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera and E. coli occurred at viable counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. ESBL was studied f or 96 E. coli, K. pneumoniasubsp. pneumoniae andE.sakazakii. Total of 61 (63% )isolates consisting of 46 (48%) ofE. coli, 45 (46%)K.pneumonia subsp.Pneumoniaand 16 (7%) E.sakazakiiwere resistant to ampicillin.blaSHV ,blaCTX-M-3-like blaCTX-M-14-like genes were detectedin 37 (60%), 25 (40%) and 11 (18%) of theEnterobacteriaceae isolates respectively.K.pneumonia subsp.pneumoniae harbored majority of these bla genes (74%)with1 strain possessing all 3 genes and 13 harbouring both bla SHV and bla CTX-M-3-like genes. Thediversity ofEnterobacteriaceae in camel milk calls for improvedhandling of camel milk.The ESBLgenes intheisolates fromremotesemi-arid regions emphasises the global antimicrobial resistanceproblemamong Enterobacteriaceae

Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Mbwambo Z, Lukhoba W, Kisangau D, Odhiambo J, Dossaji S, Joseph C, Lyaruu H, Siboe G, Hosea K. "Bioactivity screening and value-added processing of medicinal plant products for the management of HIV and AIDS fungal infections in Lake Victoria." Ethnobotany and Health. Proceedings of the Cluster Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 4-7 September 2010. 2012:103-108.
Aosa EA, Machuki V, Letting N. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 11(June). Abstract

This study examined the relationship between Board diversity and financial performance of firms listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on Boards’ age, gender, educational qualifications, study specialization, and board specialization as well as the companies’ financial performance were obtained from 40 companies using a structured questionnaire. Using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, the results show that there is a weak positive association between board diversity and financial performance. Overall, the results indicate a statistically not significant effect of board diversity on financial performance except for the independent effect of board study specialization on dividend yield. The results partially concur with agency and resource dependency theories of corporate governance as well as similar empirical studies. Ensuing implications for theory, policy and practice as well as methodology are also discussed.
Key Words: Board of Directors’ Diversity, Financial Performance, Listed Firms, Kenya

Lohman-Payne B, Slyker JA MS, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C O, Overbaugh J J-SG. "Breast milk cellular HIV-specific interferon γ responses are associated with protection from peripartum HIV transmission." AIDS. 2012 Oct 23;26(16):2007-16. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328359b7e0.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Breast milk is a major route of infant HIV infection, yet the majority of breast-fed, HIV-exposed infants escape infection by unknown mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the role of HIV-specific breast milk cells in preventing infant HIV infection.
DESIGN:
A prospective study was designed to measure associations between maternal breast milk HIV-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses and infant HIV-1 detection at 1 month of age.
METHODS:
In a Kenyan cohort of HIV-infected mothers, blood and breast milk HIV-gag IFN-γ ELISpot responses were measured. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between breast milk IFN-γ responses and infant HIV infection at 1 month of age.
RESULTS:
IFN-γ responses were detected in breast milk from 117 of 170 (69%) women. IFN-γ responses were associated with breast milk viral load, levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α, MIP-1β, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted and stromal-cell derived factor 1 and subclinical mastitis. Univariate factors associated with infant HIV infection at 1 month postpartum included both detection and breadth of breast milk IFN-γ response (P = 0.08, P = 0.04, respectively), breast milk MIP-1β detection (P = 0.05), and plasma (P = 0.004) and breast milk (P = 0.004) viral load. In multivariate analyses adjusting for breast milk viral load and MIP-1β, breast milk IFN-γ responses were associated with an approximately 70% reduction in infant HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.092-0.91], and each additional peptide pool targeted was associated with an approximately 35% reduction in infant HIV (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97).
CONCLUSION:
These data show breast milk HIV-gag-specific IFN-γ cellular immune responses are prevalent and may contribute to protection from early HIV transmission. More broadly, these data suggest breast milk cellular responses are potentially influential in decreasing mother-to-child transmission of viruses.

Michelson H, Lentz EC, Mulwa, M R, Morey M, Cramer L, McGlinchy M, Barrett CB. "Cash, food, or vouchers? An application of the Market Information and Food Insecurity Response Analysis Framework (MIFIRA) in urban and rural Kenya." Food Security. 2012;4:455-469.
L Ngesu, LN Wachira MNBE. "Critical determinants of poor performance in KCSE among girls in Arid and Semi-Arid (ASAL) regions in Kenya." Journal of African Studies in Educational Management and Leadership. 2012.
Mwaengo D, Lorenzo G, Iglesias J, Warigia M, Sang R, Bishop RP, Brun A. "Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR." Virus Res.. 2012;169(1):137-43. Abstract

Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks.

M MH, LW I, PN N. "The diseases of coffee under the changing climate: the established situation in Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technolog. 2012;2(2):265-267.
Lung’aho C, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.
Lung’aho C, C. Lung’aho, Chemining’wa G, G. Chemining’wa, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson. M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato_solanum_tuberosum_cultivars_in_central_kenya.
Lelei DK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Kibunja CN, Vanlauwe B. "EFFECTS OF SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL AGGREGATION, CARBON AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS." E. Afr. agric. For. J. 113-118. 2012;78(1):113-118.
Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Torr SJ, Oyieke F, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition.". 2012.malaria_paper_1.pdf
Aosa EA, Machuki VN, Letting NK. "Firm-Level Institutions and Performance of Publicly Quoted Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 ( No. 21). Abstractfirm-level_institutions_and_performance_of_publicly_quoted_companies_in_kenya.pdf

Firm-level institutions constitute the internal organizational environment which define the context in which
strategic decisions are made and implemented. Effective and successful strategy implementation requires apt institutionalization of the strategy. Logically, firm-level institutions have an indirect effect on corporate
performance through their direct effect on strategy implementation. In this study, a direct effect of the firm-level
institutions on corporate performance was investigated. Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, ten firm-level institutions were captured under two broad dimensions of administrative systems and resource competencies. Performance implications of these firm-level institutions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, most of the firm-level institutions were manifest to a large extent.
The results also indicate that a very strong positive relationship exists between firm-level institutions and various indicators of corporate performance. However, the overall results for the effect of firm-level institutions on corporate performance were statistically not significant. The results partially concur with pertinent theories as well as similar empirical studies. Based on the findings, implications for theory, methodology, and managerial practice as well as areas for further study are identified.
Key words: Firm-Level Institutions, Corporate Performance, Publicly Quoted Companies, Kenya

Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Campagne P, Branca A, Calatayud P-A, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Silvain J-F. "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A case study of host use diversification in Guineo-Congolian rainforest relic area, Kenya." Science. 2012;3:1156-1170. Abstract

Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area.

L. Wangai, Butt. F, Mandela P. "Horizontal angle of inclination of the mandibular condyle in a kenyan population." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2012;1(1):46-49. Abstract

The horizontal angle of inclination, is important in maintaining the function of the temporomandibular joint. It should be maintained in the manufacture of condylar prostheses since deviation may lead to disk displacement and degeneration of the articular fossa. While inter-population variations exist in mandibular morphometry, published information on the horizontal angle of inclination in the African population is not available. This study therefore aimed to determine the normal range of the horizontal angle of inclination amongst Kenyans. Sixty three mandibles of African origin were used. The horizontal angle of inclination was measured as the angle between the medio-lateral axis and the coronal plane. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS v.17 for means and variance, and represented using tables, charts and photographs. The horizontal angle of inclination was larger on the right (22.55°) than on the left (20.01°) (p = 0.002). The mean angle was larger on the right (24.76° vs. 21.75° in males) but smaller on the left in females (17.80° vs. 20.37° in males), but the difference was not statistically significant. The difference between right and left angles was larger in females (6.96°, p < 0.05) than in males (1.38°, p > 0.05). It differed significantly between the left and the right. This difference was more pronounced in females than in males for unknown reasons. The horizontal angle of inclination in Kenyans was different from those reported in general literature, and manufacturers of condylar prostheses need to factor these variations during fabrication to avoid post-operative morbidity.
Key words: Mandibular condyle, angle of inclination

Ochola SA, Labadarios D, RW. N. "Impact of counselling on exclusive breast-feeding practices in a poor urban setting in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial. ." Public Health Nutr. 2012 Oct 8:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the impact of facility-based semi-intensive and home-based intensive counselling in improving exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in a low-resource urban setting in Kenya.
DESIGN:
A cluster randomized controlled trial in which nine villages were assigned on a 1:1:1 ratio, by computer, to two intervention groups and a control group. The home-based intensive counselling group (HBICG) received seven counselling sessions at home by trained peers, one prenatally and six postnatally. The facility-based semi-intensive counselling group (FBSICG) received only one counselling session prenatally. The control group (CG) received no counselling from the research team. Information on infant feeding practices was collected monthly for 6 months after delivery. The data-gathering team was blinded to the intervention allocation. The outcome was EBF prevalence at 6 months.
SETTING:
Kibera slum, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
A total of 360 HIV-negative women, 34-36 weeks pregnant, were selected from an antenatal clinic in Kibera; 120 per study group.
RESULTS:
Of the 360 women enrolled, 265 completed the study and were included in the analysis (CG n 89; FBSICG n 87; HBICG n 89). Analysis was by intention to treat. The prevalence of EBF at 6 months was 23•6 % in HBICG, 9•2 % in FBSICG and 5•6 % in CG. HBICG mothers had four times increased likelihood to practise EBF compared with those in the CG (adjusted relative risk = 4•01; 95 % CI 2•30, 7•01; P = 0•001). There was no significant difference between EBF rates in FBSICG and CG.
CONCLUSIONS:
EBF can be promoted in low socio-economic conditions using home-based intensive counselling. One session of facility-based counselling is not sufficient to sustain EBF

Slyker JA;, Lohman-Payne B;, John-Stewart GC;, Dong T;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Tapia K;, Atzberger A;, Taylor S;, Rowland-Jones SL;, Blish CA. "The impact of HIV-1 infection and exposure on natural killer (NK) cell phenotype in Kenyan infants during the first year of life.". 2012. Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the containment of HIV replication during primary infection, though their functions are impaired during chronic HIV infection. Infants experience more rapid HIV disease progression than adults, but contributions of infant NK cells to containing HIV infection are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HIV infection on infant NK cell phenotype by evaluating samples and data from a cohort study of women and their infants, conducted in Nairobi, Kenya between 1999 and 2003. The percentage and phenotype of NK cells was evaluated longitudinally by multi-parameter flow cytometry over the first year of life in HIV-infected (HIV+, = 16), HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU, n = 6), and healthy unexposed controls (HIV-, n = 4). At birth, NK subset distributions based on expression of CD56 and CD16 did not differ between HIV+, HIV-EU, or HIV- infants. However, HIV infection was associated with a subsequent decline in NK cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes (p < 0.001), and an expanding proportion of CD56-CD16+ NK cells (p < 0.001). Activated CD38(bright)CD69+ NK cells were more frequent in the HIV+ infants, followed by HIV-EU and HIV- infants, in both CD56(dim) (p = 0.005) and CD56(bright) compartments (p = 0.03). HIV infection and exposure was also associated with a significant decline in the percentage of perforin-expressing NK cells in the CD56(dim) compartment over the first year of life, with HIV+ infants losing approximately 2.5% (p < 0.001) and HIV-EU infants losing 3.0% (p = 0.01) of perforin+ cells per month. Thus, infant HIV infection is associated with alterations in NK cell subsets, activation, and cytolytic potential that could contribute to their poor control over HIV infection. Furthermore, exposure to HIV infection in infants who escaped infection is also associated with alterations in NK cells that may contribute to the reduced ability to fight infections that is observed in HIV-EU infants

L. O. OLANG, P.M. KUNDU OUMAANDFÜRSTGJ. "IMPACTS OF LAND COVER CHANGE SCENARIOS ON STORM RUNOFF GENERATION: A BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE NYANDO BASIN, KENYA." land degradation & development. 2012;DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2140(DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2140).land_cover_change_scenarios.pdf
Slyker JA;, Chung MH;, Lehman DA;, Kiarie J;, Kinuthia J;, Holte S;, Tapia K;, Njiri F;, Overbaugh J;, John-Stewart G. "Incidence and Correlates of HIV-1 RNA Detection in the Breast Milk of Women Receiving HAART for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission.". 2012. Abstract

Background The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Methods Women initiated HAART at 34 weeks of pregnancy. Breast milk was collected every 2–5 days during 1 month postpartum for measurements of cell-associated HIV DNA and cell-free HIV RNA. Plasma and breast milk were also collected at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months for concurrent HIV-1 RNA and DNA measurements. Regression was used to identify cofactors for breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection. Results Of 259 breast milk specimens from 25 women receiving HAART, 34 had detectable HIV-1 RNA (13%, incidence 1.4 episodes/100 person-days 95% CI = 0.97–1.9). Fourteen of 25 (56%) women had detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA [mean 2.5 log10 copies/ml (range 2.0–3.9)] at least once. HIV-1 DNA was consistently detected in breast milk cells despite HAART, and increased slowly over time, at a rate of approximately 1 copy/106 cells per day (p = 0.02). Baseline CD4, plasma viral load, HAART duration, and frequency of breast problems were similar in women with and without detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Women with detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA were more likely to be primiparous than women without (36% vs 0%, p = 0.05). Plasma HIV-1 RNA detection (OR = 9.0, 95%CI = 1.8–44) and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (OR = 12, 95% CI = 2.5–56) were strongly associated with concurrent detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. However, no association was found between breast milk HIV-1 DNA level and concurrent breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.54–1.7). Conclusions The majority of women on HAART had episodic detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection was associated with systemic viral burden rather than breast milk HIV-1 DNA.

KAAYA G.P., KADHILA-MUANDINGI, P.N., LOTFY HR, MSHIGENI K. "Incorporation of seaweed in mushroom cultivation substrates and mushroom iodization." . African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(25):3673-3676.
OMWANDHOCHARLESO, L PAGLIARDINI, D G, P V, Bordignon P, AM DIB, m C. "Induce smad-dependent signaling and apoptosis in humen endometrial and endometriotic cells.". 2012.
Mwololo JK, Muturi PW, Mburu MWK, Njeru RW, Kiarie N, Munyua JK, Ateka EM, Muinga RW, Kapinga RE, Lemaga B. "Integration of farmers in technology developments as a basis for enhancing sweet-potato productivity in Kenya. .". In: Published online at knowledge.cta.int/en/content/view/full/15294.; 2012.
Chandler M, Bebber DP, Castro S, Lowman MD, Muoria P, Oguge N, Rubenstein DI. "International citizen science: making the local global." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment . 2012;10:328-331.
TF A, F. H, PN N, LW I. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) unde laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012. AbstractInternational Journal of Tropical Insect Science

The life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Witte), a recently reported pest of honeybee colonies in East Africa, was studied for the first time under laboratory conditions. Adult O. haroldi collected from beehives in the coastal part of Kenya were reared on a mixture of moist sterilized soil and cow dung. At 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 5% relative humidity and a 10 h light-14 h dark photoperiod, the laid eggs took 11.9 ± 1.3 days to hatch into a curved pear-shaped scarabaeiform larva with a well-developed head and thoracic legs. The first, second and third larval instars lasted 14.6 ± 2.6, 17.5 ± 2.4 and 34.6 ± 2.4 days, respectively. The pupal stage, which was marked by formation of a mud cocoon, lasted 31.1 ± 6.7 days with the adults surviving for 2–6 months under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the beetle is multivoltine. A detailed taxonomic description of the external morphology of the third instar larva is provided

Lagerkvist CJ, Ngigi M, Okello J, Karanja N. "Means-End Chain approach to understanding farmers’ motivations for pesticide use in leafy vegetables: The case of kale in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Peri-urban farmers play a significant role in the production of vegetables consumed in the urban centers in most African countries. The production of vegetables in the peri-urban areas in these countries is strategic with most farmers targeting the lucrative and better-paying urban markets. However, the decline in agricultural land in the peri-urban due to competition from housing for urban workers has led peri-urban farmers to use intensive means of agricultural production. Decreasing land sizes imply that peri-urban lands are continuously under production resulting in the build-up of pests and diseases. Further, the tropical climate generally increases the outbreak and rapid multiplication of pests and diseases. These problems and the urban consumers’ demand for clean and spotlessness vegetables encourage the excessive use of pesticides. Additionally, the desire to reduce losses and waste can cause farmers to violate the recommended intervals between pesticide application and harvest. Consequently, there have been concerns about the excessive application of pesticides in vegetables produced in the peri-urban areas. The study applies the Means-End Chain (MEC) approach accompanied by the laddering technique to assess the motivations for peri-urban farmers to use pesticides as opposed to other crop protection methods in the production of fresh vegetables. It specifically examines the relevant attribute econsequenceevalue relations by setting up relevant hierarchical value maps. The study is based on a random sample of 54 kale farmers in three peri-urban areas of Nairobi. It finds that farmers apply pesticides at different times mainly for the purpose of improving their efficacy in protecting kale against pests and diseases. Protection of kale improves its aesthetic quality attributes resulting in higher prices and hence profit margins. Examination of the hierarchal value maps further reveals that the other motivations for pesticide use include benevolence value (being helpful and honest to trading partners), power (social recognition or good reputation as a good farmer), hedonism (happiness for being a successful farmer), security (having good health) and self-direction (independence or being self-supporting from vegetable income). Clearly, the motivations suggest a dilemma in safe use of pesticides. While some motivators dictate less use of pesticides, others can promote indiscriminate use of pesticides. The study discusses the implication of these findings for sustainable and environmentally friendly production of safe leafy vegetables in peri-urban areas.

of Kenya NC, of Learning C, of Nairobi U, AMREF. "MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING 1.". In: UON-NCK-AMREF Distance Learning Modules . Nairobi: UON- NCK-AMREF; 2012.uon-nck-amref_distance_learning_modules_unit_19_medical_surgical_nursing_i.doc
Lengarite MI, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Kabuage LW. "Mineral Status of Sheep and Goats Grazing in the Arid Rangelands of Northern Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A study was conducted in dry and wet season to determine macro and micro mineral status of growing sheep and goats in arid rangelands of northern Kenya. Forty four, 22 each of sheep and goats (1-2 year old), randomly purchased from three herds/flocks in study area, were sacrificed for whole liver and 12th right and left ribs. Homogenized liver samples pooled from all the lobes and defatted bone ash from whole left and right 12th ribs were used for determination of Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn status. Liver mineral analysis, showed that in sheep Cu (303 vs. 184 mg/kg DM), Zn (94.1 vs. 83 mg/kg DM) and Mn (13.2 vs. 7.5 mg/kg DM) were higher (p<0.05) in wet than dry season. In goats, season had no effect on Cu (274.28 vs. 236 mg/kg DM) and Fe (183 vs. 171 mg/kg DM), but had significant influence on Zn (102 vs. 126 mg/kg DM) and Mn (13.6 vs. 6.8 mg/kg DM). Sheep grazing in different pastures showed variation (p<0.05) in hepatic Zn, Cu and Mn contents, while goat varied (p<0.05) in hepatic Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations. Rib analysis indicated that season had significant effect (p<0.05) on sheep and goats DFF% ash. The rib Ca (359 vs. 362 mg/g), P (157 vs. 147 mg/g) and Mg (9.56 vs. 8.54 mg/g) contents of sheep was not influenced by season and grazing area (p<0.05), whereas goats rib Ca (360 vs. 326 mg/g), P (142 vs. 165 mg/g) content was affected by season and grazing area (p<0.05), but Mg showed no seasonal variation. In the wet season, liver and bone tissue of sheep and goats indicated adequate body status of Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. However, in the dry season, sheep showed deficient levels of Zn, goats in Cu, while both species suffered from low liver Mn and rib Zn reserves. With the exception of P which was marginal in all seasons, mineral deficiencies affected animals mostly in the dry season. The liver and rib bone of sheep and goats has demonstrated seasonal fluctuation in tissue mineral reserve. Evaluation of specific minerals in different periods and body pools can be useful in the diagnosis of mineral status of animals. It can be concluded that, sheep and goats would benefit from P, Cu, Zn and Mn supplementation, particularly in the dry season.

CO A, PM N, LW. I. "Natural and experimental studies on domestic animal infections with visceral and cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:292-297.
PM N, L. RL, LW. I, C. KJ, O. AC. "Nocturnal activities of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Baringo County, Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:298-305.
Jans C, Gerber A, Bugnard J, Njage PMK, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.". 2012. Abstract

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log10 8.2–8.5 CFU mL−1. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcusthermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7–100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102T and a gal-lac operon with 91.7–97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a β-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant.

Koigi-Kamau R, Leting PK, Kiarie JN. "Perceptions and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean section among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To determine perceptions, preferences and practices of vaginal birth after Caesarean. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Private clinics of obstetricians in five major towns of Kenya. SUBJECTS: Obstetricians in private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Practice and experiences in trial of labour (TOL); need for, and application of, selection criteria in TOL; perceptions on outcomes of TOL and patient preference; perception on trends of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) and need for policy on TOL. RESULTS: Nearly all respondents (98.4%) believed in the need for, and application of, selection criteria for allowing TOL. However, only 23% believed in routine screening with radiological pelvimetry, while 63.2% believed in routine foetal weight estimation. All obstetricians (100%) have ever managed TOL in private practice, and 74% had managed at least one case in the last six months. Despite lack of tangible selection criteria, 83.1% think that most women prefer TOL while 95.1% discourage it if perceived as inappropriate. Failure rate of TOL was perceived to be more than 50% by 35.2% of the respondents. A majority of the respondents (about 75%) would prefer TOL on themselves or their spouses. Those who perceived that there was a falling trend of VBAC were 58%, citing increased demand by mothers (45.7%), obstetricians' convenience (40.0%) and fear of litigation (26.8%) as the reasons for this observation. A fluid policy of "TOL whenever it is deemed as appropriate" was preferred by 88.7%. CONCLUSION: The perception of obstetricians is that desire for VBAC predominates over elective repeat Caesarean. However, consensus on appropriate selection criteria is lacking, which leaves the obstetrician in a management dilemma. Hence, there is need to study outcomes of both ERC and TOL in order to come out with objective policy guidelines on management of one previous Caesarean in pregnancy.

Diener; Slyker J, Christine G, Dalton W, Lara C, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Elizabeth M-O, John-Stewart G. "Performance Of The Integrated Management Of Childhood Illness Algorithm For Diagnosis Of Hiv-1 Infection Among African Infants.". 2012.
Lorenza Beati, Jaymin Patel HL-WHAEKET-MRKJG. "Phylogeography and Demographic History of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Tropical Bont Tick." Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases . 2012;12:1-12.
Ndinya-Achola JO KA, McClelland RS, Gitau R, G W, J S, F K, L1 M, Lester R, Richardson BA, A. K. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers.". 2012.document1.pdf
Long J;, Kanyinga K. "The Political Economy of Reforms in Kenya: The Post-2007 Election Violence and a New Constitution." African Studies Review. 2012;55(1):31-51. AbstractWebsite

This article explores the package of “Agenda item 4” reforms
undertaken by the Kenyan government in the mediation process following
the 2007–8 postelection violence, including those relating to long-standing
issues over constitutional revision. It situates the previous lack of reforms
within Kenya’s political economy and demonstrates how political and economic
interests thwarted progress and produced the postelection crisis.
It also examines the more recent attempts to address reforms following
the signing of the National Accord and the creation of a power-sharing
government, and finds strong public support for constitutional revision.
It concludes that these pressures from below, along with a realignment of political interests and institutional change from power-sharing, helped support
reform.

Lund, JF; Carlsen HCP; TK; T. The political economy of timber governance in Ghana.; 2012.
M MH, LW I, PN N. "Population dynamics of predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae and coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae and their Interactions in coffee agro ecosystems in Kenya." International journal of Science and nature.. 2012;3(2):316-323. AbstractInternational Journal of Science and Nature

Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as their interactions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E . kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E
. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae
caused an increased population of E . kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1- 2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of
E. kenyae , hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

H. M. Mugo, L. W. Irungu, P. N. Ndegwa. "Population dynamics of predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae and coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae and their Interactions in coffee agro ecosystems in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Nature. 2012;3(3):12-16. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

DM N, SK M, A O, VN M, AW M, LI K, DM B, D M. "Prevalence and characteristics of psychotic-like experiences in Kenyan youth.". 2012.
Mavuti SK;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru, R.M., L.W.jagi;, Mutune. MN;, Otieno RO;, Msoffe PLM. "Prevalence Of Haemoparasites In Free-range Local Duck."; 2012. Abstract

A study was conducted between November 2008 and March 2009 to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in different age and sex groups of free-range local ducks in Nairobi and its environs. The ducks were categorized into ducklings (<2 months), growers (2 to 6 months) and adult ducks (>6 months). A total of 47 adults, 50 growers and 48 ducklings comprising 77 females and 68 males were sampled. Two thin blood smears were prepared from each bird, processed and examined for haemoparasites. Data obtained was analyzed as number of ducks of different age and sex groups infected with a particular haemoparasite. Haemoparasites were observed in 70/145 (48.28 %) of the ducks. Four haemoparasites identified were Aegyptinella pullorum 59/145 (40.69 %), Leucocytozoon caulleryi 10/145 (6.90 %), Haemoproteus species 1/145 (0.69 %) and Eperythrozoon species 5/145 (3.45 %). Their prevalence was 38.57 % (27/70), 24.29 % (17/70), 20.0 % (14/70) and 17.14 % (12/70) (p>0.05) for Embakasi, Westlands, Kasarani and Thika districts, respectively. Grower ducks had a prevalence of 35.71 % (25/70), adults, 34.29 % (24/70) and ducklings, 30.0 % (21/70) (p>0.05). Male and female ducks had an equal prevalence of 50.0 % (35/70). This study has demonstrated the occurrence of haemoparasites in different sexes and age groups of apparently healthy appearing ducks for the first time in Kenya. Their impact on duck productivity need further investigation and control strategies initiated to improve the industry

Mavuti SK;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru, R.M., L.W N.jagi;, Mutune. MN;, Otieno RO;, Msoffe PLM. "Prevalence Of Haemoparasites In Free-range Local Duck."; 2012. Abstract

A study was conducted between November 2008 and March 2009 to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in different age and sex groups of free-range local ducks in Nairobi and its environs. The ducks were categorized into ducklings (<2 months), growers (2 to 6 months) and adult ducks (>6 months). A total of 47 adults, 50 growers and 48 ducklings comprising 77 females and 68 males were sampled. Two thin blood smears were prepared from each bird, processed and examined for haemoparasites. Data obtained was analyzed as number of ducks of different age and sex groups infected with a particular haemoparasite. Haemoparasites were observed in 70/145 (48.28 %) of the ducks. Four haemoparasites identified were Aegyptinella pullorum 59/145 (40.69 %), Leucocytozoon caulleryi 10/145 (6.90 %), Haemoproteus species 1/145 (0.69 %) and Eperythrozoon species 5/145 (3.45 %). Their prevalence was 38.57 % (27/70), 24.29 % (17/70), 20.0 % (14/70) and 17.14 % (12/70) (p>0.05) for Embakasi, Westlands, Kasarani and Thika districts, respectively. Grower ducks had a prevalence of 35.71 % (25/70), adults, 34.29 % (24/70) and ducklings, 30.0 % (21/70) (p>0.05). Male and female ducks had an equal prevalence of 50.0 % (35/70). This study has demonstrated the occurrence of haemoparasites in different sexes and age groups of apparently healthy appearing ducks for the first time in Kenya. Their impact on duck productivity need further investigation and control strategies initiated to improve the industry

Lang'o MO, Githanga JN, Yuko-jowi CA. "Prevalence Of Iron Deficiency In Children With Cyanotic Heart Disease Seen At Kenyatta National Hospital And Mater Hospital Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency among children with cyanotic heart disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital from August to December of 2007. A total of 112 children meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from the wards and the cardiac clinics. SUBJECTS: These were children less than 18 years of age, with cyanotic heart disease confirmed on ECHO, presenting at the paediatric cardiac clinic of the two hospitals or admitted in the wards at Kenyatta National Hospital. These were patients who had not undergone surgical correction. RESULTS: The prevalence of iron deficiency was found to be 16.9% (95% CI 9.8-24.1%). CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of iron deficiency among patients with congenital heart disease with cyanosis in the two institutions. Routine screening for iron deficiency is recommended for these children and those found to be deficient should be treated.

Odongo MO, Langat DP, Mande JD, Kitaa JMA, Wasike PR, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of ringworm (dermatohytosis) in dogs & cats submitted to the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001& 2010." Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36(1):26-35.
Odongo MO, Langat DP, Mande JD, Kitaa JMA, Wasike PR, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of ringworm (dermatophytosis) in dogs and cats submitted to the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010." Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36(1):26-35.
OdongoMahacla, LangatD.P., JD M, A KJM, WasikePR, CM M. "Prevalence of ringworm (dermatophytosis) in dogs and cats submitted to the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36 (1):26-35. Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to detrmine the prevalence of ringworm in 15,176 dogs and 405 cats submitted to the Small Animal Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010. Male dogs were 7177 (47.3%) and females were 7999 (52.7%), whereas those less than one year were 8662 (57.1%) and those above one year were 6514 (42.9%). Of the total 405 cats presented to the clinic, 331 (81.7%) were under one year of age and 74 (18.3%) were over one year old, respectively.This study reports a low prevalence of ringworm in urban dogs and cats of Kenya. Of the total number of dogs (15, 176) and cats (405) submitted to the clinic, only 72 (0.5%) dogs and 17 (4.2%) cats were diagnosed with ringworm, respectively. Of the dogs with ringworm, 44 (61.1%) were under one year of age, and 28 (38.9) were more than one year old; 38 (52.8%) were females, and 34 (47.2%) were males, respectively. Of the total 17 cats diagnosed with ringworm, 13 (76.5%) were females and 4 (23.5%) were males, whereas 14 (82.4%) were under one year of age and 3 (17.6%) were over one year of age, respectively.Ten different types of dog breeds were submitted to the clinic during the study period. Of these, 52% of those with ringworm were German Sheperds, 20% were of mixed breeds, 11% were Ridgebacks, 7% were Rotweillers, 3% were Golden Retrievers, 2% were Jack Russels and Daschounds, and 1% were Rodrigues, Boxers, and Husky breeds, respectively.

Chi BH, Adler MR, Bolu O, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Ekouevi DK, Gieselman A, Chipato T, Luo C, Phelps BR, McClure C, Mofenson LM, Stringer JS. "Progress, challenges, and new opportunities for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV under the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.". 2012. Abstract

In June 2011, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and other collaborators outlined a transformative plan to virtually eliminate pediatric AIDS worldwide. The ambitious targets of this initiative included a 90% reduction in new pediatric HIV infections and a 50% reduction in HIV-related maternal mortality--all by 2015. PEPFAR has made an unprecedented commitment to the expansion and improvement of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services globally and is expected to play a critical role in reaching the virtual elimination target. To date, PEPFAR has been instrumental in the success of many national programs, including expanded coverage of PMTCT services, an enhanced continuum of care between PMTCT and HIV care and treatment, provision of more efficacious regimens for antiretroviral prophylaxis, design of innovative but simplified PMTCT approaches, and development of new strategies to evaluate program effectiveness. These accomplishments have been made through collaborative efforts with host governments, United Nations agencies, other donors (eg, the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria), nongovernmental organizations, and private sector partners. To successfully meet the ambitious global targets to prevent new infant HIV infections, PEPFAR must continue to leverage the existing PMTCT platform, while developing innovative approaches to rapidly expand quality HIV services. PEPFAR must also carefully integrate PMTCT into the broader combination prevention agenda for HIV, so that real progress can be made toward an "AIDS-free generation" worldwide.

Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2012;2(12):126-135.
Lucy MW, Christine S-KB, Benson EBA, Marleen TT. "Risk Association between Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) and Cervical Neoplasia in Kenyan Women.". 2012. Abstract

Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide (Franco et al, 2003). Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer (Franco et al, carcinogenic process (Chan et al, 2005). Most HPV infections are transient and regress spontaneously and only a minority of women develops persistent infection that with time may evolve into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or progress to invasive cervical cancer(Villa, 1997; Franco et al, 1999). Given that host immune response to HPV is thought to be an important determinant of HPV acquisition and progression to high-grade cervical lesions and cancer, it is plausible that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) variations may affect pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia (Beskow et al, 2005; Clerici et al, 1997; Hildesheim et al, 1997). The major histocompatibility complex is a highly polymorphic gene cluster on the short arm of chromosome six. The genes in this cluster are divided into three classes with different roles in immune responses. HLA gene polymorphisms result in variations in peptide-binding cleft, therefore influencing the antigens bound and presented to T cells (Beskow et al, 2005; Wang e al, 2005). The HLA class I genes (HLAA, -B, and –C) present foreign antigens to CD8+ Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while class II genes (HLA-DR, - DQ and –DP) present antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells and are important in host immune responses to viruses and other pathogens (Wang et al, 2001).

Okello JJ;, Lagervisk CJ;, Ngigi M;, Karanja N. "Role of Farmers’ Personal Values in Soil Fertility Management Decisions: Evidence from Means-End Chain Analysis of Peri-urban Leafy Vegetable Production in Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

Peri-urban areas play a major role in the supply of vegetables consumed in urban areas. In order to meet high demand for aesthetic quality characteristics, peri-urban farmers use intensive production practices characterized by use external inputs. This paper uses Means-End Chain analysis approach to examine the role farmers’ personal values play in the decision to use soil fertility improvement inputs namely, animal manures (organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizers. It found that use of animal manures and inorganic fertilizers was driven by the need to earn higher profit margins thus making more money in order to meet family needs. This in turn met farmers’ personal values relating to, among others, happiness, leading a comfortable life, independence and healthy life. The major implication of these findings was that farmers’ private goals could, with the urging of the market that demands unique aesthetic quality characteristics, promote intensive applications of both the organic and inorganic inputs with potential negative environmental consequences.

Okello JJ;, Lagervisk CJ;, Ngigi M;, Karanja N. "Role of Farmers’ Personal Values in Soil Fertility Management Decisions: Evidence from Means-End Chain Analysis of Peri-urban Leafy Vegetable Production in Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

Peri-urban areas play a major role in the supply of vegetables consumed in urban areas. In order to meet high demand for aesthetic quality characteristics, peri-urban farmers use intensive production practices characterized by use external inputs. This paper uses Means-End Chain analysis approach to examine the role farmers’ personal values play in the decision to use soil fertility improvement inputs namely, animal manures (organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizers. It found that use of animal manures and inorganic fertilizers was driven by the need to earn higher profit margins thus making more money in order to meet family needs. This in turn met farmers’ personal values relating to, among others, happiness, leading a comfortable life, independence and healthy life. The major implication of these findings was that farmers’ private goals could, with the urging of the market that demands unique aesthetic quality characteristics, promote intensive applications of both the organic and inorganic inputs with potential negative environmental consequences.

Juno J, Tuff J, Choi R;, Card C, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Koesters-Kiazyk S, Ball BT, Farquhar C, Plummer FA, John-Stewart G, Luo M, Fowke KR. "The role of G protein gene GNB3 C825T Polymorphism in HIV-1 acquisition, progression and immune activation.". 2012. Abstract

The GNB3 C825T polymorphism is associated with increased G protein-mediated signal transduction, SDF-1α-mediated lymphocyte chemotaxis, accelerated HIV-1 progression, and altered responses to antiretroviral therapy among Caucasian subjects. The GNB3 825T allele is highly prevalent in African populations, and as such any impact on HIV-1 acquisition or progression rates could have a dramatic impact. This study examines the association of the 825T polymorphism with HIV-1 acquisition, disease progression and immune activation in two African cohorts. GNB3 825 genotyping was performed for enrolees in both a commercial sex worker cohort and a perinatal HIV transmission (PHT) cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Ex vivo immune activation was quantified by flow cytometry, and plasma chemokine levels were assessed by cytokine bead array. Results GNB3 genotype was not associated with sexual or vertical HIV-1 acquisition within these cohorts. Within the Pumwani cohort, GNB3 genotype did not affect HIV-1 disease progression among seroconverters or among HIV-1-positive individuals after adjustment for baseline CD4 count. Maternal CD4 decline and viral load increase in the PHT cohort did not differ between genotypes. Multi-parametric flow cytometry assessment of T cell activation (CD69, HLA-DR, CD38) and Treg frequency (CD25+FOXP3+) found no differences between genotype groups. Plasma SDF-1α, MIP-1β and TRAIL levels quantified by cytokine bead array were also similar between groups. Conclusions In contrast to previous reports, we were unable to provide evidence to suggest that the GNB3 C825T polymorphism affects HIV-1 acquisition or disease progression within African populations. Ex vivo immune activation and plasma chemokine levels were similarly unaffected by GNB3 genotype in both HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive individuals. The paucity of studies investigating the impact of GNB3 polymorphism among African populations and the lack of mechanistic studies make it difficult to assess the true biological significance of this polymorphism in HIV-1 infection.

Ongeri DM, LALAH JO, Wandiga SO, Wandiga SO, Michalke B. "Seasonal variability in cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and iron concentrations in the three major fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea in Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria: impact of wash-off into the lake.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Trace metals Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) were analyzed in edible portions of three main finfish species namely Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea sampled from various beaches of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya, in order to determine any seasonal and site variations and the results showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Fe during the wet season compared to the dry season for all the three species indicating the impact of wash-off into the lake during the rainy periods. The overall mean concentrations of the heavy metals (in μg/g dry weight) in all combined samples ranged from 0.17-0.40 (Cd), 0.47-2.53 (Pb), 2.13-8.74 (Cu), 28.9-409.3 (Zn) and 31.4-208.1 (Fe), respectively. It was found that consumption of Rastrineobola argentea can be a significant source of heavy metals especially Zn, to humans, compared with Lates niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus, if only the muscle parts of the latter two are consumed.

Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball BT. "Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of canadian and East African women.". 2012.
Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball BT. "Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of canadian and East African women.". 2012.
Owiti FR, Olando Y, Kuria MW, Likata GUM. "Sexual Dysfunction among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus." Greener Journal of Medical Sciences ISSN: 2276-7797. 2012;2(6):138-145. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction can impact a person’s ability to form or sustain intimate relationships and co morbidity between sexual dysfunction and anxiety as well as depression has been reported. Yet epidemiological, etiological, and health association to sexual dysfunction has only begun to be explored in Kenya. To determine the prevalence, types of sexual dysfunction and their socio demographic correlate in diabetic patients. Descriptive cross- sectional study The study was conducted at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. This is the main referral hospital in Kenya. A total of 350 participants were enrolled in the study. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used to evaluate sexual dysfunctions in female and male patients respectively. The participants were composed of 164 females aged between 18-74 years and 186 males aged between 19- 100 years. In males, prevalence of sexual dysfunctions were: erectile dysfunction (68.8%); orgasmic dysfunction (48.4%); sexual desire (81.7%); intercourse satisfaction (86.6%) and overall satisfaction (68.4%).The female sexual dysfunction was 36.6% and was categorized as mild (17.1%); moderate (18.3%) and severe (1.2%). Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction

C. O. Mito, Boiyo RK, and Laneve G. "A simple algorithm to estimate sensible heat flux from remotely sensed MODIS data." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2012;33(19):6109-6121.
OLIECH JS, Owillah F, Oliech PJ, Ludia Mattakwa C. "Symptomatic and Uroflometry Outcomes Of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride Combination In Management of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Black Race.". 2012. Abstract

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) incidence and progression has been shown to vary by race, geography and ethnicity with African-Americans having a more aggressive disease than other races. Combination drug therapy has been shown to be a favorable option for medical therapy of symptomatic BPH but data is lacking on the effects of this therapy in black race patients locally. This study aims to assess the early (six months) response, by both International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak urinary flow rate (QMax), to combination drug therapy of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride for management of symptomatic BPH in a predominantly African black race population cohort as a pilot study. Patients and Methods: Dutasteride 0.5mg and Tamsulosin 0.4mg once daily were administered orally to 52 patients aged 45years and above of black race with confirmed BPH for six months. The main outcome measures of change in mean QMax and IPSS were assessed at three months and six months. Secondary outcome measures were mean Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and Prostate Volume (PV) changes. Drug compliance by Modified Morisky Scores (1) and adverse/side effects reported were documented. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation as well as ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean QMax by 13.3ml/sec and decrease in mean IPSS by 14.5 points at six months. There was a fairly rapid reduction in mean Total PSA of 0.9ng/ml as early as two months and a slower fall in mean PV of 10.224mls most evident at the last follow-up. Safety and tolerability of the drugs was consistent with previous experience and majority of the patients portrayed an excellent drug compliance profile. Conclusion: These results suggest the efficacy of combination drug therapy of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin for moderate-to-severe BPH in the black race. These patients seem to have a more drastic and rapid mean IPSS, QMax and PV response to therapy than reported for other races but their mean total PSA decrease was less. Combination drug therapy is therefore recommended as a useful alternative to surgery in management of BPH in the black race.

Chen B, Restaino J, Norris L, Xirasagar S, Qureshi ZP, McKoy JM, Lopez IS, Trenery A, Murday A, Kahn A, Mattison DR, Ray P, Sartor O, Bennett CL. "A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.". 2012. Abstract

Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

David M. Maina, Lydia W. Njenga, John M. Onyari, Kyalo BN. "Trace Element Concentrations in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Selected Parts of Eastern Province of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2012;3.
Wood CM, Bergman HL, Bianchini A, Laurent P, Maina J, Johannsson OE, Bianchini LF, Chevalier C, Kavembe GD, Papah MB, Ojoo RO. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity.". 2012. Abstract

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L(-1), i.e. HCO(3) (-) and CO(3) (2-)) rather than Cl(-) (112 mmol L(-1)) represents the major anion matching Na(+) = 356 mmol L(-1), with very low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (<1 mmol L(-1)). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10-30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to -13 and -28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca(2+)]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L(-1) solutions of NaHCO(3), NaCl, NaNO(3), or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3) solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3), the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaCl-i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO(3) solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na(+) diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na(+) inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl(-) outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO(3) (-) inwards (-82.7 mV). Estimated permeability ratios are P (Cl)/P (Na) = 0.51-0.68 and [Formula: see text] = 0.10-0.33. The low permeability to HCO(3) (-) is unusual, and reflects a unique adaptation to life in extreme alkalinity. Cl(-) is distributed close to Nernst equilibrium in Magadi water, so there is no need for lower P (Cl). The higher P (Na) likely facilitates Na(+) efflux through the paracellular pathway. The positive electrogenic component is probably due to active HCO(3) (-) excretion.

Wood CM, Bergman HL, Bianchini A, Laurent P, Maina J, Johannsson OE, Bianchini LF, Chevalier C, Kavembe GD, Papah MB, Ojoo RO. "Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity.". 2012. Abstract

We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L(-1), i.e. HCO(3) (-) and CO(3) (2-)) rather than Cl(-) (112 mmol L(-1)) represents the major anion matching Na(+) = 356 mmol L(-1), with very low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (<1 mmol L(-1)). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10-30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to -13 and -28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca(2+)]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L(-1) solutions of NaHCO(3), NaCl, NaNO(3), or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3) solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3), the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaCl-i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO(3) solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na(+) diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na(+) inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl(-) outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO(3) (-) inwards (-82.7 mV). Estimated permeability ratios are P (Cl)/P (Na) = 0.51-0.68 and [Formula: see text] = 0.10-0.33. The low permeability to HCO(3) (-) is unusual, and reflects a unique adaptation to life in extreme alkalinity. Cl(-) is distributed close to Nernst equilibrium in Magadi water, so there is no need for lower P (Cl). The higher P (Na) likely facilitates Na(+) efflux through the paracellular pathway. The positive electrogenic component is probably due to active HCO(3) (-) excretion.

Rajab JA, Ngoma T, Adde M, Durosinmi M, Githang'a J, Aken'Ova Y, Kaijage J, Adeodou O, Brown BJ, Leoncini L, Naresh K, Raphael M, Hurwitz N, Scanlan P, Rohatiner A, Venzon D, Magrath I. "Treatment of Burkitt lymphoma in equatorial Africa using a simple three-drug combination followed by a salvage regimen for patients with persistent or recurrent disease.". 2012. Abstract

Prior to the introduction of the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR) protocol INCTR 03-06, survival of patients with Burkitt lymphoma at four tertiary care centres in equatorial Africa was probably no more than 10-20%. The results reported here for 356 patients have demonstrated marked improvement in survival through the use of a uniform treatment protocol consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, and intrathecal therapy, and the introduction of non-cross resistant second-line (salvage) therapy, consisting of ifosfamide, mesna, etoposide and cytarabine, when patients failed to achieve a complete response to first-line therapy or relapsed early. Overall survival rates of 67% and 62% were observed at 1 and 2 years (relapse is rare after 1 year of remission). Of interest was the small impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow involvement on outcome. However, the presence or absence of abdominal involvement clearly defined two prognostic groups. An additional finding was the association between CSF pleocytosis and orbital tumours, suggesting that spread of tumour cells to the central nervous system may sometimes occur via direct involvement of cranial nerves in the orbit. Survival rates may be increased in patients with abdominal involvement by combining first- and second-line therapy, but verification will require a further clinical study.

Lowther K, Victoria Simms, Selman L, Lorraine Sherr, Liz Gwyther, Hellen Kariuki, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Rachel Jenkins, Irene J Higginson RH. "Treatment outcomes in palliative care: the TOPCare study. A mixed methods phase III randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy." BMC Infect Dis.. 2012;6(12):288.
D.G. N, C.K. M, L.W. M, E.M. M. "Trends of Acute Poisoning cases occurring at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.Sci.. 2012;15(2):29-34.
Lobo N, MOULTON, J.E., Lobo, C., Rothschild, L.J., Mwaura, F., Kabaru JM, and Duboise SM. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage Φ1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy & Microanalysis . 2012;Vol 18, S2:110.
Rothschild L, Mwaura F, Kabaru J, Lobo N, Moulton K, Lobo C, Duboise S. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage [Phi] 1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110. AbstractFull text link

Bacteriophage 1N2-2 infects a narrow range of alkaliphilic bacterial strains phylogenetically
related to the family Idiomarinacea [1]. Both phage and host bacterium were isolated from alkaline
and saline waters of Lake Nakuru, a soda lake of Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. Virion structures
including capsids must tolerate extreme alkaline environments of pH 10 and above. The phage is
morphologically and genetically related to lambdoid viruses of the family Siphoviridae (Fig. 1B)[1].
Genomic analysis revealed that 1N2-2 genes are organized in functional modules. Capsid
morphogenesis genes are homologous both in order and predicted amino acid sequence to the
corresponding genes of the coliphage HK97 (Fig. 1A )[2]. Like many dsDNA viruses, HK97
assembles multiple subunits of a single gene product into a protocapsid around a transient
protein-scaffolding core that is subsequently cleaved by a protease at the time of DNA packaging
triggering expansion and stabilization of the mature capsid [3]. 1N2-2, like HK97, lacks an
independent capsid scaffolding gene but rather, as we have inferred, the N-terminal 110 residues of
the major head protein (MHP) encoded by gene 10 probably assume a coiled-coil folding typical of
scaffolding proteins.
We cloned the 1N2-2 gene 10 MHP sequence into a pQE-Tri-system plasmid (Qiagen) and have
expressed a 46-kDa MHP protein in Escherichia coli strain SG19003 (Qiagen) that can be
precipitated by 8% PEG treatment in ice and low speed centrifugation (Fig. 1C and 1E).
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows the presence of virus-like particles (VLP)
of similar size and shape as empty proheads of naturally formed 1N2-2 (Fig. 1B). Alternatively,
the 3’ end of the gene 10 in the pQE vector was modified to eliminate the stop codon allowing in
frame translation of ten additional codons including eight histidine residues at the C-terminus of
MHP (MHP-his). Based on a Swiss-model prediction of the 1N2-2 MHP protein sequence using
the structure of phage HK97 MHP as template (PDB 1OHG)[4] we inferred that the C-terminus and
its additional modifications would be located on the surface of the recombinant capsid allowing the
purification of fully assembled capsids with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography (data not shown).
SDS-PAGE analysis and UAc-stained protein samples visualized by TEM show that MHP-his
expressed in E. coli is a protein of 46.5 kDa (Fig. 1E) that can assemble into VLPs, possibly
proheads of 46 nm in diameter (Fig. 1D). Other non-closed structures that are seen in the sample are
presumably incomplete capsids (Fig 1 C and 1D). We are currently investigating whether capsid
morphogenesis including incomplete structures and proheads produced from the expression plasmid
in E. coli differ from natural capsid morphogenesis in the alkaliphilic host of 1N2-2. We are
formulating capsid assembly buffers to produce fully closed stable VLP in vitro. We conclude that the Φ1N2-2 MHP protein, either intact or with histidineresidues at the C-terminus, is sufficient to produce VLP in theabsence of other virally-encoded proteins. Weexpectthe MHP C-terminus can be used to
display antigens on the prohead surface while modifications of the N-terminus may be used for
packaging antigens internally providing a versatile VLP platform for vaccine development and
other nanomedicine applications.

Lobo N, Moulton KD, Lobo C, Rothschild LJ, Mwaura F, Kabaru JM, Duboise SM. "Ultrastructure and biochemical analysis of in vitro and in vivo capsid assembly of alkaliphilic Phage Ф1N2-2 for application in nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110.
Murnane PM, Hughes JP, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Mugo N, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Wald A. "Using Plasma Viral Load to Guide Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation to Prevent HIV-1 Transmission.". 2012. Abstractusing_plasma_viral_load_to_guide_antiretroviral_therapy.pdf

Current WHO guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at CD4 counts ≤350 cells/µL. Increasing this threshold has been proposed, with a primary goal of reducing HIV-1 infectiousness. Because the quantity of HIV-1 in plasma is the primary predictor of HIV-1 transmission, consideration of plasma viral load in ART initiation guidelines is warranted. Methods Using per-sex-act infectivity estimates and cross-sectional sexual behavior data from 2,484 HIV-1 infected persons with CD4 counts >350 enrolled in a study of African heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we calculated the number of transmissions expected and the number potentially averted under selected scenarios for ART initiation: i) CD4 count <500 cells/µL, ii) viral load ≥10,000 or ≥50,000 copies/mL and iii) universal treatment. For each scenario, we estimated the proportion of expected infections that could be averted, the proportion of infected persons initiating treatment, and the ratio of these proportions. Results Initiating treatment at viral load ≥50,000 copies/mL would require treating 19.8% of infected persons with CD4 counts >350 while averting 40.5% of expected transmissions (ratio 2.0); treating at viral load ≥10,0000 copies/mL had a ratio of 1.5. In contrast, initiation at CD4 count <500 would require treating 41.8%, while averting 48.4% (ratio 1.1). Conclusion Inclusion of viral load in ART initiation guidelines could permit targeting ART resources to HIV-1 infected persons who have a higher risk of transmitting HIV-1. Further work is needed to estimate costs and feasibility.

Marum E, Taegtmeyer M, Parekh B, Mugo N, Lembariti S, Phiri M, Moore J, Cheng AS. ""What took you so long?" The impact of PEPFAR on the expansion of HIV testing and counseling services in Africa.". 2012. Abstract

HIV testing and counseling services in Africa began in the early 1990s, with limited availability and coverage. Fears of stigma and discrimination, complex laboratory systems, and lack of available care and treatment services hampered expansion. Use of rapid point-of-care tests, introduction of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and increasing provision of antiretroviral drugs were key events in the late 1990s and early 2000s that facilitated the expansion of HIV testing and counseling services. Innovations in service delivery included providing HIV testing in both clinical and community sites, including mobile and home testing. Promotional campaigns were conducted in many countries, and evolutions in policies and guidance facilitated expansion and uptake. Support from President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and national governments, other donors, and the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria contributed to significant increases in the numbers of persons tested in many countries. Quality of both testing and counseling, limited number of health care workers, uptake by couples, and effectiveness of linkages and referral systems remain challenges. Expansion of antiretroviral treatment, especially in light of the evidence that treatment contributes to prevention of transmission, will require greater yet strategic coverage of testing services, especially in clinical settings and in combination with other high-impact HIV prevention strategies. Continued support from President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, governments, and other donors is required for the expansion of testing needed to achieve international targets for the scale-up of treatment and universal access to knowledge of HIV status.

Letting, Aosa E, Machuki VN. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2(11) pp. 172-182; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Limo PJ, William Okelo-Odongo, Opiyo ETO. "Cloud Computing Opensource Iaas Platforms.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Pan J, Utama MIB, Zhang Q, Liu X, Peng B, Wong LM, Sum TC, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Composition-Tunable Vertically Aligned CdSxSe1-x Nanowire Arrays via van der Waals Epitaxy: Investigation of Optical Properties and Photocatalytic Behavior." Advanced Materials. 2012;24:4151-4156. Abstract
n/a
Levelt CN, Hübener M. "Critical-{Period} {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Cortex}." Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2012;35:309-330. AbstractWebsite

In many regions of the developing brain, neuronal circuits undergo defined phases of enhanced plasticity, termed critical periods. Work in the rodent visual cortex has led to important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the timing of the critical period. Although there is little doubt that the maturation of specific inhibitory circuits plays a key role in the opening of the critical period in the visual cortex, it is less clear what puts an end to it. In this review, we describe the established mechanisms and point out where more experimental work is needed. We also show that plasticity in the visual cortex is present well before, and long after, the peak of the critical period.

Kassim BA, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR, Gathece LW. "Effect of light intensity on the cure characteristics of photo-polymerised dental composites." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89:159-165. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Zhang Q, Liu X, Ji Y, Demir HV, Huan CHA, Sum TC, Xiong Q. "Fluorophore-doped core–multishell spherical plasmonic nanocavities: resonant energy transfer toward a loss compensation." ACS nano. 2012;6:6250-6259. Abstract
n/a
Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrison's {Principles} of {Internal} {Medicine} 18E {Vol} 2 {EB}. McGraw Hill Professional; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Anteby M, Garip F, Martorana PV, Lozanoff S. "Individuals’ {Decision} to {Co}-{Donate} or {Donate} {Alone}: {An} {Archival} {Study} of {Married} {Whole} {Body} {Donors} in {Hawaii}." PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42673. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundHuman cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation.Methods and FindingsWe reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School’s whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals’ characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p = 0.002). Moreover, registrants’ main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p = 0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p = 0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors’ occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences.ConclusionsEfforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors’ marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of female-gendered occupations might prove a successful way to increase donations through co-donations.

Bulimo W, CO O, R N, S K, R A, W B, SR W, PA C, RN G, LL H, JA S, JA B, DJ N. "Influenza surveillance among children with pneumonia admitted to a district hospital in coastal Kenya, 2007-2010.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Beati L, Patel J, Lucas-Williams H, Adakal H, Kanduma EG, Tembo-Mwase E, Krecek R, Mertins JW, Alfred JT, Kelly S, others. "Phylogeography and demographic history of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius)(Acari: Ixodidae), the tropical bont tick." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2012;12:514-525. Abstract
n/a
Odongo MO, Langat DP, Mande JD, Kitaa JMA, Wasike PR, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of ringworm (dermatophytosis) in dogs and cats submitted to the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi between 2001 and 2010." Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36:26-35. Abstract
n/a
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Stenmark KR, Yeager M, Riddle S, El Kasmi KC, Frid MG, Li M, McKinsey T. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary Circulation. 2012;2:3. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2011
Jung B, Rimmele T, Goff CL, Chanques G, Corne P, Jonquet O, Muller L, Lefrant J-Y, Guervilly C, Papazian L, Allaouchiche B, Jaber S, firstName \$author.lastName \$author. "Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia on intensive care unit admission: incidence, prognosis and administration of buffer therapy. a prospective, multiple-center study." Critical Care. 2011;15:R238. AbstractWebsite

In this study, we sought describe the incidence and outcomes of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients as well as the use of sodium bicarbonate therapy to treat these illnesses. PMID: 21995879

Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen RP, Kronenberg HM. Williams {Textbook} of {Endocrinology}. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011. Abstract

The latest edition of Williams Textbook of Endocrinology edited by Drs. Shlomo Melmed, Kenneth S. Polonsky, P. Reed Larsen, and Henry M. Kronenberg, helps you diagnose and treat your patients effectively with up-to-the minute, practical know-how on all endocrine system disorders. Comprehensive yet accessible, this extensively revised 12th Edition updates you on diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, thyroid disease, testicular disorders, and much more so you can provide your patients with the most successful treatments. Find scientific insight and clinical data interwoven in every chapter, reflecting advances in both areas of this constantly changing discipline, and presented in a truly accessible format. You’ll also access valuable contributions from a dynamic list of expert authors and nearly 2.000 full-color images to help you with every diagnosis. This title has everything you need to manage any and all the clinical endocrinopathies you may encounter. Rely on the one reference that integrates rapidly evolving basic and clinical science in a cohesive, user-friendly format, definitively addresses every topic in the field, and has remained a standard for more than half a century.Update your know-how and skills to diagnose and treat your patients most effectively with exhaustively revised content on diabetes, metabolic disease, thyroid cancer, fertility problems, testicular problems, weight issues, and much more. Apply reliable guidance on endocrine conditions of growing interest like hypothyroidism and testicular disorders, with dedicated new chapters that expound on the latest research findings. Overcome any clinical challenge with comprehensive and easy-to-use coverage of everything from hormone activity, diagnostic techniques, imaging modalities, and molecular genetics, to total care of the patient. Apply the latest practices with guidance from expert authors who contribute fresh perspectives on every topic.

Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "Sustainable Financing and Governance of Regional Initiative s in Higher Education in Africa.". In: Region al Workshop on Sustainable Financing and Governance of Higher Education in Africa . uagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
Longair MH, Baker DA, Armstrong DJ. "Simple {Neurite} {Tracer}: open source software for reconstruction, visualization and analysis of neuronal processes." Bioinformatics. 2011;27:2453-2454. AbstractWebsite

Motivation: Advances in techniques to sparsely label neurons unlock the potential to reconstruct connectivity from 3D image stacks acquired by light microscopy. We present an application for semi-automated tracing of neurons to quickly annotate noisy datasets and construct complex neuronal topologies, which we call the Simple Neurite Tracer. Availability: Simple Neurite Tracer is open source software, licensed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) and based on the public domain image processing software ImageJ. The software and further documentation are available via http://fiji.sc/Simple\_Neurite\_Tracer as part of the package Fiji, and can be used on Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Documentation and introductory screencasts are available at the same URL. Contact: longair@ini.phys.ethz.ch; longair@ini.phys.ethz.ch

Ho VM, Lee J-A, Martin KC. "The {Cell} {Biology} of {Synaptic} {Plasticity}." Science. 2011;334:623-628. AbstractWebsite

Synaptic plasticity is the experience-dependent change in connectivity between neurons that is believed to underlie learning and memory. Here, we discuss the cellular and molecular processes that are altered when a neuron responds to external stimuli, and how these alterations lead to an increase or decrease in synaptic connectivity. Modification of synaptic components and changes in gene expression are necessary for many forms of plasticity. We focus on excitatory neurons in the mammalian hippocampus, one of the best-studied model systems of learning-related plasticity.

Khasakhala" "A, Agwanda" "A, Odwe" "G, Lyaga" "Z, Imbwaga" "A. "Reassessing Mortality decline in Kenya.". In: 6th African Population Conference. Ougadougou, Burkina Faso ; 2011.
Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Baeten JM, Lingappa J, Beck I, Frenkel LM, Pepper G, Celum C, Wald A, Fife KH, Were E, Mugo N, Sanchez J, Essex M, Makhema J, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Corey L. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons." J. Infect. Dis.. 2011;203(1):117-21. Abstract

Recent in vitro studies suggest that acyclovir may directly inhibit HIV-1 replication and can select for a specific HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutation (V75I) with concomitant loss of an anti-HIV-1 effect. We tested for HIV-1 genotypic resistance at reverse transcriptase codon 75 in plasma from 168 HIV-1-infected persons from Botswana, Kenya, Peru, and the United States taking daily acyclovir or valacyclovir for between 8 weeks and 24 months. No V75I cases were detected (95% confidence interval, 0%-2.2%). These prospective in vivo studies suggest that standard-dose acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for HIV-1 resistance.

Kosgei RJ, Lubano KM, Shen C, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Musick BS, Siika AM, Mabeya H, Carter JE, Mwangi A, Kiarie J. "Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(5):e121-6. Abstract

To determine the impact of routine care (RC) and integrated family planning (IFP) and HIV care service on family planning (FP) uptake and pregnancy outcomes.

Kosgei RJ, Lubano KM, Shen C, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Musick BS, Siika AM, Mabeya H, Carter JE, Mwangi A, Kiarie J. "Impact of integrated family planning and HIV care services on contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(5):e121-6. Abstract

To determine the impact of routine care (RC) and integrated family planning (IFP) and HIV care service on family planning (FP) uptake and pregnancy outcomes.

Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. "Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning." Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.. 2011;31(12):2836-44. Abstract

The concept of vascular pruning, the "cuting-off" of vessels, is gaining importance due to expansion of angio-modulating therapies. The proangiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are broadly described, but the mechanisms of structural alterations by its downregulation are not known.

Baeten JM, Kahle E, Lingappa JR, Coombs RW, Delany-Moretlwe S, Nakku-Joloba E, Mugo NR, Wald A, Corey L, Donnell D, Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Celum C. "Genital HIV-1 RNA predicts risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission." Sci Transl Med. 2011;3(77):77ra29. Abstract

High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Although plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are correlated, no study has evaluated the relationship between genital HIV-1 RNA and the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. In a prospective study of 2521 African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we assessed genital HIV-1 RNA quantity and HIV-1 transmission risk. HIV-1 transmission linkage was established within the partnership by viral sequence analysis. We tested endocervical samples from 1805 women, including 46 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner, and semen samples from 716 men, including 32 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner. There was a correlation between genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations: For endocervical swabs, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ was 0.56, and for semen, ρ was 0.55. Each 1.0 log(10) increase in genital HIV-1 RNA was associated with a 2.20-fold (for endocervical swabs: 95% confidence interval, 1.60 to 3.04) and a 1.79-fold (for semen: 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.47) increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Genital HIV-1 RNA independently predicted HIV-1 transmission risk after adjusting for plasma HIV-1 quantity (hazard ratio, 1.67 for endocervical swabs and 1.68 for semen). Seven female-to-male and four male-to-female HIV-1 transmissions (incidence <1% per year) occurred from persons with undetectable genital HIV-1 RNA, but in all 11 cases, plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected. Thus, higher genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with greater risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission, and this effect was independent of plasma HIV-1 concentrations. These data suggest that HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions could be used as a marker of HIV-1 sexual transmission risk.

Mujugira A, Morrow RA, Celum C, Lingappa J, Delany-Moretlwe S, Fife KH, Heffron R, de Bruyn G, Homawoo B, Karita E, Mugo N, Vwalika B, Baeten JM. "Performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in seven African countries." Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87(3):238-41. Abstract

To compare the performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the gold standard herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 western blot, among HIV-1-uninfected men and women in east and southern Africa.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

JP E, S E, J K, LW I, B T. "Inter and intraspecific olfactory behaviour of the coconut bug, Pseudtheraptus wayi: do males search of the food then invite females?". In: Book of abstracts, Semio 11 workshop. ICIPE, NAIROBI - KENYA; 2011.
Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.

UoN Websites Search