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2014
CORNEJO JAF, MAGAS LE, GARCÍA EMDP, LARRIBA CH, RUIZ CÁCERESJI, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kinuthia BK, EYDAL BJÖRKG, Bjarnason T, HRAFNSDÓTTIR S, JEANS CL. "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL AND FAMILY ASPIRATIONS OF FEMALE AND MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FROM KENYA, SPAIN AND ICELAND." Fundación de las Cajas de Ahorros (FUNCAS). 2014.
Mwololo A, oshua Nyagol, Rogena E, Leoncini L, Mwanda W. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16 INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014;9(7):1-8. Abstractcorrelation_of_egfr_pegfr_and_p16.pdf

Background:
Squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva has increased tenfold in the era of HIV/AIDS. The disease
pattern has also changed in Africa, affecting young persons, with peak age-specific incidence of 30-39 years, similar to that of Kaposi sarcoma, a well known HIV/AIDS defining neoplasm. In addition, the disease has assumed more aggressive clinical course. The contributing role of exposure to high risk HPV in the development of SCCC is still emerging.
Objective:
The present study aimed to investigate if immunohistochemical expressions of EGFR, pEGFR and p16,
could predict infection with high risk HPV in HIV-related SCCC.
Methods:
FFPE tissue blocks of fifty-eight cases diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin with SCCC between 2005-2011,
and subsequently confirmed from medical records to be HIV positive at the department of human pathology,
UoN/KNH, were used for the study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to
assess the expressions of p16INK4A, EGFR and pEGFR. This was followed with semi-nested PCR based detection and sequencing of HPV genotypes. The sequences were compared with the GenBank database, and data analyzed for significant statistical correlations using SPSS 16.0. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from KNH-ERC.
Results:
Out of the fifty-eight cases of SCCC analyzed, twenty-nine (50%) had well differentiated (grade 1), twenty
one (36.2%) moderately differentiated (grade 2) while eight (13.8%) had poorly differentiated (grade 3) tumours.Immunohistochemistry assay was done in all the fifty eight studied cases, of which thirty nine cases (67.2%) were positive for p16INK4A staining, forty eight cases (82.8%) for EGFR and fifty one cases (87.9%) showed positivity for p-EGFR. HPV DNA was detected in 4 out of 40 SCCC cases (10%) in which PCR was performed, with HPV16 being the only HPV sub-type detected. Significant statistica
l association was found between HPV detection and p16INK4 (p=0.000, at 99% C.I) and EGFR (p=0.028, at 95% C.I) expressions, but not pEGFR. In addition, the expressions of
these biomarkers did not show any significant association with tumor grades.
Conclusion:
This study points to an association of high risk HPV with over expressions of p16INK4A and EGFR
proteins in AIDS-associated SCCC.
Keywords:
SCCC, Biomarkers, HPV, HIV/AIDS

A M, J N, Rogena E, W O, Kimani M, N O, L P, R S, Leoncini L, W M. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16INK4 expressions and high-risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infect Agent Cancer. . 2014;9(1):7.
Yenesew A, Sunnerhagen, P., Erdelyi M, Abdissa N, Induli, M., Fitzpatrick P, Alao JP, Landberg G. "Cytotoxic Quinones from the Roots of Aloe dawei." Molecules. 2014;19,:3264-3273. Abstractpaper_69_abdissa_et_al_molecules_2014.pdf

Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells.

Loiselle S, zar A´s C´, Adgo E, Ballatore T, Chavula G, Descy JP, Harper DM, Kansiime F, Kimirei I, Langenberg V, Ma R, Sarmento12 H, Odada E. "Decadal Trends and Common Dynamics of the Bio- Optical and Thermal Characteristics of the African Great Lakes." PLOS ONE. 2014;9(4):1-6. Abstract

The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world’s most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0u to 8u south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation). Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

Okojie MCPO, Bourke B, Masoumi D, Lindström B, Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Designing and Delivering Web-Based Instruction to Adult Learners in Higher Education.". 2014. Abstract

The essence of this chapter is to discuss theories and practices including
approaches that instructional designers consider when designing Web-based instruction for
adult learners. The importance of the chapter is to discuss best practice activities and
theories as well as technologies that enable adult online learners to be involved in the
design of their Web-based instruction. This represents recognition that adults have
accumulated a repertoire of knowledge and experiences that inevitably will enrich the

Kihu, S.M., Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Li Qun He, Njambi L MNMHDKMEM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics." Public Health Genomics. 2014;(DOI: 10.1159/000363645). Abstract

Abstract
Background/Aims: Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part
of cancer control and management, yet its development as an
essential medical service has been hindered in many low-andmiddle-
income countries. We report our experiences in developing
a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in
Kenya. Methods: A genetics task force was created from within
the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma
Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple inperson
and telephone discussions, delineating experiences,
opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally
sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded
and thematically categorized to develop a strategy for
the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma
clinical genetics service. Results: Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a
comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient
and family counseling, (2) community involvement, and
(3) medical education. Conclusions: A coordinated national
retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a
unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive
and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients.
The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer
genetics research, education and knowledge translation,
taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African
context

Key Words
Africa • Cancer • Clinical genetics • Genetic counseling •
Genetic testing • Retinoblastoma

H LQ, L N, JM N, Gachago MM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services In Resource-Limited Countries: The Case Of Retinoblastoma In Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;4(17):221-227. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part of cancer control and management, yet its development as an essential medical service has been hindered in many low-and-middle-income countries. We report our experiences in developing a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in Kenya.
METHODS:
A genetics task force was created from within the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple in-person and telephone discussions, delineating experiences, opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded and thematically categorised to develop a strategy for the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma clinical genetics service.
RESULTS:
Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient and family counselling, (2) community involvement, and (3) medical education.
CONCLUSIONS:
A coordinated national retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients. The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer genetics research, education and knowledge translation, taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African context.

mungai lnw. "diabetes ketoacidosis.". In: paediatric diabetes . ISPAD; 2014.
Ong'amo GO, LeGall P, Ndemah R, LeRu BP. "Diversity and host range of lepidopteran stemborer species in Cameroon ." African Entomology. 2014;22:625-635.
K'Obonyo PO, Lucy OK, Ogutu M. "The Effect of Human Resource Strategic Orientation and Organizational Factors on Employee Job Performance in Tanzania State Corporations.". 2014. Abstract

This study examined the relationship among human resource strategic orientation, organizational factors and employee job performance in Tanzania State Corporations. A total of three hypotherses were established to test for the hypothesized relatinships. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted. Primary data was colleced through a properly disinged questionnaire while secondary data was obtained thrugh published information. Data on human resource strategic orientation and organizational factors variable was obtained from HR managers in 53 State Corporation in Tanzania. Furthermore, a double source ratings data on employee job performance variable was obtained from a sample of 284 employees and 80 supervisors. Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to examine the relationships. Results of this study provide support for the the central hypothesis of this study that human resource strategic orientatin has a positive and significant effect on employee job performance. Furthermore, culture and politics have a significant influence n the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and employee job performance. This study has contributed significantly to the conceptual and theoretical foundation in the strategic human resource management literature.

Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Muchugu E, Ong’amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir I, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature of the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidopteran); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2014;(104):823-832.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Muchugu E, Ong’amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir I, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature of the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)(Lepidopteran); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2014;(104).
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Ong’amo G, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature on the life history parameters of noctuid lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson." Annals of Applied Biology. 2014;(165):373-386.
Njue L, LW K, N OJ, JG N, D O. "Efficacy of antimicrobial activity of garlic extracts on bacterial pathogens commonly found to contaminate meat." East African Medical Journa. 2014;91(12):442.
Warfa O, Njai D, Laving A, Bashir A, Were F, Wamalwa D, Osano B, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General Hospital, Garissa, Kenya." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;17:214.
Kimenju JW, Wachira PM, Lang'at JK, Otieno W, Mutua GK. "Evaluation of selected methods in the control of plant parasitic nematodes infecting carnation." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(3 ):31-38 .
Lewis M, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C. "Factors Affecting the Management of Women Income Generating Projects in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District." IJERN. 2014;vol.2 No.4(April 2014):1-8.
Dundon W, Kihu S, Settypalli BK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, J.O.Oyugi, Silber R, L.Angelica, Diallo A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus." Genome Announcement . 2014;2(5).
W.G.Dundon, S. M Kihu, T.B. Settypalli, G.C.Gitao, L.C. Bebora, N.M. John, J.O.Oyugi, R.Silber, A. Loitsch,. DA. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus." Genome Announc.. 2014;61(14):25,33.aphs_iaea_newsletter-61_1.pdf
Kibui AW, Logan A, Mwaniki B. "Gender Equity in Education Development in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(2):1-13.
Kibui AW, Logan A, Mwaniki B. "Gender Equity in Education Development in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(2):1-13.
Kimani G.N., Gachahi M.W, L.W. N, B. N. "Head teachers’ and Teachers Perceptions Towards SMASE Programme and Primary School Pupils’ Mathematics and Science Achievement in Murang’a County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research 2. 2014;8(ISSN 2201- 6333 ):209-220.kimani_3.pdf
Luzzi A, Morettini F, Gazaneo S, Rogena EA, Bellan C, Leoncini L. "HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas." Luzzi et al. Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background:
A close association between HIV infection and the development of cancer exists. Although the
advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of AIDS-associated malignancies, a better understanding on how HIV can induce malignant transformation will help the development of novel
therapeutic agents.
Methods:
HIV has been reported to induce the expression of DNMT1
in vitro, but still no information is available about the mechanisms regulating DNMT expression in HIV-related B-cell lymphomas. In this paper, we investigated the expression of DNMT family members (DNMT1, DNMT3a/b) in primary cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of HIV-positive subjects.
Results:
Our results confirmed the activation of DNMT1 by HIV in vivo, and reported for the first time a marked up-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b in HIV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphomas. DNMT up-regulation in
HIV-positive tumors correlated with down-regulation of specific microRNAs, as the miR29 family, the miR148-152 cluster, known to regulate their expression. Literature reports the activation of DNMTs by the human polyomavirus BKV large T-antigen and adenovirus E1a, through the pRb/E2F pathway. We have previously demonstrated that the HIV Tat protein is able to bind to the pocket proteins and to inactivate their oncosuppressive properties, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Therefore, we focused on the role of Tat, due to its capability to be released from infected cells and to dysregulate uninfected ones, using an
in vitro model in which Tat was ectopically expressed in B-cells.
Conclusions:
Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per sesufficient to determine
DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs. These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression.
Keywords:
HIV, Aggressive B-cell lymphomas, microRNAs, DNMTs, Tat

Campisano CJ, Cohen A, Asrat A, Feibel C, Kingston J, Lamb H, Olago D, Owen R, Renaut R, Schabitz F. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) drilling campaigns: the trials and triumphs of trying the unique and new." 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. 2014. AbstractFull Text Link

Between the summers of 2013 and 2014, the HSPDP successfully completed 4 of its 5 drilling campaigns. To date, >1,200m of core has been collected with the final site at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia scheduled for the end of 2014. The initial core description and sampling have been completed on all but the Magadi cores. Despite the challenges associated with a large-scale multinational project, we have accomplished our goal of collecting lacustrine dominated cores proximate to key paleoanthropological sites. Challenges included the availability/import of suitable drill rigs and equipment in country, long supply lines in remote areas, challenging lithologies for coring and recovery, and interpretation of geophysical data. At our oldest site, 600m of Pliocene-age core was collected from 3 boreholes at 2 sites in the northern Awash, Ethiopia. This resulted in a composite depth of ~285m with significant overlap between cores and >96% core recovery. Several unexpectedly thick basalts not originally identified in seismic surveys were interbedded with lake sediments. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target of 500m when rehydrated clays made advancing impractical and work in progress will determine how much of the 2.9-3.8Ma target interval was recovered. A single 228m borehole with ~95% core recovery was drilled at the Plio-Pleistocene Tugen Hills, Kenya location. Just shy of our 250m target depth, preliminary comparisons with outcrop records suggest that this core may cover a time interval of ~2.5-3.45Ma, longer than our original target of 2.5-3.1Ma. A single 216m borehole with ~93% core recovery was drilled at the early Pleistocene West Turkana, Kenya location. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target depth of 350m due to complications likely associated with penetrating a hydrothermal fracture system. Nonetheless, tephrostratigraphic data indicates that the core covers our original target interval of ~1.45-2.0Ma. Recently, 202m of modern to Middle Pleistocene core was collected from 4 boreholes at 2 sites at Lake Magadi, Kenya. Challenging lithologies to core/collect (e.g., trona, chert) resulted in core recovery of 55-60%. Contact with the basement trachyte (~800 ka) at each site occurred at 137m and 197m, respectively, shallower than original estimates from low-resolution geophysical surveys.

Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Liuzzi M, Nolé T, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." BioMed Research International. 2014;Article ID 835013:DOI: /10.1155/2014/835013. Abstract2014_-_in_vitro_antiplasmodial_activities.pdf

Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extractswere analyzed onCQ-sensitive (3D7) andmultidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2,

Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Luizzi M, Tsabang N, Ayong LS, Agbor G, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." Biomed. Res. Int.. 2014;Article ID 835013.
Kibui AW, Logarmuthie L. "Language Policy in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Educational Science and Research- ISSN: 2249-8052. 2014;Vol.4 :89-98 .
Schmidt, C. JO-MKMNKBWGPJ, L. G. Bekker, E. Chomba KNNSCLWMJG, and J. Cox, S. Allen DSFLCPE. "Long-Term Follow-up of Study Participants from Prophylactic Hiv Vaccine Clinical Trials in Africa." Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10, no. 3:714-23.
L. G, Vanreusel A, Koedam N, Reubens J, Muthumbi AW. "The mangrove forests as nursery habitats for the ichthyofauna of Mida Creek (Kenya, East Africa)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2014;94(5):865-877.
Newman LP, Njoroge A, Ben-Youssef L, Merkel M GA, Ton Q, Obimbo EM WD, Lohman-Payne B, Nduati R, Obimbo E. "Measles Seropositivity in HIV-Infected Kenyan Children on Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24618938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] . 2014. Abstract

1. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Measles Seropositivity in HIV-Infected Kenyan Children on Antiretroviral Therapy.

Newman LP(1), Njoroge A, Ben-Youssef L, Merkel M, Gatuguta A, Ton Q, Obimbo EM,
Wamalwa D, Lohman-Payne B, Richardson BA, Nduati R, Farquhar C.

Author information:
(1)a Department of Epidemiology, c Department of Medicine, g Department of Global
Health, e Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
b Department of Public Health, d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health,
University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya f Division of Vaccine and Infectious
Disease, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

This paper describes results from a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected
children 15 months to 12 years of age who were receiving antiretroviral therapy.
We found a low prevalence of measles IgG seropositivity (45.7%) and identified
CD4% ≥ 25 as a predictor. Most HIV-infected children on ART were not measles
seropositive and might benefit from revaccination.

PMID: 24618938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Likhayo P, Olubayo F., Ngatia C. "Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Maize Grain Storage in Kenya. ." International Journal of Science and Research.. 2014;3(7):2348-2352.
LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Toussaint EFA, Conlong D, Van-den-Berg J, Pallangyo B, Ong’amo G, Chipabika G, Molo R, Overholt WA, Cuda JP, Kergoat GJ. "Molecular phylogenetics and systematics of Acrapex stem borers (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini). ." Invertebrate Systematics. 2014.
Were HK, Kabira JN, Kinyua ZM, Olubayo FM, Karinga JK, J.Aura, Lees AK, Cowan GH, Torrance L. "Occurrence and Distribution of potato pests and diseases. ." Potato Research, online publication.. 2014.
Bryja J, Ondřej Mikula, Radim sumbera, Meheretu Y, Aghova T, Lavrenchenko LA, Mazoch V, Oguge N, Mbau JS, Welegerima K, Amundala N, Colyn1 M, Leirs H, Verheyen11 E. "Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa." BMC Evolutionary Biology . 2014;14:256.nannomys_dec_2014.pdf
Calatayud PA, Silvain JF, Branca A, Dupas S, Gigot G, Ong'amo G, LeRu B, Campagne P, Sezonlin M, Faure N. "Phylogeography in continuous space: coupling species distribution models and circuit theory to assess the effect of contiguous migration at different climatic periods on ….". 2014.
Odhiambo J, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba C, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt. (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2014;8 (4):589-592.phytochemical_screening__dierama_2014.pdf
Ndunda BE, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK, LANG’AT MK. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY INVESTIGATIONS OF THREE KENYAN CROTON SPECIES. Nairobi-Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72.
Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern.in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72. Abstractvernonia_glabra.pdf

Food spoilage and poisoning pathogens lead to pre- and post-harvest losses of crop produce and poisoning
of food and feed stuff; posing a great threat to food security and safety worldwide. This project aimed to
investigate the pesticidal activity and presence of chemical compounds in Vernonia glabra; as an alternative
control approach, to food crop protection. Organic extracts of leaves and flowers showed the highest
activity against S. aureus (mean inhibition zones of 1.85 and 1.78 respectively), than the standard antibiotic
(Streptomycin 1.30). Flavonoids were greatly present in all extracts screened. The results of this study
justify the use of V. glabra in traditional herbal medicine, and suggest that the plant has ideal
characteristics in the application as bio-pesticide control to crops and food stuff.

SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Lowther K, Irene J Higginson, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Gaudencia Afuande, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Rachel Jenkins LSRH. "A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy: recruitment, refusal, randomisation and missing data." BMC Res. Notes. 2014;3(7):600.
Kanyinga K, Larbi G, Wanjala B. Republic of Kenya: Governance and Political Economy for Results. World Bank Nairobi Regional Office; 2014.
E M, B B, J C, J E, C H-F, M K, A M, D M, I S, G S, M S, B M, R R, N M, S O, AO M, C H-H, O O, A ES, C M, J M, M E, J DV, M L, G S, H C, G P, B K, A M, E S, JC M, B H, N B, M N, C A, N L, M M, S K, P K, M S, L S, M MC, C R. "Research capacity. Enabling the genomic revolution in Africa." Science. 2014;344(6190):1346-1348.
M. NL, S G, L W, N. KE. "Some Determinants of Students Performance in Biology in KCSE: A Case of Central Division of Machakos District. ." International Journal of Innovative Research & Studies. 2014;3(1):553-567.Website
LM Ngesu, S Gunga LNWENK. "Some determinants of students’ performance in Biology Kcse: A case of Central Division of Machakos District." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2014.
Lewis Muli Ngesu, Samson Gunga LWENKN. "Some determinants of students’ performance in Biology Kcse: A case of Central Division of Machakos District." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2014.
Lehman DA, Ronen K BCABJMJ-LJMRBAMCRSOZWK. "Systemic cytokine levels show limited correlation with risk of HIV-1 acquisition." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . 2014;66(2):135-9.
Ogeng’o J, Olabu B, Ongeti K, Misiani M, Waisako B, Loyal P. "TOPOGRAPHY OF AORTIC BIFURCATION IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(2):341-­345. AbstractTOPOGRAPHY OF AORTIC BIFURCATION IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION

Topography of aortic bifurcation is important for gynaecologists, surgeons and radiologists operating in
the retroperitoneal area, in order for them to minimize vascular injury. It also influences the occurrence
of aortic-iliac atherosclerosis. It shows ethnic variations, but data from African populations are scarce.
This study therefore investigated the topography of aortic bifurcation in a black Kenyan population by
dissection of 106 cadavers. After removal of abdominal viscera, peritoneum, fibrofatty connective tissue,
inferior vena cava was removed to expose the termination of abdominal aorta. Vertebral level, angle and
asymmetry of bifurcation were recorded. Data were analysed by SPSS version 17.0 for windows and are
presented in tables and bar charts. All aortae terminated by bifurcating into 2 common iliac arteries. The
most common level of bifurcation was L4 (73.6%). It bifurcated below L4 in 22.7% of the cases. Mean
angle of bifurcation was 55.20 (range 23 – 780); 55.60 in males and 54.30 in females. Mean bifurcation
asymmetry was 4.4 (range 0 – 23). Topography of aortic bifurcation in the black Kenyan population
varies from conventional descriptions on over 20% of the individuals studied. Surgeons and radiologists
must be aware of this to avoid inadvertent vascular injury. Higher bifurcation angles and asymmetry
than those reported for Caucasian and Indo Asian populations suggest higher vulnerability to abdominal
aortic atherosclerosis. Preoperative evaluation of terminal aorta, and follow up for atherosclerosis are
recommended.

F Okumu, L Biswaro, E Mbeleyela, Killeen GF, R Mukabana, Moore SJ. "Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s." Journal of medical entomology. 2014;47(2):274-282.
Muchiri PD, Njogu MK, Nyankanga RO, Hutchinson JM, Ambuko J, Landeo JA. "Comparative performance of true Potato seed (tps) propagated through nursery transplants, tubers and minitubers.". 2014. Abstract
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Lei F, Peng B, Özdemir ŞK, Long GL, Yang L. "Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators." Applied Physics Letters. 2014;105:101112. Abstract
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Wen X, Li G, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng B, Wong LM, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Flexible and tunable metamaterials and their applications in sensing.". In: APS March Meeting Abstracts. Vol. 2014.; 2014:. Abstract
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Edwards PS, Janisch CT, Peng B, Zhu J, Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Liu Z. "Label-free particle sensing by fiber taper-based Raman spectroscopy." IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2014;26:2093-2096. Abstract
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Lubembe DM, Githigia SM, Chogo P, Athumani HM, Kitaa JM. "Management of Bovine Papillomatosis using an Autogenous Vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, Western Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2014;38:43-44. Abstract
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Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Osanjo G, Wamunyokoli F, Coldren R. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility of Influenza A isolates obtained in Kenya, 2008-2011.. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Neuraminidase inhibitors mainly oseltamivir and zanamivir function both as prophylactic and treatment agents for influenza infections. We characterized the antiviral susceptibility of the 2008-2011 influenza A viruses circulating in Kenya by combining both the genotypic data involving known molecular markers in neuraminidase (NA) protein responsible for drug resistance and IC50 data generated from NA inhibition assays.Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimen from consenting outpatients of age ≥ 2 months were obtained and transported to the National Influenza Center. RT-PCR amplification of NA gene segments was performed on the virus isolates prior to nucleotide sequencing using the BigDye chemistry. Sequences were analyzed using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Drug susceptibility was determined by fluorescent enzyme inhibition assay with known NA inhibitor-resistant and inhibitor-sensitive viruses. IC50 values were determined using curve fitting software, Grafit 7.0.Results and Discussion: Out of 836 influenza A virus isolates obtained (2008-2011), 108 (13%) were analyzed for markers of resistance to NA inhibitors. 64% (7/11) of the 2008 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates depicted oseltamivir resistant marker H275Y. Influenza A/H3N2 and A/ (H1N1) pdm09 isolates lacked the H275Y mutation. A total of 28 isolates were further subjected to phenotypic susceptibility assay. The mean zanamivir IC50s were 1.75nM, 2.53nM and 1.84nM for the subtypes sH1N1, pH1N1 and H3N2 respectively. Eight of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 isolates analyzed showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir with IC50s ranges from 73nM-984nM. Pandemic A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains obtained between 2009-2011and 2008-2011 respectively depicted normal sensitivity. The 2011, WHO range and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 257nM-3455nM and 458.2nM; 132nm-2179nM and 191.3nM; 23-378 and 42.3nM for the mutant subtypes sH1N1, pH1N1and sH3N2 respectively.Conclusion: Overall genotypic and phenotypic data demonstrate oseltamivir resistance in the 2008-2009, sH1N1 viruses. The H275Y mutation increased the IC50 by 50-100 fold.

Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Senior RA, Bennett DJ, Booth H, others. "The PREDICTS database." Ecology and Evolution. 2014. Abstract
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Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Senior RA, Bennett DJ, Booth H, others. "The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts." Ecology and evolution. 2014;4:4701-4735. Abstract
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Peng B, Li Z, Mutlugun E, Mart{\'ınez PLH, Li D, Zhang Q, Gao Y, Demir HV, Xiong Q. "Quantum dots on vertically aligned gold nanorod monolayer: plasmon enhanced fluorescence." Nanoscale. 2014;6:5592-5598. Abstract
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Ozdemir SK, Zhu J, Yang X, Peng B, Yilmaz H, He L, Monifi F, Long GL, Yang L. "Raman-gain induced loss-compensation in whispering-gallery-microresonators and single-nanoparticle detection with whispering-gallery Raman-microlasers." arXiv preprint arXiv:1401.2033. 2014. Abstract
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Yuan Z, Song W, Liu Y, Kang X, Peng B, Wang T. "Regeneration of SO2-loaded sodium phosphate solution in rotating packed bed." Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 2014;47:777-781. Abstract
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Chen S, Peng B, Lu F, Mei Y, Cheng F, Deng L, Xiong Q, Wang L, Sun X, Huang W. "Scattering or Photoluminescence? Major Mechanism Exploration on Performance Enhancement in P3HT-Based Polymer Solar Cells with NaYF4: 2% Er3+, 18% Yb3+ Upconverting Nanocrystals." Advanced Optical Materials. 2014;2:442-449. Abstract
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Wen X, Li G, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng B, Wong LM, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Transparent free-standing metamaterials and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Nanoscale. 2014;6:132-139. Abstract
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2013
Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Okoth E, Bulimo DW, Gallardo C, Pelayo V, Macharia JM, Omore A, et al. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:198-205. AbstractWebsite
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Katternhorn SA, Muirhead JD, W. DE, Fischer TP, Lee H, Ebinger CJ. "Contribution of transverse structures, magma, and crustal fluids to continental rift evolution: the East African rift in southern Kenya.". In: AGU FALL 2013. San Francisco, California; 2013. Abstract

The Magadi rift in southern Kenya formed at ~7 Ma within Proterozoic rocks of the Mozambique orogenic belt, parallel to its contact with the Archean Tanzania craton. The rift is bounded to the west by the ~1600-m-high Nguruman border fault. The rift center is intensely dissected by normal faults, most of which offset ~1.4-0.8 Ma lavas. Current E-W extensional velocities are ~2-4 mm/yr. Published crustal tomography models from the rift center show narrow high velocity zones in the upper crust, interpreted as cooled magma intrusions. Local, surface-wave, and SKS-splitting measurements show a rift-parallel anisotropy interpreted to be the result of aligned melt zones in the lithosphere. Our field observations suggest that recent fault activity is concentrated at the rift center, consistent with the location of the 1998 seismic swarm that was associated with an inferred diking event. Fault zones are pervasively mineralized by calcite, likely from CO2-rich fluids. A system of fault-fed springs provides the sole fluid input for Lake Magadi in the deepest part of the basin. Many of these springs emanate from the Kordjya fault, a 50-km-long, NW-SE striking, transverse structure connecting a portion of the border fault system (the NW-oriented Lengitoto fault) to the current locus of strain and magmatism at the rift center. Sampled springs are warm (44.4°C) and alkaline (pH=10). Dissolved gas data (mainly N2-Ar-He) suggests two-component mixing (mantle and air), possibly indicating that fluids are delivered into the fault zone from deep sources, consistent with a dominant role of magmatism to the focusing of strain at the rift center. The Kordjya fault has developed prominent fault scarps (~150 m high) despite being oblique to the dominant ~N-S fault fabric, and has utilized an en echelon alignment of N-S faults to accommodate its motion. These N-S faults show evidence of sinistral-oblique motion and imply a bookshelf style of faulting to accommodate dextral-oblique motion along the Kordjya fault. Fault relationships imply that the NW-SE transverse structures represent recent activity in the rift, and have locally tilted Late Pleistocene sediments. Given the abundance of N-S striking faults in the rift, the tendency for fault activity along transverse features suggests a change in the rifting driving forces that are likely the result of an interplay between strain localization at the rift center, inherited crustal fabric (NW structures in the Mozambique belt), a possible counterclockwise rotation of stress related to interacting rift segments in southern Kenya, and an active hydrothermal fluid regime that facilitates faulting. By connecting the Lengitoto fault to the rift center, the Kordjya fault has effectively caused the Magadi rift to bypass the Nguruman border fault, which has been rendered inactive and thus no longer a contributor to the rifting process

Wang J-L, Ma S-Q, Li L, Liu G-Q, Hu W-C, Ma R. "Correlation of inflammatory cells in adventitia and formation and extending of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary artery of apolipoprotein {E} gene knockout mice." The Chinese journal of physiology. 2013;56:77-82. Abstract

Accumulating evidence shows that adventitial inflammation contributes to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between atherosclerotic lesions in coronary artery (CA) and accumulation of inflammatory cells at local adventitia in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Modified Movat's pentachrome staining, HE staining, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe and to identify serial paraffin sections of aortic foot and inflammatory cells in CA adventitia of apoE-/- mice of 60 weeks old. There was always accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitia of CA with extending lesions from aortic orifice to CA trunks. The CA samples were divided into type I: infiltration of inflammatory cells in CA adventitia without lesions extending in the intima, type II: infiltration of inflammatory cells in CA adventitia with the top of extending lesions in the intima and type III: infiltration of inflammatory cells at CA adventitia with lesions covering all the face of intima. The three types of CA sample represent the different developmental processes of atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. No extending lesions were found in the CA trunks without inflammatory cells in adventitia. In type I samples, 60% of infiltrated inflammatory cells were macrophages 57% of infiltrated cells were neutrophils in type II samples; 67% of infiltrated cells were lymphocytes in type III samples. Our studies revealed that adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Different cell types predominate in different stages of CA adventitia. The neutrophils are closely related to the extending of atherosclerotic lesions.

L N, K K, Gallie B, Chan H, Dimaras H. "Kenya National Retinoblastoma Strategy: A model for developing countries.". In: Canadian Cancer and Research Conference. sheraton Hotel, Toronto, Canada; 2013.njambi_et_al_kenya_retinoblastoma_strategy-_a_model_for_developing_countries.pdf
Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in the Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya.". In: 1st International Conference Pesticidal Plants. Vol. 10.; 2013:.
Beima-Sofie KM, Bigham AW, Lingappa JR, Dalton Wamalwa, Mackelprang RD, Bamshad MJ, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Toll-like receptor variants are associated with infant HIV-1 acquisition and peak plasma HIV-1 RNA level." AIDS. 2013;27(15):2431-9. Abstract

We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs with infant HIV-1 acquisition and viral control.

Beima-Sofie KM, Bigham AW, Lingappa JR, Dalton Wamalwa, Mackelprang RD, Bamshad MJ, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Toll-like receptor variants are associated with infant HIV-1 acquisition and peak plasma HIV-1 RNA level." AIDS. 2013;27(15):2431-9. Abstract

We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs with infant HIV-1 acquisition and viral control.

Omenda MM, Milligan C, Odem-Davis K, Ruth Nduati, Richardson BA, Lynch J, John-Stewart G, Overbaugh J. "Evidence for efficient vertical transfer of maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific neutralizing antibodies but no association of such antibodies with reduced infant infection." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;64(2):163-6. Abstract

: Little is known about the efficiency of vertical transfer of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Antibody levels in plasma from 60 mother-infant pairs near the time of birth, including 14 breast-feeding transmission pairs, were compared. The envelope-binding titers were strongly correlated (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001) and similar (1.4-fold greater in maternal plasma) between a mother and her corresponding infant as were the neutralizing antibody (Nab) levels (r = 0.80, P < 0.0001; 1.3-fold higher), suggesting efficient transfer. There was no significant difference in Nab responses between transmitting and nontransmitting mothers, although there was a trend for transmitting mothers to have higher HIV-1-specific Nabs.

Muiru AN, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Merkel M, Liu AY, Choi RY, Lohman-Payne B, Gatuguta A, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Incident HSV-2 infections are common among HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;208(7):1093-101. Abstract

The synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well known, but lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of HSV-2 acquisition in HIV-1-discordant couples hampers development of HSV-2 prevention interventions that could reduce HIV-1 transmission.

Ochola SA, Labadarios D, Nduati RW. "Impact of counselling on exclusive breast-feeding practices in a poor urban setting in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial." Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(10):1732-40. Abstract

To determine the impact of facility-based semi-intensive and home-based intensive counselling in improving exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in a low-resource urban setting in Kenya.

Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, Makanya A, Styp-Rekowska B, Ceausu A, Flueckiger S, Lang S, Semela D, Le Noble F, Chatterjee S, Djonov V. "Inhibition of Notch signaling induces extensive intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells." Angiogenesis. 2013;16(4):921-37. Abstract

Notch is an intercellular signaling pathway related mainly to sprouting neo-angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the angiogenic mechanisms involved in the vascular augmentation (sprouting/intussusception) after Notch inhibition within perfused vascular beds using the chick area vasculosa and MxCreNotch1(lox/lox) mice. In vivo monitoring combined with morphological investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Notch signaling within perfused vascular beds remarkably induced intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) with resultant dense immature capillary plexuses. The latter were characterized by 40 % increase in vascular density, pericyte detachment, enhanced vessel permeability, as well as recruitment and extravasation of mononuclear cells into the incipient transluminal pillars (quintessence of IA). Combination of Notch inhibition with injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells dramatically enhanced IA with 80 % increase in vascular density and pillar number augmentation by 420 %. Additionally, there was down-regulation of ephrinB2 mRNA levels consequent to Notch inhibition. Inhibition of ephrinB2 or EphB4 signaling induced some pericyte detachment and resulted in up-regulation of VEGFRs but with neither an angiogenic response nor recruitment of mononuclear cells. Notably, Tie-2 receptor was down-regulated, and the chemotactic factors SDF-1/CXCR4 were up-regulated only due to the Notch inhibition. Disruption of Notch signaling at the fronts of developing vessels generally results in massive sprouting. On the contrary, in the already existing vascular beds, down-regulation of Notch signaling triggered rapid augmentation of the vasculature predominantly by IA. Notch inhibition disturbed vessel stability and led to pericyte detachment followed by extravasation of mononuclear cells. The mononuclear cells contributed to formation of transluminal pillars with sustained IA resulting in a dense vascular plexus without concomitant vascular remodeling and maturation.

Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Costa MJ, Fawole B, Mugerwa Y, Nafiou I, Neves I, Wolomby-Molondo J-J, Bang HT, Cheang K, Chuyun K, Jayaratne K, Jayathilaka CA, Mazhar SB, Mori R, Mustafa ML, Pathak LR, Perera D, Rathavy T, Recidoro Z, Roy M, Ruyan P, Shrestha N, Taneepanichsku S, Tien NV, Ganchimeg T, Wehbe M, Yadamsuren B, Yan W, Yunis K, Bataglia V, Cecatti JG, Hernandez-Prado B, Nardin JM, Narváez A, Ortiz-Panozo E, Pérez-Cuevas R, Valladares E, Zavaleta N, Armson A, Crowther C, Hogue C, Lindmark G, Mittal S, Pattinson R, Stanton ME, Campodonico L, Cuesta C, Giordano D, Intarut N, Laopaiboon M, Bahl R, Martines J, Mathai M, Merialdi M, Say L. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-55. Abstract

We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Kahle EM, Hughes JP, Lingappa JR, John-Stewart G, Celum C, Nakku-Joloba E, Njuguna S, Mugo N, Bukusi E, Manongi R, Baeten JM. "An empiric risk scoring tool for identifying high-risk heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples for targeted HIV-1 prevention." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):339-47. Abstract

Heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples are increasingly recognized as an important source of new HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A simple risk assessment tool could be useful for identifying couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission.

Wamalwa DC, Lehman DA, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper MA, Gichohi R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC, Overbaugh J. "Long-term virologic response and genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected Kenyan children on combination antiretroviral therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):267-74. Abstract

HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first line and second line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.

Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Lingappa JR, Thomas KK, Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Wald A, Farquhar C, de Bruyn G, Fife KH, Campbell MS, Kapiga S, Mullins JI, Celum C. "Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):164-71. Abstract

Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p < 0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters ( + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners' genital compartment.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Papah MB, Kisia SM, Ojoo RO, Makanya AN, Wood CM, Kavembe GD, Maina JN, Johannsson OE, Bergman HL, Laurent P, Chevalier C, Bianchini A, Bianchini LF, Onyango DW. "Morphological evaluation of spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami): a fish living on the edge." Tissue Cell. 2013;45(6):371-82. Abstract

Spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), a cichlid fish endemic to the highly alkaline and saline Lake Magadi in Kenya, was evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Spermatogenesis, typified by its three major phases (spermatocytogenesis, meiosis and spermiogenesis), was demonstrated by the presence of maturational spermatogenic cells namely spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Primary spermatogonia, the largest of all the germ cells, underwent a series of mitotic divisions producing primary spermatocytes, which then entered two consecutive meiotic divisions to produce secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. Spermatids, in turn, passed through three structurally distinct developmental stages typical of type-I spermiogenesis to yield typical primitive anacrosomal spermatozoa of the externally fertilizing type (aquasperm). The spermatozoon of this fish exhibited a spheroidal head with the nucleus containing highly electron-dense chromatin globules, a midpiece containing ten ovoid mitochondria arranged in two rows and a flagellum formed by the typical 9 + 2 microtubule axoneme. In addition, the midpiece, with no cytoplasmic sheath, appeared to end blindly distally in a lobe-like pattern around the flagellum; a feature that was unique and considered adaptive for the spermatozoon of this species to the harsh external environment. These observations show that the testis of A. grahami often undergoes active spermatogenesis despite the harsh environmental conditions to which it is exposed on a daily basis within the lake. Further, the spermiogenic features and spermatozoal ultrastructure appear to be characteristic of Cichlidae and, therefore, may be of phylogenetic significance.

Lavender T, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi." Midwifery. 2013;29(8):876-84. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.

Barker K, Omoni G, Wakasiaka S, Watiti J, Mathai M, Lavender T. "'Moving with the times' taking a glocal approach: a qualitative study of African student nurse views of e learning." Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33(4):407-12. Abstract

Information technology is a rapidly increasing means of communication in education and healthcare. This is also true in low resource settings, where electronic communication provides an opportunity for sharing information about health and wellbeing and enhancing learning for healthcare professionals.

Campbell MS, Kahle EM, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Kapiga S, Mujugira A, Mugo NR, Fife KH, Mullins JI, Baeten JM. "Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(7):1166-70. Abstract

Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.

Hubacher D, Liku J, Kiarie J, Rakwar J, Muiruri P, Omwenga J, Chen P-L. "Effect of concurrent use of anti-retroviral therapy and levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant for contraception on CD4 counts: a prospective cohort study in Kenya." J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18448. Abstract

Simultaneous use of contraceptive hormones and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may theoretically lessen the effectiveness of both. Women on ART need assurance that hormonal contraception is safe and effective. The sub-dermal implant is an ideal product to study: low and steady progestin release and no adherence uncertainties. We sought to determine if the medications' effectiveness is compromised.

Hubacher D, Liku J, Kiarie J, Rakwar J, Muiruri P, Omwenga J, Chen P-L. "Effect of concurrent use of anti-retroviral therapy and levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant for contraception on CD4 counts: a prospective cohort study in Kenya." J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18448. Abstract

Simultaneous use of contraceptive hormones and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may theoretically lessen the effectiveness of both. Women on ART need assurance that hormonal contraception is safe and effective. The sub-dermal implant is an ideal product to study: low and steady progestin release and no adherence uncertainties. We sought to determine if the medications' effectiveness is compromised.

Mwau M, Adungo F, Kadima S, Njagi E, Kirwaye C, Abubakr NS, Okubi LA, Waihenya M, Lusike J, Hungu J. "Evaluation of PIMA™® point of care technology for CD4 T cell enumeration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(6):e67612. Abstract

CD4+ T cell enumeration is used to determine eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to monitor the immune status of HIV-positive patients; however, many patients do not have access to this essential diagnostic test. Introducing point of care (POC) testing may improve access. We have evaluated Alere's PIMA™, one such POC device, against conventional CD4+ testing platforms to determine its performance and validity for use in Kenya. In our hands, Alere PIMA™ had a coefficient of variability of 10.3% and of repeatability of 175.6 cells/µl. It differed from both the BD FACSCalibur™ (r(2) = 0.762, mean bias -64.8 cells/µl), and the BD FACSCount™ (r(2) = 0.874, mean bias 7.8 cells/µl). When compared to the FACSCalibur™ at a cutoff of 350 cells/µl, it had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 86.7% in those aged 5 years and over (Kw = 0.7566). With the BD FACSCount™, it had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 83.4% in those aged 5 years and over (Kw = 0.7790). The device also differed from PARTEC Cyflow™ (r(2) = 0.781, mean bias -24.2 cells/µl) and GUAVA™ (r(2) = 0.658, mean bias -0.3 cells/µl) platforms, which are used in some facilities in Kenya. We conclude that with refinement, Alere PIMA™ technology has potential benefits for HIV-positive patients. This study highlights the difficulty in selecting the most appropriate reference technology for technical evaluations.

Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Servais J-Y, Rybicki A, Struck D, Santos da Silva E, Verhofstede C, Lie Y, Seguin-Devaux C, Schmit J-C, Perez Bercoff D. "HIV-1 tropism determination using a phenotypic Env recombinant viral assay highlights overestimation of CXCR4-usage by genotypic prediction algorithms for CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG [corrected]." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e60566. Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) entry into target cells involves binding of the viral envelope (Env) to CD4 and a coreceptor, mainly CCR5 or CXCR4. The only currently licensed HIV entry inhibitor, maraviroc, targets CCR5, and the presence of CXCX4-using strains must be excluded prior to treatment. Co-receptor usage can be assessed by phenotypic assays or through genotypic prediction. Here we compared the performance of a phenotypic Env-Recombinant Viral Assay (RVA) to the two most widely used genotypic prediction algorithms, Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and webPSSM.

Sartorius BKD, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, Meda N, Temmerman M, Newell ML, Farley TMM, Luchters S. "Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2013;13:522. Abstract

Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, especially in settings where anaemia is common.

Lally R, Moreira AS, Germaine K, Galbally P, Culhain J, Otieno N, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. "Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species.". In: Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Conference 2013 - Positive plant microbial interactions: their role in maintaining sustainable agricultural and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, Brigg, North Linconshire, U.K; 2013. Abstract

Endophytes are bacteria present in plants that form a symbiotic relationship with
their hosts and may promote plant growth and health (Ryan et al., 2008). We extracted
Pseudomonas endophytes from Miscanthus × giganteus; a series of strains were selected
for application to two oilseed rape (OSR) trials. Endophytes colonise plants (including
the root-surface) and allow the plant to utilise nutrients present in the rhizosphere. This
potentially provides a yield boost for colonised plants, allowing for efficient fertiliser
strategies and improved yield performance (Redondo-Nieto et al., 2013). This study has
provided evidence that the application of specialised live microbial biofertilisers can
enhance aspects of crop development when applied in the field. The results show that
there was a significant increase in crop stem and leaf of “Compass” a variety of Oilseed
rape. The results did not indicate that there was a significant increase within the overall
yield of the crop.

Gathumbi JK, Kanja LW, Maitho TE, Mbaria JM, Nduhiu JG, Gitau FK, Ndiritu JG, Lucy MM, Maloba K. " Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation . 2013;8(3):145-150.
Mwonga PV, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, R. Gateru, Mwabora J. Ab-initio Studies of Point Defects in : A Density Functional Approach. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide has been intensively studied as a wide band gap transition metal oxide due to its n-type semi-conducting property which makes it to have many applications in industry. Some of the observed conductivity arises from its intrinsic point defects. The structural properties and electronic band structures of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) phases, have been investigated using ab-initio methods. The structural properties were obtained using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets. For the two phases of TiO2, the calculated equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli and bond lengths were found to be in good agreement with other recent theoretical calculations and also with experimental data. After introduction of various defects to the perfect super cell, the Ti-O bond lengths were altered greatly. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.959 Å to a range of values (1.718 - 1.861) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.006 Å to a range of values (2.072 - 2.231 ) Å for rutile TiO2. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.956 Å to a range of values (1.782 - 1.830) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.050 Å to a range of values (2.112 - 2.214) Å, for anatase TiO2. Also altered were Ti-O-Ti angles, from the two constants (99.93, 131.04)° to a range of values (88.86 - 95.69 and 132.01 - 143.49)° for rutile TiO2. For anatase TiO2, Ti- O-Ti angles changed from the two constants (103.81, 152.39)° to a range of values (93.59 - 149.91 and 156.74 - 176.05)°. Electronic properties were investigated too. Perfect rutile and anatase super cells gave band gaps of 2.24 eV and 2.44 eV, respectively, underground-state conditions. Valence bandwidths (VB) and conduction bandwidths (CB) were also obtained for both phases. VB of 5.6 eV and CB of 1.654 eV were observed for rutile TiO2, while VB of 4.76 eV and CB of 2.35 eV were observed for anatase TiO2; all in good agreement with experimental values. This study also investigated the defect formation enthalpies of Frenkel and Schottky defects in both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. This study also considered point defect stability in rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. The formation energies for oxygen and titanium atoms, defects were found to be in agreement with the experimental values, especially the case of rutile oxygen atom vacancy. Both Frenkel and Schottky defects were found to induce new energy states in titanium dioxide. Normally band gaps are reduced in defective TiO2 crystals, and in this study, reduced energy band gaps were reported for all the defective super cells. In rutile, the metal oxide gaps were found to almost vanish due to the presence of oxygen atom vacancy, oxygen atom Frenkel and titanium Frenkel defects. These gave direct energy band gaps: 0.35 eV, 0.207 eV and 0.327 eV, respectively. Defects in anatase phase showed a similar trend, with the least energy band gap being reported for the case titanium interstitial (0.041 eV, which is indirect). With such infinitesimal gaps, these otherwise insulating oxides can with ease become conducting metal oxides, by either increasing the temperatures or pressure since these calculations were done at 0 K and 0 pressure. It can thus be said that intrinsic point defects in titanium dioxide do contribute to the improvement of the electrical conductivity of this oxide.

Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Wanjohi JM, Midiwo JO, Kerubo LO. "Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus." Planta medica. 2013;79(18):1762-1766. Abstract

Description
Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

Aketch ON, Lee L, Chou J, Huang S, Chang S, Wu Y, et al. "Analyses of the ISUAL Dancing Sprites and Secondary Sprites." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

From July 2004 to May 2012, about 1,700 sprites were recorded by ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning). Most of them were singly occurring sprites that were not followed by other sprites; while about 7% of them were multi-sprites, which typically start with a sprite and then followed by another sprite that showed a spatial displacement relative to the preceding sprites. Almost all of these events show horizontal shifts between the preceding sprites and the follow-up ones, which previously have been called the dancing sprites. In contrast to the majority cases of dancing sprites with horizontal displacements, three follow-up sprites were found to exhibit a vertical displacement relative to the preceding sprites, which are termed as the secondary sprites in in this report. These three secondary sprites exhibit similar occurring sequences and characteristics; with the preceding clustering sprite spanning the altitudes of ~60-85 km, and then 30 ms or more later, a secondary sprite appears at ~40-65 km altitudes and seems to be connected to the dimming channels of the preceding sprite. From analyzing the spectral and the ULF data, possible generating mechanisms for dancing sprites and secondary sprites are proposed in this report. Several researches [Lyons, 1994; Lyons, 1996; Lu et al., 2012] had indicated that the successive sprite production in the dancing sprites aligned with the lateral leader propagation direction of lightning. We consider that the successively occurring dancing sprites and the secondary sprites are related to the extending leaders of the cloud-to-ground lightning, which are often followed by a continuing current or even a second stroke. The dancing sprites may be induced by the subsequent leaders in the cloud extending mainly in the horizontal direction, while the secondary sprites may be triggered by the leaders extending primarily in the vertical direction. In addition, a numerical quasi-electrostatic (QE) field model is developed with the aim to validate the occurring scenario of the secondary sprites. Based on the information inferred from the associate ULF data of a secondary sprite, salient parameters, including the charge, the charge height, and the discharging time constant, are estimated and used in the QE model calculations. Through performing QE modeling with the ULF inferred parameters, we find that the electric field in the region below the preceding sprites could be enhanced by the continuing current.

Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, L.K.Omosa, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectras sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2013;16 :61-68.amugune_et_al.pdf
*Kitonde, C.K., Dossaji, S. F., Lukhoba, C.W., Jumba, M.M. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Kenya." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines.. 2013;10(1):149-157.
Kitonde C, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba M. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern in Kenya." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstractkitonde_et_al._2013.pdf

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in
the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against at least one of
the four micro-organisms screened, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone of 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S. aureus, with the lowest MIC of 1.5625 mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with
M.I.C of 6.25 mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S. aureus. These results suggest that, V. glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V. glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety
of this medicinal plant to the society.

Keywords: Vernonia glabra, Antimicrobial activity, and Phytochemicals.

Kitonde CK, F. DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF VERNONIA GLABRA (STEETZ) OLIV. & HIERN. IN KENYA." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra ; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against one or four micro-organisms, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S.aureus , with the lowest MIC of 1.5625mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with M.I.C of 6.25mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S.aureus. These results suggest that, V.glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V.glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety of this medicinal plant to the society.

Kerubo L, Midiwo JO, Derese S, Langat MK, Akala HM, Waters NC, Peter M, Heydenreich M. "Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus." Natural Products Communications. 2013;7:1-2.kerubo_et_al_3_npc.pdf
Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
L. Fusilli, M. O. Collins, G. Laneve, A. Palombo, Pignatti S, and Santini F. "Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2013;20:33-41.
Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Biodiversity and Enterotoxigenic Potential of Staphylococci Isolated from Raw andSpontaneously Fermented Camel Milk." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2013;3(2):128-138.2013_biodiversity_and_enterotoxigenic_potential_of.pdf
Loyal PK, Butt F, Ogeng’o JA. "Branching pattern of the Extraosseus Mental Nerve in a Kenyan population." Craniomaxilofac Trauma Reconstruct. 2013;6:251-256.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." SpringerPlus. 2013;2:647.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." Springerplus. 2013;2:647. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the protein carbamoylation patterns associated with cyanate neuropathy relative to cyanide poisoning. We hypothesized that under a diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA), the carbamoylation pattern associated with cyanide poisoning is similar to that of cyanate neuropathy. Male rats (6-8 weeks old) were fed a diet with all amino acids (AAA) or 75%-deficiency in SAA and treated with 2.5 mg/kg/body weight (bw) NaCN, or 50 mg/kg/bw NaOCN, or 1 μl/g/bw saline, for up to 6 weeks. Albumin and spinal cord proteins were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Only NaOCN induced motor deficits with significant levels of carbamoylation. At Day 14, we found a diet-treatment interaction effect on albumin carbamoylation (p = 0.07). At Day 28, no effect was attributed to diet (p = 0.71). Mean number of NaCN-carbamoylated sites on albumin was 47.4% higher relative to vehicle (95% CI:16.7-86.4%). Only NaOCN carbamoylated spinal cord proteins, prominently, under SAA-restricted diet. Proteins targets included myelin basic and proteolipid proteins, neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and 2', 3' cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Under SAA deficiency, chronic but not acute cyanide toxicity may share biomarkers and pathogenetic similarities with cyanate neuropathy. Prevention of carbamoylation may protect against the neuropathic effects of cyanate.

NZUVE SNM, LM.KIILU. "Causes Of Industrial Dispute: A Case Of The Garment Factories At The Athi-River Export Processing Zones In Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2013;6:48-59. AbstractWebsite

An industrial dispute may be defined as a conflict or difference of opinion between management and Workers on the terms of employment (Kornhauser, Dubin and Ross, 1954). In today`s business world, competition is the order of the day. Production, quality, profits and corporate social responsibility are critical areas where companies can improve competitive edge. To attain competitive edge, companies must first ensure cooperation and harmonious relationship between all stakeholders.
The general aim of the study was to investigate the causes of industrial disputes in the garment factories in the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Athi-River, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive research design to determine what caused the disputes and what the possible solutions were. The study population consisted of the shop stewards and human resource managers working at the four garment factories that were in operation at the time of the study. The research instrument used was a questionnaire administered to the respondents.
It was established that working conditions, pay rates, terms of employment and employee relations were the main causes of the disputes. Weak trade union movement, inefficient and inadequate social security, lack of employment benefits, opportunities for training, promotion, trained personnel at the health service, short contract and low pay are the main problems encountered by those working at the EPZ.
The study recommended that employee’s welfare and working conditions are important factors to be considered by any employer. Both supervisors and workers should work on their relationship and change attitude towards each other. The terms of employment should be looked into as many employees are unhappy with the terms of employment especially the short contracts and majority feel they are not recognized or awarded for their contribution to the organization.
On the other hand, employees need to understand clearly the company policies, rules, regulations and procedures in place. This can be initiated by management providing employee with manuals or handbooks. There should also be clear channels of communication in the organization to enhance smooth operation, understanding and enhance healthy industrial relationships.

Keywords:export processing zone, industrial disputes, industrial relations

Gichangi P, LGATHECE, B ESTAMBALE TEMMERMANM. "CD4 T LYMPHOCYTES SUBSET IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA." eamj. 2013;90(10):310-316. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV are common in sub-Sahara Africa.
Both ICC and HIV are immunosuppressive, and are associated with decreased CD4
and CD8 profiles. In a group of women with ICC starting radiotherapy, we determined
their CD4 profiles.
Design: This was a cross-sectional study design.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, radiotherapy unit.
Subjects: Women with invasive cervical cancer (344) seeking radiotherapy treatment
for the first time between January 2000 and March 2003, had blood samples analyzed
for CD4 and CD8 cell counts by flow cytometry. Haemoglobin, white cell count,
lymphocyte and platelet counts were determined using coulter machine. All patients
had received pre- and post HIV counseling.
Results: The mean age was 49+13 years. About 13.1% of the women with ICC were
HIV positive. Overall, mean and median CD4 cell count was 829+355 cells/mm3 and
792 cells/mm3. Among HIV+ patients, mean and median CD4 cell counts were 451+288
cells/mm3 and 405 cells/mm3 respectively. The mean CD4 cell count for the HIV+women was 886+329 cells/mm3 with median of 833 cells/mm3, range 147-2065 cells/mm3.
Only nine (20%) of the 45 HIV+ women had CD4 cell count of 0-200. HIV+ women
had lower CD4 percentage and cell count and higher CD8 percentage and cell count
as compared to HIV negative women, p < 0.001. HIV infection was significantly and
independently associated with high proportion of women who had CD4 cell count of
less than 200 cells/mm3 or less than 350 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Women with ICC and concurrent HIV infection have decreased CD4 cell
subset. These results suggest HIV infection may be associated with more severe CD4
depletion in women with ICC.

Long J, Kanyinga K, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Choosing Peace over Democracy." Journal of Democracy. 2013;Vol. 24(No. 3):140-155.
Okoth E, Gallardo C, Macharia JM, Omore A, Pelayo V, Bulimo DW, Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Mijele D, Bishop RP. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110(2):198-205. Abstract1-s2.0-s0167587712003765-main.pdfWebsite

We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in Kenya. A free range/tethering, low input production system in Ndhiwa District of South-western Kenya is compared with a medium input stall fed production system in Kiambu District of Central Kenya. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of data derived from cluster analysis showed that number of animals, number of breeding sows and number of weaner pigs were a significant factor in classifying farms in Nhiwa and Kiambu. Analysis of blood and serum samples using a PCR assay demonstrated an average animal level positivity to ASFV of 28% in two independent samplings in South-western Kenya and 0% PCR positivity in Central Kenya. No animals were sero-positive in either study site using the OIE indirect-ELISA and none of the animals sampled exhibited clinical symptoms of ASF. The farms that contained ASFV positive pigs in Ndhiwa District were located in divisions bordering the Ruma National Park from which bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) incursions into farms had been reported. ASFV prevalence (P < 0.05) was significantly higher at distances between 6 and 16 km from the National Park than at distances closer or further away. One of the 8 bushpigs sampled from the park, from which tissues were obtained was PCR positive for ASFV. The data therefore indicated a potential role for the bushpig in virus transmission in South-western Kenya, but there was no evidence of a direct sylvatic virus transmission cycle in Central Kenya. ASF control strategies implemented in these areas will need to take these epidemiological findings into consideration.

Olwande P.O, W.O O, L.C. B, S.O. O. "Comparison of economic impact of alternative constraint control measures in indigenous chicken production in Nyanza Province, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development (LLRD) . 2013;25(2).
Ong’amo GO, LeRu BP, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Composition of stem borer communities in selected vegetation mosaics in Kenya." Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 2013;7(3):267-275. Abstract

Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Strand) are important stem borer pests of maize and sorghum in East Africa. Persistence of these pests in crop fields is blamed on the influx of diaspore populations from the neighbouring natural habitats. In addition to pest species, natural habitats support numerous non-economic stem borer species, some not known to science. However, due to growing human populations and accompanying global change, some of the natural habitats are undergoing rapid changes, a process that may result in the evolution of ‘‘new’’ pest species. In this study, we investigated stem borer species diversity in four different vegetation mosaics in Kenya, with an aim of establishing the differences in species composition and distributions in both wild and cultivated habitats. We identified 33 stem borer species belonging to 14 different genera in the four families; Noctuidae, Crambidae, Pyralidae and Tortricidae from 37 plant species. In addition to the above stem borer pest species, we found three more species, Busseola segeta Bowden, Pirateolea piscator Fletcher and Eldana saccharina Walker, in the cultivated fields. Together, stem borer pests varied in distribution among vegetation mosaics, suggesting differences in ecological requirement. Despite the variations in distribution patterns, stem borer pests co-existed with non-economic species in the natural habitats, communities that are facing threats due to ongo ing habitat changes. This paper discusses the likely impacts of habitat changes on both pest and non-economic species.

Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Nathan I. Danish national park process: chapter 3.3.; 2013. Abstract

document's citation: Boon, T. R. E., Lund, D. H., & Nathan, I. (2008). Danish national park process: chapter 3.3. Vienna: University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna.

Mengwa VK, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Mwabora JM. A Density Functional Theory Study of Electronic Structure of Rutile (110) Surfaces with Catechol Adsorbate. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as semiconductor in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), amongst many other applications. Thus coupled with a suitable sensitizer such as catechol, the study of surface electronic structure of TiO2 will improve light harvesting and electron transfer processes in DSSC. The distribution of states in clean and catechol terminated four and five layer TiO2 (110) rutile surfaces were investigated. All calculations in this work were done by quantum espresso code which uses plane waves and pseudopotentials. The slabs were modelled by four and five layers with vacuum width of 20 Å. The results showed that the (110) stoichiometric TiO2 four layer surface had band gap of 2.1 eV, a value less than band gap value of 2.2 eV of similar catechol bound TiO2 surface. There was an increase in the band gap value of 0.32 eV for the catechol bound TiO2 (110) rutile five layer surface compared to that of clean stoichiometric TiO2 (110) surface. The HOMO in four and five layered TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to lie above the valence band edge. The LUMO in both surfaces was located in the conduction band, and hence the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. These findings have showed that the energy level alignment of catechol coupled to TiO2 is a suitable model to study electron transfer processes that occur in dye sensitized solar cell.

Mengwa VK, N. W. Makau, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. A Density Functional Theory Study of Electronic Structure of Rutile (110) Surfaces with Catechol Adsorbate. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as semiconductor in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), amongst many other applications. Thus coupled with a suitable sensitizer such as catechol, the study of surface electronic structure of TiO2 will improve light harvesting and electron transfer processes in DSSC. The distribution of states in clean and catechol terminated four and five layer TiO2 (110) rutile surfaces were investigated. All calculations in this work were done by quantum espresso code which uses plane waves and pseudopotentials. The slabs were modelled by four and five layers with vacuum width of 20 Å. The results showed that the (110) stoichiometric TiO2 four layer surface had band gap of 2.1 eV, a value less than band gap value of 2.2 eV of similar catechol bound TiO2 surface. There was an increase in the band gap value of 0.32 eV for the catechol bound TiO2 (110) rutile five layer surface compared to that of clean stoichiometric TiO2 (110) surface. The HOMO in four and five layered TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to lie above the valence band edge. The LUMO in both surfaces was located in the conduction band, and hence the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. These findings have showed that the energy level alignment of catechol coupled to TiO2 is a suitable model to study electron transfer processes that occur in dye sensitized solar cell.

Wawire MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional Study Of Luminescence In Polypyridine Ruthenium Complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2′;6′,2″-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photophysical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geometries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT → 3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ΔE , the difference between the View the MathML sourceeg* and lowest energy π* PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d × π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ΔE and high values of d × π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ΔE and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Wawire* MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional study of luminescence in polypyridineruthenium complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013;276 : 8-15. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2’;6’,2”-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photo-physical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geome-tries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT →3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ∆E, the difference between the e∗g and lowest energy π *PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d ×π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1 π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ∆E and high values of d ×π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ∆E and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Litondo KO, Ntale JF. "Determinants of Mobile Phone Usage for E-Commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector of Kenya." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2013;3(6). Abstractdeterminants_of_mobile_phone_usage_for_e-commerce_among_micro_and_small_enterprises_in_the_informal_sector_of_kenya.pdf

Studies done on the usage of Information and Commutation Technologies (ICTs) for e-commerce in the informal sector have mostly concentrated on the roles of computers and internet usage, and give contradicting results on the determinants and benefits of using these technologies. Evidence on factors leading to the mobile phones usage for business among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya is lacking. This paper investigates determinants of mobile phone usage among informal MSEs in Kenya. Primary data was collected from a survey of 384 MSEs in Nairobi County. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of mobile phone usage in e-commerce. The results of the study show that education level is the prime determinant of mobile phone usage for e-commerce. Number of employees and gender of MSEs also have a significant effect on the mobile phone usage for e-commerce. The study recommends the training of MSEs in the mobile phones applications for business and the government should create an enabling environment for MSEs to use mobile phone for e-commerce.
Key words: Mobile phone usage, e-commerce, informal sector, MSEs, and Education

Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Oyieke F, Mukabana WR, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.". 2013.Website
Grainger A, Wong G, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mbuvi D, Low PK, Low PS. "Economic and Social Impacts Assessment of DLDD. Chapter 2 .". In: Economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought. White Paper I. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, prepared with the contributions of an international group of scientists; 2013.unccd_white_paper_1.pdfunccd_key_findings_policy_implications_and_recommendations_of_wp_i.pdf
Njagi. LW, L.C. B, P.G. M, Minga. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. ." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN). 2013;Volume 2012:6 pages.
Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2013;3(3):183-189. AbstractWebsite

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K – 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell, Recombination, Series Resistance, Buffer Layer

Cite this paper: Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda, Julius Mwabora, Marin Rusu, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Martha Lux-Steiner, Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer, International Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 183-189. doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.09.

Musembi R;, Aduda B;, Mwabora J;, Rusu M;, Fostiropoulos K;, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." Internatio n al J ournal of Ene r g y En gi nee ri ng 20 1 3. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in Ti02/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under Varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K - 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Lelei DK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Kibunja CN, Vanlauwe B. "Effects of soil fertility management practices on soil aggregation, carbon and nitrogen dynamics." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;78(1):113-118. Abstract

Poor resource farmers cultivate steep slopes without soil conservation measures and apply insufficient plant nutrients thus degrading the soils. Use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients is one of the approaches being advocated to farmers as a way of improving soil health and increasing crop production.
A study was conducted from a 31 year-old long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya to investigate the effect of inorganic and organic inputs (maize stover and farmyard manure) on soil aggregates, carbon, and nitrogen in a humic nitisol soil under annual maize-bean crop rotation. The treatments for this study were: i) Inorganic fertilizer; ii) Farmyard manure plus or minus inorganic fertilizer; iii) Maize stover plus or minus inorganic fertilizer and iv) control (no inputs applied). The treatments were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Soil samples were collected and subjected to wet sieving and fractionation analyses to assess for water stable aggregates. Carbon and total nitrogen were measured for all aggregate fractions and whole soil. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance.

The results showed significant increase in macroaggregates in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths under manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatment. Also, there was significant increase in mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in macroaggregates and microaggregates, in treatment with farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizer.
Long-term use of manure plus inorganic fertilizer improved the stability of the macroaggregates and increased mean weight diameter in both 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths. Thus integration of farmyard manures and inorganic fertilizers would result in buildup of soil organic matter in the long-term, thus contributing to carbon sequestration in soils.

Key words: Soil aggregate fractions; carbon; nitrogen

Kweka 4. EJ, Owino EA, Lee M-C, Dixit A, Yousif E. Himeidan, Mahande AM. "Efficacy of resting boxes baited with carbon dioxide versus CDC light trap for sampling mosquito vectors: A comparative study." Global Health Perspectives . 2013;1(1):11-18.
TN Niyireba, C Ebong, S Agili, J Low, Lukuyu B, J Kirui, J Ndirigwe, G Uwimana, L Kakundiye, M Mutimura, Gahakwa D, Gachuiri CK. "Evaluation of dual purpose sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars for root and fodder production in Eastern Province, Rwanda." Medwell Publishing. 2013;8(5):242-247.
Maritim MC, Otieno CF, Omonge EO, LULE GN. "Evolution of HIV Training for Enhanced Care Provision in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Healthcare worker capacity building efforts over the past decade have resulted in decentralisation of HIV prevention, care and treatment services
Objective: To provide an overview of the evolution of HIV training in Kenya, from 2003 to date
Data sources: Various Government of Kenya publications, policy documents and websites on training for HIV service delivery. Publications and websites of stakeholders, donors and partners as well. Journal articles, published peer reviewed literature, abstracts, websites and programme reports related to training for HIV treatment in Kenya and the region. Personal experiences of the authors who are trainers by mandate.
Data selection: Data related to training for HIV treatment in Kenya and the region on websites and publications were scrutinised.
Data extraction: All selected articles were read.
Data synthesis: All the collected data together with the authors’ experiences were used for this publication.
Conclusion: Accelerated in-service capacity building efforts have contributed to the success of decentralisation of HIV services. Pre-service HIV training provides an opportunity for sustaining the gains made so far, in the face of declining donor funds. Implementation of the proposed harmonized HIV curriculum in the setting of devolved healthcare provides an opportunity for partnerships between stakeholders involved in pre-service and in-service HIV training to ensure sustainability.

Yangyuoru PM, Latanya Hammonds-Odie, Mwongela SM. "Fluorescent lipids as probes for sphingosine kinase activity by capillary electrophoresis." Capillary Electrophoresis of Biomolecules. 2013:329-340.
Lore TA, Imungi JK, Mubuu K. "A Framing Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Genetically Modified Crops in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

There was much public debate in Kenya about genetically modified (GM) crops when the national Biosafety Bill went through the parliamentary process toward enactment into law. This study analyzed how GM crops were framed in three mainstream Kenyan newspapers—the Daily Nation, The Standard, and Taifa Leo—during the period. The agriculture frame was predominant in the Daily Nation and The Standard, while the safety and regulation frames dominated coverage in Taifa Leo. Only 34.7% of articles were neutral in tone. Scientists and government officials, who generally spoke in favor of GM crops, were the most frequently quoted sources. Recommendations to improve the quality of coverage include training of journalists to ensure objective and balanced reporting.

Aketch ON, Lee H, Fischer TP, Ranka LS, Onguso B, Kanda I, et al. "Gas Geochemistry of Volcanic and Geothermal Areas in the Kenya Rift: Implications for the Role of Fluids in Continental Rifting." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift and ideal to investigate the processes of rift initiation and the breaking apart of continental lithosphere. Mantle and crust-derived fluids may play a pivotal role in both magmatism and faulting in the EAR. For instance, large quantities of mantle-derived volatiles are emitted at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano [1, 2]. Throughout the EAR, CO2-dominated volatile fluxes are prevalent [3, 4] and often associated with faults (i.e. Rungwe area, Tanzania, [5, 6]). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between volcanism, faulting and the volatile compositions, focusing on the central and southern Kenyan and northern Tanzanian section of the EAR. We report our analysis results for samples obtained during a 2013 field season in Kenya. Gases were sampled at fumaroles and geothermal plants in caldera volcanoes (T=83.1-120.2°C) and springs (T=40-79.6°C and pH 8.5-10) located near volcanoes, intra-rift faults, and a transverse fault (the Kordjya fault, a key fluid source in the Magadi rift) by 4N-NaOH solution-filled and empty Giggenbach bottles. Headspace gases were analyzed by a Gas Chromatograph and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer at the University of New Mexico. Both N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of all gases (35.38-205.31 and 142.92-564,272, respectively) range between air saturated water (ASW, 40 and ≥150,000) and MORB (100-200 and 40-50). In addition, an N2-Ar-He ternary diagram supports that the gases are produced by two component (mantle and air) mixing. Gases in the empty bottles from volcanoes and springs have N2 (90.88-895.99 mmom/mol), CO2 (2.47-681.21 mmom/mol), CH4 (0-214.78 mmom/mol), O2 (4.47-131.12 mmom/mol), H2 (0-35.78 mmom/mol), Ar (0.15-10.65 mmom/mol), He (0-2.21 mmom/mol), and CO (0-0.08 mmom/mol). Although some of the samples show an atmospheric component, CO2 is a major component in most samples, indicating both volcanoes and springs are emitting CO2. Gases from volcanoes are enriched in CH4 and H2, denoting their sources are reduced (oxygen-poor) magma chambers or hydrothermal systems. 40Ar/36Ar ratios (average of all samples=299.15) are similar to our air standard value (299.65×4.05), however, some volcanoes (~308.75) and springs (~321.96) have slightly higher ratios. The springs with elevated 40Ar imply that both the intra-rift (Lake Bogoria) and transverse (Lake Magadi) faults are possibly pathways to carry volatiles from deep sources to the surface. In future work, we will carry out wet chemistry and ion chromatography analyses of the NaOH solutions, measure 3He/4He ratios and complete C, N, and S isotope analyses to further constrain fluid sources and migration processes. [1] Fischer et al., 2009, Nature 459. [2] de Moor et al., 2013, EPSL 361. [3] Sawyer et al., 2008, G-cubed 9. [4] Tassi et al., 2009, G-cubed 10. [5] Barry et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339. [6] de Moor et al., 2013, Chem Geol 339.

Loyal P, ONGETI K, Mandela P, Ogeng’o J. "Gender related patterns in the shape and dimensions of the foramen magnum in an adult Kenyan population." Anat J Afr . 2013;2 (2):138-141.
Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "How qualitative studies and gender analysis can add value to the assessment of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya.".; 2013.
McLigeyo AA, Lule G, FREDRICK OTIENOCF, Kayima JK;, Omonge E;. "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated lipodystrophy: The prevalence, severity and phenotypes in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Kenya.". In: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. Vol. 5.; 2013:. Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is widely accessible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Kenya. Their long term use is associated with chronic complications such as lipodystrophy which may lead to stigmatization, reduced self esteem and poor adherence to HAART. This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of lipodystrophy, the phenotypes and severity among adult HIV infected patients on chronic HAART at a HIV clinic in Kenya. Data were collected using an investigator administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements done using a protocol based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 51.3% (confidence interval (CI) 45.6 to 57.6). Lipoatrophy occurred in 44%, lipohypertrophy in 15% and mixed syndrome in 41% of patients with lipodystrophy. Facial atrophy occurred in 75.7% of patients with lipodystrophy, upper limb atrophy in 48.5%, and lower limb atrophy in 36.8%. Abdominal obesity occurred in 40.4% of patients with lipodystrophy, breast enlargement in 30.9% and dorsocervical fat accumulation in 5.1%. Most patients had severe lipoatrophy, whereas lipohypertrophy was described as mild to moderate using the HIV out-patient study (HOPS) scale. HIV associated lipodystrophy was common in HIV-infected patients on chronic HAART. The main phenotype was lipoatrophy which majority of the patients described as severe.

J.K. K, McLigeyo AA, Lule G, Otieno CF, Omonge E. "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated lipodystrophy: The prevalence, severity and phenotypes in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Kenya." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2013;5(4):107-113. Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is widely accessible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Kenya. Their long term use is associated with chronic complications such as lipodystrophy which may lead to stigmatization, reduced self esteem and poor adherence to HAART. This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of lipodystrophy, the phenotypes and severity among adult HIV infected patients on chronic HAART at a HIV clinic in Kenya. Data were collected using an investigator administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements done using a protocol based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 51.3% (confidence interval (CI) 45.6 to 57.6). Lipoatrophy occurred in 44%, lipohypertrophy in 15% and mixed syndrome in 41% of patients with lipodystrophy. Facial atrophy occurred in 75.7% of patients with lipodystrophy, upper limb atrophy in 48.5%, and lower limb atrophy in 36.8%. Abdominal obesity occurred in 40.4% of patients with lipodystrophy, breast enlargement in 30.9% and dorsocervical fat accumulation in 5.1%. Most patients had severe lipoatrophy, whereas lipohypertrophy was described as mild to moderate using the HIV out-patient study (HOPS) scale. HIV associated lipodystrophy was common in HIV-infected patients on chronic HAART. The main phenotype was lipoatrophy which majority of the patients described as severe.

Magero D, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. Hydrogen as an alternative fuel: An ab-initio study of Lithium Hydride and Magnesium Hydride. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

Limited energy resources and growing pollution associated with conventional energy production have stimulated the search for cleaner, cheaper and more efficient energy technologies. Hydrogen as a fuel is seen as one of the promising energy technologies alternative to fossil fuel. Metal hydrides have been suggested as potential candidates for the bulk storage of hydrogen. In this study, ab-initio calculations of metal hydrides that are promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, that is, magnesium hydride (MgH2) and lithium hydride (LiH) was carried out using the Quantum Espresso computer code. The calculated quantities were the equilibrium structural parameters namely, the electronic properties as well as the thermodynamic properties. The calculated lattice parameters for MgH2 were a = 4.54 Å and c = 3.019 Å. Both values of a and c are in good agreement with experimental values of a = 4.501 Å and c = 3.01 Å. The calculated lattice parameter for LiH was a = b = c = 3.93 Å. The lattice parameter of LiH shows a correlation of approximately -3.79% with the experimental value of 4.083 Å. Thermodynamic properties of LiH were investigated by performing density functional theory within the quasi harmonic approximation. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity at constant volume CV, the Helmholtz free energy ∆F, the internal energy ∆E and the entropy ∆S was obtained. The thermodynamic properties and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Musila MF, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Munyao JM. "In vivo antimalarial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected antimalarial plants." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;146:557-561.published_paper.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.01.023
Musila MS, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Munyao JM. "In vivo antimalarial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected antimalarial plants." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;146:557-561. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance:

Malaria continues to kill over a million people each year and in many populations affected by malaria, conventional drugs are often unaffordable or inaccessible. Historically, plants have been a prominent source of antimalarial drugs. Those plants currently used by indigenous people to treat malaria should be documented and investigated as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs.

Aim of the study:
To investigate in vivoantimalarial activity, toxicity and carry out phytochemical
screening of selected plants which have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria.

Materials and methods:
Organic and water extracts of four medicinal plants used for the treatment of
malaria in traditional health systems of Msambweni people in Kenya were tested for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei and brine shrimp lethality. They were also screened for their major phytochemical constituents.

Results:
Aqueous extract of the stem bark of Adansonia digitata exhibited highest chemosuppression of parasitaemia, > 60% in a murine model of Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous and organic extracts of
Launaea cornuta and Zanthoxylum chalybeum were toxic to the brine shrimp (LD 50 o 1000 mg/ml) while aqueous and organic extracts of Adansonia digitata and aqueous extracts of Canthium glaucum were not toxic to brine shrimp (LD50 > 1000mg/ml). Phytochemical screening revealed the
presence of alkaloids and flavonoids in all the crude extracts of the selected plant species studied. Sesquiterpene lactones and saponis were present in organic extracts but absent in the aqueous extracts of Adansonia digitata,
Canthium glaucum, Launaea cornuta and Zanthoxylum chalybeum.
Conclusion:

The results showed that the crude extracts of Adansonia digitata and Canthium glaucum demonstrated promising antimalarial activity and there is potential for isolation of lead compounds from their extracts.

Lelon JK, Jumba IO, Keter JK, Oduor FDO. "Influence of Acacia senegal varieties on quality of gum arabic in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science. 2013;7(6):190-200. AbstractAfrican Journal of Plant Science

Description
A study was done to determine the influence of Acacia senegal variety senegal and var. kerensis on quality of gum arabic in Solit, Kapkun, Kimorok and Maoi, Marigat division, Baringo District. Soil and gum arabic samples were collected, dried and analysed to establish their chemical characteristics. Gum nitrogen from A. senegal variety senegal in Kapkun and Solit was negatively correlated to soil nitrogen (r=-0.28), while gum nitrogen from variety kerensis at Kimorok and Maoi was positively correlated to soil nitrogen (r= 0.16), respectively. High nitrogen content in soils was significantly correlated to high content of nitrogen (0.30%) in gum arabic obtained from the A. senegal varieties. Gum copper was highly correlated to soil copper (r= 0.09; P< 0.01), soil iron was highly correlated to gum iron (r= 0.09; P< 0.05) and soil manganese and gum manganese was negatively correlated (r=-0.08; P< 0.05). Gum zinc from A …

Waris A, Leaman J. The International Political Economy of Taxation 1945-Present. Berlin: Bregnan; 2013.
Kanyinga K, Long J, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Kenya’s 2013 Election. Democracy on Trial?". 2013.Website
Nyamongo IK, Liani ML, Aagaard-Hansen J. "Layperson’s perceptions about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Kenya.". 2013.Website
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, L.W. N. "Learners’ Perceptions of Support Services in Distance Education: A case of Bachelor of Education Students at Kenyatta University, Kenya." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2013;3(ISSN 2201 – 6333):1-4.kimani10.pdf
Mwabora J, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Marin R, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

Langat A, Benki-Nugent S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Ngugi E, Diener L, Richardson BA, GC. J-S. "Lipid Changes in Kenyan HIV-1-Infected Infants Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy by One Year of Age." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended for HIV-1 infected infants. There are limited data on lipid changes during infant HAART. METHODS:: Non-fasting total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were measured at 0, 6 and 12 months. Correlates of lipid levels and changes post-HAART were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS:: Among 115 infants, pre-HAART median age was 3.8 months, CD4% was 19%, and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was -2.42. Pre-HAART median lipid levels were: TC, 108.7 mg/dl, LDL, 42.5 mg/dl, HDL, 29.4 mg/dl and TG, 186.9 mg/dl. Few infants had abnormally high TC (6.2%) or LDL (5.6%), but many had low HDL (76.5%) or high TG (69.6%). Higher pre-HAART WAZ and HAZ were each associated with higher pre-HAART TC (P=0.04 and P=0.01) and LDL (P=0.02 and P=0.008). From 0-6 months post-HAART, TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0001), and HDL (P<0.0001) increased significantly, and 23.1% (P=0.002), 14.0% (P=0.2), 31.3% (P<0.0001), and 50.8% (P=0.2) of infants had abnormally high TC, high LDL, low HDL, and high TG, respectively. Changes in TC and HDL were each associated with higher gain in WAZ (P=0.03 and P=0.01) and HAZ (P=0.01 and P=0.007). Increased change in LDL was associated with higher gain in HAZ (P=0.03). Infants on protease inhibitor (PI)-HAART had smaller HDL increase (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Infants had substantive increases in lipids, which correlated with growth. Increases in HDL were attenuated by PI-HAART. It is important to determine clinical implications of these changes.
PMID:
23385950
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Largerkvist CJ, Ngigi MW, Karanja N. "Means-end chain analysis explains soil fertility management decisions by peri-urban vegetable growers in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Past studies of the use of soil fertility management strategies by farmers usually model input use decisions based on the neoclassical utility/profit maximization principle in which farmers use soil fertility management inputs primarily to increase revenues and profits. However, there is, to date, no study that explains exactly how this decision-making process occurs and the role which personal values play in driving the choice of soil fertility management inputs. This article systematically maps the relationship between choice of soil fertility management strategy (attributes), its outcomes (consequences) and the personal values that motivate the choice. It specifically uses the means-end chain approach to construct hierarchical value maps that relate the attributes to consequences, and ultimately to the personal values. The study finds that the use of soil fertility management strategies by peri-urban fresh vegetable growers is driven by five personal values, namely happiness, comfortable life, independence, good/healthy life and achievement of life goals. It also finds that while farmers seek to increase profit (hence incomes), profit maximization is not the end driver of the use of soil fertility management inputs. It concludes that a lot more goes into farmers’ decision-making process relating to the use of soil fertility management practices than can be explained by the neoclassical profit/utility maximization principle. The study discusses the policy implications of these findings.

Paul BK, Vanlauwe B, Ayuke F, Gassnerc A, Hoogmoed M, Hurissoa TT, Koala S, Lelei D, Ndabamenyea T, Six J. "Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2013;164:14-22. Abstract

Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase,
although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify
the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management (retention
and removal) on soil and crop performance in a maize–soybean rotation. A replicated field trial
was started in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003, and measurements were taken from 2005 to 2008.
Conventional tillage negatively affected soil aggregate stability when compared to reduced tillage, as
indicated by lower mean weight diameter values upon wet sieving at 0–15 cm (PT < 0.001). This suggests
increased susceptibility to slaking and soil erosion. Tillage and residue management alone did not affect
soil C contents after 11 cropping seasons, but when residue was incorporated by tillage, soil C was higher
at 15–30 cm (PT*R = 0.037). Lack of treatment effects on the C content of different aggregate fractions
indicated that reduced tillage and/or residue retention did not increase physical C protection. The weak
residue effect on aggregate stability and soil C may be attributed to insufficient residue retention. Soybean
grain yields tended to be suppressed under reduced tillage without residue retention, especially
in wet seasons (PT*R = 0.070). Consequently, future research should establish, for different climatic zones
and soil types, the critical minimum residue retention levels for soil conservation and crop productivity.
Keywords: Reduced tillage, Crop residue management, Soil aggregate stability, Crop yields, Soil organic, carbon, Sub-Saharan Africa

Lule G;, Omonge E;, Kayima JK;, Otieno FCF;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; 2013. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Omonge E, Kayima JK, Otieno FCF, Lule G, McLigeyo AA. "Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)." Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2013;5(5):142-148. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2 CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p = 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic. Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars (p value 0.125).

Litondo KO. "Mobile Phones and Employment among Informal and Small Enterprises in Nairobi." African Casebook: Synergies in African business and management practices.. 2013;1:72-87.
Larry Wangai, Pamela Mandela FBKO. "MORPHOLOGY OF THE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE IN A KENYAN POPULATION." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):70-79.larrymandible_2013.pdf
Larry Wangai, Pamela Mandela FBKO. "MORPHOLOGY OF THE MANDIBULAR CONDYLE IN A KENYAN POPULATION." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;1(2):70-79.larrymandible_2013.pdf
Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-1755. Abstract

Summary

Background: We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Methods: In our cross-sectional study, we included women attending health facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East that dealt with at least 1000 childbirths per year and had the capacity to provide caesarean section. We obtained data from analysis of hospital records for all women giving birth and all women who had a severe maternal outcome (SMO; ie, maternal death or maternal near miss). We regarded coverage of key maternal health interventions as the proportion of the target population who received an indicated intervention (eg, the proportion of women with eclampsia who received magnesium sulphate). We used areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC) with 95% CI to externally validate a previously reported MSI as an indicator of severity. We assessed the overall performance of care (ie, the ability to produce a positive effect on health outcomes) through standardised mortality ratios.

Results: From May 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2011, we included 314 623 women attending 357 health facilities in 29 countries (2538 had a maternal near miss and 486 maternal deaths occurred). The mean period of data collection in each health facility was 89 days (SD 21). 23 015 (7•3%) women had potentially life-threatening disorders and 3024 (1•0%) developed an SMO. 808 (26•7%) women with an SMO had post-partum haemorrhage and 784 (25•9%) had preeclampsia or eclampsia. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and coagulation dysfunctions were the most frequent organ dysfunctions in women who had an SMO. Reported mortality in countries with a high or very high maternal mortality ratio was two-to-three-times higher than that expected for the assessed severity despite a high coverage of essential interventions. The MSI had good accuracy for maternal death prediction in women with markers of organ dysfunction (AUROC 0•826 [95% CI 0•802–0•851]).

Interpretation: High coverage of essential interventions did not imply reduced maternal mortality in the health-care facilities we studied. If substantial reductions in maternal mortality are to be achieved, universal coverage of lifesaving interventions need to be matched with comprehensive emergency care and overall improvements in the quality of maternal health care. The MSI could be used to assess the performance of health facilities providing care to women with complications related to pregnancy.

Funding: UNDP–UNFPA–UNICEF–WHO–World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP); WHO; USAID; Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; Gynuity Health Projects.

KARIUKI HELLENN, L GWYTHER, RA POWELL BA MAMS1 HARDINGBSMSPD2 NAMISANGOMS3 KATABIRAREE, 5, L RADBRUCH MD6 MURRAYS. "Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda ." JOURNAL OF PAIN AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT. 2013.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Lucy M. "Performance of socially screened portfolio at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013;3(6):73-83. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds. This study sought to determine whether applying social screens to a portfolio would affect the portfolio`s performance. Two portfolios were formulated each comprised of 20 firms. One comprised of the NSE 20-share index firms and the second comprised 20 firms that passed the negative screening criterion that was employed. The descriptive research design approach was used. The target population was all the firms listed at the NSE. The risk adjusted returns were computed using the Sharpe index. Monthly and annual returns were calculated for years 2007 - 2011. F and T-tests were used to determine whether there was significant difference between the risk adjusted returns of the two portfolios. The NSE-20 portfolio had a higher average Sharpe ratio than the social screened portfolio hence it outperformed the socially screened portfolio when compared in terms of risk adjusted returns. The study concludes that social screening results in reduced portfolio performance.

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of staphylococcus aureus rom raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2013;3(3):87-98.
Tina LD, Omoni G, Lee K, WAKASIAKA S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.". 2013. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills. an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis. 92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed. e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Kimani K, Lindfield R, Senyonjo L, Mwaniki A, Schmidt E. "Prevalence and Causes of Ocular Morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a Population-Based Survey.". 2013. Abstract

Ocular morbidity (OM) describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. Results: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%). 15.52% (95% CI 13.86–16.92) had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05–28.45) of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58%) and the conjunctiva (31.31%). No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87–11.74) self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1–55.04) stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. Conclusion: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia). Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

Graham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Liles WC, Overbaugh J. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

raham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Liles WC. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

Mbuthia PG, A. SZ, N. M, N. NP, L. N, C. BL, N. MJ. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya. ." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences.. 2013;6(3):53-58.
Onyango C, Unbehend G, Mewa EA, Mutahi AW, Lindhauer MG, Okoth MW. Strategies for the production of gluten-free bread from sorghum cassava flour blend. Dresden: TUDpress; 2013.trend_and_opportunities.pdf
Mulwa W, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. Structural and Electronic Properties of TiO2, Nb:TiO2 and Cr:TiO2: A first principles study. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

Substitutional Nb donor and Cr acceptor states in Anatase and Rutile TiO2 have been studied using generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets in bulk. The calculations reveal that, on doping the Rutile structure with Cr and Nb atoms, new states were found to occur within the band gap, principally between 8.67 eV and 10.56 eV. These states are due to Nb_4d and Cr_3d orbitals. For the anatasse structure, states due to the dopants occurred between 6.663 eV and 8.939 eV. It was also observed that during the 2% doping with Cr and Nb, there were fewer new states in the band gap compared to many new states realized during the 4% doping and this happened in both Rutile and Anatase phases of TiO2. This shows that a higher doping concentration of 4% results in more energy states and hence more carriers, thus making TiO2 a better conductor than either 2% doping or pure TiO2. This study found that doping TiO2 (Anatase and Rutile) with either Cr or Nb at 2% and 4%, resulted in the removal of the energy band gap, implying improved conductivity compared to pure TiO2 [1] which exhibits insulating properties.

L M, K S, S Y, K M, S K, N I. "Study on endocytosis and haemoglobin uptake in different developmental stages of Trypanosoma congolense, IL3000 strain." Journal of Protozoology Research. 2013;23:14-20.
Lily B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Linet LK, K’Obonyo PO. A survey of strategic human resource and practices and performance of commercial banks in Nairobi, Kenya. London: LA MBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
Lorenz LM, Keane A, Moore JD, Munk CJ, Seeholzer L, Mseka A, Simfukwe E, Ligamba J, Turner EL, Biswaro LR, Okumu FO, GF K, WR M, SJ. M. "Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues. Parasites & Vectors." Parasites & Vectors. 2013;3(6):131.
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, L.W. N. "Teacher Factors Influencing Students Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;3(ISSN 2201 – 6333):145-158 .kimani_11.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R. "Tenure Security and Ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.". In: Nature’s Wealth. The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ; 2013.
Awori MN, Leong W, Artrip JH, O'Donnell C. "Tetralogy of Fallot repair: optimal z-score use for transannular patch insertion." European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2013;43:483-486. Abstracttetralogy_of_fallot_repair_optimal_z-score_use_for_transannula.pdf

Transannular patching is used to relieve significant pulmonary annular stenosis during tetralogy of Fallot repair. Although recent literature has focused on the deleterious effects of pulmonary regurgitation, inadequate relief of stenosis may increase postoperative mortality and the re-intervention rate. Patching criteria based on pulmonary annular z-scores are ambiguous because of the use of varied z-score data sets. This study aimed to generate data that could be used to optimize z-score use for patch insertion. A retrospective review was made of medical records of patients who had a valve-sparing repair of tetralogy of Fallot between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. In a selected group in which the residual gradient was confined to the pulmonary valve, the post-repair peak pressure gradient was determined by trans-thoracic echocardiography and was correlated with the intra-operative pulmonary valve annulus (PVA) diameter z-score. Regression analysis was used to examine this relationship. Data from 46 patients with valve-sparing repair were reviewed; the median age and median weight were 6.5 months and 6.6 kg, respectively; the 30-day mortality was 2.2%. Analysis of these data implies that 25% of the time, all patients with a PVA z-score of -1.3 would have a PVA gradient ≥30 mmHg. Criteria that recommend a transannular patch insertion only when the PVA diameter z-score is significantly smaller than -1.3 (e.g. -3) may result in a significant number of patients with an unacceptable post-repair PVA gradient.

Masatani T, Matsuo T, Tanaka T, Terkawi MA, Lee EG, Goo YK, Yamagishi J, Hayashi K, Kameyama K, Cao S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "TgGRA23, a novel Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and intravacuolar network.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which relies on a specialized compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), to survive within host cells. Dense granules within the parasite release a large variety of proteins to maintain the integrity of the vacuole structure. Here, we identified a novel dense granule protein in T. gondii, TgGRA23, which is a homolog of the Sarcocystis muris dense granule protein, SmDG32. Recombinant TgGRA23 (rTgGRA23) expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein was used to raise antisera in mice and rabbits. Immunoblotting showed that antisera from the immunized mice and rabbits reacted with parasite lysates to yield a 21-kDa native protein. In addition, immuno-electron microscopic examination showed that TgGRA23 resides in the dense granules, PV membrane and intravacuolar network of the parasite. To confirm the precise subcellular localization of TgGRA23 in T. gondii, an immunofluorescent antibody test was performed using dense granule markers. Notably, TgGRA23 co-localized with other dense granule proteins including TgGRA4 and TgGRA7, in the extracellular-stage parasites. Biochemical experiments indicated that TgGRA23 is insoluble and may form an electrostatic complex that is resistant to non-ionic detergents. Furthermore, specific antibodies to TgGRA23 were detected during the chronic stage of Toxoplasma infection in mice. Our results suggest that TgGRA23 is an as yet unknown member of the T. gondii dense granule proteins, and that it may be involved in remodeling or maintenance of the PV.

Félix A-E, Calatayud P-A, LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ong’amo G, Silvain J-F, Frérot B. "To be or not to be a species: use of reproductive isolation experiments and genetic analysis to clarify the taxonomic status of two Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France . 2013;49(3):345-354. Abstract

Phylogenetic analysis combined with chemical ecology can contribute to the delimitation of closely related insect species, particularly in Lepidoptera. In this study, the taxonomic status of a species in the genus Busseola (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was discussed using morphological data, cross-mating experiments, sex pheromone chemistry, field-trapping, and molecular classification. The results of the chemical ecology experiments corroborated those from the phylogeny studies. It was concluded that several reproductive isolation components, namely host plants, geography, pheromone emission time, pheromone blend, and post-zygotic isolation factors, led to the separation of Busseola n. sp. from its closely related species B. segeta. Molecular data showed a strong difference between these two species, regardless of the marker used. The new species named Busseola nairobica was morphologically described and a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of the studied species was put forward.

Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Transport Mechanism in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta Solar Cell." Researchgate. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K–320 K. The recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark has been found to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The illumination intensity and temperature have also been found to have a strong influence on the device conversion efficiency, with the highest efficiency being realized at 200 K

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