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{Bichang'a GB, Lage J-LD, Sambai K, Mule S, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina EN, Calatayud P-A. "Salivary $\alpha$-Amylase of Stem Borer Hosts Determines Host Recognition and Acceptance for Oviposition by Cotesia spp.(Hymenoptera, Braconidae)." Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;6:228. Abstract
Wang Y, Lin F, Shang B, Peng B, Deng Z. "Self-template synthesis of nickel silicate and nickel silicate/nickel composite nanotubes and their applications in wastewater treatment." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2018;522:191-199. Abstract
Huang SH, Jiang X, Peng B, Janisch C, Cocking A, Özdemir ŞK, Liu Z, Yang L. "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on dielectric microspheres with whispering gallery mode resonance." Photonics Research. 2018;6:346-356. Abstract
Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille S, Gona P, Cromwell J, Hayman L. "Tapping Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Dataset to Assess Transportability of the Non-Laboratory Based Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Tool.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 67. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS TWO COMMERCE SQ, 2001 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA …; 2018:. Abstract
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Wu L, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Theoretical investigation of novel electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of metallic hydrogen at 495 GPa." arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.10920. 2018. Abstract
Peng B, Mortazavi B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Li J, Ni G, Rabczuk T, Zhu H. "Tuning thermal transport in C 3 N monolayers by adding and removing carbon atoms." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:034046. Abstract
Lokken EM, Balkus JE, Kiarie J, Hughes JP, Jaoko W, Totten PA, McClelland SR, Manhart LE. "Recent bacterial vaginosis is associated with acquisition of Mycoplasma genitalium." Am. J. Epidemiol.. 2017. Abstract

We assessed the association between recent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and incident Mycoplasma genitalium, a sexually transmitted bacterium associated with adverse female reproductive health outcomes. Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya completed a monthly sexual behavior interview and clinical examination. During February 2005-February 2006, vaginal fluid specimens collected from women every other month were tested for M. genitalium by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vaginal microbiota was assessed monthly and categorized by Nugent score (0-3 normal, 4-6 intermediate microbiota, 7-10 BV). A discrete time failure analysis for multiple events using logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of incident M. genitalium infection at follow-up visits in women with BV versus normal microbiota at the preceding visit. Among the 280 women, 54.3% were HIV positive. At baseline, 16.1% had prevalent M. genitalium infections and 40.4% had prevalent BV. There were 59 incident M. genitalium infections among 50 women for an incidence rate of 34.6 per 100 person-years. Following adjustment for age, HIV status, and time, prior BV was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in odds of incident M. genitalium (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.86, 6.56). This strong association suggests that BV may enhance susceptibility to M. genitalium infection.

Wall KM, Rida W, Haddad LB, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Kilembe W, Allen S, Inambao M, Yang AH, Latka MH, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Bekker L-G, Edward VA, Price MA. "Pregnancy and HIV Disease Progression in an Early Infection Cohort from Five African Countries." Epidemiology. 2017;28(2):224-232. Abstract

Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to provide appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women.

Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Gazzard B, Karita E, Bergin P, Hayes P, Kopycinski J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Jackson A, Bizimana J, Farah B, Sayeed E, Parks CL, Inoue M, Hironaka T, Hara H, Shu T, Matano T, Dally L, Barin B, Park H, Gilmour J, Lombardo A, Excler J-L, Fast P, Laufer DS, Cox JH. "First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(1):95-104. Abstract

 We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.

Odhiambo JA, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Corms as an additional feature to identify Gladiolus spp.". In: XXI AETFAT congress.; 2017. Abstractuse_of_corms_as__additional_features_to_identify.ppt

Gladiolus is a genus that consists of underground corms and strikingly showy flowers. The corms are mostly rounded and symmetrical enveloped with fibrous tunics. Presently the main and sure way to identify these plants is by their use of showy flowers; however, this becomes a challenge in during the dry seasons when the plants don’t flower. This study investigated the use of corms as additional feature for identification of Gladiolus species found in Kenya; Gladiolus watsonoides, G. goetzenii, G. ukambanensis and G. newii. Physical and histological features of the corms were evaluated according to Rolls, 2011, to investigate any differences across the different species. Although the analysis of the cells of corms did not reveal any obvious differences, their outward morphologies including the colour, shape and texture of the tunics were different across the species investigated. Therefore, corms form an additional feature of taxonomic value for identification and collection of these plants in the absence of flowers.
Key words: Gladiolus, Corms, Identification

Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "Molecular Phylogeny of ten Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade.". In: XXI AETFAT congress. Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017. Abstractaetfat_2017-fredrick_m.ppt

Plectranthus is one important genus of flowering plants whose member species have a variety of uses in the horticultural and in the medical field. Plectranthus species are difficult to distinguish morphologically and many species have been given different names by different authors. Use of morphological characters is not sufficiently enough to delimit the genus successfully. Molecular, anatomical and biochemical markers are better in studying interspecific variation compared to gross morphological markers. So far no study on molecular phylogeny of the Kenyan Plectranthus species has been conducted. By comparing the same gene sequence across species within a genus, a phylogenetic tree can be constructed which can support or give new insights into the existing classification and rule out the confusion brought by synonymy. As a result, the current study used molecular characters to classify ten Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade within the Plectranthus genus. The molecular characters used in the study were DNA sequences of two chloroplast genes: MatK and Rbcl genes considered as universal molecular markers. Genomic DNA from the ten species was obtained followed by amplification and sequencing of the two genes in each species. From the results, a phylogenetic tree reconstructed using MatK genes groups P. caninus, P. otostegioides, P. barbatus and P. lanuginosus together and all the four species form a monophyletic group. These four species together with P.aegyptiacus form a larger monophyletic group. The same pattern can be observed in the phylogenetic tree created using the Rbcl genes. Again based on the MatK genes; P. pseudomarruboides, P. ornatus, P. montanous and P. amboinicus have been showed to be closely related and are monophyletic. Again these four species together with P.edulis form a larger monophyletc group. This close relationship of these species can also be observed in phylogenetic tree produced using the Rbcl genes. The present study has grouped the ten study Plectranthus species using molecular characters into phylogenies which are supported by previous studies and proved that molecular characters can aid in plant identification and phylogenetic studies.
Key words; Plectranthus, Molecular phylogeny, MatK gene, Rbcl gene.

Lydia W. Njenga, Rachael E.N. Njogu, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes as Photoredox Catalysts in Organic Synthesis.". In: Oorgandagarna - Inorganic Days,. Nynäshamn, Sweden; 2017.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;Vol. 11,(Issue 8):pp 1003-1014.
Chalo DM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji, S. F. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok County, Kenya. ." Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;Vol 15((1)):pp. 29-43.
Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Lamuka P, Njeru F, Gitao C, Khalif A. "Camel health management and pastoralists’ knowledge and information on zoonoses and food safety risks in Isiolo County, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7(20, DOI 10.1186/s13570-017-0095-z).
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
Mutuku MW, Lu L, Otiato FO, Mwangi IN, Kinuthia JM, Maina GM, Laidemitt MR, Lelo EA, Ochanda H, Loker ES, Mkoji GM. "A Comparison of Kenyan Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. Sudanica as Vectors for Schistosoma mansoni, Including a Discussion of the Need to Better Understand …." The Journal of parasitology. 2017;103(6):669-676.
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. Construction of moment-matching multinomial lattices using Vandermonde matrices and Gröbner bases.; 2017. Abstract

In order to describe and analyze the quantitative behavior of stochastic processes, such as
the process followed by a financial asset, various discretization methods are used. One such
set of methods are lattice models where a time interval is divided into equal time steps and
the rate of change for the process is restricted to a particular set of values in each time step.
The well-known binomial-and trinomial models are the most commonly used in applications,
although several kinds of higher order models have also been examined. Here we will
examine various ways of designing higher order lattice schemes with different node
placements in order to guarantee moment-matching with the process.

Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Jennings L, M M, Linnemayr S, Trujillo A, M. M’anyengo. "Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory." AIDS and Behavior. 2017;21(9):2784-2798.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha M. "Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Antagonistic Fungi in Managing Tomato Pests and Diseases under Field Conditions." Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 2017;4(2):20-27.
Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In vitro activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):83-689.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In'vitro'activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):683.
Twalib MH, Lukio OA. "THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AT KENYA POWER ." DBA Africa Management Review . 2017;7 (2):215-227. Abstractpublished_ocb_article.pdf

The main focus of the paper was determining the effect of gender on organizational
citizenship behaviour.The sub objectives emanated from this include to determine the
influence of gender on altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. The study used a
descriptive survey and a population study of 200 employees with a sample of 80 employees
which is 40% of the total population as recommended by experts(Mugenda and Mugenda,
2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires.
Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was
analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the main hypothesis that
gender influences organizational citizenship behaviour (R
=.167, F=13.869, P≤0.05). The
correlation coefficient for the model was 0.409 which also confirms that there is
anassociation between gender and organizational citizenship behaviour. The paper failed to
confirm the sub hypothesis that Female employees practice altruism than their male
counterparts. It failed to confirm thatMale employees practice more sportsmanship than
female employees. The other sub-hypothesis that female employees practice more courtesy
than their male counterpart was also confirmed. Civic Virtue was seen to be practiced
more with male employees than female employees. This sub hypothesis was confirmed. The
study recommends that managers should focus on integrating all the genders strong traits
for the benefit of the organization. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated
in other organization.

Lutta HO, Wesonga HO, Odongo DO, Thiaucourt F, Naessens J. "Inoculation of Mycoplasma mycoides by endotracheal intubation produces a milder disease than by contact transmission." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:477-484.
Masvawure TB, Mantell JE, Tocco JU  , P G, Restar A, Chabeda SV, Lafort Y, TGM S. "Intentional and Unintentional Condom Breakage and Slippage in the Sexual Interactions of Female and Male Sex Workers and Clients in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2017:doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1922-.
Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety,. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Lorroki P, Muthomi J, Ininda J, Gichuru L, Githiri S, Wagacha. M. "Mode of Gene Action to Maize Streak Virus in Mid Altitude Inbred Lines CML202 and Osu23i." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2017;7(3):9-18.
Muli WM, J A, Lishenga J, Abala DO. "The Moderating Effect of Economic Growth on the Relationship Between Economic Integration and Foreign Direct Investment in the East African Community." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2017;6(3):85-114.
Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Mubenga O, Chipabika G, Ndemah R, Bani G, Molo R, Ong’amo GO, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini), with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics ." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY . 2017;270:1-36.
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Nguta, CM, S.F. D. "Phylogeny of Ten Kenyan Plectranthus Species in the Coleus Clade Inferred from Leaf Micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK Genes ." Journal of Botany. 2017;((
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Phylogeny of ten Kenyan Plectranthus species in the coleus clade inferred from leaf micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK genes." Journal of Botany, . 2017;(Vol. 2017),:pp. 1-16.
Mutala TM, Lazaro E, Odhiambo AO, Kimani NM. "Positive predictive value of prostatic multiparametric MRI in patients with high PSA levels: Nairobi experience." Cancer Imaging. 2017;17(Supp 1):29.
Abdel-Rahman EM, Landmann T, Richard Kyalo, Ong’amo G, Mwalusepo S, Sulieman S, Ru BL. "Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models." International journal of applied earth observation and geoinformation. 2017;57:61-74.
Lusigi EM, Mbuge DO, Obiero JP, Ondieki SC, Ndiba PK. "Quality Assessment of Rain and Storm Water Runoff for Nairobi City Industrial and Sub-Urban Areas." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM). 2017;4(1):540-546.
Lusigi EEM, Mbuge DO, Obiero JP, Ondieki SC, Ndiba; P.K. "Quality Assessment of Rain and Storm Water Runoff for Nairobi City Industrial and Sub-Urban Areas." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM); . 2017;volume 4(issue 1).
AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Gharial J, Laving A, Were F. "Racecadotril for the treatment of severe acute watery diarrhoea in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kenya." BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1). AbstractWebsite


Diarrhoea is the second most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age in Kenya. It is usually treated with oral rehydration, zinc and continued feeding. Racecadotril has been in use for over 2 decades; however, there is a paucity of data regarding its efficacy from Africa.

The objectives of this study were: to compare the number of stools in the first 48 hours in children with severe gastroenteritis requiring admission and treated with either racecadotril or placebo, to study the impact of racecadotril on duration of inpatient stay as well as duration of diarrhoea and to describe the side effect profile of racecadotril.

This was a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. It enrolled children between the age of 3 and 60 months who were admitted with severe acute gastroenteritis. They received either racecadotril or placebo in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc and were followed up daily.

120 children were enrolled into the study. There were no differences in the demographics or outcomes between the 2 groups. Stools at 48 hours: median (IQR) of 5 (3–7) and 5 (2.5–7.5), respectively; p=0.63. The duration of inpatient stay: median (IQR): 4 days (1.5–6.5) and 4.5 (1.8–6.3); p=0.71. The duration of illness: 3 days (2–4) and 2 days (1–3); p=0.77. The relative risk of a severe adverse event was 3-fold higher in the drug group but was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.63 to 14.7); p=0.16.

Racecadotril has no impact on the number of stools at 48 hours, the duration of hospital stay or the duration of diarrhoea in children admitted with severe gastroenteritis and managed with ORS and zinc

Rehani B, Brown I, Dandekar S, Sarkodie B, Mwango GM, Rehani M, Lau L, Zhang Y, Dillon W. "Radiology education in Africa: Analysis of results from 13 African countries." Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2017;14(2):247-252.
Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "Remarks on A-skew-adjoint, A-almost similarity equivalence and other operators in Hilbert space." Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal. 2017;6(3):101-107. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, notions of A-almost similarity and the Lie algebra of A-skew-adjoint operators in Hilbert space are introduced. In this context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. It is shown that A-almost similarity is an equivalence relation. Conditions under which A-almost similarity implies similarity are outlined and in which case their spectra is located. Conditions under which an A-skew adjoint operator reduces to a skew adjoint operator are also given. By relaxing some conditions on normal and unitary operators, new results on A -normal, binormal and A-binormal operators are proved. Finally A-skew adjoint operators are characterized and the relationship between A-self- adjoint and A-skew adjoint operators is given.

Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11. Abstract

A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was
developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The
optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised
of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH2PO4 pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59
v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase
XTerra® (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50%–150% (r2 = 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 μg) and 0.078% (78 μg), respectively, with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11.
Garba DGW, Oyieke FAO, EA M, LC, GS, Houmsou, RS, Darda, F, Chintem. "Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Anopheline Vectors of Malaria on the Highlands of Mambilla Plateau Northeast, Nigeria." Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017;1(1):PP 37-42.speciesdiversityandrelativeabundanceofanopheline-liatuetal_2.pdf
V D, S B, M L, L M, I S, A. W. "Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa. ." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B . 2017;372.
Mwesigwa JB, Ouma GO, Ouma JO, Lutta IM, Mwangi SG, Ogallo LA. "Tools and Procedures for Seasonal Downscaling of Climate Forecasts for Use by Farmers Over the Greater Horn of Africa: A Case Study for Western Kenya.". In: Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. Springer, Cham; 2017. Abstract

Seasonal climate outlooks have become a necessary input to agricultural planning and execution of all farming activities as a form of adaptation to climate change and variability. Extended climate forecasts of 3–4 months pose a challenge to farmers as it is difficult for them to pinpoint exactly what might happen on daily, weekly or decadal time scales. In addition, such forecasts are presented in form of probability maps and in very coarse resolution, making them difficult for farmers to comprehend. Community-specific downscaled forecasts offer an opportunity for farmers to decide on what, where and when to plant, allocation of resources and on other investment options. This study evaluated various downscaling tools and procedures for seasonal forecast interpretation over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region. The tools evaluated were: analogue year approach, Fact-Fit tool, Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) and GeoCLIM tool. Analogue year approach turned out to be good but highly dependent on accuracy of the selected year; Fact-Fit tool was able to convert the seasonal probability forecasts into amounts but unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts at daily, weekly or dekadal time scales; the WRSI tool used was limited to a number of crops, seasons and regions but was necessary for monitoring seasonal progress and predicting crop performance. The current GeoCLIM software used was unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts to daily, weekly or dekadal scales but was good for suitability analysis and producing spatial distribution rainfall maps. An integrated approach is therefore desirable for producing more reliable and dependable location-specific seasonal forecasts for direct application by farmers and other agricultural practitioners. This is so important in the Horn of Africa region, where climate change is already affecting populations, and adaptation is seen as a major approach to cope with the impacts of climate change.

Olago D, Sier MJ, Langereis CG, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Joordens JCA, et al. "The top of the Olduvai Subchron in a high-resolution magnetostratigraphy from the West Turkana core WTK13, hominin sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP)." Quaternary Geochronology. 2017;42:117-129. AbstractFull Text

One of the major challenges in understanding the evolution of our own species is identifying the role climate change has played in the evolution of hominin species. To clarify the influence of climate, we need long and continuous high-resolution paleoclimate records, preferably obtained from hominin-bearing sediments, that are well-dated by tephro- and magnetostratigraphy and other methods. This is hindered, however, by the fact that fossil-bearing outcrop sediments are often discontinuous, and subject to weathering, which may lead to oxidation and remagnetization. To obtain fresh, unweathered sediments, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) collected a ∼216-meter core (WTK13) in 2013 from Early Pleistocene Paleolake Lorenyang deposits in the western Turkana Basin (Kenya). Here, we present the magnetostratigraphy of the WTK13 core, providing a first age model for upcoming HSPDP paleoclimate and paleoenvrionmental studies on the core sediments. Rock magnetic analyses reveal the presence of iron sulfides carrying the remanent magnetizations. To recover polarity orientation from the near-equatorial WTK13 core drilled at 5°N, we developed and successfully applied two independent drill-core reorientation methods taking advantage of (1) the sedimentary fabric as expressed in the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and (2) the occurrence of a viscous component oriented in the present day field. The reoriented directions reveal a normal to reversed polarity reversal identified as the top of the Olduvai Subchron. From this excellent record, we find no evidence for the ‘Vrica Subchron’ previously reported in the area. We suggest that outcrop-based interpretations supporting the presence of the Vrica Subchron have been affected by the oxidation of iron sulfides initially present in the sediments -as evident in the core record- and by subsequent remagnetization. We discuss the implications of the observed geomagnetic record for human evolution studies.

Olago D, Loomis SE, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Morrill C, Cort GD, et al. "The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum." Science advances. 2017;3(1):e1600815. AbstractFull text

The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

Ampt FH, Mudogo C  , P G, Lim MSC, Manguro G, Chersich M, W J, Temmerman M, Laini M, Comrie-Thomson L, Stoové M, Agius PA, Hellard M, L'Engle K, S L. "WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017388.
T O, L M. "“Language Learning Catastrophe? Crisis and Impediments in the Free Primary Education (FPE) in Kenya” ." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce.. 2017;2(10):38-48.
Wangara AA, Leeper S, Mweu J, Harty S, Martin IBK, Hunold KM, Ekernas K, Dunlop SJ, Twomey M, Maingi A, others. "192 Strengthening Emergency Care Operations in East Africa: Implementation of the South African Triage Scale at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2017;70:S77. Abstract
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya–A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract
Okaru AO, Brunner TS, Ackermann SM, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Kohl-Himmelseher M, Lachenmeier DW. "Application of 19F NMR spectroscopy for content determination of fluorinated pharmaceuticals." Journal of analytical methods in chemistry. 2017;2017. Abstract
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Atomically sharp 1D SbSeI, SbSI and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05732. 2017. Abstract
Peng B, Zhu R, Li M, Tang Z. "Bending vibration suppression of a flexible multispan shaft using smart spring support." Shock and Vibration. 2017;2017. Abstract
Li Z, Peng B, Deng Z. "Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate films on bioinspired polydopamine matrices." Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. 2017;14:1095-1105. Abstract
Peng B, Li J, Li Q, Li Y, Zhu H, Zhang L, Wang X, Bi L, Lu H, Xie J, others. "Bose–Einstein oscillators and the excitation mechanism of free excitons in 2D layered organic–inorganic perovskites." RSC advances. 2017;7:18366-18373. Abstract
Luciani R, Laneve G, Jahjah M, Collins M. "Crop species classification: A phenology based approach.". In: 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
Luciani R, Laneve G, Jahjah M, Collins M. "Crop species classification: A phenology based approach.". In: 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Alhusseini TI, Bedford FE, Bennett DJ, others. "The database of the Predicts (Projecting responses of ecological diversity in changing terrestrial systems) project." Ecology and Evolution. 2017;7:145-188. Abstract
Qaiser S, Limo A, Gichana J, Kimani K, Githanga J, Waweru W, Dimba EAO, Dimaras H. "Design and implementation of the retinoblastoma collaborative laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017;3:73-82. Abstract
Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Electronic, transport and optical properties of monolayer $$\backslash$alpha $ and $$\backslash$beta-$ GeSe: A first-principles study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.03336. 2017. Abstract
Jia Y, Peng B, Li L, Wang J, Wang X, Qi G, Rong R, Wang L, Qiu J, Xu M, others. "Estimation of mycophenolic acid area under the curve with limited-sampling strategy in Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium." Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2017;39:29. Abstract
Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H, others. "First-principles study on the electronic, optical, and transport properties of monolayer $\alpha$-and $\beta$-GeSe." Physical Review B. 2017;96:245421. Abstract
Huang F, Wang Y, Liang X, Qin J, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Wang Z, Peng B, Deng L, Liu Q, others. "HfO 2-based highly stable radiation-immune ferroelectric memory." IEEE Electron Device Letters. 2017;38:330-333. Abstract
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High ethanol contents of spirit drinks in Kibera slums, Kenya: Implications for public health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract
Liang X, Deng L, Huang F, Tang T, Wang C, Zhu Y, Qin J, Zhang Y, Peng B, Bi L. "The magnetic proximity effect and electrical field tunable valley degeneracy in MoS 2/EuS van der Waals heterojunctions." Nanoscale. 2017;9:9502-9509. Abstract
Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR. "Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Lancet Global Health. 2017;5:e888-e897. AbstractWebsite

Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9–65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17–0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34–4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5–350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88–4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1–1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9–997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9–57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9–65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (−36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3–270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) in 2015. There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. Brien Holden Vision Institute.

Liu Y, Gureya D, Al-Shishtawy A, Vlassov V. "OnlineElastMan: self-trained proactive elasticity manager for cloud-based storage services." Cluster Computing. 2017:1-18. AbstractWebsite

The pay-as-you-go pricing model and the illusion of unlimited resources in the Cloud initiate the idea to provision services elastically. Elastic provisioning of services allocates/de-allocates resources dynamically in response to the changes of the workload. It minimizes the service provisioning cost while maintaining the desired service level objectives (SLOs). Model-predictive control is often used in building such elasticity controllers that dynamically provision resources. However, they need to be trained, either online or offline, before making accurate scaling decisions. The training process involves tedious and significant amount of work as well as some expertise, especially when the model has many dimensions and the training granularity is fine, which is proved to be essential in order to build an accurate elasticity controller. In this paper, we present OnlineElastMan, which is a self-trained proactive elasticity manager for cloud-based storage services. It automatically evolves itself while serving the workload. Experiments using OnlineElastMan with Cassandra indicate that OnlineElastMan continuously improves its provision accuracy, i.e., minimizing provisioning cost and SLO violations, under various workload patterns.

Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Peng B, Deng L. "Preparation and angle-dependent optical properties of brown Al/MnO 2 composite pigments in visible and infrared region." Nanoscale Research Letters. 2017;12:1-5. Abstract
Liu Z, Yang L, Edwards P, Janisch C, Peng B, Ozdemir S. Resonator enhanced raman spectroscopy. Google Patents; 2017. Abstract
Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Jian S, Peng B, Deng L. "The synthesis and characterization of Al/Co3O4 magnetic composite pigments with low infrared emissivity and low lightness." Infrared Physics & Technology. 2017;83:88-93. Abstract
Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Peng B, Deng L. "Synthesis and characterization of magnetic Al/NiO composite pigments with low infrared emissivity.". In: Materials Science Forum. Vol. 898. Trans Tech Publ; 2017:. Abstract
Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Peng B, Xu C, Deng L. "The synthesis and optical properties of Al/MnO2 composite pigments by ball-milling for low infrared emissivity and low lightness." Progress in Organic Coatings. 2017;108:30-35. Abstract
Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Mailhan C-M, Marion-Poll F, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Ru BL, Kaiser-Arnauld L, Juma G, others. "The use of salivary $\alpha$-amylase as an evolutionary solution to host selection in parasitoids." bioRxiv. 2017:227173. Abstract
Liu F, Gu F, Ball AD, Zhao Y, Peng B. "The validation of an ACS-SSI based online condition monitoring for railway vehicle suspension systems using a SIMPACK model.". In: 2017 23rd International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
Kariuki JK, Stuart-Shor EM, Leveille SG, Gona P, Cromwell J, Hayman LL. "Validation of the nonlaboratory-based Framingham cardiovascular disease risk assessment algorithm in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities dataset." Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. 2017;18:936-945. Abstract
Peng B, Li Q, Liang X, Song P, Li J, He K, Fu D, Li Y, Shen C, Wang H, others. "Valley polarization of trions and magnetoresistance in heterostructures of MoS2 and yttrium iron garnet." ACS nano. 2017;11:12257-12265. Abstract
Liu Y, Gureya D, Al-Shishtawy A, Vlassov V. "OnlineElastMan: Self-Trained Proactive Elasticity Manager for Cloud-Based Storage Services.". In: 2016 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). Augsburg, Germany; 2016:. Abstract


Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

MacLeod DT, Choi NM, Briney B, Garces F, Ver LS, Landais E, Murrell B, Wrin T, Kilembe W, Liang C-H, Ramos A, Bian CB, Wickramasinghe L, Kong L, Eren K, Wu C-Y, Wong C-H, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Wilson IA, Burton DR, Poignard P. "Early Antibody Lineage Diversification and Independent Limb Maturation Lead to Broad HIV-1 Neutralization Targeting the Env High-Mannose Patch." Immunity. 2016;44(5):1215-26. Abstract

The high-mannose patch on HIV Env is a preferred target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), but to date, no vaccination regimen has elicited bnAbs against this region. Here, we present the development of a bnAb lineage targeting the high-mannose patch in an HIV-1 subtype-C-infected donor from sub-Saharan Africa. The Abs first acquired autologous neutralization, then gradually matured to achieve breadth. One Ab neutralized >47% of HIV-1 strains with only ∼11% somatic hypermutation and no insertions or deletions. By sequencing autologous env, we determined key residues that triggered the lineage and participated in Ab-Env coevolution. Next-generation sequencing of the Ab repertoire showed an early expansive diversification of the lineage followed by independent maturation of individual limbs, several of them developing notable breadth and potency. Overall, the findings are encouraging from a vaccine standpoint and suggest immunization strategies mimicking the evolution of the entire high-mannose patch and promoting maturation of multiple diverse Ab pathways.

Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy: a randomized trial." AIDS. 2016. Abstract

Treatment interruption (TI) has been safe and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared TI to continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in TI versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Omollo K, Boily-Larouche G, Lajoie J, Kimani M, Cheruiyot J, Kimani J, Julius Oyugi, Fowke KR. "The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2016. Abstract

Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection.

Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Sun C, Dohrn J, Omoni G, Malata A, Klopper H, Larson E. "Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries." Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(1):104-10. Abstract

This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade.

Simonich CA, Williams KL, Verkerke HP, Williams JA, Ruth Nduati, Lee KK, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies with Limited Hypermutation from an Infant." Cell. 2016. Abstract

HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of infected adults and exhibit high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) due to years of affinity maturation. There is no precedent for eliciting highly mutated antibodies by vaccination, nor is it practical to wait years for a desired response. Infants develop broad responses early, which may suggest a more direct path to generating bnAbs. Here, we isolated ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) contributing to plasma breadth of an infant at ∼1 year post-infection, including one with cross-clade breadth. The nAbs bind to envelope trimer from the transmitted virus, suggesting that this interaction may have initiated development of the infant nAbs. The infant cross-clade bnAb targets the N332 supersite on envelope but, unlike adult bnAbs targeting this site, lacks indels and has low SHM. The identification of this infant bnAb illustrates that HIV-1-specific neutralization breadth can develop without prolonged affinity maturation and extensive SHM.

Balkus JE, Manhart LE, Lee J, Anzala O, Kimani J, Schwebke J, Shafi J, Rivers C, Kabare E, Scott McClelland R. "Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Vaginal Infections May Reduce the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(12):1932-7. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections, we observed a significant reduction in BV. We further assessed the intervention effect on incident Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium infection.

Lajoie J, Boily-Larouche G, Doering K, Cheruiyot J, Julius Oyugi, Broliden K, Kimani J, Fowke KR. "Improving Adherence to Post-Cervical Biopsy Sexual Abstinence in Kenyan Female Sex Workers." Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.. 2016;76(1):82-93. Abstract

Cervical biopsies offer a unique opportunity for studying local immune response. To investigate hormonally induced immune fluctuations in cervical tissues of Kenyan female sex workers, we improved biopsy sampling protocol safety. Here, we report on steps taken to minimize exposure to HIV following two cervical biopsies.

Landais E, Huang X, Havenar-Daughton C, Murrell B, Price MA, Wickramasinghe L, Ramos A, Bian CB, Simek M, Allen S, Karita E, Kilembe W, Lakhi S, Inambao M, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Edward V, Bekker L-G, Tang J, Gilmour J, Kosakovsky-Pond SL, Phung P, Wrin T, Crotty S, Godzik A, Poignard P. "Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort." PLoS Pathog.. 2016;12(1):e1005369. Abstract

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

Aggarwal NK, Lam P, Castillo EG, Weiss MG, Diaz E, Alarcón RD, van Dijk R, Rohlof H, Ndetei DM, Scalco M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bassiri K, Deshpande S, Groen S, Jadhav S, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Westermeyer J, Santos F, Vega-Dienstmaier J, Anez L, Boiler M, Nicasio AV, Lewis-Fernández R. "How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial." Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):584-91. Abstract

This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences.

Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy." AIDS. 2016;30(15):2303-13. Abstract

Treatment interruption has been well tolerated and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared treatment interruption with continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in treatment interruption versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Masquelier C, Beraud C, Rybicki A, Servais J-Y, Iserentant G, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C, Perez Bercoff D. "The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(9):e0161596. Abstract

The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines.

Russ CM, Ganapathi L, Marangu D, Silverman M, Kija E, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Laving A. "Perspectives of host faculty and trainees on international visiting faculty to paediatric academic departments in East Africa." BMJ Glob Health. 2016;1(3):e000097. Abstract

Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits?

Olago D, Joordens J, Beck C, Sier M, der Lubbe JV, et al. "Climate-driven lacustrine dynamics from the Early Pleistocene Lorenyang Lake, Turkana Basin, Kenya.". In: EGU General Assembly 2016. Vienna Austria; 2016. Abstract

Two stratigraphic records from Kaitio in West Turkana, Kenya, span 1.87 - 1.34 Ma, and document environmental character and variability through a critical interval for human evolution and cultural development. The WTK13 core collected by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) recovered 216 m of sediment at 95% recovery. A parallel outcrop record of 180 m was investigated in exposures along the Kaitio laga close to the drill site. Six tephrostratigraphic markers, the Chari, Lokapetamoi, 22Q-3, Etirr, Ebei and KBS Tuffs are present in the outcrop and/or core. These were characterized by single-shard geochemical analysis, and provide links to the well-established tephrochronology of the Turkana Basin. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the two records documents the top of the Olduvai Subchron (C2N) at 1.78 Ma. The lithostratigraphic record, bolstered by magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary facies characterization, demonstrates a first-order transition from a deeper lacustrine system to a dynamic lake margin setting, followed by delta progradation. Facies analysis reveals repeated fluctuations of lake level at Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch scales. Core-outcrop correlation allows detailed comparisons between diagenetically-prone outcrop samples and more pristine samples from the deep core. The excellent preservation of the core sediments makes it possible to obtain critical climate records of organic biomarkers, pollen, phytoliths and other proxies. This detailed archive of environmental variability is closely linked to the rich paleontological and archaeological discoveries from nearby sites and around the Turkana Basin.

Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Narla RD. "Plant extracts and antagonistic fungi as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in management of fungal diseases of tomato.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Mitchel O. Okumu, James M. Mbaria, Laetitia W. Kanja DGW, Stephen G. Kiama FOO, Okumu PO. "Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats." international journal of Basic and Clinical pharmacology. 2016;5(5):1856-1861.
Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "African Pink stemborer, Sesamia calamistis (Hampson 1910).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru).: International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Midingoyi SG, Affognon HD, Macharia I, Ong’amo G, Abonyo E, Ogola G, H. DG, LeRu BP. "Assessing the long-term welfare effects of the biological control of cereal stemborer pests in East and Southern Africa: Evidence from Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia Agriculture." ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT . 2016;230:10-23.
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

S.S. S, KAYIMA JK, Oyoo GO, LULE GN. "Chronic kidney disease in rheumatoid arthritis at Kenyatta National hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;3(1):14-18. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis on follow up at the rheumatology outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional study.
Setting: Rheumatology outpatient clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital, a public national and referral hospital.
Subjects: Patients diagnosed to have rheumatoid arthritis who met the 2010 ACR-EULAR criteria.
Results: Out of 104 patients recruited, 93 (89.4%) were female with a female to male ratio of 8.5:1. Mean age of patients was 48.7(±15.6) years. Majority of the patients (90%) were on at least one Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug (DMARD) with methotrexate being the commonest used. Other DMARDs were leflunomide, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. None of our patients was on a biologic agent. Use of NSAIDs and/or prednisone was very frequent (88.5%). Median duration of disease since time of diagnosis was 4 years. Majority of patients (60%) had active disease. We found the prevalence of chronic kidney disease to be 28.7% (95% CI 19.1- 37.2%) based on estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Cockroft-Gault formula. Majority (50%) of which was stage 3a disease and none with end stage renal disease. We found no patients with proteinuria using urinary dipstick.
Conclusion: Although we did not find any proteinuria in our study population, prevalence of chronic kidney disease based on estimated glomerular filtration rate was high with the majority having early stages of kidney disease. Use of urine strips alone is not an adequate screening tool.

Gawriluk TR, Simkin1 J, L K, K S, Thompson, K.L., Biswas1, Clare-Salzler Z, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, J. J. "Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.". 2016.
Lowther K, Harding R, Aabid Ahmed, Nancy Gikaara, Ali Z, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr 5 VS. "Conducting experimental research in marginalised populations: clinical and methodological implications from a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial in Kenya." AIDS Care . 2016;28 (Suppl 1(sup1)):60-63.
Mutune JM, Lund JF, Wahome RG. "Corrigendum to “Unpacking the impacts of ‘participatory’forestry policies: Evidence from Kenya”[Forest Policy and Econ. 69 (2016) 45–52]." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2016;10(4):129-140.
LK O, O MJ, VM M, R M, V K, T E. "Cytotoxicity of 91 Kenyan indigenous medicinal plants towards human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;179:177-196.omosa_et_al_ethnopharmacology.pdf
Victor, L.K O, V.R.S T, J.O M, A.T M, O K, H S, S S. "Cytotoxicity of Plumbagin, Rapanone and 12 other Naturally occurring Quinones towards Human Carcinoma Cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17:60.kuete_and_omosa_et_al._2016.pdf
Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege


Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Hurisso TT, Norton U, Norton JB, Odhiambo J, Grosso SDJ, Hergert GW, Lyon DJ. "Dryland soil greenhouse gases and yield-scaled emissions in no-till and organic winter wheat–fallow systems." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2016;80(1):178-192.
Menger DJ, Philemon Omusula, Wouters K, Oketch C, Carreira AS, Durka M, Derycke J-L, Loy DE, Hahn BH, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Collins K Mweresa, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Alexandra Hiscox. "Eave screening and push-pull tactics to reduce house entry by vectors of malaria." The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2016;94(4):868-878.
xviWekesaand L1, Maaalu J.K.2 GWJ 2 G. "Effect of Entrepreneur Characteristics on Performance of Non- Timber Forest Products Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review . 2016;6(3):16-26.
Lulalire FR, Karimi PN, Mwagangi EM, Wandolo G. "Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(2): 59-64. Abstract

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates
Faith R. Lulalire a,b, Peter N. Karimi a,*, Evans M. Mwagangi a, and George Wandolo c
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy. University of Nairobi, Kenya
b Ministry of Health, Kenya
c Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of
Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254-72-2604216; Email:
Background: Severe pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in both developed and developing countries. The goals of management are to prevent progression to eclampsia thus preventing convulsions, to control the blood pressure and to prevent untoward effects in the foetus. The first-line option for the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures is magnesium sulphate.
Objective: To determine the serum magnesium, urea and electrolyte levels in neonates of mothers treated with magnesium sulphate and compare the findings with the levels in non-exposed neonates.
Methodology: A quasi experimental design was adopted where test subjects were neonates of mothers suffering from preeclampsia and severe eclampsia and were being treated with magnesium sulphate just before delivery at Pumwani Maternity hospital. The control group comprised neonates of hypertensive mothers without preeclampsia being treated using other drugs. Blood samples were obtained from the mother at onset of labor and from the neonates at birth and analyzed in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Nairobi.
Results: A total of 54 mothers and their neonates were enrolled with 27 in each arm of the study. The mean maternal serum magnesium in the test group was significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean neonatal serum magnesium in the test group was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p = 0.008). There were statistically significant differences in serum sodium (p = 0.015), urea (p = 0.043) and creatinine (p = 0.008) levels between the maternal test and control groups. There were significant differences in serum urea (p = 0.007) and
chloride (p = 0.017) between the neonatal test and control groups. The calcium and potassium levels were elevated in the test group but not to significant levels. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal serum magnesium levels in both groups stronger in the test group (r = 0.56, p = 0.003) as compared to the control group (r = 0.35, p = 0.087).
Conclusion: Maternally administered magnesium sulphate raises urea and creatinine levels to significant levels in mothers. Calcium levels are also raised while in mothers not receiving magnesium sulphate they were slightly lower.
In neonates the urea and chloride levels are elevated to significant levels while the calcium and potassium levels are not significantly elevated. We suggest monitoring of both in the immediate post-partum period.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, eclampsia, magnesium sulphate, neonate, serum urea and electrolytes.
Received: November, 2015
Published: May, 2016

O G, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, B O, M K, F N, L N, K K, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Kiarie J, I K. "Engagement of decentralized health facilities in research and training.". 2016.
A N, Ombui J, Gathuma J, Lwevo E, Kuria A, Wairimu M. "Evaluation of economic losses from the hides and skins subsector in Warjir county Kenya." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science . 2016;9(7):41-44 .
Linet Nyatichi Mangare, Omondi L, Antony Ayieko, Wakasiaka S, Omoni G, Dalton Wamalwa. "Factors influencing implementation of the nursing process in Naivasha District Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2016;10(2):67-71. AbstractWebsite

The nursing process (NP) is a framework that is applicable in all clinical settings to provide quality nursing care. Training curricula for nurses and midwives in Kenya have incorporated the NP as a framework for nursing care. However, nurses and midwives find it difficult to implement it. This contributes to poor-quality care.

This study was aimed at determining factors influencing implementation of the NP in Naivasha District Hospital.

A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted between May–June 2012 on 83 nurses and midwives selected using quota sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data then analysed using the statistical package for social sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish correlation between variables.

Training, practical experience, adequate time, reference materials, administrative support, supplies and adequate staffing were the major factors influencing implementation of the NP.

Implementation of the NP can be promoted through focusing on beneficial factors such as adequate staffing, training, administrative support, and providing resources.
Keywords: Nursing process, Health care, Nurses, Midwives, Training, Support, Barriers, Implementation

W 8. KI, J KP, M C, S C, L KD. "Factors Influencing Pupils’ Mobility in Public Primary Schools in Sotik Division, Bomet County Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1):45-50.abstract_8.doc
Kiama TN, Lindahl JF, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Waithanji EM, Ochungo PA, Poole EJ, EK K'ethe, Grace D. "Farmer Perception of Moulds and Mycotoxins within the Kenya Dairy Value Chain: a gendered analysis.". 2016.
Kamau J, Melis R, Laing M, Shanahan P, Derera J, Ngugi K, Migwa Y. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Production Constraints and Preferences in Cassava Grown in Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(3):844-859.farmers_perceptions_of_production_constraints_and_preferences.pdf
Olago D, Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Thomas M, Sasaka W, et al. "First step to understand the importance of new deep aquifer pumping regime in groundwater system in a developing country, Kwale, Kenya." EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. 2016;18:16969. AbstractFull Text Link

The population growth in the world carries on the one hand, an increased demand of fresh water and on the other hand, a decrease of quality and quantity of this resource. To avoid this deterioration it is essential doing a good management of surface water and groundwater, specially the second one, which has become the major source of water supply for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries (UNEP 1999). This groundwater management starts with an accurate hydrogeological characterization of aquifer systems, mainly in that aquifer systems in which is changing the abstraction regime. In this context of population growth and new abstraction regimes on aquifer system is where the project "Gro for Good: Groundwater Risk for Growth and Development" is founded by UPGro. This interdisciplinary project has the main goal to design, test and transfer to the society an innovative Groundwater Risk Management Tool to improve and get by new governance transformations the balance between economic growth, groundwater sustainability (in terms of quality and quantity) and human development ( The study area is located on the south eastern coast of Kenya, in Kwale County. The Kwale coastal groundwater system formed by a shallow and deep aquifer systems has long served urban water demands and an established tourism industry but now faces unprecedented ground and surface water resource demands especially from KISCOL's (5,500 hectares of irrigated sugarcane) and the country's largest mining operation (Base Titanium Ltd.). Despite both companies have drilled deep boreholes around the study area (416 km2) to extract groundwater from deep aquifer; no major pumping activity has started yet, allowing baseline evaluation. Scattered around the study are 440 handpumps providing drinking water to over 90,000 people. The relationship between the shallow and deep aquifers remains uncertain and so, the future influence on groundwater level and its quality either. So, in order to define the system and start to understand the different complex interactions, we present the initial results of the first complete water sampling field campaign (September 2015). Water isotope data and major ions were analyzed from 78 shallow and deep wells and surface water spread around study area. This field survey has been useful to understand the recharge, discharge areas and groundwater quality of deep aquifer system and which will have an important role for sustainable water management in the of Kwale area. Acknowledgements The research is primarily supported under the NERC/ESRC/DFID Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro) as a Catalyst Grant (NE/L001950/1) with work extending until 2019 as a Consortium Grant (NE/M008894/1), see Data for the paper will be publicly posted on the National Geoscience Data Centre and the UK Data Archive under the terms of the UPGro data management agreement.

Bosire R, Betz B, Aluisio A, Hughes JP, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie J, Chohan BH, Merkel M, Lohman-Payne B, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "High Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Both Arms of a Peer Counseling Study Promoting EBF Among HIV-Infected Kenyan Women." Breastfeed Med. 2016;11:56-63. Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months after delivery as the optimal infant feeding method and is especially important for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). However, EBF promotion efforts among HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa have achieved mixed success and require context-specific interventions.

Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.
Bhui KS, Fiorillo A, Stein D, Okasha T, Ndetei D, Lam L, Chaturvedi S, Maj M. "Improving education, policy and research in mental health worldwide: the role of the WPA Collaborating Centres." World Psychiatry. 2016.Website
Langa FP, Muiru WM, Mbuge D, Ragwa LRM, Olubayo FM, Muthomi JW. "Influence of Endosperm Types, Seed Moisture Content and Threshing Methods on Germination and Seedling Vigour of Sorghum." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences . 2016;12(5):378-383.
Joseph OO, M C, W.P K, V G, L K, K K. "The Influence of Social Media on Brand Equity in Kenyan Banking Industry." Pyrex Journal of Business & Finance Management. 2016;2(1):1-5.owino_et_al._2016.pdf
k litondo, Ntale F. "INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKETING DECISIONS AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN KENYA: REVIEW OF EVIDENCE." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom. 2016;4(4):1167-1180.information_communication.pdf
Takken W, Loon JJAV, Zwiebel LJ, Pask GM, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Insect repellent compositions and methods of use.". 2016.
Kiama TN, Grace D, EK K’ethe, Lindahl JF, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Waithanji EM, Ochungo PA, Poole EJ. "Kenya dairy farmers perception of moulds and mycotoxins and implications to exposure to aflatoxins: a gendered analysis. t." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11106-11125(16):11106-11125.
NB 46. S, LW G, G WE. "Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Mouthwash among Dental and Medical Students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016; 2.4).abstract_simiyu.pdf
B S, L G, E W. "Knowledge, attitude and use of mouthwash among Dental and Medical students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016. 2016;2(4):2-6.
Olago D, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Kelly MA, Loomis SE, Jackson MS, Morrill C, Damsté SJS, et al. "Late Pleistocene temperature, hydrology, and glaciation in equatorial East Africa." American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. 2016. AbstractFull Text Link

In the coming century the world's high tropical mountains are predicted to experience a magnitude of climate change second only to the Arctic due to amplification of warming with elevation in the tropics. Proxy data suggest that substantial changes in tropical temperature and hydroclimate also occurred during the last deglaciation, the most recent time period when rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused large changes in global climate. Determining whether the rate of temperature change with elevation (the lapse rate) was different from today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is therefore critical to understanding the future of tropical mountain environments and resources. Here we present a new 25,000-year temperature reconstruction based upon organic geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Lake Rutundu (3,078 m asl), Mount Kenya, East Africa. Through comparison with regional reconstructions of lower elevation temperature, we show that LGM cooling was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our lapse rate reconstructions with equilibrium line altitude reconstructions from glacial moraines indicates that temperature, rather than precipitation, was the dominant control on tropical alpine glacier fluctuations at this time scale. Nevertheless, our results have important implications for the tropical hydrological cycle, as changes in the lapse rate are intimately linked with changes in atmospheric water vapour concentrations. Indeed, we attribute the steeper lapse rate to drying of the tropical ice-age atmosphere, a hypothesis supported by palaeoclimate models. However, comparison of our data to these simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models significantly underestimate tropical temperature changes at high elevation and therefore the lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than currently predicted.

Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "Maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller 1901).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and Regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru): International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Ochungo P, Lindahl JF, T K, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Kiama TN, Grace D. "Mapping aflatoxin risk from milk consumption using biophysical and socio-economic data:A case study in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11066-11085(16):11066-11085.
Ochungo P, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl J, Kiama TN, and Grace. D. "Mapping Aflatoxin Risk Using Biophysical and Socio-economic data: A case study of Kenya.". 2016.
Leitich RK, Arinaitwe W, Mukoye B, Omayio DO, Osogo AK, Were HK, Muthomi JW, Otsyula RM, Abang MM. "Mapping of Angular Leaf Spot Disease Hotspot Areas in Western Kenya Towards Its Management." American Journal of Applied Scientific Research. 2016;2(6):75-81.
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA. The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bonn, Germany: IPBES; 2016.2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
Lundengård K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Moment Matching Multinomial Lattices using Vandermonde Matrices for Option Pricing." Stochastic and Data Analysis Methods and Applications in Statistics and Demography, ISAST. 2016:15-29.
B N, M.K L, D.A M, H E, M.R J, S.I K, I M, L.K O, J.O M. "New ent-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Medica. 2016;doi,
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, A.Walker L, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Med. 2016;82(2016):1079-1086.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Planta medica. 2016;82(11/12):1079-1086. AbstractFull text link

The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1–12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.
Key words:
Croton megalocarpoides - Euphorbiaceae - abietane - ent-clerodane - ent-trachylobane - diterpenoids - electronic circular dichroism

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, Shibairo S, WANJEKECHE ELIZABETH, OGENDO JOSHUA, WAMBUA TOM, Lamuka P, ARAMA PETER, Okoth M. "Post-Harvest Practices, Constraints and Opportunities Along Cassava Value Chain in Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(2):114-126.
Kianji G, Roberts R, Lund B, Shomali H, Barongo J, Mathu E. "Preliminary seismic catalogue for Kenya and adjoining areas, 1900-2014; Challenges and constraints."; 2016.
Barongo J, Mathu E, Kianji G, Roberts R, Lund B, Shomali H. "Preliminary seismic catalogue for Kenya and adjoining areas, 1900-2014; Challenges and constraints.". 2016.
Senerwa DM, Sirma AJ, Lindahl JF, D G, EK K’ethe, Mtimet N. "Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in Kenya (2016). ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16::1104-1121.
Recorla LA, Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Turner LV, Althoff RR, Arnadottir HA, Au A, Belina M, Caldas J, Chen Y-C, Csemy L, da Rocha MM, Decoster J, Fontaine JR, Funabiki Y, Guomundsson HS, Harder VS, Sebre S, Silvares E, Simulioniene R, Sokoli E, Vazquez N, Kim YA, Leung P, Ndetei DM, Maras JS, Marcovic J, Oh KJ, Samaniego VC, Zasepa E. "Problems and adaptive functioning reported by adults in 17 societies ." International perspectives in physiology research practice. 2016;5(2):91-109.
Marco M, Deyou T, Gruhonjic A, Holleran JP, Duffy S, Heydenreich M, Fitzpatric PA, Landberg G, Koch A, Derese S, Pelletier J, Avery VM, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Pterocarpans and Isoflavones from the Root Bark of Millettia micans and of Millettia dura." Advances in Drug Discovery and Development. 2016: 1-8. Abstract

Pterocarpans and Isoflavones from the Root Bark of Millettia micans and of
Millettia dura
Makungu Marco1, Tsegaye Deyou1,2, Amra Gruhonjic2,5, John P. Holleran3, Sandra Duffy3,
Matthias Heydenreich4, Paul A. Fitzpatrick5, Göran Landberg5, Andreas Koch4, Solomon
Derese1, Jerry Pelletier6, Vicky M. Avery3, Máté Erdélyi2,7,* and Abiy Yenesew1,*
1Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of
Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Discovery
Biology, Eskitis Institute for drug discovery, Griffith University, Nathan Qld 4111 Australia; 4Institut für Chemie,
Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany; 5Sahlgrenska Cancer
Centre, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; 6Department of Biochemistry, McGill
University, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada and 7Swedish NMR Center, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box
465, SE-40530, Gothenburg, Sweden
Abstract: From the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia micans, a new pterocarpan,
(6aR,11aR)-7,8,9-trimethoxy-3-hydroxypterocarpan (1), named micanspterocarpan, was isolated. Similar
investigation of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia dura gave a further new pterocarpan,
3-O-prenylmaackiain (2) along with six known isoflavones (3-8) and a chalcone (9). All purified
compounds were identified by NMR and MS, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by quantum
chemical CD calculation. The isolated constituents, calopogonium isoflavone B (3) and isoerythrin A-4'-
(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether (4) showed marginal activities against the 3D7 and the Dd2 strains of Plasmodium
falciparum (70-90% inhibition at 40

Abong’ GO, Shibairo SI, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, KATAMA CK, Ouma J. "QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN URBAN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(sl):89-94.
Abong’ GO, Shibairo SI, Lamuka PO, KATAMA CK, Ouma J. "QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN URBAN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2016;24(S1):89-94.abong__2016aquality_and_safety_cassava_crisps.pdf
Omwenga EI, Christopher GM, Oboko RO, Kidombo HJ, Mbwesa JK, Waiganjo PW, Libotton A. "Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEel Programs in Kenya: A Technological and Educational Functional Parameters Approach." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):191-199. AbstractJournal Website

The demand for university education has continued to grow and hence there has been a phenomenal expansion in enrolments that is not matching with the expansion of facilities. Several policy reports commissioned by the Government of Kenya highlight the importance of affordable, accessible and quality education through e-learning platforms to achieve education for all as envisaged by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In particular, The Government of Kenya Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research highlights the unexploited means of access to education such as Open Distance and E-learning (ODeL) and virtual institutions particularly in higher education and training; unregulated
examination and certification of Distance Education eLearning (DEeL) programmes and lack of national capacity for curriculum design for ICT-supported educational programmes to facilitate access to quality education to learners at all levels of the education system. As institutions of higher learning gear up to offer their academic programmes by DEeL mode of instructional delivery, there are concerns from stakeholders about the quality of the diploma and degree awards. This can be attributed to inadequate quality assurance standards to assess the quality and value of DEeL academic programmes. This paper is aimed at identifying critical factors influencing Distance Education and e-Learning (DEeL) in higher education in Kenya and to develop an appropriate framework for assessing quality indicator measures.
Keywords: DEeL, e-learning, technological, educational, ICT-supported learning, distance education

Omwenga EI, Gakuu CM, Oboko RO, Kidombo HJ, Mbwesa JK, Waiganjo PW, Libotton A. "Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEel Programs in Kenya: A Technological and Educational Functional Parameters Approach." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):191-199.

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