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Kahaki K, Ciku M, Sheila M, Onyango O, Wachira W, Elkana O, Kagondu F, Karimurio J, Hans L. "Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya. East Afr J Ophthalmol." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):35-40. Abstract

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgery
and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services.
Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project.
Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of
avoidable blindness (RAAB) method.
Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand five hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%) were examined.
Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery.
Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness.
Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Kahiga, Ruth M; Gatumu JNJC;. "SUSTAINABILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN NAIROBI AND NYERI COUNTIES." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017.
and Kahiga, R. M. NKWR. Movement activities. Grade Three. Teacher’s guide.. Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
Kahiga RW, Oyier CR, Odundo PA, Ganira KL. "Effects of ICT integration in management of private secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya: Policy options and practices." World Journal of Education. 2015;5(6):14-22.
Kahiga RM. "Health, well-being and welfare in childhood in Kenya." Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies.. 2018.
Kahiga RM, Gatumu JC, Nteere JS. "Sustainability of the implementation of the Preschool physical education curriculum in Nairobi and Nyeri counties.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education Society. Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Kahiga RM, Kibui AW, Nyaga G, Ngesu LM, Mwaniki IN, Mwaniki B. "Health policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT). 2015;2(1):127-134.
and and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade Two. Teacher’s guide.. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade One. Teacher’s guide..; 2018.
Kahiga RM. "Providing for individual differences among preschool children.". In: Teaching Children: a handbook for preschool teachers. Nairobi: Vidic Investment Limited; 2014.
Kahiga RM, Kibui K, Mwaniki B, Gichuhi L, Nyaga G, Ngesu L. "Multicultural Education as a mechanism for promoting positive ethnicity in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT). 2015;2(3):9-16.
Kahigi CM. Influence of sources of sexual information and personal characteristics on secondary school students' sexual behaviour in Thika West Sub-County, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate reliable sources of sexual
information for secondary school students that influence their sexual
behaviour. This research was carried out in Kenya, specifically Thika West
sub-County. It was conducted among sampled secondary school students, their
head teachers and teacher counsellors. The specific objectives of the study
were to: establish how sexual information obtained through the school
curriculum influences secondary school students' sexual behaviour; establish
how sexual information received through the family setting influences
secondary school students' sexual behaviour; investigate how sexual
information received through religious institutions influences secondary
school students' sexual behaviour; establish how sexual information obtained
through the peer group influences secondary school students' sexual
behaviour; investigate how sexual information accessed through the media
influences secondary school students' sexual behaviour; and how students'
personal characteristics influence their sexual behaviour. The study was
carried out using survey research design and was guided by six hypotheses.
Research tools used comprised questionnaires for student respondents and
interview schedules for head teachers and teacher counsellors. The data
collected was processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS
IBM statistics 21). The statistics were tabulated and subjected to regression
analysis using ANOVA and coefficient models. Pertinent findings have
indicated that: an overwhelming proportion of secondary school students are
sexually active. This may have contributed in a rise in cases of premarital
pregnancies and subsequent abortions, student drop out from schools, Human
Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Sexually
Transmitted infections. The results established that mass media as a source of
sexual information is the most influential, followed by peer group and school
curriculum respectively. However all respondents reported that the
information received through the school curriculum is too little and
economical especially on emotional aspects of sexuality. Sexual information
from the family members though considered as reliable is too little to be of
any significance on students' sexual behaviour. Information received through
religious institutions is almost non-existent and has the lowest level of
significance on students' sexual behaviour. Finally, students' personal
characteristics of age and gender were revealed as influencing students' choice
of being sexually active. Study results reveal that the preferred agents of
transmitting sexuality information were; school curriculum, media, family,
peer counsellors, and teacher counsellors respectively. Others mentioned
included religion, mentors, and specialized personnel. In a nutshell, there is no
any reliable source of sexual information that students can rely on. All student
respondents indicated their support for comprehensive sexuality information to
enable them avoid pitfalls from lack of knowledge. All key informants who
included head teachers and teacher counsellors supported that information
about the use of contraceptives should be made available to students.

Kahigi CM, Muasya IW, Ngesu LM, Kanja PW. "TFD 301: Sociology of Education.". 2011. Abstract
n/a
Kahigi CM, Muasya IW. "Social Problems and Education.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Kahihura D, Kamau RK NPM:. "A prospective Study on the Outcome ofCaesarean Section at Chogoria Hospital:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. . 2003;16(1):18-22.
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The use of genetic diversity in maize breeding in Kenya. In C. Almekinders and Walter De Boef (editors) Encouraging Diversity. The conservation and development of plant genetic resources. Intermediate Technology Publications, 2000, p 156- 160.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Molecular marker breeding for drought tolerance in a tropical maize population developed for semi-arid Kenya;.". In: In International workshop on biotechnological interventions for dryland agriculture opportunities and constraints, July 2002, Hyderabad, India. Pp41-55. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The role of molecular markers in the improvement of drought tolerance and insect resistance in maize.". In: International conference on Biotechnology organized by Biotechnology Trust Africa, September 2nd-5th, Nairobi, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Locating Quantitative Trait Loci for maize stem borer resistance in Kenya through molecular markers. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Agricultural Biotechnology Global Genetic Revolution. The role of molecular marker assisted breeding.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Improvement of drought tolerance through molecular markers in a tropical maize population bred for semi-arid areas of Kenya. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kahiu Ngugi*, Abigail J. Ngugi, Sarah Osama, Mugoya C. "COMBATING STRIGA WEED IN SORGHUM BY TRANSFERRING RESISTANCE QUANTITATIVE TRAIT." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science . 2015;3(3): 67-76.combating_striga_weed_in_sorghum_by_transferring_resistance.pdf
Kahiu Ngugi*, Jerono Cheserek, Muchira C, Dept GC’wa. "Anthesis to Silking Interval Usefulness in Developing Drought Tolerant Maize." Journal of Renewable Agriculture. 2013;1(5):84-88.anthesis_to_silking_interval_usefulness_in_developing_drought_tolerant_maize.pdf
Kahle EM, Hughes JP, Lingappa JR, John-Stewart G, Celum C, Nakku-Joloba E, Njuguna S, Mugo N, Bukusi E, Manongi R, Baeten JM. "An empiric risk scoring tool for identifying high-risk heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples for targeted HIV-1 prevention." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):339-47. Abstract

Heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples are increasingly recognized as an important source of new HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A simple risk assessment tool could be useful for identifying couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahome P, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent Application In The Stock Market.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa. Nairobi; 2014.
Kahonge AM, Odongo WO, Miriti EK, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective.". 2013. Abstract
n/a
Kahonge AM, Okello-Odongo W, Miriti E, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective." Journal of Information Security. 2013;4(3):138-43.
Kahonge AM, Okello-Odongo W, Miriti EK. "Increasing Auditability in Web Application Security." International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS) . 2012;11(2).
Kahoro HW. "Impact of female genital mutilation on education of public primary school girls in Kiambu county - Kenya.". In: First Annual Conference in Education. Riara University, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2013.
Kahunyo JM, Maitai CK, Frøslie A. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey." Poult. Sci.. 1986;65(6):1084-9. Abstract

One hundred and five chicken fat samples were collected between April, 1980 and February, 1982 from seven geographical locations in Kenya (15 samples/area). The samples were subjected to standard extraction and clean up procedures to recover organochlorine pesticides and were subsequently analysed using gas-liquid-chromatography. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride (HCH/BHC; Lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] (p,p'-DDE), [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dichloroethane] (o,p'-DDD/TDE), p,p'-DDD, [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane] (o,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDT were detected in the samples in varying concentrations. A few samples had lindane, dieldrin, and total DDT residue levels above the respective practical residue limit (PRL) values, but for all pesticides, the mean residue values were below the PRL.

Kahurananga J;, Akundabweni L;, Jutzi S;, Kategile JA. "Collection and preliminary forage evaluation of some ethiopian trifolium species. Proceedings.".; 1985.
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of four medicinal plants traditionally used in Msambweni district, Kenya." Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28):6-12. Abstractkagongi_et_al._2014.pdf

This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical composition of
organic and aqueous crude extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae), Adansonia digitata L.
(Bombacaceae), Launaea cornuta (Hocht. ex Oliv. & Hern) C.Jeffrey (Compositae) and Grewia trichocarpa
Hochst. ex A.Rich (Tiliaceae) traditionally used by local communities of Msambweni District in Kenya.
Aqueous and organic [Chloroform: Methanol (1: 1)] crude extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Toxicity was determined using Brine-shrimp larvae (Artemia salina L. nauplii) assay. The crude extracts were screened to determine the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones using standard techniques. It was observed that the organic crude extracts from all the species tested except L. cornuta exhibited dose dependent activity against B. cereus, MRSA, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. None of the crude extracts showed any inhibition against E. coli. Adansonia digitata and Grewia trichocarpa had LC50>1000 μg/ml and were shown to be non-toxic to Brine shrimp larvae unlike those of Z. chalybeum and L. cornuta which both had LC50<500 ug/ml and were considered to be toxic. Phytochemical screening of the crude extracts showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones and saponins were present in the four plants tested.The study has shown that A. digitata and Z. chalybeum possess promising antimicrobial activity against microbes of health importance and could lead to the isolation of new and potentially effective antimicrobial compounds.
Keywords: Medicinal plants; Antimicrobial activity; Brine shrimp lethality test; Phytochemical analysis;
Msambweni district; Kenya.

Kaijage ES, Nzioka OM. "INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF FIRM CHARACTERISTICS ON FINANCING OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2014. Abstract

This paper investigates whether firm characteristics have an influence on financing of SMEs in Kenya using a sample of 12 Microfinance firms. Primary and secondary data were collected and subjected to multiple regression and correlation analysis in order to achieve the study objectives. The independent variables of the study are firm characteristics, which include; size measured by total assets, profitability measured by ROA and ROE, then risk, while the dependent variable is the total debt of the firm divided by the Equity and the ratio of capital to total assets. Results of this study suggest that, a strong negative association between return on equity and total assets has an equally strong negative effect/influence on the debt equity ratio. This implies that, the two variables have a strong negative effect on the financing of Micro Finance institutions. Overall, the implications of the findings of this study support both the trade-off theory and the pecking order theory of capital structure.

Kaijage PE, Wheeler PD. "Supporting Entrepreneurship in East Africa.". 2013.
Kaijage ES, Elly D. "FINANCIAL INTEGRATION RELATIONSHIPS AND LINKAGES IN EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (EAC) EQUITY MARKETS.". In: ORSEA. lower Kabete; 2014. Abstractfinancial_integration_relationships_and_linkages_in_east.pdf

This paper investigates financial integration and linkage relationships amongst equity markets in East Africa Community over time by determining the speed and levels of integration using monthly market return data for the period 2007 to 2013. The study also examines the short run and long run relationships amongst the markets. The study was motivated by the ongoing plans of establishment of the East Africa Monetary Union
(EAMU) which will be characterized by mobility of labor and capital as factors of production across the member states. Using beta and sigma convergence measures, the study notes that financial integration
has not deepened in the EAC over the years though there are trends towards full integration. Correlation analysis suggests strong significant relationships amongst EAC equity market returns. Johansen Cointegration tests suggest existence of three stochastic trends in the equity markets. Vector auto regression analysis and impulse response analysis suggest linkages amongst the markets hinging on the NSE and mean reversion in all the equity markets. The study findings suggest that the EAC equity markets are weak form efficient and there are arbitraging opportunities across the equity markets. The responses to the shocks in any of the markets are found to be dependent on the relationships between the markets. From the study findings, it is inferred that the roadmap to EAMU should be fast tracked by facilitating efficiency in the EAC markets where rates of return are market determined. Policy initiatives should be put in place to eliminate arbitrage opportunities across the markets and to encourage capital mobility through the equity markets. To support integration, there should be academic studies on the existence of home bias in the
EAC equity market segments. Key Words: East Africa Community (EAC), East Africa Monetary Union (EAMU), Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE), Financial Integration, Nairobi Securities Exchange
(NSE), Uganda stock Exchange (USE).

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Kaijage E, Wheeler D. Supporting Entrepreneurship Education in East Africa Report for Presentation to Stakeholders.; 2013. Abstractentrepreneurship_education_in_east_africa._kaijage_and_wheeler_2013.pdfWebsite

Executive Summary
The University of Nairobi School of Business and Plymouth University Business School were commissioned by the UK Department for International Development to assess the capacity of business schools and other institutions to support entrepreneurship through development of entrepreneurship education in East Africa.
The research was carried out in three phases:
 A literature review and desk research on entrepreneurship education and training in three case study countries: Kenya, Tanzania an South Sudan;
 Semi- structured Interviews with 61 stakeholders and a survey of 420 stakeholders in the three case study countries which explored perceptions of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education and training; and
 A workshop which further refined insights from the interviews and survey
The main conclusion from the literature review and desk research was that there is a gulf between formal business education in East Africa and the needs of entrepreneurs, especially for women, young people and marginalised groups. It is essential, therefore, to develop a new paradigm for entrepreneurship education that is grounded in the economic and social context of the entrepreneurs.
A major finding from the interviews, survey and workshop was the relative lack of interest among graduates and unemployed youth in pursuing self-employment compared to corporate or public sector employment. Other important findings included the importance of:
 introducing entrepreneurship at all levels of education from primary to postgraduate;
 social enablers such as trust building, communications and negotiation skills for the success of entrepreneurs;
 experiential over theoretical learning;
 mentoring, coaching and peer-peer learning over other forms of learning support;
 context specific skills development for entrepreneurs;
 a commonly held definition of entrepreneurship that embraces broader societal and developmental goals
Stakeholders identified the need for:
 integrated policy making between governments, the private sector, civil society organisations and educational institutions;
 special consideration for disadvantaged groups in policy formulation;
 social and cultural change eg through social mobilisation;
 agreed conceptual frameworks for entrepreneurship promotion and entrepreneurship education (allowing for cultural and linguistic differences);
 integrated interventions addressing all levels of education: primary, and secondary schools, colleges and vocational training schemes and universities/business schools; and
 the development of curricula and resources appropriate for all levels of intervention.
The need for experiential learning opportunities and mentoring, combined with relative disinterest in pursuing self-employment and entrepreneurship as a chosen career path means that significant levels of training and capacity building, supplemented by processes of behavioural and social change will need to be explored if ‘systemic entrepreneurship’ is to be realised in East Africa.
Based on from these findings, six cross cutting themes for future capacity building are identified:
 Developing Shared Knowledge and Conceptual Frameworks
 Enhancing National Education Policies and Practices
 Developing Accessible Learning Materials
 Training Trainers and Building Enterprise Educator Support Networks
 Supporting Social Networks and the Informal Sector
 Embedding Research and Continuous Improvement
Recommendations are made in six areas, based on the results of the research:
 Presentation and dissemination of findings;
 Convening conferences of interested parties;
 Establishing country based networks of enterprise educators;
 Establishing a system for learning object capture and distribution using various media;
 Developing integrative pilot projects in focal countries and elsewhere reflecting the analysis of this report and the need for both rural and urban entrepreneurship education initiatives focused on the young, women and disadvantaged groups; and
 Developing mechanisms for sharing the results of pilot projects and publicising outcomes..

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

Kaimenyi JT. "Cause of tooth mortality at the dental unit at Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of Dentistry is to make the mouth healthy and preserve teeth in good function for what they are worth, namely a beautiful smile, better phonetics, a youthful look and ease of chewing all sorts of food without having to make uncalled for choices.(3) In the past, most people didn't value teeth at all. Loss of teeth was considered as an inevitable consequence 01 old age. The contemporary society however values teeth in a big way. Many people today will go along way to preserve their teeth notwithstanding the high expense to be incurred and the many man hours spent in attending dental clinic. Demand to preserve teeth by a patient whatever the cost doesn't necessarily have to be met by the dental surgeon. The decision to preserve teeth or not must be considered in the light of the pathology of dental disease in question regarding its onset, course, termination and the like hood of its response to treatment. Any attempt to preserve teeth with very poor prognosis is not only heroic but eventuates into frustrating the patient and the dental surgeon when the desired results are not met.

Kaimuri J, Otieno SPV. Aritwa. Kaimuri J, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, et al. "Risk factors in symptoms of food poisoning among children and young adults in Isiolo, Kenya." Journal of Zoonoses and Public Health. 2012.
Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, Wangoh J, Imungi JK, Farah Z, Meile L. "Risk Factors for Symptoms of Gastrointestinal Illness in Rural Town Isiolo, Kenya." Zoonoses and Public Health. 2012;59:118-125.2012-risk_factors_diarrhoea_and_vomiting.pdf
Kaindi MDW. Microbiological quality of camel milk along the market chain and its correlation with foodborne illness among children and young adults in Isiolo, Kenya. Wangoh J, Schelling E, Imungi JK, eds. University of Nairobi; 2009. Abstract

General Abstract
The study was done to determine the microbiological quality of raw camel milk along the
informal market chain and to assess risk factors in symptoms of food-borne illnesses and the
role of camel milk in the diet of camel pastoralists. Camel milk samples were collected from
the milking point, camel milk first collection point (primary collectors) in the local market
center and at the final market in Nairobi. Microbiological assessment involved enumeration
of total bacterial count (TBC), presumptive Streptococcal/ Enterococcal count (PSEC), Yeast
and Mold count (YMC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EBC) , and presumptive Staphylococcal
count (PSC). Deterrn ination of the shelf Iife of pasteurized camel milk stored at 4-7°C, 2SoC,
and at 30°C was also investigated. Raw camel milk was pasteurized at 6SoC for 30 minutes in
a water bath. Further, a cross sectional study was carried out by interviewing 993 randomly
selected households in peri-urban zone of Isiolo town to assess risk factors in symptoms of
food-borne illnesses with special attention given to the consumption of camel milk, cow milk
and goat milk.
Results indicate that microbial counts were increasing along the marketing chain. Camels'
milk milked in aseptic manner from the udder had TBC 2.1 x 101-4. 7x 104 cfuml', PSEC
1.8xI01-2.4xI04 cfumrl. Bulked milk at the herd level had TBC 9.2xl02-1.7xl04 cfuml",
I PSEC 3.7x10 I-3.4x.I0- ~ cfuml -I, YMC 2.lx10 I-?2.7xI0- cfurnl -I,EBC I.lxlO I-8.lxI0 2 cfuml -I
and PSC 3.Sxl02-8.3xl03 cfumrl. Bulked camel milk at the primary collector at the local
market center had TBC I.lxl03-S.6xl05 cfuml", PSEC 3.1xlOI-2.7xl04 cfuml', YMC
bulked milk at the final market in Nairobi had TBC 4.7xl05-107 cfuml", PSEC 2.0xl02-
9.lxI04-2.8xl05 cfumrl.Milk at the milking level had TBCs not exceeding microbiological
XIV
limit of 105 cfumri and thus a grade I quality milk. At primary collectors 25% had EBC
exceeding 103 cfuml' indicating grade Il quality of milk. 75% of bulked milk at the final
market exceeded the TBC acceptable limits of 106 cfuml' and EBC of 5.0xl 04 cfumri which
is in grade III and IV quality of raw milk which per the Kenya bureau of Standards 2006,
indicates poor quality milk and a threat to human health.
The Kenya Bureau of Standards specifications for pasteurized cow milk were applied as
criteria to establish the shelf life of camel milk. The shelf life was considered ended when the
Total bacteria counts exceeded 3.0x 104 cfurnl', Enterobacteriaceae count was> 10 cfum!"i
or alcohol test positive. Raw milk used had Total Bacteria Count 5.7x 105 cfuml',
Enterobacteriaceae Count l.4x 104 cfuml", Presumptive Streptococcal/ Enterococcal Count
1.2xl04 cfuml', Presumptive Staphylococcal Count 6.7x103 cfuml', Yeast and mold Count
9.5xlOi cfuml', acidity 0.16%, pH 6.64, antibiotic residue free, hydrogen peroxide free and
alcohol test negative. The residue TBC after pasteurization process was less than 10 cfuml i
while EBC, PSEC, PSC and YMC were completely destroyed. TBC of pasteurized camel
milk stored at 4-7°C exceeded the KEBS specifications in 49-54 days while TBCs of camel
milk stored at 25°C and at 30°C exceeded the limit in less than 24 hours. Thus with
appropriate refrigeration, pasteurized camel milk keeps for longer periods than when exposed
to high ambient temperatures.
Results of the cross-sectional survey indicate raw camel milk as highly significant to foodborne
illnesses. Raw camel milk had odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-
3.22, and p-value of 0.001 for cases with diarrhoea and/or vomiting either with or without
fever. Raw camel milk was also found to have OR 3.4; 95% CI= 1.52-7.80; p= 0.003 for
cases with diarrhoea and/or vomiting without fever and was not significant for cases with
xv
vomiting without fever (OR 2.9; 95% CI 0.91- 8.97; p=0.071). Backward selection
multivariate logistic regression indicates raw camel milk as a risk factor to food-borne
poisoning with OR 2.6; 95% CI=1.61-4.31, p=O.OOO; Log likelihood value (P (LRX2)) =
8.0002; raw cow milk emerged as a protective factor with OR 0.5; 95% CI=0.33-0.89,
p=0.015, P (LRX2) = 0.0145. Washing of hands with soap, treating drinking water, boiling of
milk, presence of proper drainage system and improved pit latrine emerged as significant
protective factors to symptoms of food-borne poisoning. Since unhygienically handled raw
camel milk was associated with food-borne illnesses, consumers of camel milk should be
sensitized either to boil or consume processed camel milk. This study recommends for urgent
development and adaptation of feasible and sustainable interventions to improve the camel
milk hygiene and safety in Kenya and to mitigate food-borne related diseases in the agropastoral
ist regions.

Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, et al. "Microbiological Quality of Raw Camel Milk Across the Kenyan Market Chain." Global Science Books. 2011.
Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, Wangoh J, Imungi JK, Farah Z, Meile L. "Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Across the Kenyan Market Chain." Food 5. Global Science Books. 2011;((Special Issue 1)):79-83.2011_microbial_quality_of_raw_camel.pdf
Kaingu CK. "Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are.". 2012. Abstract

Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are traditionally used by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Machakos district of Kenya to induce or augment labor, manage protracted labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained after birth. Ethnopharmacological relevance of the study will be the provision of scientific evidence and justification for the ethnic use of both plants as oxytocic agents in the initiation of labor, treatment of prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained placenta. Materials and methods: The plants were harvested in the wild, identified and voucher specimens preserved. The root bark was processed to powder form, from which aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained. Each of the extracts was separately tested on isolated uterine muscle tissue from nonpregnant and pregnant rabbits. The effect on contraction frequency (number of contractions per second) in the absence or presence of oxytocin was evaluated statistically using ANOVA. P values o0.05 were considered significant. Results and conclusions: All uteri exhibited a strong initial contraction following exposure to the aqueous and ethanol root bark extracts of both plants. After recovery, the resumed contraction frequencies varied with the plant extract and exogenous hormone. The results show that the extracts of both plants were able to stimulate uterine tissue contractility directly and to augment the tissue’s response to oxytocin. The increase in uterine contractions as a percentage relative to negative controls was particularly significant in pregnant rabbit tissues in the presence of oxytocin, where increments of up to 245% were observed. Further pharmacological studies are however required to determine the active principles, possible mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety margins of the plant extracts.

Kaingu CK, Mbaria J, Oduma JA, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses.". In: Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 0 2 (0 2 ); 201 4 ; 0 1 - 05.; 2014. Abstract

Aim of the study: The objective of the study was to identify and document medicinal plants traditionally used by people of Tana River County, Kenya for the management of various ailments. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in March 2012. Information was gathered from 80 traditional practitioners who lived and practiced in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao Subdivisions of Tana River using semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussion. Voucher specimen of cited plants were collected and deposited at the university of Nairobi herbarium. Results: A total of 31 plants distributed in 25 families were identified. The most popular plant species were eleven and were used for the management of pneumonia, arthritis, kidney problems, fibroids, typhoid, breast cancer, tooth ache, malaria, diabetis, convulsions, stomach ache, constipation, poisoning, cholera, diarrhea, mastitis, migraine, tonsilitis, ulcers, asthma, high blood pressure, urinary incontinence, body warts, milk letdown and as immune boosters. Conclusion: The use of herbs is still very common amongst Tana River inhabitants and the healers still rely largely on naturally growing plant species in their locality. Furthermore, the documented medicinal plants can be used as a basis for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Keywords: medicinal plants, indigenous management of illnesses Tana River.

kaluwa Kaingu DC, Mbaria PJ, Oduma DJA, Kiama PSG. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses." Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02 (02); 2014; 01-05.. 2014;02(02):01-05.ethnobotanical_study_of_medicinal_plants_traditionally_used_in_tana_river_county_for_management_of_illnesses.pdf
Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used For the Management of Male Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility in Tana River County, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction afflicts 10% of men of all ages, ethnicities and cultural background. In Tana River County a large percentage of reproductive health ailments are managed by traditional healers. Unfortunately, in traditional medicine practice, there is no documentation and information is passed on verbally from generation to generation. The aim of this study therefore was to identify and document plants that are used for the management of male sexual dysfunctions and infertility in Tana River County. An ethno botanical survey was carried out using structured questionnaires. Nineteen plants belonging to 15 genera and 13 families were reportedly used to treat hypoactive sex drive, manage erectile dysfunction/ impotence and treat male infertility. The plant remedies described and documented in this study represent valuable baseline data on indigenous knowledge, upon which further research can be based. Future scientific research into the efficacy and safe use of the herbs could then prove very useful to herbal medicine practitioners and researchers and will contribute immensely towards future conservation efforts of both the plants and the indigenous knowledge.

Kairithia Fredrick, Karanja, N.K, Eunice Cheserem, Kinuthia John, Mwangi C, Dalton W. "Adequacy of vital signs monitoring in post delivery mothers at the Naivasha District Hospital of Nakuru County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Medical and Clinical Sciences. 2015; 2(1): 030-035.
Kairithia Fredrick, Karanja JG, Eunice Cheserem, Kinuthia John, Dalton W. "Health education on HIV testing, family planning, immunization, breastfeeding, Neonatal Cord Care and danger signs to mothers at the Naivasha District Hospital, Nakuru County." Kenya Global Research Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology . 2015; 3(1)(ISSN-2360-792):: 065-070.
Kairu W, Gatari M, Maina D, Muia M, Birir J. Quality of Reinforced Concrete used on Selected Buildings in Nairobi, Kenya. Prague: ECNDT; 2014.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Eliciting willingness-to-pay and benefits of livestock vaccination in Kenya.". 2011.
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: A case study of Narok District of Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110(3-4):356-369. Abstractexploring_farmer_preferences_for_contagious_bovine_pleuropneumonia_vaccination.pdf

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p < 0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p > 0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI = 43.6%), price was the least important (RI = 0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95–100% safety, 2 h to greater than 2 h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for vaccine attribute levels during vaccine formulations and farmer preferences for vaccination attribute levels when designing delivery of vaccines.

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "The correlation of Esophageal body length with measure of external body parameters." Int. J. Morphol.. 2011;29, (3):895-898.Website
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "The prevalence of malignancies among 1st and 2nd degree relatives of breast cancer patients.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Kenya Medical Association; 2007. Abstract
  Objective: To determine the prevalence malignancies among relatives of breast cancer patients. Design: Prospective study from October 2003 to October 2007. Setting:  Private clinic Kenyatta National Hospital doctors plaza Subjects: 156 Breast cancer patients being followed up in the breast clinic. Methods: H/o malignant disease in relatives was ascertained. Results: 23 (14.7%) of 156 patients had a relative affected.  8 (5.1%) had a pattern suggestive of  genetic breast cancer.  22 (52.4%)  1ST degree relatives (father 10, mother 4, sister 7 and brother 1).  GIT malignancy (18/42 relations), breast cancer (9/42) & prostate cancer (5/42) were the most frequent malignancies. Conclusion: H/o of malignancy in 1ST degree relatives & multiple malignancies appear to be assoc with breast cancer.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Kaisha WO, Khainga S. Causes and pattern of unilateral hand injuries. East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):123-8.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Kenya Medical Association; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between May and August 2006. SUBJECTS: All patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries who presented at the casualty department. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were recruited. The mean age was 28.2 years with the modal age being 21-30 years. More males were injured than females. Occupational injuries and assaults were the most prevalent causes of hand injury. Majority of the injuries included lacerations, fractures and tendon injuries. The distal phalanges of the ring and long fingers were the most common sites of injury on the digits. CONCLUSION: Occupational hand injuries, a largely preventable problem, are the most prevalent cause of hand injury. This offers opportunity for strategies in preventing a large number of hand injuries by initiating safety measures at the work place.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Variations in the pattern of formation of Human Rectus sheath among Kenyans. Braz. J. Morphol. Sci., 2009, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 84-90.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy. The Annals of African surgery. January 2010 .". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Topography of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in relation to the thyroid artery, Zuckerkandl tubercle, and Berry ligament in Kenyans.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Clin Anatomy.; 2011. Abstract
Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is an important but avoidable complication of thyroidectomy. This complication may be avoided by the identification of the nerve facilitated by important landmarks found along its course. The setting for this work is the Human Anatomy Laboratory of the University of Nairobi. The aim of this work is to determine the topographic relationship of the RLN with the inferior thyroid artery (ITA), the tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ), and the ligament of Berry (LB) in a Kenyan population. The relationship between the nerve and the above landmarks was determined during dissection of 146 right and left thyroid lobes. One right side of the neck had a nonrecurrent nerve. Of the specimens where relationship was determined, the nerve was anterior to the ITA in 37% of cases and posterior in 51.4%. In relation to the LB, 45.3% were superficial (dorsolateral). The TZ was clearly delineated in 86 of the 146 specimens. No nerve traversed the tubercle. The RLN exhibited variations similar to those in other populations. The TZ when present was a reliable landmark to the nerve.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Esophageal stricture due to a common household water purifying agent.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Kenya Medical Association; 2006. Abstract
  Objective: To determine the prevalence malignancies among relatives of breast cancer patients. Design: Prospective study from October 2003 to October 2007. Setting:  Private clinic Kenyatta National Hospital doctors plaza Subjects: 156 Breast cancer patients being followed up in the breast clinic. Methods: H/o malignant disease in relatives was ascertained. Results: 23 (14.7%) of 156 patients had a relative affected.  8 (5.1%) had a pattern suggestive of  genetic breast cancer.  22 (52.4%)  1ST degree relatives (father 10, mother 4, sister 7 and brother 1).  GIT malignancy (18/42 relations), breast cancer (9/42) & prostate cancer (5/42) were the most frequent malignancies. Conclusion: H/o of malignancy in 1ST degree relatives & multiple malignancies appear to be assoc with breast cancer.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Regional variations in the microscopic organisation of the human rectus sheath." Braz. J. Morphol. Sci.. 2009;26(2):84-90. Abstractregional_variations_in_the_microscopic_organisation_of_the_human_rectus_sheath.pdfWebsite

The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Role of Laparoscopy in management of Gastric adenocarcinoma. Review.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "9. The femoral collodiaphyseal angle amongst selected Kenyan ethnic groups. Kaisha W, Pulei A, Koech A. Journal of morphological sciences.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Journal of Morphological sciences; 2011.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Structural age related changes in the crural diaphragm changes with age. Congress of International Federation of anatomists.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
Kaisha WO, Khainga S. "Causes and pattern of unilateral hand injuries." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(3):123-8. Abstract

To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Sigmoid Volvulus in pregnancy: Case report.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Locating the arcuate line of douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010.
Kajubi SK. "Iodine in the {Ugandan} environment." East African medical journal. 1971;48:427-432. AbstractWebsite
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Kakitahi J, Okui O. "Iodine deficiency disorders in {Kisoro}, {Bundibugyo}, {Hoima} and {Kapchorwa} districts." Preliminary report to MOH, Uganda December. 1991. Abstract
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Kakoi, Kaluli NT’o. "Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river wate." Ecological Engineering. 2016;95:699-705.
Kalai, J.M. "Moving and stuck schools: Improving academic achievement in primary schools.". In: Heads of Primary Schools in Kitui County under the Auspices Department of Basic Education. Kitui County Government at Kenya Forest Research Institute, Kitui; 2016.
Kalai JM. "School principals’ preparation and development." Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers.. 2011;(ISSBN-978-3-8465.).
Kalai JM, KANORI EN, Kunyiha EW. "Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions of factors that Influence their job Commitment in Tetu Sub County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Social Sciences and Education. 2016;5(4):241-250.kalai.pdf
Kalai, J.M., Kunyiha, E.W., KANORI EN, Matula, P.D. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management practices on Teachers’ Commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu Sub County, Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences & Education. 2016;Volume 2 (1)(ISSN 2105 6008):01-16.
Kalai, J.M. &, Kunyiha, E.W., KANORI EN, Matula, P.D. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management practices on Teachers’ Commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu Sub County, Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences & Education. 2016;2(1):01-16.
Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
Kalai JM. "Relationship between administrative service quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Kalai, J.M. "Impediments to realization of students’ potential Stock taking: Moving or stuck school? .". In: Target setting in schools . Blue Post, Thika ; 2012.
Kalai JM. School principals’ preparation and development.. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers. ISSBN-978-3-8465.; 2012.
Kalai, J.M.& Kara AM. "Relationship between teaching quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):63-78.
Kalai JM, Kingi PM. "Principals’ influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary Schools, Kenya,." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;5(2):168-175.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Sliding spark spectroscopy of sediment samples.". In: J. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 374, 756 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Plasma-Radiative Modelling and Characterisation of the Sliding Spark Discharge: Implications for Direct Dielectric Solid Trace Quantitative Spectroscopy.". In: J. Radiative & Quantit. Spectres. (In Press), 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Measurements of trace elements levels in Kenyan cigarettes with energy dispersive X-ray fluroscence spectroscopy technique.". In: J. Trace & Microprobe Techniques, Vol. 16, No.2, 233 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1998. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Trace Element Analysis by Sliding Spark Spectrometry.". In: J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. (in press) 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Sliding spark spectrometry: A pulsed plasma technique for the direct trace element analysis of non-conducting solids and dielectric surface layers.". In: Proceedings of the 2 nd International School on Plasma Diagnostics & Technology, 4 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Spectral diagnostics of the sliding Spark plasma.". In: J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. (in press) 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Measurements of trace elements levels in Kenyan cigarettes with energy dispersive X-ray fluroscence spectroscopy technique.". In: J. Trace & Microprobe Techniques, Vol. 16, No.2, 233 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Kalambuka Angeyo H, Odumo BO’, Carbonell G, Patel JP, Torrijos M, Martín JAR. "Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. Abstract

This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori–Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg−1), sediment (430 μg kg−1) and tailings (8,900 μg kg−1), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori–Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
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Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry . 2018;153:198-207. Abstract

Direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissues is important because it has an immense potential for biomedical applications. Unfortunately this is challenging because soft body tissues are characterized by dark matrix problems, weak analyte fluorescence, scattering, poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the analyte and spectral overlaps due to the properties of the detector and detection process. We report on hybridized utility of robust chemometrics approach for spectral preprocessing towards improving the quality of spectra towards quantitative analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissue. The study was based on (5–20 µm thick) paraffin wax model ‘standards’ spiked with biometals Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Na and Mg. Wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used conjointly for de-noising and mathematical enhancement of resolution. There was improved SNR of spectra by a factor of 3 compared to use of WT alone. The preprocessed spectra were used as input to artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) models for developing multivariate calibration strategies for quantitative analysis. Both models predicted the concentrations of the biometals better than when raw spectra were utilized (R2 ~ 0.892–0.954 before, and ~ 0.990–0.998 after preprocessing for ANNs; and R2 ~ 0.876–0.931 before, and ~ 0.977–0.992 after preprocessing for PLS). There was also improvement in prediction of Na and Mg in model tissue when both fluorescence and scatter were utilized conjointly (EDXRFS) i.e. R2 = 0.970 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.998 for both fluorescence and scatter for Na; and R2 = 0.934 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.993 for both fluorescence and scatter for Mg for ANN model. The accuracy of the calibration model was tested using Oyster tissue (NIST 1566b). The results of all analyzed elements were in agreement with certified values to ≤ 6%. This shows proof-of-concept for use of hybridized robust chemometrics approaches for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in soft tissue utilizing EDXRFS spectrometry; an approach that has potential for biomedical applications of EDXRF.

Kalambuka Angeyo H, Kaniu I, Darby IG. "Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry." EGU General Assembly 2016. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019;(Available online 10 June 2019). Abstract

Direct diagnosis and characterization of cancer in tissue via trace biometals analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is challenging, as it requires sensitive detection and accurate quantitative analysis of the appropriate cancer biomarkers. The EDXRF spectrometry technique is not directly applicable due to the complexity of the tissue biopsy samples that are of limited size and irregular geometry, enhanced scatter from the sample dark matrix and extreme matrix effects as well as spectral overlaps and prominent Bremsstrahlung that masks the subtle biomarker analyte peaks. We report on the direct determination of biometals namely Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn; Mg, Co and Na and associated speciation (for Cu, Mn, Fe) in soft body tissue in the context of disease diagnostics utilizing a robust chemometrics enabled energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometric method. The EDXRFS method exploits, in addition to multiple fluorescence spectral signatures, scatter profiles associated with the trace metals and dark matrix to determine through hybridized multivariate chemometrics calibration models, the biometals in thin (10 μm) tissue sections. Wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were used for spectral preprocessing towards model optimization using con-jointly artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) based on paraffin wax ‘standards’ spiked with the cancer biomarker trace metals. Results obtained from applying oyster tissue standard validated models (to ≤6% accuracy) to dog tissues (used here as human body tissue analogues) show that both prostate and mammary malignant tissues have significantly high concentration of Zn i.e. 301 ± 4 μg/g and 301 ± 4 μg/g respectively when compared to benign tissues i.e. 160 ± 3 μg/g and 171 ± 10 μg/g. The same is the case for Fe and Cu. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg in malignant (mammary) as compared to benign tissues occur in the ratios 3:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 2:1. On the other hand, for prostate malignant compared to benign tumor the corresponding ratios are 5:2, 2:1, 2:1 and 2:1 respectively. Prostate cancer was found to be characterized by strong positive correlation between Cu and Mg (0.999) and Mn and Fe (0.999) while mammary cancer is characterized by strong negative correlations between Cu and Mg (−0.994), Mn and Fe (−0.974). ICA and PCA were further used to successfully discriminate the dog tissue to 97% accuracy as either cancerous or non-cancerous based on validated pattern recognition PCA-ICA models for the determination of speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn in soft body tissue. For both mammary and prostate cancer malignancy was characterized by higher speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn (i.e. Cu2+, Fe3+, and Mn7+) compared to the benign. The results of this study demonstrate that robust chemometrics enabled EDXRFS spectrometry not only determine directly and rapidly but also accurately in a diagnostics manner cancer biomarker trace metals in soft body tissue. The technique has an additional advantage in that it has inbuilt multivariate capability to model the determined levels, their ratios and correlations as well as alterations in the speciation of the biometals to detect and characterize cancer (according to severity) as well discriminate among different types of cancer in the same tissue in a simple methodology that has potential for clinical applications.

Kalaria RN, Ogeng'o JA, Patel NB, Sayi JG, Kitinya JN, Chande HM, Matuja WB, Mtui EP, Kimani JK, Premkumar DR, Koss E, Gatere S, Friedland RP. "Evaluation of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease in elderly east Africans." Brain Res. Bull.. 1997;44(5):573-7. Abstract

A number of biological risk factors have been implicated for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The investigation of prevalence rates of AD in crosscultural populations has much potential in validating these factors. We previously assessed brain amyloid beta (A beta) protein deposition and other lesions associated with AD as possible markers for preclinical AD in elderly nondemented East Africans. In further analysis, we demonstrate that 17-19% of elderly East African subjects without clinical neurological disease exhibited neocortical A beta deposits and minimal neurofibrillary changes at necropsy that was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in an age-matched elderly control sample from Cleveland, OH. A beta deposits varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized neuritic plaques and were predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species. In parallel studies, we evaluated another recently implicated factor in AD, the apolipoprotein E genotype. We found relatively high frequencies of the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele in elderly nondemented East Africans. The frequencies were comparable to those in other African populations but higher than in subjects from developed countries. Our limited study suggests that elderly East Africans acquire cerebral lesions found in AD subjects but the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele may not be a highly specific factor for the disease among East Africans.

Kalaria RN, Ogengo, J.A., Patel NB, et al. "Evaluation of risk factors for Alzheimer's Disease in elderly East Africans." Brain Research Bulletin. 1997;44:573-577.kalaria1997.pdf
Kalebi A, Muchiri L GGRD. "Medical Students and the Autopsy: A survey of medical students in a Nairobi Medical School.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Frame and Burst Acquisition in TDMA Satellite Communication Networks with Transponder Hopping, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering, Vol.1, No.2, pp.100-105, July 2009.". In: International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technolgy; 2009. Abstract
The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrix and Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, pp.48-53, 2009.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, pp.48-53, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Meteor Burst Communications in the Post 2000 Era, C. Marriott, V. Oduol, A. Ghosh, B.Tailor, IEEE Military Communications Conference, 1990. MILCOM '90, Conference Record, A New Era. 1990 IEEE, 1990.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1990. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Rain Fade Mitigation, A. Dissanayake, V. Oduol, NASA ACTS Results Conference, Sept. 11-13,1995.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1995. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No. 2, pp.102-1.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009.". In: International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Soft-Decision Decoding Applied to the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme, S. D. Morgera, V.K Oduol,. IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume: 37 Issue: 4, April 1989.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1989. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Performance Evaluation of the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme with Noisy Feedback on Markov Channels, V.K. Oduol, S. D. Morgera, IEEE Transactions on Communications,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1993. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Data Flow and Buffer Management in a Multi-Channel Data Link Controller, S. Varada, V. Oduol, A. Shelat, Conference on Local Computer Networks, 1999. LCN '99,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1999. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Transient Analysis of a Single-Server Queue with Fixed-Size Batch Arrivals, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering Vol.1, No.1, pp.55-60, June 2009.". In: International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technolgy; 2009. Abstract
The transient analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch Poisson arrivals and a single server with exponential service times is presented. The focus of the paper is on the use of the functions that arise in the analysis of the transient behaviour of the queuing system. These functions are shown to be a generalization of the modified Bessel functions of the first kind, with the batch size B as the generalizing parameter. Results for the case of single-packet arrivals are obtained first. The similarities between the two families of functions are then used to obtain results for the general case of batch arrival queue with a batch size larger than one.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Transient Analysis of a Single-Server Queue with Batch Arrivals Using Modeling and Functions Akin to the Modified Bessel Functions, Vitalice K. Oduol, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp.34-39, 2009.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp.34-39, May 2009. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2009. Abstract
The paper considers a single-server queue with fixed-size batch Poisson arrivals and exponential service times, a model that is useful for a buffer that accepts messages arriving as fixed size batches of packets and releases them one packet at time. Transient performance measures for queues have long been recognized as being complementary to the steady-state analysis. The focus of the paper is on the use of the functions that arise in the analysis of the transient behaviour of the queuing system. The paper exploits practical modelling to obtain a solution to the integral equation encountered in the analysis. Results obtained indicate that under heavy load conditions, there is significant disparity in the statistics between the transient and steady state values.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Soft-Decision Decoding Applied to the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme, S. D. Morgera, V. Oduol, IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol.2, 1988,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1988. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Satellite on-Board Processing", V. K. Oduol, Seminar Presentation at MPB Technologies, Montreal, Canada, October 1991.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1991. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. ""Integration of Wireless Local Loop (WLL) and VSATs For Rural Communications", V. K. Oduol,Presentation at INTELSAT, Washington, DC, May 1996.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1996. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Kalovwe SK, Mwaniki IJ. "Modeling Stock Returns Volatility of the Nairobi Securities Exchange Index and Other Indices." Journal of Advanced Statistics. 2016;1(2):87-93. AbstractWebsite

This paper seeks to model daily, weekly and monthly stock indices returns using GARCH
(1,1) model which is expected to reproduce most of the stylized facts of financial time series data which,
in most cases, are found in different types of market. In addition, the distributional behavior of returns
as the data changes from daily through to monthly returns is investigated by performing the JB and
K-S tests. The results indicate evidence of volatility clustering, leverage effects, Gaussianity and
leptokurtic distribution in the stock returns. A key observation is that the monthly returns of the three
indices follow a Gaussian distribution (i.e. as the data changes from daily through to monthly returns
it follows a normal distribution)

Kalui DM, Moturi CA, Muketha GM, Tarus JK. "An Investigation into Customers' Requirements for Electronic Banking: A Case Study of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 2017;8(2):39-54. AbstractIGI Global

There is a general consensus that governments, businesses and all individuals need to harness the power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and ICT enabled services for wider access and improved welfare standards. The requirements of MFI clients in regard to electronic banking (e- banking) have received limited attention in the reviewed literature. In Kenya, little is known and understood about the customers' requirements with emergence of e-banking. In this paper, the authors investigate the MFIs clients' e-banking requirements to align with the MFIs preparedness for sustainable success. Besides, it narrows the digital divide in provision of financial services to Kenyans. Findings from this study indicate that in Kenya, MFI clients are ready for e-banking. The paper finally recommends some possible solutions that MFIs could embrace towards successful implementation of e-banking.

Kalui DM, Moturi CA. "E-Readiness assessment of microfinance institutions in Kenya." Information and Knowledge Management. 2015;5(10):61-80. Abstract

The financial industry has in recent years embraced the use of information and communication technologies
(ICTs) such as e-banking for transactions, m-banking for payment channels development and e-business for
logistics. Digital financial service delivery channels and methodologies face a number of challenges mainly the
e-readiness assessment of Microfinance institutions. This paper presents the results of a study on the level of e-
Readiness in Microfinance Institutions in Kenya and an Integrated Framework for Assessing (IFA) the e-
Readiness levels of Microfinance Institutions. We deployed the proposed framework on selected microfinance
institutions in Kenya to evaluate its performance and the case study shows our method can achieve a satisfactory
results.

Kaluwa CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Abstract
Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.

Keywords medicinal plants, female reproductive ailments, Tana River, Kenya

Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, Osanjo G, Naessens J. "Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster”." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;192:524-534. AbstractFull text link

Members of ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.
Aim

This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach.

Materials and methods

Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1 mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution.
Results

Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for extraction. The MICs mean values of the active extracts varied from 0.02 to 0.6 mg/ml.
Conclusions

The results suggested that these plants could potentially contain antimicrobial compounds that might be useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases in ruminants. Future work should focus on the isolation and identification of the active compounds from the plant extracts that showed interesting activities and evaluation of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential.
Mycoplasma mycoidesEthnobotanyAntimicrobial activityLivestockEthno-medicinal from plants from Kenya

Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:920. Abstract

Infections caused by Mycoplasma species belonging to the ‘mycoides cluster’ negatively affect the agricultural sector through losses in livestock productivity. These Mycoplasma strains are resistant to many conventional antibiotics due to the total lack of cell wall. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb the resistance threat. Recent studies on extracts from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii revealed interesting antimycoplasmal activities hence the motivation to investigate the antimycoplasmal activities of constituent compounds. The CH2Cl2/MeOH extracts from the berries of S. aculeastrum yielded a new β-sitosterol derivative (1) along with six known ones including; lupeol (2), two long-chain fatty alcohols namely undecyl alcohol (3) and lauryl alcohol (4); two long-chain fatty acids namely; myristic acid (5) and nervonic acid (6) as well as a glycosidic steroidal alkaloid; (25R)-3β-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene (7) from the MeOH extracts. A new furan diglycoside, (2,5-D-diglucopyranosyloxy-furan) (8) was also characterized from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of stem bark of P. thonningii. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 isolated in sufficient yields were tested against the growth of two Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm), two M.mycoides. capri (Mmc) and one M. capricolum capricolum (Mcc) using broth dilution methods, while the minimum …

Kamali A, Price MA, Lakhi S, Karita E, Inambao M, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Kaleebu P, Asiki G, Ssetaala A, Ruzagira E, Allen S, Farmer P, Hunter E, Mutua G, Makkan H, Tichacek A, Brill IK, Fast P, Stevens G, Chetty P, Amornkul PN, Gilmour J. "Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(1):e0116100. Abstract

HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

Kamamia EK, Maitho T, Purushotham K, Pratima S, Rajsree I, Ajay KK, Sudheer KM. "Formulation development of orally retentive antimalarial lozenges for pediatric patients." Medical Research and Practice. 2013;(2)7:197-200.
Kamanda M, Kiboi JG. "AN APPARENTLY AGGRESSIVE CRANIOFACIAL OSTEO-DYSPLASTIC LESION PRECIPITATING DEBILITATING SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: CASE REPORT." East Afr Med J. 2012;89(6):214-6. Abstract

This is a case report of an 18 year old man with craniofacial fibro-osteo-dysplastic lesion which exhibited both exophytic and endophytic growth patterns. We discuss the extent of tumour growth and its associated secondary changes.

Kamanja IT, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mbaabu M, Lanyasunya A, Gakuya DW, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of sexually transmitted infections by the Samburu community Kenya." International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;7:44-52.
Kamanja IT, Githigia SM, Muchemi GM, Mwandawiro C. "A Survey of Schistosoma Bovis in cattle in Kwale District Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

Kamanu JK;;, Chemingwa GN;, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J. "Effect of varying inorganic nitrogen fertilizer regimes on growth, yield and quality of snapbeans.". In: Agro2011. UoN; 2011.
Kamanu JK, CHEMINING GN, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J. "Growth, yield and quality response of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to different inorganic fertilizers applications in central Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2012;55:3944-3952. Abstract
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KAMASARA VO. "Survey of Management Accounting Practices in Kenya,.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

KAMASARA VO. "Impact of Bank Failures an Economic Development in Kenya.". In: Student Accountant. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1986. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Makawiti DW, Oryem-Origa H, Odyek O. "The anti-bacterial bioactivity of some medicinal lants used in productive healthcare from western,Uganda.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

Bacterial infections in rural western Uganda,particularly in women are treated using herbal medicine.The ethanolic crude plant extracts of tetradenia riparia,tithonia diversifolia and geniosporum rotundifolium some of the medicinal plants used traditionally in treating bacterial infections were tested for their activity against microorganism.Test organism used were three species of gram-positive bacteria namely staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative bacteria escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for bioassay.Disk diffusion method was used to carry out the antimicrobial test and the inhibitory concentrations of both the MIC and IC of the herbal extracts were calculated Tetradenia riparia,Tithonia diversifolia and geniosprum rotundifolium showed promising results as antibacterial potential drugs. Thus plants used in traditional medicine for particular ailments are sometimes potential leads in drug discovery and development

KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L.K (1998) Macroeconomics, economic reforms and macro consistency project for Zimbabwe A.". In: paper presented at an Economics symposium held on 20th to 25th November 1998, University of Zimbabwe. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, U. Kumar and J.P. Dougherty, "Grain Size Effects in Barium Titanate", Ferroelectrics, vol. 143, pp.229-238, 1993.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
Kamau, Paul OW. "Public Procurement Reforms: Lessons from Kenya,Tanzania and Uganda." OECD Technical Paper Number 208; 2004. Abstract
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Kamau GN, Dulo SO, Syagga PM, Waswa-Sabuni B. "Rice Husk Ash Cement - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry.".; 2002.
KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L. K and Njeru J (2003) The Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in the Rural Areas: A Case Study for the Nomadic Pastoralist Communities in Kenya.". In: My Current Assignment and Submitted as a Research Proposal to the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003.
Kamau G. "Social interactions and returns to farm inputs in smallholder agriculture in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(15):180-201.
Kamau JM, Mwai A, Kinyanjui PW, Iraqi FA. "Trypanotolerance effect as a result of genomic imprinting in F murine population.". 2007. Abstract

African tsetse-fly transmitted trypanosomosis affects a wide range of wild and domesticated animal species. Trypanotolerance, the ability of some breeds to withstand the infection has been recognized and provides a sustainable option in animal production. While a genetic contribution, several behavioural traits are not in doubt, an attempt to find the responsible genes has proven to be complicated. One advance towards generating trypanotolerant animals has been the demonstration of an effective genetic im printing phenomenon in crossbred mice, similar to that observed following challenge. We report a novel reciprocal crossing strategy that exploits epistasis and heterosis in inbred mouse strains to identify imprinting effect controlling trypanosomosis using an F2 (129/ J x CS7BL/6) resource populations. The results indicate that genetic control for trypanotolerance is complicated and the identification of imprinting effect may provide new insights of introgressing trypanotolerance in livestock

Kamau J, Salim B, Yokoyama N, Kinyanjui P, Sugimoto C. "Rapid discrimination and quantification of Theileria orientaiis types using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers.". 2011. Abstract

We report the population structure analysis of Theiteiia orientalis types (Ikeda. Buffcli and Chitose). the causative agent of theileriosis in cattle and its cohorts, using ITSl and ITS2 spacers by fragment genotyping. We utilized primers flanking the two ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS I and ITS2). Due to varying degrees of sequence polymorphism in the ITS regions found within and between species. we exploited the insertions and or deletions in these regions which resulted in different fragment sizes. On the basis of fragment size polymorphism. we could discriminate the three commonly found types of T. orientalis. ITSl was capable of discriminating all three types (lkeda-251 bp, Chitose- 274 bp and Buffeli-269 bp) in one single reaction by fragment genotyping.In contrast. using ITS2.Ikeda (133-bp) a more pathogenic type was distinguishable from Buffeli/Chitose (139-bp). When compared with previous PCR detection method using. ITSI and ITS2 genotyping was found to be more sensitive method with high specificity in population analysis and can be deployed in molecular epidemiology studies

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "R.P. Brodeur, K. wa Gachigi, P.M. Pruna and T.R. Shrout, "Ultra-High Strain Ceramics with Multiple Field-Induced Phase Transitions", J. Am.Ceram.Soc., vol.77, no.11, pp.3042-44, 1994.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Women in marriage and household resources management in Kenya main study report; presented at women and law regional conference.". In: Ranch on the Lake Hotel, Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. ""Temperature Dependence of Phase Stability in La3+, Ca2+ and Ti4+ Modified PbZrO3 Ceramics", Proceedings of the 9th International Meeting on Ferroelectrics (IMF-9), Seoul, S. Korea, Aug. 24-29th, 1997.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL. "Deletion Designs by M.K. Gachii and J.W.Odhiambo.". In: Journal of Science and Technology, 7, (2002), 323- 332,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.

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