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KABUBO-MARIARA J, Wambugu A, Musau S. "Multi - dimensional Poverty and W ell - being of W omen and C hildren in Kenya." P EP Network, PMMA Working Paper. 2010.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R. "Tenure Security and Ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.". In: Nature’s Wealth. The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ; 2013.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, V. LINDERHOF. "Tenure Security and Incentives for Sustainable Land Management: A Case Study from Kenya. Chapter 4(51-63).". In: Bluffstone R. and G. Köhlin (Eds.). Agricultural Investments, Livelihoods and Sustainability in East African Agriculture. Washington D.C. : Resources for the Future (RFF) Press; 2011.
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Does Institutional Isolation Matter for Soil Conservation Decisions? Evidence from Kenya." SAGE Open. 2015;January-March 2015: 1–9. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015570977.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, ARAAR A, DUCLOS J-Y. "Multidimensional Poverty and Child Well-being in Kenya." Journal of Developing Areas. . 2013;47(2):109-137 .
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Adaptation to Climate Change and Livestock Biodiversity: Evidence from Kenya. .". In: K.N.Ninan (ed.): “Conserving and Valuing Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: Economic, Social and Institutional Challenges in the New Millennium”. Chapter 16:(345-369. London: Earthscan Publishers; 2009.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Human Trafficking in Kenya: Is Poverty and Sex Discrimination to Blame?" International Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights. 2007;2(1):65-84.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Wambugu A, Musau S. Counting and Multidimensional Child Poverty Measurement in Kenya. PEP and University of Nairobi; 2013.
KABUBO-MARIARA JANE. "Forest-poverty nexus: Exploring the contribution of forests to rural livelihoods in Kenya." Natural Resources Forum. . 2013;DOI: 10.1111/1477-8947.12003.(Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013 ).
KABUBO-MARIARA J, R. M, DiFalco S. "The Impact of Climate Change on Food Calorie Production and Nutritional Poverty: Evidence from Kenya.". In: CSAE 2016 Conference on Economic Development in Africa. St. Catherine's College, Oxford, UK; 2016.
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya: Impacts and adaptations.". In: Ecological Economics. Vol. 68.; 2009:.
KABUBO-MARIARA JANE. "The Linkages between Property Rights, Migration and Productivity: The case of Kajiado District, Kenya." Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008.. 2003;8(4):621-636.Website
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "The Impact of Social Protection on the Welfare of Vulnerable Communities in East Africa: A Case Study from Kenya.". In: IDRC.; 2013. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the role of social protection on the welfare of vulnerable groups in Kenya. The study examined the various types of shocks and risks experienced by vulnerable groups and the strategies employed to address different types of shocks. The study further investigated the impact of social protection on enterprise development and asset accumulation by women and on children’s schooling outcomes. A sample consisting of 968 households from Thika District and Starehe and Kibera Districts in Nairobi was interviewed between October and December 2011. Descriptive analyses, probit models, and ordered probit models were used to achieve the objectives of the study.

The results show that the main shocks affecting households were: economic shocks - high prices for goods and inputs, low prices of farm produce, unemployment, and business failures; life cycle shocks - death of family member or household head or cash earner; and natural shocks - drought. The main coping strategies adopted in response to shocks were formal and informal social protection, consumption adjustment, putting in more hours of work, and establishing/operating a business. The results further suggest that social protection in the form of the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Cash Transfer and the Old Persons’ Cash Transfer programmes reduced the probability of experiencing natural and economic shocks by the households. Cash transfers and informal social protection also played a significant role both in enterprise development and the promotion of enterprises that were owned or operated by women. Cash transfers favoured asset accumulation by women and enhanced children’s school enrolment and attendance. The other factors that influenced household and individual welfare outcomes were urban residence and the gender, level of education, and age of the household head. Overall, the results show that cash transfers impact on standards of living and provide poor and vulnerable households with basic needs (food, health, and education).

The results of the study point to a number of policy issues. First, there is need to raise the amounts given in cash transfers and to expand coverage among the vulnerable groups. Second, complementary interventions and strategies should be enhanced to further protect the poor and vulnerable segments of the society from shocks and vulnerability. Third, there is need to sensitise people on the importance of participating in informal social protection arrangements in order to escape poverty. Fourth, Community-Based Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations should mobilise the poor and vulnerable in rural areas to fight poverty and vulnerability. Fifth, graduation and exit strategies should be designed and implemented to reduce dependency on cash transfers. Finally, there is need to pursue complementary policies for fighting poverty and vulnerability including asset accumulation, enhanced education, and rural development strategies.

Key words: Social protection, Poverty, Vulnerability, Shocks, Enterprise Development, Asset Accumulation, Education, Kenya.

JEL: I1, I2, I3, D1, H5

KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G. "Does Land Tenure Security Matter for Investment in Soil and Water Conservation? Evidence From Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics- AFJARE. 2011;4(2):123-139.
KABUBO-MARIARA J. Soil Conservation and Crop Productivity in Kenya: The role of Institutional Isolation. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 49, . Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria.; 2011.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, M.M. KARIENYE, F.M. KABUBO. "Child Survival, Poverty and Inequality in Kenya: Does Physical Environment Matter?" African Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2(1):65-84.ajss_manuscript.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "The Labour Market in Kenya: Structure, Reforms and the Role of Government. Chapter 7: (150-184).". In: M.S. Gupta (ed.) Labour and Rural Development. Serials Publications; 2009.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Ndenge G, Mwabu D. "Evolution and Determinants of Non-monetary Indicators of Poverty in Kenya: Children." University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Wambugu A, ARAAR A. Measurement and Correlates of Multidimensional Poverty: Application to Child Wellbeing in Kenya. PEP and University of Nairobi; 2013.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Karienyeh MM, Kabubo F. "Child Survival and Policy Options in Kenya: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys." Journal of Reviews on Global Economics. 2012;1:13-26.jrgev1a2.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Ndenge G, Mwabu D. "Determinants of children’s nutritional status in Kenya: evidence from demographic and health surveys." Journal of African Economies. 2009;18(13):363-387.Website
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Macroeconomic Adjustment, Poverty and Economic Growth: An Analysis for Kenya." frican Journal of Economic Policy. 2001;8(1):42-58.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Beukering V. "Tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.". In: Nature's Wealth: The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. Cambridge University Press; 2013.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, KARIENYE M, MWANGI FK. "Multidimensional Poverty, Survival and Inequality among Kenyan Children. Chapter 2.". In: Cockburn J. and J. Kabubo-Mariara (Eds.).Child Welfare in Developing countries . New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC; 2010.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Massawe S, Wanjiku J, Karugia J. Poverty Reduction Initiatives in the COMESA Region. Mimeo, ReSAKSS/ILRI, Nairobi..; 2010.Website
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Integrating Market Access and Tenure Security: The role of Institutional Isolation in Crop Productivity in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Economics Perspectives. Vol. Vol. 8.; 2014.abstract_-_prof._mariara_2.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G. "Poverty-environmental links: the impact of soil and water conservation and tenure security on household welfare in Kenya." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2010;2(1):41-53.mariara_jdae_manuscript.pdf
Kabugu A, Gikunju M. Open access and the role of the librarian.; 2014.
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words I . Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Kabura M, Muriithi L, Gathigi G. "Ushikwapo Shikamana: Increasing Dialogue in Communities.". In: Culture, Entertainment and Health promotion in Africa. Nairobi: Population Communication International; 2005.
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words II. Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Kaburi AN, Oluka MO, Kosgei RJ, Mulwa NC, Maitai CK. "Herbal remedies and other risk factors for preterm birth in rural Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2015;4(4):135-142. Abstractkaburi_et_al_2015.pdf

Background: Premature infants contribute substantially to infant morbidity and mortality especially in low resource settings. Information on herbal remedy use, previous preterm birth and low social-economic status and their association with incidence of preterm birth in Kenya is scanty.
Objectives: To determine the use of herbal remedy use in pregnancy, previous preterm birth and low socio-economic status as risk factors for Preterm Birth in Kitui County among the immediate post-partum mothers.
Methods: Unmatched case control study with a 1:4 ratio of cases to controls. The study was done in Kitui and Mwingi District Hospitals. A total of 107 mothers with preterm birth (cases) and 453 mothers with term births (controls) were eligible and administered structured interviews.
Results: Of the sample, 98% of cases resided in rural areas compared to 90% of controls. The cases had a higher parity and were more likely to belong to the lowest three and four levels of socio-economic status. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, predictors of preterm birth were: preeclampsia (OR=9.06 [2.60-31.63], p=0.001), previous preterm, (OR=9.31 [2.82-30.68], p<0.001), low socioeconomic status (OR=1.51 [1.05-2.16], p=0.03), herbal use in first trimester for 2-5 days (OR=11.10 [4.34-28.41], p<0.001), herbal use in first trimester for 6-10 days (OR=44.87,[4.99-403.87] p=0.001), and herbal use in second trimester for 6-10 days (OR=16.43 [4.53-59.57], p<0.001). Use of prescribed folic acid in second trimester for more than 31 days was associated with lower risk of preterm birth (OR=0.20 [0.12-0.34], p<0.001).
Conclusion: Herbal use in pregnancy regardless of gestation, previous preterm birth and low socio-economic status and are risk factors for preterm birth in Kitui County Kenya. Interventions targeted to reduction of these risk factors will be an important additional prong in the reduction of preterm birth.
Key words: Preterm birth, herbal remedy, risk factors

Kachero F. "Processing of Periodicals.". In: A Guide to Periodicals Section. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1991.guide_to_periodicals_section.pdf
Kachlik D, Baca V, Bozdechova I, Cech P, Musil V. "Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights." Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA. 2008;30:459-466. Abstract

The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

Kachlik D, Baca V, Stingl J, Sosna B, Lametschwandtner A, Minnich B, Setina M. "Architectonic arrangement of the vasa vasorum of the human great saphenous vein." Journal of vascular research. 2007;44:157-166. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The detailed spatial arrangement of the vasa vasorum (VV) of the human great saphenous vein (HGSV) was demonstrated in qualitative and quantitative terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segments of the HGSV taken from cadavers 12-24 h post mortem and from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypassing were studied by light microscopy of India-ink-injected specimens and by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. RESULTS: Arterial feeders were found to approach the HGSV from nearby arteries every 15 mm forming a rich capillary network within the adventitia and the outer two thirds of the media in normal HGSV, while in HGSV with intimal hyperplasia capillary meshes extended into the inner layers of the media. Within the media, capillary meshes ran circularly. Postcapillary venules drained centrifugally towards the adventitial venous vessels which finally formed venous drainers running adjacent to the arterial feeders. Three-dimensional morphometry of vascular corrosion casts of VV revealed that diameters of (i) arterial VV ranged from 11.6 to 36.6 microm, (ii) capillary VV from 4.7 to 11.6 microm and (iii) venous VV ranged from 11.6 to 200.3 microm. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D network of VV suggests these layers are metabolically highly active and therefore require a continuous blood supply. We conclude, therefore, that the VV network must be preserved during in situ bypassing.

Kadam P, Bhalerao S. "Sample size calculation." International Journal of Ayurveda Research. 2010;1:55-57. AbstractWebsite
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Kádár A, Glasz T. "Development of atherosclerosis and plaque biology." Cardiovascular Surgery (London, England). 2001;9:109-121. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a leading issue in mortality and morbidity in the civilized world. A number of hypotheses for atherogenesis indicate the complexity of initiation and development of this multifactorial disease. Morphologic types of lesions have long since been studied in order to understand plaque evolution and determinants of plaque complication, a frequent cause of acute ischemic accidents. Chemical and pathophysiological studies defined the wide spectrum of molecular interactions between cellular elements of atherosclerotic lesions. Recently, molecular biologic investigations provide a deeper insight into genetic predispositions for the disease and have widened our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. Until we can diminish the high prevalence of the disease, precise information is needed on the evolution of atherosclerosis in order to slow progression, select optimal therapies and prevent plaque complications and their consequences.

Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. "Reduced threshold current in bipolar diode lasers by non-square quantum well growth." Physica Scripta. 2003;67(1):68-73. Abstract

By device simulation, it is shown that non-square quantum well growth (well shaping) provides a means for reducing the threshold current of bipolar quantum well diode lasers. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and laser gain are performed based on a 4-band (electron, heavy-hole, light-hole, split-off-hole) Hamiltonian with Burt-Foreman Hermitianization. A non-optimized, compressively strained, InGaAs-AlGaAs (on GaAs) shaped well laser, operating at 0.97 µm is predicted to show improvements in both radiative and non-radiative current performance compared to a device based on an optimal square quantum well of the same well width and emission wavelength. These improvements result from modification of subband structure giving greater subband separation in the shaped well than in the square well

Kaduki KA, Batty W. Calculations of in-plane subband dispersion for non-square quantum wells. Warwick, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1994.
Kaduki KA. "The Status of Physics in Kenya.". In: 3rd International Conference on High Level Physics and Appropriate Solutions to Real Life Problems in Developing Countries. 25; 2013. Abstract
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Kaduki KA. "Improved performance of strained layer diode lasers by non-square quantum well growth." African Journal of Science & Technology. 2000;1(1):1-8.
Kaduki KA. "Non-square quantum well growth for reduced threshold current in tensilely strained lasers operating at 1.52mm." African Journal of Science & Technology. 2001;2(1):11-19. Abstract

This paper presents calculations demonstrating that non-square quantum well growth
(well shaping) can result in reduced threshold current for tensilely strained quantum well bipolar
diode lasers operating at 1.52μm m. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and
laser gain are performed for arbitrarily shaped quantum wells based on a 4-band (electron/heavyhole/
light-hole/split off-hole) Hamiltonian. For long wavelength (1.3μm m to 1.55μm) lasers,
Auger recombination dominates the threshold current. Compared to a 1.52 mm optimal square well
just below critical thickness, an InGaAs-InGaAsP (on InP) well incorporating potential ‘spikes’ and
having the same wavelength can be much wider. The wider well, possible with well shaping, results
in a lower value for three-dimensional (3D) carrier density at a given value of modal gain. For low
loss lasers, this implies a reduction in Auger (and hence total) threshold current to a value below the
best obtainable in a laser based on a square quantum well

Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. Non-square quantum well growth for reduced hole subband mass in tensilely strained lasers. Liverpool, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1995.
Kaduki KA. Modelling of mixed nitride (GaInNAs) quantum well lasers. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Physical Society; 2000.
Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Omucheni DL, Wabwile R, Abramczyk H, Zoueu JT. "Disease diagnostics by chemometrics-assisted spectroanalytical and imaging techniques.". In: LAM9 International Workshop on Optics and Lasers in Science and Technology. Dakar, Senegal; 2010.
Kaduki KA. "Theoretical investigation of gain in 1.3mm GaInNAs-GaAs quantum Well diode lasers." Maseno Journal of Education, Arts and Science. 2001;3(2):160-168.
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. "Laser applications of exact expressions for hole subband effective mass in arbitrarily shaped quantum wells grown along arbitrary crystal axes.". In: National Quantum Electronics Conference, QE-12 `95. Southampton, U.K.; 1995.
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. Quantum well shaping for reduced threshold current in strained layer lasers.. York, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1996.
Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A. "Spectral Analysis and Imaging Platforms for Trace Analytics in Disease and Environment.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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Kaduki KA, Batty W. "Envelope Function Approximation (EFA) bandstructure calculations for III-V non-square stepped alloy quantum wells incorporating ultra-narrow (5 Angstrom) epitaxial layers." Physica Scripta. 2001;61(2):213-221. Abstract

We describe Envelope Function Approximation (EFA) bandstructure calculations based on a 4-band electron (EL), heavy-hole (HH), light-hole (LH) and split-off hole (SO) effective mass Hamiltonian, with Burt-Foreman hermitianisation, which can handle III-V quantum well structures that incorporate ultra-narrow epi-layers. The model takes into account the coupling of EL, HH, LH and SO bands and is suitable for describing quantum wells tuned to the 1.0 - 1.55 µm window exploited by optical fibre communication devices. We have used the multi-band solver to calculate the bandstructure of an illustrative InGaAsSb-AlGaSb non-square quantum well that incorporates 6Å potential "spikes" in its well region. Calculations based on the Burt-Foreman hermitianised Hamiltonian and those based on a Hamiltonian with standard "symmetrised" hermitianisation are presented and compared. When coupling to the conduction band is excluded from the calculation, the latter formulation leads to anomalous electron-like curvature of the dispersion curves for our spiked non-square quantum well structure

Kage S, Meguro S, Miyawaki A, Mathenge S, Kiboi S, Hayashi H, Fujiwara K, Furukawa T, Mutiso P. "Restoration of tropical dry forests of Kenya." Proceedings of International Symposium on Rehabilitation of Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems 2011. 2011.
Kager PA;, Rees PH. "Haematological investigations in visceral leishmaniasis.". 1986. Abstract

Various haematological parameters were followed in a group of 47 Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis during treatment and follow up. The WBC and platelet numbers were normal by the time of cure, the Hb level took longer to become normal. Red cells were microcytic and hypochromic. MCV and MCH increased during follow up but microcytosis persisted up to a year after cure. Low serum iron and transferrin concentration, low total iron binding capacity and normal to high serum ferritin levels were found in 10 patients and are consistent with 'anaemia of chronic inflammation'. Bone marrows of 15 patients before treatment were normo- to hypercellular with increased erythropoietic activity. Low haemosiderin content of the bone marrow was consistent with iron deficiency, but normalization of Hb without iron suppletion would argue against a major role of iron deficiency. Coagulation studies did not indicate diffuse intravascular coagulation. Splenomegaly seems the most important factor in the causation of the pancytopenia. Further studies of contributing factors and of the cause and mechanism of 'hypersplenism' are needed.

Kagereki E, Gakonyo JM SOH. "Significance Bias: An Empirical Evaluation of the Oral Health Literature." BioMed Central Oral Health. 2016.
Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

Kagiko MM, Ogeto CO, Kyule MN, Mcdermott JJ, Macharia SM, Kaburia HF. "On-form cross-sectional survey for bovine fasciolosis in Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosls coused by F. gigantica is widespread in Africa, including Kenya. There is a large collection of reports on fasciolosis in Kenya based on abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILs) as well as reports on a few farm surveys. However, these reports are deficient in one way or another. Thus, a cross-sectional on-farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs In the faeces. A variety of other techniques are now available e.g. enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay '(ELlSA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zones were defined depending on the reported prevalences; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones. Two study districts were picked at random from each zone. The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm, Serum was later harvested. ELISA and faecal sedimentation tests (FST) were carried out.

Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

KAGIMA JW, DAVID MJ, Otieno F, Chokwe TM. Hypomagnesaemia In Critically Ill Patients On Admission To The Critical Care Units At The Kenyatta National Hospital.. San Diego California: American Thoracic Society; 2014.
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Githigia SM, Maingi N, Chege N. "Efficacy of Neem and Pawpaw Products against Oesophagostomum Spp Infection in Pigs.". In: Anthelmintics: Clinical Pharmacology, Uses in Veterinary Medicine and Efficacy. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2014.
Kagira, J.M., Oluoch, G., Waititu, K.I., Mulei, I., Maingi N, Ngotho M. "High efficacy of combined albendazole and ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in vervet monkeys and baboons." Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science. 2010;37(4):1-7.2010._high_efficaccy_of_combination_anthelmintic_treatment__in_monkeys_and_baboons.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PW. "Questionnaire survey on urban and peri-urban livestock farming practices and disease control in Kisumu municipality, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To characterise the urban livestock keeping practices and constraints in Kisumu municipality, Kenya, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Thirty-four contact farmers were interviewed on general farm characteristics and production constraints. The farming activities were categorised as either livestock only (41%), or mixed crops and livestock (59%). The surveyed farmers kept mainly cattle (100%), chickens (82%) and goats (74%). Most (94%) of the farmers had kept livestock for prolonged periods mainly for income generation (97%) and domestic consumption (59%). These data show that livestock keeping was popular and could be harnessed to increase food security, although the farmers kept mainly low-producing indigenous cattle (98%) which were grazed on unutilised land. The main production constraints mentioned by farmers included diseases (100%), poor fertility (68%) and lack of feed (56%). The diseases varied with species of ruminants and included lumpy skin disease (71%), diarrhoea (65%) and helminthosis (62%). The source of advice on management and treatment of the livestock was almost equally from private and government veterinary personnel. To improve livestock productivity, it is recommended that key stakeholders address the constraints mentioned in this study and in particular that the occurrence of diseases should be investigated with a view to developing sustainable control strategies

Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2010;27:27-36.10_kagira_et_al_2010_3.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN. "The role of veterinary and medical personnel in the control of zoonoses in urban settlements on the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Rapid urbanization and livestock keeping in urban and periurban areas especially in the developing countries pose great challenges to the management of human and animal health. The role played by relevant stakeholders in the control of zoonoses in urban areas has not been well evaluated. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in Kisumu municipality, Kenya, to assess the common zoonoses encountered, their management and role played by veterinary and medical personnel in zoonoses control. Fifteen veterinary and nine medical personnel participated in the study. The main zoonoses encountered by the personnel included rabies, brucellosis, hydatidosis, cysticercosis and toxoplasmosis. A significantly (p<0.05) higher number of veterinary than medical personnel reported hydatidosis, cysticercosis and rabies as being more common. The opposite was true for toxoplasmosis. The animals with the highest zoonoses risks according to the veterinary and medical personnel were dogs (71%) and cattle (78%) respectively. There were a significantly higher (p<0.05) proportion of medical (88%) than veterinary personnel (73%) who gave advice to immune-compromised patients regarding the zoonotic risks. Minimal communication existed between the two professions regarding zoonoses occurrence and control. In conclusion, the study found that there were differences on the perception on the occurrence and control of zoonoses in the municipality. It is recommended that an inter-disciplinary approach should be used for the control of zoonoses in the study area.

Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Ng’ang’a C, Gachohi J. "Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya." ISRN Veterinary Science. 2013;2013. Abstractthe_relationship_between_the_prevalence_of_ectoparasites.pdf

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free-range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%), and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decoloratus (31%), and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly ( ) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly ( ) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites, and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented.

Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK, Waruiru RM. "Relationship between the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infections and management practises in pig herds in Thika District, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Thirty five (35) commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya were surveyed to determine the relationship between nematode parasitism and management practices. In each herd, faecal samples were collected from 25 pigs in all the age groups and examined for the presence of nematode eggs. Management factors of the herds were recorded by a questionnaire administered during visits and its association with the occurrence of nematode species examined using the chi-square analysis. High prevalence of the nematode was significantly (p<0.05) related to irregular worm control program, dung removal and disinfection. Other significant (p<0.05) factors were presence of non-concrete floors, lack of bedding, late weaning, small herds sizes and provision of low quality non-commercial feeds. These associations were most significant for the Oesophagostomum spp. The highest prevalences of Oesophagostomum spp/Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi were recorded in farms using piperazine, levamisole and fenbendazole, respectively. The epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes is discussed in relationship with the various management practices in different pig herds.

Kagira JM, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Kanyari PWN, Maingi N, Gachohi JM. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa and association with risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya." Journal of Protozoology. 2010;20:1-9.7._kagira_et_al_2010.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Githigia SM, Maingi N, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:657-664.5_kagira_et_al_2012.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Karuga JW. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2010;42:865-873.9_kagira_et_al_2010_2.pdf
Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9–6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9–14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (x2 ¼ 4.4, P ¼ 0.034, odds ratio (OR) ¼ 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Mhoma JRL. "The prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats in urban and peri-urban areas of Mwanza City, Tanzania.". 2011. Abstract

Gastrointestinal parasites are among the major causes of severe losses to livestock industry worldwide, especially in small ruminants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats kept by small holders in the urban and peri-urban areas of Mwanza City in Tanzania. Randomly, 36 farmers from urban areas, with a total of 280 goats and 22 farmers from peri-urban areas with a total of 205 goats were identified for sampling. Faecal samples were collected from each goat and direct smears, floatation and sedimentation techniques were employed to identify parasite types. The prevalence of different endoparasites among urban Mwanza City goats was: Fasciola gigantica (4.2%); Strongyles (68%) and Entamoebae (3.2%). In peri-urban Mwanza City the prevalence of parasite infections was: Entamoebae (6.3%); Paramphistomum (7.3%), Strongyle eggs (47.3%) coccidia oocysts (2.4%), F. gigantica (8.2%), and Balantidium coli (4.8%). The present study showed that the prevalences of coccidia and strongyle parasites were significantly (p<0.05) higher in urban compared to peri-urban areas. However, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the prevalence of other parasites between two areas. The differences observed in the prevalence of aforementioned parasites are partly related to the variance in the animal management systems in the two areas, these being extensive and intensive in the peri-urban and urban areas, respectively. The challenges brought about by the prevalence of these parasites, some being zoonotic in nature validate the need to bring awareness to the farmers and the public in both areas and develop control strategies.

Kagira J.M, Maingi. N, Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia S.M., J. C. Ng’ang’a, Gachohi. JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya." Journal of Helminthology. 2010;84:398-403.8_kagira_et_al_2010_1.pdf
Kagira J.M., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a, J.C., Kanyari. P.W.N., Maingi, N., Gachohi JM. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa and association with risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya." Journal of Protozoology . 2010;20:1-9.2010_prevalence_of_gastrointestinal_protozoa_in_pigs_in_kenya.pdf
Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." The Tropical Veterinarian . 2009;27:27-35.2010_charateristics_of_pig_trade_in_low_income_settings_in_busia_district.pdf
Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Seroprevalence of Cysticercosis cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range Pigs in Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2010;84(4):398-403.2010_seroprevalence_of_cysticercus_cellulosae_and_associated_risk_factors_in_free_range_pigs_in_kenya.pdf
Kagira J.M., Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia, S.M., Maingi, N., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2011;44(3):657-664.2011._risk_factors_associated_with_occurence_of_nematodes_in_free-range_pigs_in_busia_district_kenye.pdf
Kagira J.M., Kanyari P.W.N., Maingi N., Githigia S.M., Ng’ang’a J.C., J.W. K. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2009;42(5):865-873.2009_charateristics_of_smallholder_free-range_pig_production_system_in_western_kenya4-pdf.pdf
Kagundu AM, Kimenju JW, Nderitu JH. "Reaction of green manure plants to root knot nematodes.". 2000. Abstract

Green manure plants are increasingly being adopted for soil fertility improvement especially in low-input agriculture. Information on their reaction to plant parasitic nematodes is, however, scanty. Green manure plants, Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinartum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, 1ithonia diversifolia and Vicia villosa, were evaluated to determine their reaction to root knot nematodes in glasshouse and field experiments. Sesbania sesban and Tagetes minuta were included as susceptible and resistant checks, respectively. In the glasshouse, 15 em-diameter pots were each filled with steam-sterilised soil infested with 10,000 eggs and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica. The field experiment was conducted in a field naturally infested with Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita. Ninety days after soil infestation, galling and egg masses were quantified using a scale of 1-9. Second stage juveniles (J2) were also extracted from 250 cm3 soil. Differences in galling and egg masses were significant (p=0.05) among the green manure plants evaluated. The plants could be grouped into three categories with V. villosa, and T purpurea being rated as susceptible. Calliandra calothyrsus, C quinoa and C. ensifomis were moderately resistant while C. juncea, D. uncinartum, G. sepium, L leucocephala, M. pruriens, and T. diversifolia were rated as resistant. Root knot-nematode resistant green manure plants should, therefore, be recommended in areas where the nematodes are constraint to crop production Key words: Calliandra calothyrsus, Canavalia ensiformis, Chenopodium quinoa, Crotalaria juncea, Desmodium uncinartum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita, Mucuna pruriens, Tephrosia purpurea, 1ithonia diversifolia and Vicia vil/osa.

Kaguongo WNW;, Stall S;, Ackello-Ogutu C. "Risk with Intensificatio n of Kenyan Smallholder Dairying.".; 1997.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; Submitted. Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Margaret N. Meme others, Prof. Anna Karani, et al Book .". In: Ministry of Public Heath and Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services. Ministry of Public Health & Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the  sexuality curriculum is to improve service provider

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibaru S., Mardsen S., Godia P. , Karani A. et al National Guidelines for Provision of Adolescent Youth-Friendly Services (YFS) in Kenya. Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health, Nairobi, Kenya. 2005.". In: Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna and Miriam Wagoro Disaster Management : HighLights. Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003.". In: Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Effect of Post Basic Psychiatric Nursing Training on Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills of Nurses in the Management of Substance Dependent Patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi- Nov.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 36:.(2):21-26:2007. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2007. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Maina, Philomena, Karani, Anna, et al Problems Encountered by Middle Level Nurse Managers in Ensuring Quality Nursing Care in Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal,. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1995. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31. Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1; Submitted. Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Agnes Wangechi Karuga, Alice Gathogo , Teresia Mbua, Nancy Ndungu, Prof. Ann Karani Retrospective study on overcrowding in Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical Wards 2006 - 2007 . Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

The study was conducted at Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical wards covering September 2005

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kipturgo Matthew and Karani, Anna. One Level Nurse Movement in Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32No.2. December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna., et al, Research Guidelines. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi. 2001.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi. 2001. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92- Synegy and Win-Win: The goals of Effective Leadership) By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick Kimani Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sigma Theta Tau International : Honor Society of Nursing; 2009. Abstract

  The goals of the book are to:1. Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,and     mentor.2. Offer salient,tangible,subject-based lessons for new and experienced leaders    alike.3. Demonstrate that mentee-mentor competencies are more readily gained through     personal example, channeled practice, or experience than through pure     education and training. At the end of each chapter, there are reflective question. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna.First Aid Awareness among Paediatric Accident Victims at Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna, and St. John Ambulance Members of Medical Committee. Lifesaver .". In: Africa St John Ambulace Kenya Publication. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte THE ROLE OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES IN HIV INFECTION AMONG ANTENATAL MOTHERS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT HOSPITAL.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte; Submitted. Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistedly both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study. A self

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege IMPACT OF STUDENTS AND TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS ON PERFORMANCE OF DIPLOMA NURSE GRADUATES.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this descriptive study sought to establish the impact of students and teacher characteristics on performance in the Nursing registration examination. The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study guide from lecturers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kivuti Bitok Lucy and Karani Anna K. Trends of Research Interest Among BSc Nursing Undergraduate Students of University of Nairobi (1996-2003). Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1, June, 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1, June, 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Mange.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2002. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Karani Anna : NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani : Task Analysis of nurses roles in Africa Health Services.". In: Conference/Workshop at Bellagio Italy . Conference; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the  conference was to develop a description or model of nursing which reflects the reality of Sub-Saharan African (SS Africa) health and health service as a basis for nursing education and nursing service management. The specific objective was :  1.  To describe the actual current roles and tasks of nurses in SS African health services.  2.  To describe the role expectations other health professionals, the community and health          administrators have for nurses in SS Africa. 3.To analyze the health-, illness- and care needs of the SS African population in the light of the skills mix in the health team, with special reference to nurses.4.To compare and contrast the actual and perceived tasks and roles of the nurse in SS Africa.5.To provide a description or model for nursing in SS Africa that is needs, expectations and reality-based.Design: This is a multiple-case design (Yin, 2009), in which each country is a case and the description is based on a mail survey, observation in selected health care services, focus group interviews and a literature study.Many issues were discussed noting that the health human resource challenges of Africa are enormous. The shortage of nurses is acute in many countries, and there seems to be little hope of a quick change in this situation. It is therefore essential that this scarce resource is not only appropriately trained, but also creatively deployed. The first step in achieving these objectives would be to understand exactly what the job demands are. We believe that this study speaks to all three these strategies and could make an important contribution to developing evidence-based nursing and midwifery curricula in this region. While the study is aimed at a continental answer with the cross case analysis of data, the data from each country will also be made available locally in order to allow countries to take appropriate action.It was not possible to complete the discussion on the objectives of collected data but analysis was to be continued and some papers to be written from the data analysed e.g cross countries  analysis.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Factors Influencing Quality of Nursing Education in Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No.1. June, 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No.1. June, 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Kagure KA. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". 2007. Abstract

Ultrasound technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%. Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Common Communicable and Tropical Diseases. Nurses Hand book. Media Congress Publishers, Nairobi, 1998, 2003.". In: Media Congress Publishers, Nairobi, 1998, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. ": PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING Prof. Anna K. Karani University of Nairobi, Stephen Kainga,(MScN) University of Nairobi Prof. Simon Kangethe Moi University. Diana Mwarania BScN (graduate.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal: Dec. KNJ Vol. 41(2) 23-33. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kivuti Bitok Lucy and Karani Anna K. Trends Of Research Interests Among Bscn Undergraduate Students Of University Of Nairobi (1997-2003), Kenya Nursing Journal Vol 33 NO.1 June 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Vol 33 NO.1 June 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Sustaining Nursing Leadership in the 21st Century and Beyond. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna, et al. .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, June 1990. Vol. 18. No. 1 pp 28-30. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1990. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38 (1) 55-59. Dr. Onditi Elias G.D, Prof. Anna K. Karani & Prof. Simon Kangethe; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Utrasound  technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%.Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

Introduction: In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done with Collaboration of University of Nairobi-Kenya and WHO St

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kangethe, Simon; Karani, Anna and Wambua, Kyalo Planning & Implementation of Innovative Medical Education. Amazing, No 019, December, 2004.". In: Amazing, No 019, December, 2004. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna. , et al, Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1999. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92"Synergy and Win-Win: The Goals of Effective Leadership") By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick K. Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2009. Abstract

The Goals of the book are to:1,  Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,      and mentor.2.  Offer salient , tangible, subject-based lessons for new and experienced       leaders alike.3.  demonstrate that mentee-mentor competences are more readily gained      through personal example, channeled practice, or experience than      through pure education and training.At the end of every chapter there are reflective questions.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Maina, Philomena, Karani, Anna, et al.Problems Encountered by Middle Level Nurse Managers in Ensuring Quality Nursing Care in Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Nursing Education and Practice in Kenya. Kirin Information on Drugs and Science Journal. Excerpta Medica, Japan. Vol. 11, No. 1. 2001.". In: Kirin Information on Drugs and Science Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PLACEMENT ON KRCHN GRADUATES PERFORMANCE IN THE NCK REGISTRATION EXAMINATION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

The study sought to establish the factors affecting the diploma graduates performance in the Nursing registration examination. Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this study was aimed at seeking to establish the reasons why. This was a descriptive study. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study from lecturers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna First Aid Awareness among Paediatric Accident Victims at Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004. Also Published on Line .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna, & ECSACON members, HIV/AIDS,A Guide for Nurses / Midwives and other health care workers. Publisher, Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat, Arusha, Tanzania. 2001.". In: CommonWealth Regional Health Community Secretariat. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. Blackwell Publishing Co.; Submitted. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani - University of Nairobi-Nursing Mr. Stephen Kainga - University of Nairobi-Nursing Mrs Diana Mwarania .". In: 1st International Conference University of Nairobi . Conference; 2011. Abstract

The purpose was  to determine their perceptions about the  nursing profession and implications to students in order to recommend how to  improve their attitude through continuing education and review of BScN curriculum. Methodology, the study  design was descriptive cross sectional  with both  qualitative and descriptive components. The study tool was a  supervised self administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. Results indicated that the graduates gained competence as they gained experience after internship. The t-test supported the alternative hypothesis that BScNs had competent skills  after internship on IT, Report writing, Team work but need to improve  competencies on assessing levels of unconsciousness, mental status of patients, communicating sensitive messages such as death of  relatives and handling medical-legal issues of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion was that BScN nurses at KNH perceive their role as clinical practitioners positively with potential  to improve as they gain experience on clinical skills after adequate exposure during internship. Recommendation was to evaluate BScN programs for achievements and improvement needed for quality BScN graduate nurses.   

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kangethe, S. and Karani, Anna Ethical Issues in Health Research in Developing Countries. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No.1, June, 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No.1, June, 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Attitude of Young People Towards Old People in Nairobi. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 31 No.1, December, 2003.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 31 No.1, December, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Where will this illness take me? Reactions to HIV Diagnosis From Women Living with HIV in Kenya. Authors : Peninnah M. Kako; Patricia E. Stevens, (University of Wisconsin .". In: Health Care For Women International. Health Care For Women International; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to develop an in-depth  understanding of reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. We employed narrative inquiry principles to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews using open- ended questions in April and May 2006. In this article we focus on women

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibaru S., Mardsen S., Godia P. , Karani A. et al. National Guidelines for Provision of Adolescent Youth-Friendly Services (YFS) in Kenya. Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health,Nairobi, Kenya. 2005.". In: Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health,Nairobi, Kenya. 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna ; Edith, Ndungu & Grace Kandie Nursing Trends in Kenya. Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003.". In: Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese; Submitted. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Peninnah M. Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Reactions to HIV Diagnosis from Women Living with HIV in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Dr.Peninnah M.Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens; Submitted. Abstract

Background: HIV prevalence in Kenya stands at 7.8%, with women being most affected with infection rates being 2-3 times higher than that of their male counterparts.  Studies that focus on health needs of HIV-infected women in Kenya are needed and necessary. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. Methods: Narrative inquiry principles were employed to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006.  Findings: Participants

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "2. Strengthening Masters of community Health Nursing in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 37(2) 58-64. Decemer, 2008. Prof. Karani Anna, Kazuko Nasire,Prof. Junko Tashiro,Waithaka Peter, Yumi Sakyo,Wakako Ichikawa; 2008. Abstract

Development / Strengthening Masters on Community Health Nursing Curriculum in Kenya. In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done in collaboration with a nursing institution in Kenya and another in Japan.Aim was to develop/strengthen Masters in Community Health Nursing programme in Kenya and the region.The study was conducted between 2005 and 2006 in Kenya. Two provinces were selected due to proximity and accessibility. The national hospital, one provincial hospital, five district hospitals and five health centres were randomly selected as study areas. The 22 subjects (Registered Community Health Nurses) purposely selected were lecturers, administrators and service providers. The tool used was recorded interview, checklist and focus group discussions at the subjects working area followed by transcription of interview. Five data collectors were trained for 2 days and tools pre-tested. The study revealed that majority of the subjects (50%) wanted lifelong learning at the place of work with progress onto masters to PhD by distance learning. Masters graduates should be responsible for teaching, administration and policy. A core curriculum, distance learning, learning manuals, clear job descriptions and exchange programme were declared most important.Conclusion: Core curriculum developed for implementation, clear job descriptions recommended, distance learning to be started using modules and support for exchange program needed.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibui Lawrence; Karani, Anna, et al Needs Assessment on Training of Mental Health Nurses in Counselling at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna .". In: National Nurses Association of Kenya, Nursing Journal, August 1998 pp. 29 - 30. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1998. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani , Prof. Simon Kangethe NURSING LEADERSHIP FOR CHANGE - LEADERS ATTITUDE. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

Leadership is a key factor in effective management. A leader is a problem solver, a servant leader who provides for his followers. He influences others, sets a good pace for others and fights a good fight. A leader succeeds for keeping right images in heart. A good leader always has vision. The attitude of the leader determines the altitude, that is how far up one can go or fly. The attitude of the leader sets the standard for the altitude and determines the perspective. The leader looks for opportunities. Nurse leaders need heroes in life, who would bring greatness in the life of the profession. A qualified nurse has reached age of wisdom and should not be limited in their thinking. Plant a seed of hope, courage and inspire others. Learn to take advantage of God given opportunities. Don

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibui Lawrence; Karani, Anna, et al.Needs Assessment on Training of Mental Health Nurses in Counselling at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Kagure KA. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study elicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses suffered by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for well being and long life.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna., et al, Performance Evaluation For Kenya Enrolled Community Health Nurses. Graduates of September, 1998. Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi. 2001. . Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Nyangena, E., Mutema, A. & Karani, A. Evaluation of clinical training in nursing in Kenya.". In: Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal - Dec. 2011 1(2) 22-30. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal; Submitted. Abstract

 The  research evaluated clinical training provided by the academic institutions that offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program. The purpose of the study was to describe the adequacy of clinical training and the graduates preparedness for nursing practice. The study was conducted from Sept. 2008 to March 2010. Design was cross sectional using questionnaires and focus group interviews (FGI) methods to collect data. The sample comprised of 232 subjects including pre-service BScN graduates and nursing supervisors at four teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Results revealed that clinical training provided by academic institutions was adequate but quality of training varied widely among the training institutions. The conclusion was that clinical training provided by BScN programs in Kenya was of high quality. The study recommends that urgent attention was required by nurse educators to address identified gaps in clinical training especially clinical instruction and supervision.   

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna. Sustaining Nursing Leadership in the 21st Century and Beyond. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna et al Kenya Registered Community Health Basic Nursing Programme (Pre-Service) Student Training Manual, 2ndedition. Nursing Council of Kenya Publication, Nairobi. 2001.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya Publication. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Impress Communication Printers and Stationers; Submitted. Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities. The study was conducted in September, 2009.  A descriptive cross sectional survey  used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi (U.O.N) and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U). A sample of 188 students was selected from a total population of 403 in both universities. The data were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( χ 2= 17.02,  d.f=1 , p < 0.001)           . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.U felt that the program had positive impact on students

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Khalil Doris and Karani Anna, Are Nurses Victims or Perpetrators of Violence . Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 2 December, 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 2 December, 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Youth Health Action for Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.31 No.1 December, 2003.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.31 No.1 December, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Kagwe J, Masinde M. "Survey on DNS configurations, interdependencies, resilience and security for *.ke domains.". In: ACM Annual Symposium on Computing for Development, ACM DEV '12. Atlanta, Georgia; 2012.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH).

Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study.

Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya.

Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic.

Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.

Kahaki K, Ciku M, Sheila M, Onyango O, Wachira W, Elkana O, Kagondu F, Karimurio J, Hans L. "Cataract Surgical Services, Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgery and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services. Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project. Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method. Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand fi ve hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%) were examined. Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery. Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness. Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

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